Power oscillation damping controller
2012-01-01
A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...
Damping of Coherent oscillations
Vos, L
1996-01-01
Damping of coherent oscillations by feedback is straightforward in principle. It has been a vital ingredient for the safe operation of accelerators since a long time. The increasing dimensions and beam intensities of the new generation of hadron colliders impose unprecedented demands on the performance of future systems. The arguments leading to the specification of a transverse feedback system for the CERN SPS in its role as LHC injector and the LHC collider itself are developped to illustrate this. The preservation of the transverse emittance is the guiding principle during this exercise keeping in mind the hostile environment which comprises: transverse impedance bent on developping coupled bunch instabilities, injection errors, unwanted transverse excitation, unavoidable tune spreads and noise in the damping loop.
The Duffing oscillator with damping
Johannessen, Kim
2015-01-01
An analytical solution to the differential equation describing the Duffing oscillator with damping is presented. The damping term of the differential equation and the initial conditions satisfy an algebraic equation, and thus the solution is specific for this type of damping. The nonlinear term...... of the differential equation is allowed to be considerable compared to the linear term. The solution is expressed in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions by including a parameter-dependent elliptic modulus. The analytical solution is compared to the numerical solution, and the agreement is found to be very good....... It is established that the period of oscillation is shorter compared to that of a linearized model but increasing with time and asymptotically approaching the period of oscillation of the linear damped model. An explicit expression for the period of oscillation has been derived, and it is found to be very accurate....
Damping-free collective oscillations of a driven two-component Bose gas in optical lattices
Shchedrin, Gavriil; Jaschke, Daniel; Carr, Lincoln D.
2018-04-01
We explore the quantum many-body physics of a driven Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattices. The laser field induces a gap in the generalized Bogoliubov spectrum proportional to the effective Rabi frequency. The lowest-lying modes in a driven condensate are characterized by zero group velocity and nonzero current. Thus, the laser field induces roton modes, which carry interaction in a driven condensate. We show that collective excitations below the energy of the laser-induced gap remain undamped, while above the gap they are characterized by a significantly suppressed Landau damping rate.
Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency
Manko, O. V.
1996-01-01
Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.
Quantum damped oscillator I: Dissipation and resonances
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Jurkowski, Jacek
2006-01-01
Quantization of a damped harmonic oscillator leads to so called Bateman's dual system. The corresponding Bateman's Hamiltonian, being a self-adjoint operator, displays the discrete family of complex eigenvalues. We show that they correspond to the poles of energy eigenvectors and the corresponding resolvent operator when continued to the complex energy plane. Therefore, the corresponding generalized eigenvectors may be interpreted as resonant states which are responsible for the irreversible quantum dynamics of a damped harmonic oscillator
Electromagnetic damping of neutron star oscillations
McDermott, P.N.; Savedoff, M.P.; Van Horn, H.M.; Zweibel, E.G.; Hansen, C.J.
1984-01-01
Nonradial pulsations of a neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field cause emission of electromagnetic radiation. Here we compute the power radiated to vacuum by neutron star g-mode pulsations and by torsional oscillations of the neutron star crust. For the low-order quadrupole fluid g-modes we have considered, we find electromagnetic damping to be considerably more effective than gravitational radiation. For example, a 0.5 M/sub sun/ neutron star with a core temperature approx.10 7 K has a g 1 -mode period of 371 ms; for this mode were find the electromagnetic damping time to be tau/sub FM/approx.0.3 s, assuming the surface magnetic field strength of the neutron star to be B 0 approx.10 12 gauss. This is considerably less than the corresponding gravitational radiation time tau/sub GR/approx.3 x 10 17 yr. For dipole g-mode oscillations, there is no gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic damping and ohmic dissipation are efficient damping mechanisms. For dipole torsional oscillations, we find that electromagnetic damping again dominates, with tau/sub EM/approx.5 yr. Among the cases we have studied, quadrupole torsional oscillations appear to be dominated by gravitational radiation damping, with tau/sub GR/approx.10 4 yr, as compared with tau/sub EM/approx.2 x 10 7 yr
Quantization of the damped harmonic oscillator revisited
Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiott@fma.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Fresneda, R., E-mail: fresneda@gmail.co [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Gitman, D.M., E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)
2011-04-11
We return to the description of the damped harmonic oscillator with an assessment of previous works, in particular the Bateman-Caldirola-Kanai model and a new model proposed by one of the authors. We argue the latter has better high energy behavior and is connected to existing open-systems approaches. - Highlights: We prove the local equivalence of two damped harmonic oscillator models. We find different high energy behaviors between the two models. Based on the local equivalence, we make a simple construction of the coherent states.
Quantization of the damped harmonic oscillator revisited
Baldiotti, M.C.; Fresneda, R.; Gitman, D.M.
2011-01-01
We return to the description of the damped harmonic oscillator with an assessment of previous works, in particular the Bateman-Caldirola-Kanai model and a new model proposed by one of the authors. We argue the latter has better high energy behavior and is connected to existing open-systems approaches. - Highlights: → We prove the local equivalence of two damped harmonic oscillator models. → We find different high energy behaviors between the two models. → Based on the local equivalence, we make a simple construction of the coherent states.
Damping of Crank–Nicolson error oscillations
Britz, Dieter; Østerby, Ole; Strutwolf, J.
2003-01-01
The Crank–Nicolson (CN) simulation method has an oscillatory response to sharp initial transients. The technique is convenient but the oscillations make it less popular. Several ways of damping the oscillations in two types of electrochemical computations are investigated. For a simple one......-dimensional system with an initial singularity, subdivision of the first time interval into a number of equal subintervals (the Pearson method) works rather well, and so does division with exponentially increasing subintervals, where however an optimum expansion parameter must be found. This method can...... be computationally more expensive with some systems. The simple device of starting with one backward implicit (BI, or Laasonen) step does damp the oscillations, but not always sufficiently. For electrochemical microdisk simulations which are two-dimensional in space and using CN, the use of a first BI step is much...
DAMPING OF SUBSYNCHRONOUS MODES OF OSCILLATIONS
JAGADEESH PASUPULETI
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The IEEE bench mark model 2 series compensated system is considered for analysis. It consists of single machine supplying power to infinite bus through two parallel lines one of which is series compensated. The mechanical system considered consists of six mass, viz, high pressure turbine, intermediate pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, generator and an exciter. The excitation system considered is IEEE type 1 with saturation. The auxiliary controls considered to damp the unstable subsynchronous modes of oscillations are Power System Stabilizer (PSS and Static var Compensator (SVC. The different cases of power system stabilizer and reactive power controls are adapted to study the effectiveness of damping these unstable subsynchronous modes of oscillations.
Oscillation damping of chiral string loops
Babichev, Eugeny; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav
2002-01-01
Chiral cosmic string loops tend to the stationary (vorton) configuration due to energy loss into gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We describe the asymptotic behavior of near stationary chiral loops and their fading to vortons. General limits on the gravitational and electromagnetic energy losses by near stationary chiral loops are found. For these loops we estimate the oscillation damping time. We present solvable examples of gravitational radiation energy loss by some chiral loop configurations. The analytical dependence of string energy with time is found in the case of the chiral ring with small amplitude radial oscillations
Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators
Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.
2001-01-01
A simple fourth-order hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators is described. ANP3 and PSpice simulations including an eigenvalue study of the linearized Jacobian are presented together with a hardware implementation. The circuit contains two inductors with series resistance, two ideal...... capacitors and one nonlinear active conductor. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm the hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations of the circuit. The nonlinear conductor is realized with a diode. A negative impedance converter and a linear resistor. The performance of the circuit is investigated...... by means of numerical integration of the appropriate differential equations....
Power Oscillations Damping in DC Microgrids
Hamzeh, Mohsen; Ghafouri, Mohsen; Karimi, Houshang
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new control strategy for damping of power oscillations in a multi-source dc microgrid. A parallel combination of a fuel cell (FC), a photovoltaic (PV) system and a supercapacitor (SC) are used as a hybrid power conversion system (HPCS). The SC compensates for the slow transi...... of the proposed control scheme is verified using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations carried out in OPAL-RT technologies....
Power Oscillations Damping in DC Microgrids
Hamzeh, Mohsen; Ghafouri, Mohsen; Karimi, Houshang; Sheshyekani, Keyhan; Guerrero, Josep M.
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new control strategy for damping of power oscillations in a multi-source dc microgrid. A parallel combination of a fuel cell (FC), a photovoltaic (PV) system and a supercapacitor (SC) are used as a hybrid power conversion system (HPCS). The SC compensates for the slow transient response of the FC stack. The HPCS controller comprises a multi-loop voltage controller and a virtual impedance loop for power management. The virtual impedance loop uses a dynamic droop gain to a...
Canonical quantization of the Bateman-Morse-Feshbach damped oscillator
Rideau, G.; Anderson, R.L.; Hebda, P.W.
1991-01-01
The Bateman-Morse-Feshbach classical formulation of the damped oscillator is canonically quantized. The spectrum of the Hamiltonian is given. It is shown that the wavefunctions behave asymptotically as a superposition of damped oscillators when their initial values belong to an appropriately-selected dense subset of the Hilbert space. (orig.)
Symmetries of the quantum damped harmonic oscillator
Guerrero, J; López-Ruiz, F F; Aldaya, V; Cossío, F
2012-01-01
For the non-conservative Caldirola–Kanai system, describing a quantum damped harmonic oscillator, a couple of constant-of-motion operators generating the Heisenberg–Weyl algebra can be found. The inclusion of the standard time evolution generator (which is not a symmetry) as a symmetry in this algebra, in a unitary manner, requires a non-trivial extension of this basic algebra and hence of the physical system itself. Surprisingly, this extension leads directly to the so-called Bateman dual system, which now includes a new particle acting as an energy reservoir. In addition, the Caldirola–Kanai dissipative system can be retrieved by imposing constraints. The algebra of symmetries of the dual system is presented, as well as a quantization that implies, in particular, a first-order Schrödinger equation. As opposed to other approaches, where it is claimed that the spectrum of the Bateman Hamiltonian is complex and discrete, we obtain that it is real and continuous, with infinite degeneracy in all regimes. (paper)
Quantum theory of damped harmonic oscillator | Antia | Global ...
The exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation for damped harmonic oscillator with pulsating mass and modified Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian are evaluated. We also investigated the case of under-damped for the two models constructed and the results obtained in both cases do not violate Heisenberg uncertainty principle ...
Pradeep, R. Gladwin; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2009-01-01
In this paper we point out the existence of a remarkable nonlocal transformation between the damped harmonic oscillator and a modified Emden-type nonlinear oscillator equation with linear forcing, xe+αxx+βx 3 +γx=0, which preserves the form of the time independent integral, conservative Hamiltonian, and the equation of motion. Generalizing this transformation we prove the existence of nonstandard conservative Hamiltonian structure for a general class of damped nonlinear oscillators including Lienard-type systems. Further, using the above Hamiltonian structure for a specific example, namely, the generalized modified Emden equation xe+αx q x+βx 2q+1 =0, where α, β, and q are arbitrary parameters, the general solution is obtained through appropriate canonical transformations. We also present the conservative Hamiltonian structure of the damped Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator equation. The associated Lagrangian description for all the above systems is also briefly discussed.
The forced harmonic oscillator with damping and thermal effects
Menezes Franca, H. de; Thomaz, M.T.
1984-01-01
Nonperturbative quantum mechanical solutions of the forced harmonic oscillator with radiation reaction damping are obtained from previous analysis based on Stochastic Electrodynamics. The transition to excited states is shown to be to coherent states which follow the classical trajectory. The quantum Wigner distribution in phase space is constructed. All the results are extended to finite temperatures. (Author) [pt
Statistical mechanics of quantum one-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator
Borges, E.N.M.; Borges, O.N.; Ribeiro, L.A.A.
1985-01-01
We calculate the thermal correlation functions of the one-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator in contact with a reservoir, in an exact form by applying Green's function method. In this way the thermal fluctuations are incorporated in the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian
A Look at Damped Harmonic Oscillators through the Phase Plane
Daneshbod, Yousef; Latulippe, Joe
2011-01-01
Damped harmonic oscillations appear naturally in many applications involving mechanical and electrical systems as well as in biological systems. Most students are introduced to harmonic motion in an elementary ordinary differential equation (ODE) course. Solutions to ODEs that describe simple harmonic motion are usually found by investigating the…
QUANTUM THEORY OF DAMPED HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
DJFLEX
However, the problem of quantum oscillator with time-varying frequency had been solved (Um et al,. 1987). The Hamiltonian of this model is usually quadratic in co-ordinates and momentum operators (Ikot et al, 2008). The quantum calculation is applied because it will give the information about the particle at intermediate ...
CHAOTIC DUFFING TYPE OSCILLATOR WITH INERTIAL DAMPING
Tamaševicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Kirvaitis, Raimundas
2009-01-01
A novel Duffing-Holmes type autonomous chaotic oscillator is described. In comparison with the well-known non-autonomous Duffing-Holmes circuit it lacks the external periodic drive, but includes two extra linear feedback sub-circuits, namely a direct positive feedback loop, and an inertial negati...... feedback loop. SPICE simulation and hardware experimental results are presented....
Kraus representation of a damped harmonic oscillator and its application
Liu Yuxi; Oezdemir, Sahin K.; Miranowicz, Adam; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2004-01-01
By definition, the Kraus representation of a harmonic oscillator suffering from the environment effect, modeled as the amplitude damping or the phase damping, is directly given by a simple operator algebra solution. As examples and applications, we first give a Kraus representation of a single qubit whose computational basis states are defined as bosonic vacuum and single particle number states. We further discuss the environment effect on qubits whose computational basis states are defined as the bosonic odd and even coherent states. The environment effects on entangled qubits defined by two different kinds of computational basis are compared with the use of fidelity
A semiempirical approach to a viscously damped oscillating sphere
Alexander, P; Indelicato, E
2005-01-01
A simple model of damped harmonic motion is usually presented in undergraduate physics textbooks and straightforwardly applied for a variety of well-known experiments in student laboratories. Results for the decaying vertical oscillation of a sphere attached to the lower end of a spring in containers with different liquids are analysed here under this standard framework. Some important mismatches between observation and theory are found, which are attributed to oversimplifications in the formulation of the drag force. A more elaborate expression for the latter within a semiempirical approach is then introduced and a more appropriate description of the measurements is shown to be attained. Two coefficients account for experimental corrections, which under certain conditions permit in addition the calculation of specific fluid quantities associated with the oscillating sphere. Rough relations between viscosity and damping factor under appropriate limits are derived. The laboratory experience may also be used to introduce the concept of a semiempirical model and exhibit its utility in physics
Electric Generator in the System for Damping Oscillations of Vehicles
Serebryakov A.; Kamolins E.; Levin N.
2017-01-01
The control systems for the objects of industry, power generation, transport, etc. are extremely complicated; functional efficiency of these systems determines to a great extent the safe and non-polluting operation as well as convenience of service and repair of such objects. The authors consider the possibility to improve the efficiency of systems for damping oscillations in transport using a combination of electrical (generators of rotational and linear types) and hydraulic means. Better ef...
Unified Power Flow Controller Placement to Improve Damping of Power Oscillations
M. Salehi; A. A. Motie Birjandi; F. Namdari
2015-01-01
Weak damping of low frequency oscillations is a frequent phenomenon in electrical power systems. These frequencies can be damped by power system stabilizers. Unified power flow controller (UPFC), as one of the most important FACTS devices, can be applied to increase the damping of power system oscillations and the more effect of this controller on increasing the damping of oscillations depends on its proper placement in power systems. In this paper, a technique based on controllability is pro...
Damping of Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillation Using an Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Controller
Yao, Wei; Jiang, L.; Fang, Jiakun
2013-01-01
This paper presents an adaptive wide-area damping controller (WADC) based on generalized predictive control (GPC) and model identification for damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in large-scale inter-connected power system. A recursive least-squares algorithm (RLSA) with a varying...... forgetting factor is applied to identify online the reduced-order linearlized model which contains dominant inter-area low frequency oscillations. Based on this linearlized model, the generalized predictive control scheme considering control output constraints is employed to obtain the optimal control signal...... conditions and different disturbances, but also has better robustness against to the time delay existing in the remote signals. The comparison studies with the conventional lead-lag WADC are also provided....
The effect of chromatic decoherence on transverse injection oscillation damping
Jackson, G.P.
1993-01-01
In order to eliminate or reduce transverse emittance growth during transfers between accelerators, transverse damper systems are used to eliminate residual dipole oscillations before phase space dilution takes place. In transfers where the target accelerator has high chromaticity or the beam has a large momentum spread, phase space dilution due to chromatic decoherence can take place on a scale short compared to the damping time of the transverse injection oscillation damper. The effect of the damper on the beam phase space is not clear while the coherent oscillation is suppressed by this decoherence. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effectiveness of dampers at eliminating emittance blowup at transfers in the presence of chromatic decoherence
Quantitative analysis of the thermal damping of coherent axion oscillations
Turner, M.S.
1985-01-01
Unruh and Wald have recently discussed a new mechanism for damping coherent axion oscillations, ''thermal damping,'' which occurs due to the temperature dependence of the axion mass and neutrino viscosity. We investigate the effect quantitatively and find that the present energy density in axions can be written as rho/sub a/ = rho/sub a0//(1+J/sub UW/), where rho/sub a/0 is what the axion energy density would be in the absence of the thermal-damping effect and J/sub UW/ is an integral whose integrand depends upon (dm/sub a//dT) 2 . As a function of f(equivalentPeccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale) J/sub UW/ achieves its maximum value for f/sub PQ/approx. =3 x 10 12 GeV; unless the axion mass turn-on is very sudden, Vertical Bar(T/m/sub a/)(dm/sub a//dT)Vertical Bar>>1, J/sub UW/ is <<1, implying that this damping mechanism is not significant
Damped oscillations of linear systems a mathematical introduction
Veselić, Krešimir
2011-01-01
The theory of linear damped oscillations was originally developed more than hundred years ago and is still of vital research interest to engineers, mathematicians and physicists alike. This theory plays a central role in explaining the stability of mechanical structures in civil engineering, but it also has applications in other fields such as electrical network systems and quantum mechanics. This volume gives an introduction to linear finite dimensional damped systems as they are viewed by an applied mathematician. After a short overview of the physical principles leading to the linear system model, a largely self-contained mathematical theory for this model is presented. This includes the geometry of the underlying indefinite metric space, spectral theory of J-symmetric matrices and the associated quadratic eigenvalue problem. Particular attention is paid to the sensitivity issues which influence numerical computations. Finally, several recent research developments are included, e.g. Lyapunov stability and ...
Fast relaxation transients in a kicked damped oscillator
Urquizu, Merce [Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics ' Eduard Fontsere' , IEC, Barcelona (Spain); Correig, Antoni M. [Departament d' Astronomical i Meteorologia, Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics Eduard Fontsere, UB Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain) and Laboratori d' Estudis Geofisics ' Eduard Fontsere' , IEC, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: ton.correig@am.ub.es
2007-08-15
Although nonlinear relaxation transients are very common in nature, very few studies are devoted to its characterization, mainly due to its short time duration. In this paper, we present a study about the nature of relaxation transients in a kicked damped oscillator, in which transients are generated in terms of continuous fast changes in the parameters of the system. We have found that transient dynamics can be described, rather than in terms of bifurcation dynamics, in terms of instantaneous stretching factors, which are related to the stability of fixed points of the corresponding stroboscopic maps.
Rippled cosmological dark matter from a damped oscillating Newton constant
Davidson, Aharon
2005-01-01
Let the reciprocal Newton 'constant' be an apparently non-dynamical Brans-Dicke scalar field damped oscillating towards its general relativistic VEV. We show, without introducing additional matter fields or dust, that the corresponding cosmological evolution averagely resembles, in the Jordan frame, the familiar dark radiation → dark matter → dark energy domination sequence. The fingerprints of our theory are fine ripples, hopefully testable, in the FRW scale factor; they die away at the general relativity limit. The possibility that the Brans-Dicke scalar also serves as the inflaton is favourably examined
Complex-potential description of the damped harmonic oscillator
Exner, P.
1981-01-01
Multidimensional damped harmonic oscillator is treated by means of a non-selfadjoint Hamiltonian with complex potential. The latter is chosen as V(x)=xx(A-iW)x with positive matrices A, W, By a perturbation-theory argument, the corresponding Hamiltonian H=-1/2Δ+V with the natural domain is shown to be closed and such that Vsub(t)=exp(-iHt) is a continuous contractive semigroup. Explicit integral-operator form of Vsub(t) is found by use of Lie-Trotter formula [ru
Damped driven coupled oscillators: entanglement, decoherence and the classical limit
Mancilla, R D Guerrero; Rey-Gonzalez, R R; Fonseca-Romero, K M [Grupo de Optica e Informacion Cuantica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)], E-mail: rdguerrerom@unal.edu.co, E-mail: rrreyg@unal.edu.co, E-mail: kmfonsecar@unal.edu.co
2009-03-13
We investigate the quantum-classical border, the entanglement and decoherence of an analytically solvable model, comprising a first subsystem (a harmonic oscillator) coupled to a driven and damped second subsystem (another harmonic oscillator). We choose initial states whose dynamics is confined to a couple of two-level systems, and show that the maximum value of entanglement between the two subsystems, as measured by concurrence, depends on the dissipation rate to the coupling-constant ratio and the initial state. While in a related model the entropy of the first subsystem (a two-level system) never grows appreciably (for large dissipation rates), in our model it reaches a maximum before decreasing. Although both models predict small values of entanglement and dissipation, for fixed times of the order of the inverse of the coupling constant and large dissipation rates, these quantities decrease faster, as a function of the ratio of the dissipation rate to the coupling constant, in our model.
Damped driven coupled oscillators: entanglement, decoherence and the classical limit
Mancilla, R D Guerrero; Rey-Gonzalez, R R; Fonseca-Romero, K M
2009-01-01
We investigate the quantum-classical border, the entanglement and decoherence of an analytically solvable model, comprising a first subsystem (a harmonic oscillator) coupled to a driven and damped second subsystem (another harmonic oscillator). We choose initial states whose dynamics is confined to a couple of two-level systems, and show that the maximum value of entanglement between the two subsystems, as measured by concurrence, depends on the dissipation rate to the coupling-constant ratio and the initial state. While in a related model the entropy of the first subsystem (a two-level system) never grows appreciably (for large dissipation rates), in our model it reaches a maximum before decreasing. Although both models predict small values of entanglement and dissipation, for fixed times of the order of the inverse of the coupling constant and large dissipation rates, these quantities decrease faster, as a function of the ratio of the dissipation rate to the coupling constant, in our model
Collective neutrino oscillations and neutrino wave packets
Akhmedov, Evgeny; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kopp, Joachim, E-mail: akhmedov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: jkopp@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: lindner@mpi-hd.mpg.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)
2017-09-01
Effects of decoherence by wave packet separation on collective neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases are considered. We estimate the length of the wave packets of neutrinos produced in core collapse supernovae and the expected neutrino coherence length, and then proceed to consider the decoherence effects within the density matrix formalism of neutrino flavour transitions. First, we demonstrate that for neutrino oscillations in vacuum the decoherence effects are described by a damping term in the equation of motion of the density matrix of a neutrino as a whole (as contrasted to that of the fixed-momentum components of the neutrino density matrix). Next, we consider neutrino oscillations in ordinary matter and dense neutrino backgrounds, both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes. In the latter case we study two specific models of adiabaticity violation—one with short-term and another with extended non-adiabaticity. It is demonstrated that, while in the adiabatic case a damping term is present in the equation of motion of the neutrino density matrix (just like in the vacuum oscillation case), no such term in general appears in the non-adiabatic regime.
Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space: Damped harmonic oscillator
Chou, Chia-Chun
2016-01-01
Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space are investigated in the framework of the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation provides a phenomenological description for dissipative quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the complex-extended logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we derive the complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation including the dissipative potential. It is shown that dissipative quantum trajectories satisfy a quantum Newtonian equation of motion in complex space with a friction force. Exact dissipative complex quantum trajectories are analyzed for the wave and solitonlike solutions to the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the damped harmonic oscillator. These trajectories converge to the equilibrium position as time evolves. It is indicated that dissipative complex quantum trajectories for the wave and solitonlike solutions are identical to dissipative complex classical trajectories for the damped harmonic oscillator. This study develops a theoretical framework for dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space.
Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space: Damped harmonic oscillator
Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw
2016-10-15
Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space are investigated in the framework of the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation provides a phenomenological description for dissipative quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the complex-extended logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we derive the complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation including the dissipative potential. It is shown that dissipative quantum trajectories satisfy a quantum Newtonian equation of motion in complex space with a friction force. Exact dissipative complex quantum trajectories are analyzed for the wave and solitonlike solutions to the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the damped harmonic oscillator. These trajectories converge to the equilibrium position as time evolves. It is indicated that dissipative complex quantum trajectories for the wave and solitonlike solutions are identical to dissipative complex classical trajectories for the damped harmonic oscillator. This study develops a theoretical framework for dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space.
Landau damping of transverse quadrupole oscillations of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate
Guilleumas, M.; Pitaevskii, L.P.
2003-01-01
We have studied the interaction between the low-lying transverse collective oscillations and the thermal excitations of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate by means of perturbation theory. We consider a cylindrical trapped condensate and calculate the transverse elementary excitations at zero temperature by solving the linearized Gross-Pitaevskii equations in two dimensions (2D). We use them to calculate the matrix elements between the thermal excited states and the quasi-2D collective modes. The Landau damping of transverse collective modes is studied as a function of temperature. At low temperatures, the corresponding damping rate is in agreement with the experimental data for the decay of the transverse quadrupole mode, but it is too small to explain the observed slow decay of the transverse breathing mode. The reason for this discrepancy is discussed
Electric Generator in the System for Damping Oscillations of Vehicles
Serebryakov A.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The control systems for the objects of industry, power generation, transport, etc. are extremely complicated; functional efficiency of these systems determines to a great extent the safe and non-polluting operation as well as convenience of service and repair of such objects. The authors consider the possibility to improve the efficiency of systems for damping oscillations in transport using a combination of electrical (generators of rotational and linear types and hydraulic means. Better efficiency of functioning is achieved through automatic control over the operational conditions of such a system in order to make it adaptive to variations in the road profile and ambient temperature; besides, it is possible to produce additional electric energy.
Electric Generator in the System for Damping Oscillations of Vehicles
Serebryakov, A.; Kamolins, E.; Levin, N.
2017-04-01
The control systems for the objects of industry, power generation, transport, etc. are extremely complicated; functional efficiency of these systems determines to a great extent the safe and non-polluting operation as well as convenience of service and repair of such objects. The authors consider the possibility to improve the efficiency of systems for damping oscillations in transport using a combination of electrical (generators of rotational and linear types) and hydraulic means. Better efficiency of functioning is achieved through automatic control over the operational conditions of such a system in order to make it adaptive to variations in the road profile and ambient temperature; besides, it is possible to produce additional electric energy.
Performance analysis of conventional PSS and fuzzy controller for damping power system oscillations
Banna, Hasan UI; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro; Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Ying, Shaoqing
2014-01-01
Electro-mechanical oscillations are produced, in the machines of an interconnected power network, followed by a disturbance or due to high power transfer through weak tie lines. These oscillations should be damped as quickly as possible to ensure the reliable and stable operation of the network. To damp these oscillations different controllers, based on local or wide area signals, have been the subject of many papers. This paper presents the analysis of the performance of Conventional Power S...
Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection
Liu, Yong [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2013-12-01
This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.
Classical and quantum mechanics of the damped harmonic oscillator
Dekker, H.
1981-01-01
The relations between various treatments of the classical linearly damped harmonic oscillator and its quantization are investigated. In the course of a historical survey typical features of the problem are discussed on the basis of Havas' classical Hamiltonian and the quantum mechanical Suessmann-Hasse-Albrecht models as coined by the Muenchen/Garching nuclear physics group. It is then shown how by imposing a restriction on the classical trajectories in order to connect the Hamiltonian with the energy, the time-independent Bateman-Morse-Feshbach-Bopp Hamiltonian leads to the time-dependent Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian. Canonical quantization of either formulation entails a violation of Heisenberg's principle. By means of a unified treatment of both the electrical and mechanical semi-infinite transmission line, this defect is related to the disregard of additional quantum fluctuations that are intrinsically connected with the dissipation. The difficulties of these models are discussed. Then it is proved that the Bateman dual Hamiltonian is connected to a recently developed complex symplectic formulation by a simple canonical transformation. (orig.)
Nogueira, Fabricio G.; Barreiros, Jose A.L.; Barra, Walter Jr.; Costa, Carlos T. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Instituto de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica, Campus Universitario do Guama, CEP: 66075-900, Belem (Brazil); Ferreira, Andre M.D. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Campus Belem, Departamento de Controle e Processos Industriais, Av. Almirante Barroso, 1155 (Marco), CEP: 66093-020, Belem (Brazil)
2011-02-15
This paper presents the development and field tests of a digital damping controller designed to mitigate intra-plant electromechanical oscillations via the speed governor system of fast acting units. The controller performance is assessed on an 18-MVA diesel generating unit, at Santana Power Plant (Amapa State, Amazon Region at Northern Brazil). In order to design the damping control law, a set of parametric ARX models representing the plant dynamics at several load conditions, are previously identified from data collected on field tests. The damping controller gains are calculated by using the identified ARX models parameters as inputs to a discrete-time pole-placement design method (pole-shifting) and then embedded on a DSP based microcontroller digital system, for field tests assessment. The digital damping controller modulates the diesel engine inlet valve position according to the observed oscillation on the measured electric power, using a PWM device, which is specially developed to this application. The experimental results shown the good performance of the developed controller on damping efficiently the electromechanical oscillations observed between generating units at Santana Power Plant. (author)
Damping of electron center-of-mass oscillation in ultracold plasmas
Chen, Wei-Ting; Witte, Craig; Roberts, Jacob L.
2016-01-01
Applying a short electric field pulse to an ultracold plasma induces an electron plasma oscillation. This manifests itself as an oscillation of the electron center of mass around the ion center of mass in the ultracold plasma. In general, the oscillation can damp due to either collisionless or collisional mechanisms, or a combination of the both. To investigate the nature of oscillation damping in ultracold plasmas, we developed a molecular dynamics model of the ultracold plasma electrons. Through this model, we found that depending on the neutrality of the ultracold plasma and the size of an applied DC electric field, there are some parameter ranges where the damping is primarily collisional and some primarily collisionless. We conducted experiments to compare the measured damping rate with theory predictions and found them to be in good agreement. Extension of our measurements to different parameter ranges should enable studies for strong-coupling influence on electron-ion collision rates.
Coupled oscillators in identification of nonlinear damping of a real parametric pendulum
Olejnik, Paweł; Awrejcewicz, Jan
2018-01-01
A damped parametric pendulum with friction is identified twice by means of its precise and imprecise mathematical model. A laboratory test stand designed for experimental investigations of nonlinear effects determined by a viscous resistance and the stick-slip phenomenon serves as the model mechanical system. An influence of accurateness of mathematical modeling on the time variability of the nonlinear damping coefficient of the oscillator is proved. A free decay response of a precisely and imprecisely modeled physical pendulum is dependent on two different time-varying coefficients of damping. The coefficients of the analyzed parametric oscillator are identified with the use of a new semi-empirical method based on a coupled oscillators approach, utilizing the fractional order derivative of the discrete measurement series treated as an input to the numerical model. Results of application of the proposed method of identification of the nonlinear coefficients of the damped parametric oscillator have been illustrated and extensively discussed.
Oscillation of a class of fractional differential equations with damping term.
Qin, Huizeng; Zheng, Bin
2013-01-01
We investigate the oscillation of a class of fractional differential equations with damping term. Based on a certain variable transformation, the fractional differential equations are converted into another differential equations of integer order with respect to the new variable. Then, using Riccati transformation, inequality, and integration average technique, some new oscillatory criteria for the equations are established. As for applications, oscillation for two certain fractional differential equations with damping term is investigated by the use of the presented results.
Microscopic nuclear-dissipation mechanism as damping of collective motion in the second RPA
Yannouleas, C.; Dworzecka, M.; Griffin, J.J.
1982-01-01
A microscopic model for the damping of the one-phonon RPA collective state, absolute value c > = Q/sub c/ 0 > /sub S//sub R/, has been previously described. This one-phonon RPA collective state is defined within a restricted subspace, S/sub R/, of the discrete 1p-1h structure. Its damping is described within an extended subspace, S = S/sub R/ + S/sub A/, by the time evolution of a wave packet according to the RPA and the Second RPA approximations of the complete Schroedinger equation when initialized with the one-phonon state. The one-phonon state, however, is unable to describe time-varying oscillations of the mean field. Such oscillations require wave packets formed by linear superposition of the RPA many-phonon eigenstates. Coherent time-varying oscillations of the mean field (multi-phonon initial states) are discussed
Noakes, M.W.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.
1990-01-01
Transportation of objects using overhead cranes can induce pendulum motion of the object, which usually must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that oscillation damped transport and swing-free stops are possible by properly programming the acceleration of the transporting crane. This paper reviews the theory associated with oscillation-damped trajectories for simply suspended objects and describes a specific, full-scale implementation of the damped oscillation methods for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS). Hardware and software requirements and constraints for proper operation are discussed. Finally, test results and lessons learned are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs
Equivalent Representation Form of Oscillators with Elastic and Damping Nonlinear Terms
Alex Elías-Zúñiga
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we consider the nonlinear equivalent representation form of oscillators that exhibit nonlinearities in both the elastic and the damping terms. The nonlinear damping effects are considered to be described by fractional power velocity terms which provide better predictions of the dissipative effects observed in some physical systems. It is shown that their effects on the system dynamics response are equivalent to a shift in the coefficient of the linear damping term of a Duffing oscillator. Then, its numerical integration predictions, based on its equivalent representation form given by the well-known forced, damped Duffing equation, are compared to the numerical integration values of its original equations of motion. The applicability of the proposed procedure is evaluated by studying the dynamics response of four nonlinear oscillators that arise in some engineering applications such as nanoresonators, microresonators, human wrist movements, structural engineering design, and chain dynamics of polymeric materials at high extensibility, among others.
Phase-locking phenomena and excitation of damped and driven nonlinear oscillators
Shagalov, A.G.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Naulin, Volker
2009-01-01
Resonant phase-locking phenomena ('autoresonance') in the van der Pol Duffing oscillator forced by a small amplitude periodic driving with slowly varying frequency have been studied. We show that autoresonance occurs for oscillators with sufficiently small damping, when the system may have bi-stable...
Negative Resistance Circuit for Damping an Array of Coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo Oscillators
Tamaševičius, Arūnas; Adomaitienė, Elena; Bumelienė, Skaidra
2015-01-01
An analog circuit, based on a negative impedance converter and a capacitor, for damping oscillations in an array of mean-field coupled neuronal FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN) type oscillators is described. The circuit is essentially a two-terminal feedback controller. When coupled to an array of the FHN...
Invariants of collective neutrino oscillations
Pehlivan, Y.; Balantekin, A. B.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Takashi
2011-01-01
We consider the flavor evolution of a dense neutrino gas by taking into account both vacuum oscillations and self-interactions of neutrinos. We examine the system from a many-body perspective as well as from the point of view of an effective one-body description formulated in terms of the neutrino polarization vectors. We show that, in the single angle approximation, both the many-body picture and the effective one-particle picture possess several constants of motion. We write down these constants of motion explicitly in terms of the neutrino isospin operators for the many-body case and in terms of the polarization vectors for the effective one-body case. The existence of these constants of motion is a direct consequence of the fact that the collective neutrino oscillation Hamiltonian belongs to the class of Gaudin Hamiltonians. This class of Hamiltonians also includes the (reduced) BCS pairing Hamiltonian describing superconductivity. We point out the similarity between the collective neutrino oscillation Hamiltonian and the BCS pairing Hamiltonian. The constants of motion manifest the exact solvability of the system. Borrowing the well established techniques of calculating the exact BCS spectrum, we present exact eigenstates and eigenvalues of both the many-body and the effective one-particle Hamiltonians describing the collective neutrino oscillations. For the effective one-body case, we show that spectral splits of neutrinos can be understood in terms of the adiabatic evolution of some quasiparticle degrees of freedom from a high-density region where they coincide with flavor eigenstates to the vacuum where they coincide with mass eigenstates. We write down the most general consistency equations which should be satisfied by the effective one-body eigenstates and show that they reduce to the spectral split consistency equations for the appropriate initial conditions.
Excitation and damping of transversal oscillation in coronal loops by wake phenomena
A abedini
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Transversal oscillation of coronal loops that are interpreted as signatures of magneto hydrodynamics (MHD waves are observed frequently in active region corona loops. The amplitude of this oscillation has been found to be strongly attenuated. The damping of transverse oscillation may be produced by the dissipation mechanism and the wake of the traveling disturbance. The damping of transversal loop oscillations with wake phenomena is not related to any dissipation mechanism. Also, these kinds of coronal loop oscillations are not related to the kink mode, although this mode can be occurred after the attenuation process by the energy of the wave packet deposited in the loop. In this paper the excitation and damping of transversal coronal loop oscillations with wake of traveling wave packet is discussed in detail, both theoretically and observationally. Here, the transversal coronal loop oscillations is modeled with a one dimensional simple line-tied. The dynamics of the loop and the coronal is governed by the Klein–Gordon differential equation. A localized disturbance that can be generated by nearby flare produces a perturbation that undergoes dispersion as it propagates toward the loop. As a consequence, the amplitudes of oscillates decay with time roughly t-1/2 at the external cutoff frequency. These observed data on 2016-Dec-4 by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA onboard Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO observations data, consisting of 560 images with an interval of 24 seconds in the 171 A0 pass band is analyzed for evidence of excitation and damping of transverse oscillations of coronal loop that is situated near a flare. In this analyzed signatures of transverse oscillations that are damped rapidly were found, with periods in the range of P=18.5-23.85 minutes. Furthermore, oscillation of loop segments attenuate with time roughly as t-α that average values of α for 4 different loops change form 0.65-0.80. The magnitude values of α are in
Islam, Naz Niamul; Hannan, M A; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Salam, M A
2014-01-01
Power oscillation damping controller is designed in linearized model with heuristic optimization techniques. Selection of the objective function is very crucial for damping controller design by optimization algorithms. In this research, comparative analysis has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of popular objective functions used in power system oscillation damping. Two-stage lead-lag damping controller by means of power system stabilizers is optimized using differential search algorithm for different objective functions. Linearized model simulations are performed to compare the dominant mode's performance and then the nonlinear model is continued to evaluate the damping performance over power system oscillations. All the simulations are conducted in two-area four-machine power system to bring a detailed analysis. Investigated results proved that multiobjective D-shaped function is an effective objective function in terms of moving unstable and lightly damped electromechanical modes into stable region. Thus, D-shape function ultimately improves overall system damping and concurrently enhances power system reliability.
Knüppel, Thyge; Kumar, Sathess; Thuring, Patrik
2012-01-01
In this paper a power oscillation damping controller (POD) based on modulation of reactive power (Q POD) is analyzed where the modular and distributed characteristics of the wind power plant (WPP) are considered. For a Q POD it is essential that the phase of the modulated output is tightly...... contributes to a collective response. This ability is shown with a 150 wind turbine (WT) WPP with all WTs represented, and it is demonstrated that the WPP contributes to the inter-area damping. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT....... controlled to achieve a positive damping contribution. It is investigated how a park level voltage, reactive power, and power factor control at different grid strengths interact with the Q POD in terms of a resulting phase shift. A WPP is modular and distributed and a WPP Q POD necessitate that each WT...
Thandapani, Ethiraju; Kannan, Manju; Pinelas, Sandra
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present some sufficient conditions for the oscillation of all solutions of a second order forced impulsive delay differential equation with damping term. Three factors-impulse, delay and damping that affect the interval qualitative properties of solutions of equations are taken into account together. The results obtained in this paper extend and generalize some of the the known results for forced impulsive differential equations. An example is provided to illustrate the main result.
Suggestions for new transverse oscillations damping systems in large synchrotrons and colliders
Ivanov, I.N.; Melnikov, V.A.
1994-01-01
Due to the high requirements on beam quality, modern synchrotrons and colliders require special systems for transverse oscillation damping (TDS). New system for the correction of injection errors and multibunch instabilities is proposed. The special beam monitor on the basis of the axial-slotted lines is developed for the transverse beam velocity measuring. The special nonlinear regime of damping is suggested to decrease the operating time of TDS. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Effect of oscillation mode on the free-molecule squeeze-film air damping
Gang Hong,
2010-01-01
A 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach is developed and employed to study the effect of the oscillation mode on the squeeze-film air damping in the free-molecule regime. By tracking individual gas molecule\\'s motion and its interaction with the resonator, the MC approach is by far the most accurate modeling approach for the modeling of squeeze-film damping in the free-molecule regime. The accuracy of this approach is demonstrated on several cases in which either analytical solutions or experimental measurements are available. It has been found that unlike the case when resonators oscillate in an unbounded domain, squeeze film damping is very sensitive to the mode shape, which implies that some of the existing modeling approaches based on rigid-resonator assumption may not be accurate when applied to model resonators oscillating at their deformed shape. ©2010 IEEE.
An active feedback system to control synchrotron oscillations in the SLC Damping Rings
Corredoura, P.L.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Schwarz, H.D.; Sheppard, J.C.
1989-03-01
Initially the SLC Damping Rings accomplished Robinson instability damping by operating the RF accelerating cavities slightly detuned. In order to be able to run the cavities tuned and achieve damping for Robinson instability and synchrotron oscillations at injection an active feedback system has been developed. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the feedback system and the development of the hardware. Extensive measurements of the loop response including stored beam were performed. Overall performance of the system is also reported. 3 refs., 6 figs
Saleh M. Bamasak
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS can extend and effectively improve the power system stabilizers (PSS capability in damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in interconnected bulk power systems. This paper proposes the implementation of Weighted Wide Area Damping Controller (WWADC in which weighted factors are introduced for each remote feedback signals. Modal analysis approach is implemented for the purpose of identifying the optimal location as well as the input signals’ optimal combination of WWADC. Based on the linearized model, Differential Evolution (DE algorithm is applied to search for optimal controller parameters and optimal weighted factors. The successful application of the proposed approach is achieved in two power networks; the two-area 4-machine system and the IEEE-39 bus 10-machine system. The analysis of the eigenvalue and non-linear time domain simulations indicate that damping the inter-area oscillations and improving the system stability irrespective of the severity and the location of the disturbances can be effectively achieved by WADC
A PSO based unified power flow controller for damping of power system oscillations
Shayeghi, H. [Technical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Daneshgah Street, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Dept., Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Dept., Zanjan Univ., Zanjan (Iran)
2009-10-15
On the basis of the linearized Phillips-Herffron model of a single-machine power system, we approach the problem of select the best input control signal of the unified power flow controller (UPFC) and design optimal UPFC based damping controller in order to enhance the damping of the power system low frequency oscillations. The potential of the UPFC supplementary controllers to enhance the dynamic stability is evaluated. This controller is tuned to simultaneously shift the undamped electromechanical modes to a prescribed zone in the s-plane. The problem of robustly UPFC based damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem according to the eigenvalue-based multiobjective function comprising the damping factor, and the damping ratio of the undamped electromechanical modes to be solved using particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. To ensure the robustness of the proposed damping controller, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis, nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the tuned PSO based UPFC controller using the proposed multiobjective function has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the {delta}{sub E} based controller is superior to the m{sub B} based controller. (author)
Zhileykin, M. M.; Kotiev, G. O.; Nagatsev, M. V.
2018-02-01
In order to meet the growing mobility requirements for the wheeled vehicles on all types of terrain the engineers have to develop a large number of specialized control algorithms for the multi-axle wheeled vehicle (MWV) suspension improving such qualities as ride comfort, handling and stability. The authors have developed an adaptive algorithm of the dynamic damping of the MVW body oscillations. The algorithm provides high ride comfort and high mobility of the vehicle. The article discloses a method for synthesis of an adaptive dynamic continuous algorithm of the MVW body oscillation damping and provides simulation results proving high efficiency of the developed control algorithm.
Overview of collective effects in the NLC main damping rings
Wolski, A.; Santis, S. de
2002-01-01
The present design for the NLC Main Damping Rings (MDRs) meets the specifications for acceptance and extracted emittance, in the limit of zero current. However, the relatively large bunch charge and moderate energy mean that a variety of collective effects can impact the beam dynamics, leading to loss of stability or increase of equilibrium emittance. These effects include intrabeam scattering, impedance from numerous sources, fast ion instability, and (in the positron ring) electron cloud. In this note, we survey the expected impact on damping ring performance from each of a number of collective effects, and discuss the priorities for future studies in this area
Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro
2011-01-01
Damping of low frequency power oscillations is one of essential aspects of maintaining power system stability. In literature can be found publications on damping capability of Doubly Fed Induction Generator based wind turbines. This paper extends discussion on Wind Power Plant damping capability...
Damping coherent phase oscillations by means of path-length modulation
Rees, J.R.
1978-06-01
Multi-bunch storage rings and synchrotrons are typically plagued by a tendency for the bunches to indulge in unstable coherent phase oscillations engendered by their electromagnetic interactions with the vacuum chamber. In many machines feedback systems have been used successfully to damp these oscillations using a signal proportional to the coherent phase motion or the concomitant energy motion to control an auxiliary longitudinal electric field. The purpose of this note is to describe an alternative feedback system which, using the same kind of a signal, modulates the path length of the orbit of the reference particle (the synchronous particle in the absence of coherent phase oscillations) in such a way as to damp coherent oscillations. 2 refs., 1 fig
D.V.N. Ananth; G.V. Nagesh Kumar
2017-01-01
During grid fault, transmission lines reach its thermal limit and lose its capability to transfer. If this fault current enters generator terminals, it will lead to dip in stator voltage and consequently produces torque and real power oscillations. This further affects in the form of internal heat in rotor windings and finally damages the generator. A new control strategy is proposed to limit fault current using dual STATCOM, which will damp power oscillations and mitigate the voltage dip due...
Quantum damped oscillator II: Bateman's Hamiltonian vs. 2D parabolic potential barrier
Chruscinski, Dariusz
2006-01-01
We show that quantum Bateman's system which arises in the quantization of a damped harmonic oscillator is equivalent to a quantum problem with 2D parabolic potential barrier known also as 2D inverted isotropic oscillator. It turns out that this system displays the family of complex eigenvalues corresponding to the poles of analytical continuation of the resolvent operator to the complex energy plane. It is shown that this representation is more suitable than the hyperbolic one used recently by Blasone and Jizba
Ternet, D.J.; Larson, R.G.; Leal, L.G.
2001-01-01
In this work we attempt to determine the origin of damped stress oscillations upon flow start-up of a nematic liquid crystalline monodomain. These damped stress oscillations were first observed by Gu et¿al. (1993) in the cone-plate flow cell and have since also been observed by Mather et¿al. (1997)
Monotonous property of non-oscillations of the damped Duffing's equation
Feng Zhaosheng
2006-01-01
In this paper, we give a qualitative study to the damped Duffing's equation by means of the qualitative theory of planar systems. Under certain parametric conditions, the monotonous property of the bounded non-oscillations is obtained. Explicit exact solutions are obtained by a direct method and application of this approach to a reaction-diffusion equation is presented
Shakarami, M.R., E-mail: shakarami@iust.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, A. [Centre of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-03-15
A static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) is one of the series flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) devices that injects a balanced three-phase voltage in quadrature with the transmission line current. There are two channels for controlling of phase and magnitude of the voltage. When the SSSC is used for damping of inter-area oscillations, a SSSC-based stabilizer can be included in both channels. In this paper, the best location and suitable input control signal for SSSC in order to enhance the damping of inter-area oscillations are selected by residue analysis. A method by quadratic mathematic programming has been presented to the design of the stabilizer. By this method, the effect of the stabilizer in both control channels of the SSSC on damping of inter-area oscillations has been assessed. By considering the gain of stabilizer as a criterion, obtained results from studying on a small and a large multi-machine power system show that the stabilizer in the phase control channel is more effective for damping inter-are oscillations.
Effect of oscillation mode on the free-molecule squeeze-film air damping
Gang Hong,; Wenjing Ye,
2010-01-01
A 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach is developed and employed to study the effect of the oscillation mode on the squeeze-film air damping in the free-molecule regime. By tracking individual gas molecule's motion and its interaction
Oscillations of a spring-magnet system damped by a conductive plate
Ladera, C. L.; Donoso, G.
2013-09-01
We study the motion of a spring-magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level.
Oscillations of a spring–magnet system damped by a conductive plate
Ladera, C L; Donoso, G
2013-01-01
We study the motion of a spring–magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level. (paper)
Power Oscillation Damping from VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants
Zeni, Lorenzo; Eriksson, Robert; Goumalatsos, Spyridon
2016-01-01
The implementation of power oscillation damping service on offshore wind power plants connected to onshore grids by voltage-source-converter-based high voltage direct current transmission is discussed. Novel design guidelines for damping controllers on voltage-source converters and wind power plant...... regarding real wind power plants are discussed: 1) robustness against control/communication delays; 2) limitations due to mechanical resonances in wind turbine generators; 3) actual capability of wind power plants to provide damping without curtailing production; and 4) power-ramp rate limiters....... controllers are derived, using phasor diagrams and a test network model and are then verified on a generic power system model. The effect of voltage regulators is analyzed, which is important for selecting the most robust damping strategy. Furthermore, other often disregarded practical implementation aspects...
Symmetries and conservation laws of the damped harmonic oscillator
symmetries are expressed in the form of generators. We have studied the ..... For λ = 0, Iβ=1 represents the total energy of the harmonic oscillator with Uβ=1 as the time .... Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 43, 479 (2005); Classical and quantum me-.
Damping of coherent oscillations in intense ion beams
Karpov, Ivan
2017-01-01
Transverse decoherence of a displaced ion bunch is an important phenomenon in synchrotrons and storage rings. An offset can be caused by an injection error after the bunch-to-bucket transfer between synchrotrons or by an externally generated kick. Decoherence results in a transverse emittance blowup, which can cause particle losses and a beam quality degradation. To prevent the beam blowup, a transverse feedback system (TFS) can be used. The damping time should be shorter than the characteristic decoherence time, which can be strongly affected by the interplay of different intensity effects (e.g., space charge and impedances). This thesis describes the development of the analytical models that explain decoherence and emittance growth with chromaticity, space charge, and image charges within the first synchrotron period. The pulsed response function including intensity effects was derived from the model for beam transfer functions. For a coasting beam, the two- dimensional model shows that space charge slows down and above intensity threshold suppresses decoherence. These predictions were confirmed by particle tracking simulations with self-consistent space charge fields. Additionally, halo buildup and losses during decoherence were observed in simulations. These effects were successfully interpreted using a non self-consistent particle-core model. The two-dimensional model was extended to the bunched beams. The simulation results reproduce the analytical predictions. The intensity threshold of decoherence suppression is higher in comparison to a coasting beam, image charges can restore decoherence. In the present work dedicated experiments were performed in the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI Darmstadt and the results were compared with simulations and analytical predictions. The contribution of nonlinearities and image charges is negligible while chromaticity and space charge dominate decoherence. To study the damping efficiency of TFS, a comprehensive TFS module was
Damping of coherent oscillations in intense ion beams
Karpov, Ivan
2017-02-06
Transverse decoherence of a displaced ion bunch is an important phenomenon in synchrotrons and storage rings. An offset can be caused by an injection error after the bunch-to-bucket transfer between synchrotrons or by an externally generated kick. Decoherence results in a transverse emittance blowup, which can cause particle losses and a beam quality degradation. To prevent the beam blowup, a transverse feedback system (TFS) can be used. The damping time should be shorter than the characteristic decoherence time, which can be strongly affected by the interplay of different intensity effects (e.g., space charge and impedances). This thesis describes the development of the analytical models that explain decoherence and emittance growth with chromaticity, space charge, and image charges within the first synchrotron period. The pulsed response function including intensity effects was derived from the model for beam transfer functions. For a coasting beam, the two- dimensional model shows that space charge slows down and above intensity threshold suppresses decoherence. These predictions were confirmed by particle tracking simulations with self-consistent space charge fields. Additionally, halo buildup and losses during decoherence were observed in simulations. These effects were successfully interpreted using a non self-consistent particle-core model. The two-dimensional model was extended to the bunched beams. The simulation results reproduce the analytical predictions. The intensity threshold of decoherence suppression is higher in comparison to a coasting beam, image charges can restore decoherence. In the present work dedicated experiments were performed in the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI Darmstadt and the results were compared with simulations and analytical predictions. The contribution of nonlinearities and image charges is negligible while chromaticity and space charge dominate decoherence. To study the damping efficiency of TFS, a comprehensive TFS module was
Damping of Low Frequency Power System Oscillations with Wind Power Plants
Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz
of wind power plants on power system low frequency oscillations and identify methods and limitations for potential contribution to the damping of such oscillations. Consequently, the first part of the studies focuses on how the increased penetration of wind power into power systems affects their natural...... oscillatory performance. To do so, at first a generic test grid displaying a complex inter-area oscillation pattern is introduced. After the evaluation of the test grid oscillatory profile for various wind power penetration scenarios, it is concluded that full-converter based wind power plant dynamics do......-synchronous power source. The main body of the work is devoted to the damping control design for wind power plants with focus on the impact of such control on the plant operation. It can be expected that the referred impact is directly proportional to the control effort, which for power processing devices should...
Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Iov, Florin
2012-01-01
Low frequency inter-area oscillations are known stability issue of large interconnected electrical grids. It was demonstrated that additional control loop can be applied for static power sources, like FACTS, HVDC or modern Wind Power Plants, to modulate their power output and successfully attenuate......, it is proposed to give more attention to additional indices like transfer function zero location and interactions between mode of interest and other system dynamics. Consequently, additional rules are proposed for residue based damping control design....
Stefanov Predrag Č.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with inter-area power oscillations damping enhancement by distributed energy resources contained in typical micro grid. Main idea behind this work is to use distributed generation and distributed storage, such as battery energy storage to mimic conventional power system stabilizer, but with regulating active power output, rather than reactive power, as in standard power system stabilizer realization. The analysis of the small signal stability is established for four-machine, two-area system, with inverter based micro grids in each area. Dynamic simulation results are included in this work and they show that proposed controller provides additional damping effect to this test system.
López-Ruiz, F. F.; Guerrero, J.; Aldaya, V.; Cossío, F.
2012-08-01
Using a quantum version of the Arnold transformation of classical mechanics, all quantum dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion are non-homogeneous linear second-order ordinary differential equations (LSODE), including systems with friction linear in velocity such as the damped harmonic oscillator, can be related to the quantum free-particle dynamical system. This implies that symmetries and simple computations in the free particle can be exported to the LSODE-system. The quantum Arnold transformation is given explicitly for the damped harmonic oscillator, and an algebraic connection between the Caldirola-Kanai model for the damped harmonic oscillator and the Bateman system will be sketched out.
López-Ruiz, F F; Guerrero, J; Aldaya, V; Cossío, F
2012-01-01
Using a quantum version of the Arnold transformation of classical mechanics, all quantum dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion are non-homogeneous linear second-order ordinary differential equations (LSODE), including systems with friction linear in velocity such as the damped harmonic oscillator, can be related to the quantum free-particle dynamical system. This implies that symmetries and simple computations in the free particle can be exported to the LSODE-system. The quantum Arnold transformation is given explicitly for the damped harmonic oscillator, and an algebraic connection between the Caldirola-Kanai model for the damped harmonic oscillator and the Bateman system will be sketched out.
Damping Inter-area Oscillations using Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe
2011-01-01
Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) has the ability to emulate a reactance in series with the connected transmission line. When fed with some supplementary signals from the connected system, SSSC is able to participate in the power system inter-area oscillation damping by changing...... the compensated reactance. This paper analyses the influence of SSSC on power system small signal stability. A SSSC damping controller scheme is presented and discussed. In DIgSILENT PowerFactory software, modal analysis and time-domain simulation are conducted in a single-machine infinite bus system model...... and a four-machine two-area test system model to verify and improve the damping controller scheme....
An approach to the damping of local modes of oscillations resulting from large hydraulic transients
Dobrijevic, D.M.; Jankovic, M.V.
1999-09-01
A new method of damping of local modes of oscillations under large disturbance is presented in this paper. The digital governor controller is used. Controller operates in real time to improve the generating unit transients through the guide vane position and the runner blade position. The developed digital governor controller, whose control signals are adjusted using the on-line measurements, offers better damping effects for the generator oscillations under large disturbances than the conventional controller. Digital simulations of hydroelectric power plant equipped with low-head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons between the digital governor control and the conventional governor control are presented. Simulation results show that the new controller offers better performances, than the conventional controller, when the system is subjected to large disturbances.
Direct heuristic dynamic programming for damping oscillations in a large power system.
Lu, Chao; Si, Jennie; Xie, Xiaorong
2008-08-01
This paper applies a neural-network-based approximate dynamic programming method, namely, the direct heuristic dynamic programming (direct HDP), to a large power system stability control problem. The direct HDP is a learning- and approximation-based approach to addressing nonlinear coordinated control under uncertainty. One of the major design parameters, the controller learning objective function, is formulated to directly account for network-wide low-frequency oscillation with the presence of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and coupling effect among system components. Results include a novel learning control structure based on the direct HDP with applications to two power system problems. The first case involves static var compensator supplementary damping control, which is used to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the learning control performance. The second case aims at addressing a difficult complex system challenge by providing a new solution to a large interconnected power network oscillation damping control problem that frequently occurs in the China Southern Power Grid.
Transition to chaos in the damped and forced non-lnear oscillator
Montenegro Joo, J.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima
2009-01-01
A Virtual Lab to study the Transition to Chaos in second order non-linear differential equations has been developed and successfully applied to the search for chaotic behavior in the damped and forced non-linear oscillator. This simulation and visualization software evaluates the equation under investigation at up to one million time-steps, generating in real-time and on the screen, plots like amplitude of oscillation, phase diagram, amplitude oscillation peaks and an animation of an oscillator governed by the problem equation. In this way the investigator not only gets important behavior graphs but he or she also gets a physical visualization of the system under investigation. Visualizing an animation of the system under study is an enormous help because it is not always easy to interpret behavior graphs. (author).
Salgotra, Aprajita; Pan, Somnath
2018-05-01
This paper explores a two-level control strategy by blending local controller with centralized controller for the low frequency oscillations in a power system. The proposed control scheme provides stabilization of local modes using a local controller and minimizes the effect of inter-connection of sub-systems performance through a centralized control. For designing the local controllers in the form of proportional-integral power system stabilizer (PI-PSS), a simple and straight forward frequency domain direct synthesis method is considered that works on use of a suitable reference model which is based on the desired requirements. Several examples both on one machine infinite bus and multi-machine systems taken from the literature are illustrated to show the efficacy of the proposed PI-PSS. The effective damping of the systems is found to be increased remarkably which is reflected in the time-responses; even unstable operation has been stabilized with improved damping after applying the proposed controller. The proposed controllers give remarkable improvement in damping the oscillations in all the illustrations considered here and as for example, the value of damping factor has been increased from 0.0217 to 0.666 in Example 1. The simulation results obtained by the proposed control strategy are favourably compared with some controllers prevalent in the literature. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quantum damped oscillator II: Bateman’s Hamiltonian vs. 2D parabolic potential barrier
Chruściński, Dariusz
2006-04-01
We show that quantum Bateman’s system which arises in the quantization of a damped harmonic oscillator is equivalent to a quantum problem with 2D parabolic potential barrier known also as 2D inverted isotropic oscillator. It turns out that this system displays the family of complex eigenvalues corresponding to the poles of analytical continuation of the resolvent operator to the complex energy plane. It is shown that this representation is more suitable than the hyperbolic one used recently by Blasone and Jizba.
Fitness voter model: Damped oscillations and anomalous consensus.
Woolcock, Anthony; Connaughton, Colm; Merali, Yasmin; Vazquez, Federico
2017-09-01
We study the dynamics of opinion formation in a heterogeneous voter model on a complete graph, in which each agent is endowed with an integer fitness parameter k≥0, in addition to its + or - opinion state. The evolution of the distribution of k-values and the opinion dynamics are coupled together, so as to allow the system to dynamically develop heterogeneity and memory in a simple way. When two agents with different opinions interact, their k-values are compared, and with probability p the agent with the lower value adopts the opinion of the one with the higher value, while with probability 1-p the opposite happens. The agent that keeps its opinion (winning agent) increments its k-value by one. We study the dynamics of the system in the entire 0≤p≤1 range and compare with the case p=1/2, in which opinions are decoupled from the k-values and the dynamics is equivalent to that of the standard voter model. When 0≤psystem approaches exponentially fast to the consensus state of the initial majority opinion. The mean consensus time τ appears to grow logarithmically with the number of agents N, and it is greatly decreased relative to the linear behavior τ∼N found in the standard voter model. When 1/2system initially relaxes to a state with an even coexistence of opinions, but eventually reaches consensus by finite-size fluctuations. The approach to the coexistence state is monotonic for 1/2oscillations around the coexistence value. The final approach to coexistence is approximately a power law t^{-b(p)} in both regimes, where the exponent b increases with p. Also, τ increases respect to the standard voter model, although it still scales linearly with N. The p=1 case is special, with a relaxation to coexistence that scales as t^{-2.73} and a consensus time that scales as τ∼N^{β}, with β≃1.45.
Motion of a damped oscillating sphere as a function of the medium viscosity
Mendoza-Arenas, J J; Perico, E L D; Fajardo, F
2010-01-01
In this paper, an experimental setup for undergraduate courses to study the damped harmonic motion of a sphere inside a fluid as a function of the medium viscosity is presented. To observe the dependence of the oscillation of the sphere on the medium viscosity, different concentrations of glycerin in water were used. The sphere is suspended on the end of a spring and its displacement is indirectly obtained using a force sensor. To describe the sphere motion, a drag force different from that given by Stokes' law is used. Our experimental results fit satisfactorily when semiempirical coefficients are introduced in the model. The frequency and relaxation time of the sphere oscillations diminish as the concentration of glycerin increases. Boundary effects due to the fluid container size are studied. We found that when the container size decreases the oscillations decay more rapidly due to a greater resistance to the motion of the sphere.
Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; El-Moursi, M. S.; Abdel-Rahman, Mansour Hassan
2010-01-01
This paper addresses implementation issues associated with a novel damping control algorithm for a STATCOM in a series compensated wind park for mitigating SSR (subsynchronous resonance) and damping power system oscillations. The IEEE first benchmark model on subsynchronous resonance is adopted...... the SSR, damping the power system oscillation and enhancing the transient stability margin in response to different SCRs....... in the STATCOM control structure. The performances of the controllers are tested in steady state operation and in response to system contingencies, taking into account the impact of short circuit ratios (SCRs). Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the capability of the controllers for mitigating...
Design of output feedback UPFC controller for damping of electromechanical oscillations using PSO
Shayeghi, H. [Technical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Dept., Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Dept., Zanjan Univ., Zanjan (Iran)
2009-10-15
In this paper, a novel method for the design of output feedback controller for unified power flow controller (UPFC) is developed. The selection of the output feedback gains for the UPFC controllers is converted to an optimization problem with the time domain-based objective function which is solved by a particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. Only local and available state variables are adopted as the input signals of each controller for the decentralized design. Thus, structure of the designed UPFC controller is simple and easy to implement. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller for damping low frequency oscillations is tested and demonstrated through nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the designed PSO-based output feedback UPFC damping controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the {delta}{sub E} based controller is superior to both the m{sub B} based controller and conventional power system stablizer. (author)
Ashfaque Ahmed Hashmani
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the decentralized hierarchical PSS (Power System Stabilizer controller design to achieve a better damping of specific inter-area oscillations. The two-level decentralized hierarchical structure consists of two PSS controllers. The first level controller is a local PSS controller for each generator to damp local mode in the area where controller is located. This controller uses only local signals as input signals. The local signal comes from the generator at which the controller is located. The secondary level controller is a multivariable decentralized global PSS controller to damp inter-area modes. This controller uses selected suitable wide area PMU (Phasor Measurement Units signals as inputs. The PMU or global signals are taken from network locations where the oscillations are well observable. The global controller uses only those global input signals in which the assigned single inter-area mode is most observable and is located at a generator that is most effective in controlling the assigned mode. The global controller works mainly in a frequency band given by the natural frequency of the assigned mode. The effectiveness of the resulting hierarchical controller is demonstrated through simulation studies conducted on a test power system.
Quantized impedance dealing with the damping behavior of the one-dimensional oscillator
Jinghao Zhu
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A quantized impedance is proposed to theoretically establish the relationship between the atomic eigenfrequency and the intrinsic frequency of the one-dimensional oscillator in this paper. The classical oscillator is modified by the idea that the electron transition is treated as a charge-discharge process of a suggested capacitor with the capacitive energy equal to the energy level difference of the jumping electron. The quantized capacitance of the impedance interacting with the jumping electron can lead the resonant frequency of the oscillator to the same as the atomic eigenfrequency. The quantized resistance reflects that the damping coefficient of the oscillator is the mean collision frequency of the transition electron. In addition, the first and third order electric susceptibilities based on the oscillator are accordingly quantized. Our simulation of the hydrogen atom emission spectrum based on the proposed method agrees well with the experimental one. Our results exhibits that the one-dimensional oscillator with the quantized impedance may become useful in the estimations of the refractive index and one- or multi-photon absorption coefficients of some nonmagnetic media composed of hydrogen-like atoms.
Oscillation criteria for third order nonlinear delay differential equations with damping
Said R. Grace
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This note is concerned with the oscillation of third order nonlinear delay differential equations of the form \\[\\label{*} \\left( r_{2}(t\\left( r_{1}(ty^{\\prime}(t\\right^{\\prime}\\right^{\\prime}+p(ty^{\\prime}(t+q(tf(y(g(t=0.\\tag{\\(\\ast\\}\\] In the papers [A. Tiryaki, M. F. Aktas, Oscillation criteria of a certain class of third order nonlinear delay differential equations with damping, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 325 (2007, 54-68] and [M. F. Aktas, A. Tiryaki, A. Zafer, Oscillation criteria for third order nonlinear functional differential equations, Applied Math. Letters 23 (2010, 756-762], the authors established some sufficient conditions which insure that any solution of equation (\\(\\ast\\ oscillates or converges to zero, provided that the second order equation \\[\\left( r_{2}(tz^{\\prime }(t\\right^{\\prime}+\\left(p(t/r_{1}(t\\right z(t=0\\tag{\\(\\ast\\ast\\}\\] is nonoscillatory. Here, we shall improve and unify the results given in the above mentioned papers and present some new sufficient conditions which insure that any solution of equation (\\(\\ast\\ oscillates if equation (\\(\\ast\\ast\\ is nonoscillatory. We also establish results for the oscillation of equation (\\(\\ast\\ when equation (\\(\\ast\\ast\\ is oscillatory.
Quantized impedance dealing with the damping behavior of the one-dimensional oscillator
Zhu, Jinghao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Fang, Zhengji; Zhao, Peide, E-mail: pdzhao@eyou.com, E-mail: pdzhao@hebut.edu.cn [School of Science, Hebei University of Technology, Beichen Campus, Tianjin 300401 (China); Li, Erping, E-mail: liep@zju.edu.cn [Institute of High Performance Computing, Fusionopolis, 1 Fusionopolis Way, No. 16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)
2015-11-15
A quantized impedance is proposed to theoretically establish the relationship between the atomic eigenfrequency and the intrinsic frequency of the one-dimensional oscillator in this paper. The classical oscillator is modified by the idea that the electron transition is treated as a charge-discharge process of a suggested capacitor with the capacitive energy equal to the energy level difference of the jumping electron. The quantized capacitance of the impedance interacting with the jumping electron can lead the resonant frequency of the oscillator to the same as the atomic eigenfrequency. The quantized resistance reflects that the damping coefficient of the oscillator is the mean collision frequency of the transition electron. In addition, the first and third order electric susceptibilities based on the oscillator are accordingly quantized. Our simulation of the hydrogen atom emission spectrum based on the proposed method agrees well with the experimental one. Our results exhibits that the one-dimensional oscillator with the quantized impedance may become useful in the estimations of the refractive index and one- or multi-photon absorption coefficients of some nonmagnetic media composed of hydrogen-like atoms.
Chen, D
The $\\textbf{DA}$rk $\\textbf{M}$atter $\\textbf{P}$article $\\textbf{E}$xplorer (DAMPE) experiment is a high-energy astroparticle physics satellite mission to search for Dark Matter signatures in space, study the cosmic ray spectrum and composition up to 100 TeV, and perform high-energy gamma astronomy. The launch is planned for end 2015, initially for 3 years, to compliment existing space missions FERMI, AMS and CALET.
OSCILLATION OF A SECOND-ORDER HALF-LINEAR NEUTRAL DAMPED DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH TIME-DELAY
无
2012-01-01
In this paper,the oscillation for a class of second-order half-linear neutral damped differential equation with time-delay is studied.By means of Yang-inequality,the generalized Riccati transformation and a certain function,some new sufficient conditions for the oscillation are given for all solutions to the equation.
Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim Høj
2011-01-01
For a wind power plant (WPP) the upper limit for active power output is bounded by the instantaneous wind conditions and therefore a WPP must curtail its power output when system services with active power are delivered. Here, a power oscillation damping controller (POD) for WPPs is presented...... that utilizes the stored kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) mechanical system as energy storage from which damping power can be exchanged. This eliminates the need for curtailed active power production. Results are presented using modal analysis and induced torque coefficients (ITC) to depict the torques...... induced on the synchronous generators from the POD. These are supplemented with nonlinear time domain simulations with and without an auxiliary POD for the WPP. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....
Comparison among nonlinear excitation control strategies used for damping power system oscillations
Leon, A.E.; Solsona, J.A.; Valla, M.I.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A description and comparison of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generators are presented. ► Advantages of using nonlinear controllers are emphasized against the use of classical PSSs. ► We find that a particular selection of IDA gains achieve the same performance that FL controllers. - Abstract: This work is focused on the problem of power system stability. A thorough description of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generator excitation, which are designed for damping oscillations and improving transient stability on power systems, is presented along with a detailed comparison among these modern strategies and current solutions based on power system stabilizers. The performance related to damping injection in each controller, critical time enhancement, robustness against parametric uncertainties, and control signal energy consumption is analyzed. Several tests are presented to validate discussions on various advantages and disadvantages of each control strategy.
Wide Area Coordinated Control of Multi-FACTS Devices to Damp Power System Oscillations
Shiyun Xu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Aiming at damping the inter-area oscillations of power systems, the present study proposes a wide-area decentralized coordinated control framework, where the upper-level controller is designed to coordinate the lower-level multiple FACTS devices. Based on the polytopic differential inclusion method, the derived controller adopts a decentralized structure and it is guaranteed to be robust to meet the demand of operation under multiple operating conditions. Since time delay of wide area signal transmission is inevitable, in what follows, the quantum evolution algorithm (QEA method is introduced to find an optimal solution of the time-delay coordinated controller. In this regard, the stability of the system with a prescribed time delay is guaranteed and the system damping ratio is increased. Effectiveness and applicability of the proposed controller design methods have been demonstrated through numerical simulations.
Srikanta Mahapatra
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (h-FAPS technique is proposed for a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC-based power oscillation damping controller design. The proposed h-FAPS technique takes the advantage of global search capability of FA and local search facility of PS. In order to tackle the drawback of using the remote signal that may impact reliability of the controller, a modified signal equivalent to the remote speed deviation signal is constructed from the local measurements. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated in SMIB and multi-machine power system subjected to various transient disturbances. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with some recently published approaches such as Differential Evolution (DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some recently reported approaches.
A New Control Structure for Multi-Terminal dc Grids to Damp Inter-Area Oscillations
Eriksson, Robert
2014-01-01
This article analyzes the control structure of the multi-terminal dc (MTDC) system to damp ac system interarea oscillations through active power modulation. A new control structure is presented that maximizes the relative controllability without the need for communication among the dc terminals....... In point-to-point high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission, the active power modulation of the two terminals occurs in opposite directions. In this case the control direction is given and only needs to be phase compensated to align for maximal damping. In the case of MTDC systems the control direction...... interrelates with the active power modulation share of the dc terminals and the relative controllability depends on this. The new control structure eliminates the need of communication between the dc terminals by performing dc voltage feedback loop shaping. This makes it possible to modulate the power in one...
Furini, M.A.; Araujo, P.B. de; Pereira, A.L.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: mafurini@aluno.feis.unesp.br, percival@dee.feis.unesp.br, andspa@gmail.com
2009-07-01
This paper aims at analyzing the main operation and design of operationally robust controllers in order to damp the electromechanics oscillations type inter area. For this we used an intelligent control technique based on artificial neural networks, where a multilayer perceptron it was implemented. We used a symmetrical test system of four generators, ten bars and nine transmission lines to verify the performance of the power system stabilizers and power oscillation damping (POD) for the FACTS devices, unified power flow controller (UPFC), designed for neural networks. The results show the superiority in the operation and control of oscillations in power systems using UPFC equipped with the POD.
(1 + 1) Newton-Hooke group for the simple and damped harmonic oscillator
Brzykcy, Przemysław
2018-03-01
It is demonstrated that, in the framework of the orbit method, a simple and damped harmonic oscillator is indistinguishable at the level of an abstract Lie algebra. This opens a possibility for treating the dissipative systems within the orbit method. An in-depth analysis of the coadjoint orbits of the (1 + 1) dimensional Newton-Hooke group is presented. Furthermore, it is argued that the physical interpretation is carried by a specific realisation of the Lie algebra of smooth functions on a phase space rather than by an abstract Lie algebra.
Effect of state-dependent delay on a weakly damped nonlinear oscillator.
Mitchell, Jonathan L; Carr, Thomas W
2011-04-01
We consider a weakly damped nonlinear oscillator with state-dependent delay, which has applications in models for lasers, epidemics, and microparasites. More generally, the delay-differential equations considered are a predator-prey system where the delayed term is linear and represents the proliferation of the predator. We determine the critical value of the delay that causes the steady state to become unstable to periodic oscillations via a Hopf bifurcation. Using asymptotic averaging, we determine how the system's behavior is influenced by the functional form of the state-dependent delay. Specifically, we determine whether the branch of periodic solutions will be either sub- or supercritical as well as an accurate estimation of the amplitude. Finally, we choose a few examples of state-dependent delay to test our analytical results by comparing them to numerical continuation.
Measurements of natural frequency and damping constant of single steam bubble oscillating in water
Morioka, Mikio
1983-01-01
The natural frequency fsub(n) and damping constant delta of a bubble in liquid have been determined by observing the resonance of the bubble to forced oscillation. The bubble was retained under a rigid plate horizontal disk, and the oscillation was applied by underwater speaker. The applied frequency f was kept constant while letting the bubble increase its volume and vary its radius R. Bubble resonance was detected by observing wrinkles appearing on the bubble due to surface waves. Resonance curves relating the amplitude of bubble radius variation to the intensity of applied oscillation is derived theoretically. Good agreement was seen between the data obtained from experiment and the theoretically derived resonance curves at test to the validity of the method proposed of determining fsub(n) and delta from bubble resonance. The values of delta and of the resonant bubble radius R 0 of large steam bubbles (8.5mm< R<11.5mm) in water were determined at f=270, 290 and 358 Hz. The results support the assumption that for large bubbles the value of fsub(n) is little influenced by the exchange of mass between liquid and gaseous phases through evaporation and condensation accompanying bubble pressure oscillation. On the other hand, delta is found to be one order of magnitude higher than calculated for steam bubbles without taking into evaporation and condensation the interphase exchange of mass. The effect brought on delta by the interphase mass exchange can be taken into account by adding a new constant deltasub(ph) to the terms constituting the total damping constant. (author)
Collective states of externally driven, damped nonlinear Schroedinger solitons
Barashenkov, I.V.; Smirnov, Yu.S.
1997-01-01
We study bifurcations of localized stationary solitons of the externally driven, damped nonlinear Schroedinger equation iΨ t + Ψ xx + 2|Ψ| 2 Ψ=-iγΨ-h e iΩt , in the region of large γ (γ>1/2). For each pair of h and γ, there are two coexisting solitons, Ψ + and Ψ - . As the driver's strength h increases for the fixed γ, the Ψ + soliton merges with the flat background while the Ψ - forms a stationary collective state with two 'psi-pluses': Ψ - → Ψ (+ - +) . We obtain other stationary solutions and identify them as multisoliton complexes Ψ (++) , Ψ (--) , Ψ (-+) , Ψ (---) , Ψ (-+- ) etc. The corresponding intersoliton separations are compared to predictions of a variational approximation
Pascoe, D. J.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2018-06-01
The shape of the damping profile of kink oscillations in coronal loops has recently allowed the transverse density profile of the loop to be estimated. This requires accurate measurement of the damping profile that can distinguish the Gaussian and exponential damping regimes, otherwise there are more unknowns than observables. Forward modeling of the transverse intensity profile may also be used to estimate the width of the inhomogeneous layer of a loop, providing an independent estimate of one of these unknowns. We analyze an oscillating loop for which the seismological determination of the transverse structure is inconclusive except when supplemented by additional spatial information from the transverse intensity profile. Our temporal analysis describes the motion of a coronal loop as a kink oscillation damped by resonant absorption, and our spatial analysis is based on forward modeling the transverse EUV intensity profile of the loop under the isothermal and optically thin approximations. We use Bayesian analysis and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to apply our spatial and temporal models both individually and simultaneously to our data and compare the results with numerical simulations. Combining the two methods allows both the inhomogeneous layer width and density contrast to be calculated, which is not possible for the same data when each method is applied individually. We demonstrate that the assumption of an exponential damping profile leads to a significantly larger error in the inferred density contrast ratio compared with a Gaussian damping profile.
Xu Weihua; Chen Yonghao; Wu Junshuan; Kuang Guangli
1998-06-01
Rectifier circuit is the most popular converter. For the ripple demand of high-power load, the L-C filter with invert 'L' type has been used universally. Due to the influence of the second-order link, damped oscillation will occur with proper condition while the circuit state is changed. The ideal cascade damping condition and the parallel one can be obtained easily. Generally, the damping condition of the step response of the L-C filter circuit is induced, and the discussion is given
Huang, Wei; Su, Qi; Li, Yan-Bing; Sun, Ying
2014-01-01
In this paper, a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol, which can be immune to collective amplitude damping noise, is proposed with collective detection strategy. Then a multi-party quantum secret sharing (MQSS) protocol and a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol are introduced as two applications of the proposed QKD protocol. Except for one participant who is responsible for preparing and measuring quantum states, the rest of the users in each of these protocols only need to perform certain unitary operations due to the utilization of collective detection. Therefore, in addition to the advantage of being secure against collective amplitude damping noise, the proposed protocols still have the advantages of higher qubit efficiency and lower cost for implementation. Moreover, the security of these protocols is guaranteed by theorems on quantum operation discrimination. (papers)
Guo, Yu; Luo, Albert C.J.
2015-01-01
In this paper, analytically predicted are complex periodic motions in the periodically forced, damped, hardening Duffing oscillator through discrete implicit maps of the corresponding differential equations. Bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos in such a hardening Duffing oscillator are obtained. The stability and bifurcation analysis of periodic motion in the bifurcation trees is carried out by eigenvalue analysis. The solutions of all discrete nodes of periodic motions are computed by the mapping structures of discrete implicit mapping. The frequency-amplitude characteristics of periodic motions are computed that are based on the discrete Fourier series. Thus, the bifurcation trees of periodic motions are also presented through frequency-amplitude curves. Finally, based on the analytical predictions, the initial conditions of periodic motions are selected, and numerical simulations of periodic motions are carried out for comparison of numerical and analytical predictions. The harmonic amplitude spectrums are also given for the approximate analytical expressions of periodic motions, which can also be used for comparison with experimental measurement. This study will give a better understanding of complex periodic motions in the hardening Duffing oscillator.
Li, Hui; Liu, Shengquan; Ji, Haiting
2014-01-01
on the power system stabilizer (PSS) control method. Transient simulation on different damping gain coefficients are conducted for justification. Following the OTEF mechanism analysis, an additional fuzzy damping control strategy with the active/reactive power loop is proposed by identifying the oscillation......This study investigates the inter-area low-frequency damping control strategies of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farm through oscillation transient energy function (OTEF) analysis. Based on the OTEF descent expressions, the feasibility of damping the inter-area low...... oscillation of the wind turbine shaft. The proposed additional fuzzy control strategy with the active/reactive power loop has better damping performance than the presented PSS control, especially for damping the inter-area low-frequency oscillation....
Analysis and damping control of power system low-frequency oscillations
Wang, Haifeng
2016-01-01
This book presents the research and development results on power systems oscillations in three categories of analytical methods. First is damping torque analysis which was proposed in 1960’s, further developed between 1980-1990, and widely used in industry. Second is modal analysis which developed between the 1980’s and 1990’s as the most powerful method. Finally the linearized equal-area criterion analysis that is proposed and developed recently. The book covers three main types of controllers: Power System Stabilizer (PSS), FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) stabilizer, and ESS (Energy Storage Systems) stabilizer. The book provides a systematic and detailed introduction on the subject as the reference for industry applications and academic research.
Open quantum system and the damping of collective modes in deep inelastic collisions
Sandulescu, A.
1985-01-01
In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems the following results are obtained: a generalization of the fundamental constraints on quantum mechanical diffusion coefficients which appear in the corresponding master equations, a generalization of pure state condition and generalized Schrodinger type nonlinear equation for an open system. Also, the Schroedinger, Heisenberfg and Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representations of the Lindblad equation are given explicitly. On the basis of these representations, it is shown that various master equations for the damped quantum oscillator used in the literature for the description of the damped collective modes are particular cases of the Lindblad equation and that the majority of these equations are not satisfying the constraints on quantum mechanical diffusion coefficients. The solutions of the differential equations for the variances are put in a new synthetic for, suggested by a direct computation of the variances from the time dependent Weyl operators. The solution of the Lindblad equation in the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representation is of Gaussian type if the initial form of the Wigner function is taken to be a Gaussian corresponding to a coherent wave furction
Paccini, Rodrigo de O.; Custodio, Diogo T.; Kopcak, Igor; Costa, Vivaldo F. da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas de Energia Eletrica], Emails: rodrigo@dsee.fee.unicamp.br, totti@dsee.fee.unicamp.br, kopcak@dsee.fee.unicamp.br, vivaldo@dsee.fee.unicamp.br.
2009-07-01
This article presents a study that evaluates the effectiveness of a DC link in order to damp power oscillations, of inter area exchange, under small disturbance conditions, operating with Automatic Control Generation. The DC link was represented by a power injection model included the Sensitivity Power Model. Through this representation, the DC link was inserted in the block diagram, modeled as an injection power in the bars terminals in the net active and reactive, closing a new power balance at every instant. It was also designed a controller for damping power oscillations (POD-Power Oscillation Damping Controller) for modulation the power of the DC link and, therefore, insertion of additional damping in a frequency oscillations of exchange lines. The results confirm that the DC link has a great potential for maintaining the damping of oscillations frequency so inter area when equipped with POD controllers.
Martins, N; Pinto, H J.C.P.; Bianco, A [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Macedo, N J.P. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1994-12-31
This paper describes control structures and computer methods to enhance the practical use of thyristor controlled series compensation (TCSC) in power systems. The location and controller design of the TCS devices, to damp system oscillations, are based on modal analysis and frequency response techniques, respectively. Results are given for a large practical power system. (author) 15 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.
Deboeck, Pascal R.; Boker, Steven M.; Bergeman, C. S.
2008-01-01
Among the many methods available for modeling intraindividual time series, differential equation modeling has several advantages that make it promising for applications to psychological data. One interesting differential equation model is that of the damped linear oscillator (DLO), which can be used to model variables that have a tendency to…
Analogy between optically driven injection-locked laser diodes and driven damped linear oscillators
Murakami, Atsushi; Shore, K. Alan
2006-01-01
An analytical study of optically driven laser diodes (LDs) has been undertaken to meet the requirement for a theoretical treatment for chaotic drive and synchronization occurring in the injection-locked LDs with strong injection. A small-signal analysis is performed for the sets of rate equations for the injection-locked LDs driven by a sinusoidal optical signal. In particular, as a model of chaotic driving signals from LD dynamics, an optical signal caused by direct modulation to the master LD is assumed, oscillating both in field amplitude and phase as is the case with chaotic driving signals. Consequently, we find conditions that allow reduction in the degrees of freedom of the driven LD. Under these conditions, the driven response is approximated to a simple form which is found to be equivalent to driven damped linear oscillators. The validity of the application of this theory to previous work on the synchronization of chaos and related phenomena occurring in the injection-locked LDs is demonstrated
A damped oscillator imposes temporal order on posterior gap gene expression in Drosophila
Verd, Berta; Clark, Erik; Wotton, Karl R.; Janssens, Hilde; Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Crombach, Anton
2018-01-01
Insects determine their body segments in two different ways. Short-germband insects, such as the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, use a molecular clock to establish segments sequentially. In contrast, long-germband insects, such as the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, determine all segments simultaneously through a hierarchical cascade of gene regulation. Gap genes constitute the first layer of the Drosophila segmentation gene hierarchy, downstream of maternal gradients such as that of Caudal (Cad). We use data-driven mathematical modelling and phase space analysis to show that shifting gap domains in the posterior half of the Drosophila embryo are an emergent property of a robust damped oscillator mechanism, suggesting that the regulatory dynamics underlying long- and short-germband segmentation are much more similar than previously thought. In Tribolium, Cad has been proposed to modulate the frequency of the segmentation oscillator. Surprisingly, our simulations and experiments show that the shift rate of posterior gap domains is independent of maternal Cad levels in Drosophila. Our results suggest a novel evolutionary scenario for the short- to long-germband transition and help explain why this transition occurred convergently multiple times during the radiation of the holometabolan insects. PMID:29451884
Noakes, M.W.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.
1990-01-01
The transportation of objects using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object, which usually must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories has shown that oscillation-damped transport and swing-free stops are possible by properly programming the acceleration of the transporting crane. Initial studies have been completed using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot. The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is an engineering and operations test bed developed for remote maintenance and handling studies within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of CFRP has been to advanced the technology of in-cell systems planned for future nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The AIMS provides the capabilities to examine the needs and constraints necessary for hot-cell remote maintenance and includes a force-reflecting master/slave teleoperator and overhead transporter system. The associated control system provides a flexible programming environment conducive to controls experimentation. This paper reviews the theory associated with oscillation-damped trajectories for simply suspended objects and describes a specific implementation of the oscillation damping methods for the AIMS transporter. Hardware and software requirements and constraints for proper operation are discussed
Quantization and instability of the damped harmonic oscillator subject to a time-dependent force
Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.
2011-01-01
We consider the one-dimensional motion of a particle immersed in a potential field U(x) under the influence of a frictional (dissipative) force linear in velocity (-γx) and a time-dependent external force (K(t)). The dissipative system subject to these forces is discussed by introducing the extended Bateman's system, which is described by the Lagrangian: L=mxy-U(x+1/2 y)+U(x-1/2 y)+(γ)/2 (xy-yx)-xK(t)+yK(t), which leads to the familiar classical equations of motion for the dissipative (open) system. The equation for a variable y is the time-reversed of the x motion. We discuss the extended Bateman dual Lagrangian and Hamiltonian by setting U(x±y/2)=1/2 k(x±y/2) 2 specifically for a dual extended damped-amplified harmonic oscillator subject to the time-dependent external force. We show the method of quantizing such dissipative systems, namely the canonical quantization of the extended Bateman's Hamiltonian H. The Heisenberg equations of motion utilizing the quantized Hamiltonian H surely lead to the equations of motion for the dissipative dynamical quantum systems, which are the quantum analog of the corresponding classical systems. To discuss the stability of the quantum dissipative system due to the influence of an external force K(t) and the dissipative force, we derived a formula for transition amplitudes of the dissipative system with the help of the perturbation analysis. The formula is specifically applied for a damped-amplified harmonic oscillator subject to the impulsive force. This formula is used to study the influence of dissipation such as the instability due to the dissipative force and/or the applied impulsive force. - Highlights: → A method of quantizing dissipative systems is presented. → In order to obtain the method, we apply Bateman's dual system approach. → A formula for a transition amplitude is derived. → We use the formula to study the instability of the dissipative systems.
Bin Zhao
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator speed and the output reactive power of the wind farms was introduced to derive the analytical expression of the damping coefficient. The phase range to obtain positive damping was determined. Second, the PID phase compensation parameters of the auxiliary damping controller were optimized by a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimum damping in the entire subsynchronous frequency band. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary damping control were demonstrated on a modified version of the IEEE first benchmark model by time domain simulation analysis with the use of DigSILENT/PowerFactory. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this derived damping factor expression and the condition of the positive damping can effectively analyze their impact on the system sub-synchronous oscillations, the proposed wind farms reactive power additional damping control strategy can provide the optimal damping effect over the whole sub-synchronous frequency band, and the control effect is better than the active power additional damping control strategy based on the power system stabilizator.
Chao, A.W.; Morton, P.L.; Rees, J.R.
1979-03-01
To describe the horizontal motion of the bunch, we need four coordinates, x and z are the horizontal and longitudinal displacements of the bunch center relative to the ideal trajectory; x' is the angle between the bunch's direction of motion and the ideal trajectory; and δ=ΔE/E is relative energy error of the bunch. Among the four variables, x and z are easy to measure by position monitors, while x' and δ are easy to change by electromagnetic devices. In combination, this suggests four possible types of feedback systems. In the following, we will present a complete analysis of the Type (x, δ) feedback system, using a matrix method. The analyses of other types are similar to that of Type (x, δ) and only the results are included. We then include some comparisons of these types of feedback schemes in terms of power consumptions and the effectiveness in damping the horizontal-betatron and synchrotron oscillations. We will also discuss some effects of position measuring errors on the performance of the feedback system. 2 refs., 3 tabs
Lee, Jung Pil; Kim, Han Gun
2012-01-01
In this paper, the robust superconductor flywheel energy storage system(SFESS) controller using H control theory was designed to damp low frequency oscillation of power system. The main advantage of the controller is that uncertainties of power system can be included at the stage of controller design. Both disturbance attenuation and robust stability for the power system were treated simultaneously by using mixed sensitivity problem. The robust stability and the performance for uncertainties of power system were represented by frequency weighted transfer function. To verify control performance of proposed SFESS controller using control, the closed loop eigenvalue and the damping ratio in dominant oscillation mode of power system were analyzed and nonlinear simulation for one-machine infinite bus system was performed under disturbance for various operating conditions. The results showed that the proposed SFESS controller was more robust than conventional power system stabilizer (PSS).
Hasanvand, Hamed; Mozafari, Babak; Arvan, Mohammad R; Amraee, Turaj
2015-11-01
This paper addresses the application of a static Var compensator (SVC) to improve the damping of interarea oscillations. Optimal location and size of SVC are defined using bifurcation and modal analysis to satisfy its primary application. Furthermore, the best-input signal for damping controller is selected using Hankel singular values and right half plane-zeros. The proposed approach is aimed to design a robust PI controller based on interval plants and Kharitonov's theorem. The objective here is to determine the stability region to attain robust stability, the desired phase margin, gain margin, and bandwidth. The intersection of the resulting stability regions yields the set of kp-ki parameters. In addition, optimal multiobjective design of PI controller using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented. The effectiveness of the suggested controllers in damping of local and interarea oscillation modes of a multimachine power system, over a wide range of loading conditions and system configurations, is confirmed through eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time domain simulation. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen N.; Jensen, Kim H.
2013-01-01
Wind power plants (WPP) are for power system stability studies often represented with aggregated models where several wind turbines (WT) are aggregated into a single up-scaled model. The advantage is a reduction in the model complexity and the computational time, and for a number of study types...... aggregation is investigated and it is shown that the level of WPP aggregation only has limited impact on the resulting modal damping. The study is based on a non-linear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT....... the accuracy of the results has been found acceptable. A large WPP is, however, both modular and distributed over a large geographical area, and feasibility of aggregating the WTs, thus, have to be reassessed when new applications are introduced for WPPs. Here, the power oscillation damping capabilities...
Dynamical property analysis of fractionally damped van der pol oscillator and its application
Zhong, Qiuhui; Zhang, Chunrui
2012-01-01
In this paper, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was studied. Firstly, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was transformed into a set of integer order equations. Then the Lyapunov exponents diagram was given. Secondly, it was transformed into a set of fractional integral equations and solved by a predictor-corrector method. The time domain diagrams and phase trajectory were used to describe the dynamic behavior. Finally, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was used to detect a weak signal.
Collective neutrino oscillations and r-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae
Duan, Huaiyu
2012-10-01
Neutrinos can oscillate collectively in a core-collapse supernova. This phenomenon can occur much deeper inside the supernova envelope than what is predicted from the conventional matter-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, and hence may have an impact on nucleosynthesis. The oscillation patterns and the r-process yields are sensitive to the details of the emitted neutrino fluxes, the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, the modeling of neutrino oscillations and the astrophysical conditions. The effects of collective neutrino oscillations on the r-process will be illustrated using representative late-time neutrino spectra and outflow models.
WAMS Based Damping Control of Inter-area Oscillations Employing Energy Storage System
MA, J.
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic design procedure for a wide-area damping controller (WADC employing Energy Storage Systems (ESSs. The WADC is aimed at enhancing the damping of multiple inter-area modes in a large scale power system. Firstly, geometric measures of controllability and obsevability are used to select the control locations for ESSs and most effective stabilizing signals, respectively. Then, the WADC coordinates these signals to achieve multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO controllers with the least Frobenius norm feedback gain matrix. The simulation results of frequency and time domains verify the effectiveness of the wide-area damping controller for various operating conditions. Furthermore, the robustness of the wide-area damping controller is also tested with respect to time delay and uncertainty of models.
Kinetic theory of collective exitations and damping in Bose-Einstein condensed gases
Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
We calculate the frequencies and damping rates of the low-lying collective modes of a Bose-Einstein condensed gas at nonzero temperature. We use a complex nonlinear Schrödinger equation to determine the dynamics of the condensate atoms. In this manner we take into account both collisions between
Kinetic theory of collective excitations and damping in Bose-Einstein condensed gases
Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
We calculate the frequencies and damping rates of the low-lying collective modes of a Bose-Einstein condensed gas at nonzero temperature. We use a complex nonlinear Schrödinger equation to determine the dynamics of the condensate atoms, and couple it to a Boltzmann equation for the noncondensate
Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Griffith, Boyce E.; Patankar, Neelesh A.
2013-01-01
A fundamental issue in locomotion is to understand how muscle forcing produces apparently complex deformation kinematics leading to movement of animals like undulatory swimmers. The question of whether complicated muscle forcing is required to create the observed deformation kinematics is central to the understanding of how animals control movement. In this work, a forced damped oscillation framework is applied to a chain-link model for undulatory swimming to understand how forcing leads to deformation and movement. A unified understanding of swimming, caused by muscle contractions (“active” swimming) or by forces imparted by the surrounding fluid (“passive” swimming), is obtained. We show that the forcing triggers the first few deformation modes of the body, which in turn cause the translational motion. We show that relatively simple forcing patterns can trigger seemingly complex deformation kinematics that lead to movement. For given muscle activation, the forcing frequency relative to the natural frequency of the damped oscillator is important for the emergent deformation characteristics of the body. The proposed approach also leads to a qualitative understanding of optimal deformation kinematics for fast swimming. These results, based on a chain-link model of swimming, are confirmed by fully resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Prior results from the literature on the optimal value of stiffness for maximum speed are explained. PMID:23785272
Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Griffith, Boyce E; Patankar, Neelesh A
2013-01-01
A fundamental issue in locomotion is to understand how muscle forcing produces apparently complex deformation kinematics leading to movement of animals like undulatory swimmers. The question of whether complicated muscle forcing is required to create the observed deformation kinematics is central to the understanding of how animals control movement. In this work, a forced damped oscillation framework is applied to a chain-link model for undulatory swimming to understand how forcing leads to deformation and movement. A unified understanding of swimming, caused by muscle contractions ("active" swimming) or by forces imparted by the surrounding fluid ("passive" swimming), is obtained. We show that the forcing triggers the first few deformation modes of the body, which in turn cause the translational motion. We show that relatively simple forcing patterns can trigger seemingly complex deformation kinematics that lead to movement. For given muscle activation, the forcing frequency relative to the natural frequency of the damped oscillator is important for the emergent deformation characteristics of the body. The proposed approach also leads to a qualitative understanding of optimal deformation kinematics for fast swimming. These results, based on a chain-link model of swimming, are confirmed by fully resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Prior results from the literature on the optimal value of stiffness for maximum speed are explained.
Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla
Full Text Available A fundamental issue in locomotion is to understand how muscle forcing produces apparently complex deformation kinematics leading to movement of animals like undulatory swimmers. The question of whether complicated muscle forcing is required to create the observed deformation kinematics is central to the understanding of how animals control movement. In this work, a forced damped oscillation framework is applied to a chain-link model for undulatory swimming to understand how forcing leads to deformation and movement. A unified understanding of swimming, caused by muscle contractions ("active" swimming or by forces imparted by the surrounding fluid ("passive" swimming, is obtained. We show that the forcing triggers the first few deformation modes of the body, which in turn cause the translational motion. We show that relatively simple forcing patterns can trigger seemingly complex deformation kinematics that lead to movement. For given muscle activation, the forcing frequency relative to the natural frequency of the damped oscillator is important for the emergent deformation characteristics of the body. The proposed approach also leads to a qualitative understanding of optimal deformation kinematics for fast swimming. These results, based on a chain-link model of swimming, are confirmed by fully resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Prior results from the literature on the optimal value of stiffness for maximum speed are explained.
Nuclear matter kinetic coefficients and damping of finite nuclear collective modes
Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.
1986-06-01
By carrying the general description of one-body observables beyond the mean-field approximation, those correlation terms responsible for Kinetic phenomena and those involved in the renormalization of the G-matrix mean-field in finite nuclei are identified. A Kinetic equation for the one-body density is obtained. Estimates for transport coefficients and for the damping of zero sound are obtained which point to the inadequacy of hydrodynamical descriptions of collective nuclear modes and indicate that collisional damping in large nuclei may account for one or a few tenths of the observed widths. (S.D.) [pt
Superexponentially damped Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space
Sedlacek, Z.; Nocera, L.
2002-01-01
The Landau (exponentially) damped solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson equation Fourier transformed with respect to velocity are genuine eigenmodes corresponding to complex eigenvalues. In addition there exist solutions decaying faster than exponentially which exhibit no oscillatory behaviour. A new characterization is given of the initial conditions that give rise to these solutions together with a numerical demonstration
Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe
2016-03-01
Transport studies that employ column experiments in closed-flow mode complement classical approaches by providing new characteristic features observed in the solute breakthrough and equilibrium between liquid and solid phase. Specific to the closed-flow mode is the recirculation of the effluent to the inflow via a mixing vessel. Depending on the ratio of volumes of mixing vessel and water-filled pore space, a damped oscillating solute concentration emerges in the effluent and mixing vessel. The oscillation characteristics, e.g., frequency, amplitude, and damping, allow for the investigation of solute transport in a similar fashion as known for classical open-flow column experiments. However, the closed loop conserves substances released during transport within the system. In this way, solute and porous medium can equilibrate with respect to physicochemical conditions. With this paper, the features emerging in the breakthrough curves of saturated column experiments run in closed-flow mode and methods of evaluation are illustrated under experimental boundary conditions forcing the appearance of oscillations. We demonstrate that the effective pore water volume and the pumping rate can be determined from a conservative tracer breakthrough curve uniquely. In this way, external preconditioning of the material, e.g., drying, can be avoided. A reactive breakthrough experiment revealed a significant increase in the pore water pH value as a consequence of the closed loop. These results highlight the specific impact of the closed mass balance. Furthermore, the basis for the modeling of closed-flow experiments is given by the derivation of constitutive equations and numerical implementation, validated with the presented experiments.
Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Noakes, M.W.
1994-01-01
When suspended payloads are moved with an overhead crane, pendulum like oscillations are naturally introduced. This presents a problem any time a crane is used, especially when expensive and/or delicate objects are moved, when moving in a cluttered an or hazardous environment, and when objects are to be placed in tight locations. Damped-oscillation control algorithms have been demonstrated over the past several years for laboratory-scale robotic systems on dc motor-driven overhead cranes. Most overhead cranes presently in use in industry are driven by ac induction motors; consequently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has implemented damped-oscillation crane control on one of its existing facility ac induction motor-driven overhead cranes. The purpose of this test was to determine feasibility, to work out control and interfacing specifications, and to establish the capability of newly available ac motor control hardware with respect to use in damped-oscillation-controlled systems. Flux vector inverter drives are used to investigate their acceptability for damped-oscillation crane control. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experimental implementation of a control algorithm on a full-sized, two-degree-of-freedom, industrial crane; describe the experimental evaluation of the controller including robustness to payload length changes; explain the results of experiments designed to determine the hardware required for implementation of the control algorithms; and to provide a theoretical description of the controller
ANFIS based UPFC supplementary controller for damping low frequency oscillations in power systems
M. Sobha
2007-12-01
Full Text Available An adaptive neuro- fuzzy inference system (ANFIS based supplementary Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC to superimpose the damping function on the control signal of UPFC is proposed. By using a hybrid learning procedure, the proposed ANFIS construct an input –output mapping based on stipulated input-output data pairs. The linguistic rules, considering the dependence of the plant output on the controlling signal are used to build the initial fuzzy inference structure. On the basis of linearized Philips-Hefron model of power system installed with UPFC, the damping function of the UPFC with various alternative UPFC control signals are investigated. In the simulations under widely varying operating conditions and system parameters, ANFIS based controller yields improved performance when compared with constant gain controller, based on phase compensation technique. To validate the robustness of the proposed technique, the approach is integrated to a multi-machine power system and the nonlinear simulation results are presented
An oscillating dynamic model of collective cells in a monolayer
Lin, Shao-Zhen; Xue, Shi-Lei; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao
2018-03-01
Periodic oscillations of collective cells occur in the morphogenesis and organogenesis of various tissues and organs. In this paper, an oscillating cytodynamic model is presented by integrating the chemomechanical interplay between the RhoA effector signaling pathway and cell deformation. We show that both an isolated cell and a cell aggregate can undergo spontaneous oscillations as a result of Hopf bifurcation, upon which the system evolves into a limit cycle of chemomechanical oscillations. The dynamic characteristics are tailored by the mechanical properties of cells (e.g., elasticity, contractility, and intercellular tension) and the chemical reactions involved in the RhoA effector signaling pathway. External forces are found to modulate the oscillation intensity of collective cells in the monolayer and to polarize their oscillations along the direction of external tension. The proposed cytodynamic model can recapitulate the prominent features of cell oscillations observed in a variety of experiments, including both isolated cells (e.g., spreading mouse embryonic fibroblasts, migrating amoeboid cells, and suspending 3T3 fibroblasts) and multicellular systems (e.g., Drosophila embryogenesis and oogenesis).
Castellanos B., R.; Calderon G., J.G.; Sarmiento U., H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, IIE,Cuernavaca, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Olguin S., D. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Messina, A.R. [Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav, P.O. Box 31-438, Plaza La Luna, Guadalajara, Jal. 44550 (Mexico)
2006-01-15
This paper documents research conducted to investigate the use and tuning of power system stabilizers (PSSs) to improve small-signal dynamic performance of the Mexican interconnected system (MIS). The analysis focuses on the control of a critical inter-area mode associated with the interaction between the southeastern and western regions of the system and a critical local mode. Study results include the determination of critical system modes more controllable by existing PSSs and the use of supplementary control actions to damp low-frequency inter-area modes of oscillation. Results for both, small and large perturbations are presented to illustrate the placement and tuning of PSSs at several appropriate locations throughout the system. (author)
New Approach for the Analysis of Damped Vibrations of Fractional Oscillators
Yuriy A. Rossikhin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of linear and nonlinear mechanical oscillators with constitutive equations involving fractional derivatives defined as a fractional power of the operator of conventional time-derivative is considered. Such a definition of the fractional derivative enables one to analyse approximately vibratory regimes of the oscillator without considering the drift of its position of equilibrium. The assumption of small fractional derivative terms allows one to use the method of multiple time scales whereby a comparative analysis of the solutions obtained for different orders of low-level fractional derivatives and nonlinear elastic terms is possible to be carried out. The interrelationship of the fractional parameter (order of the fractional operator and nonlinearity manifests itself in full measure when orders of the small fractional derivative term and of the cubic nonlinearity entering in the oscillator's constitutive equation coincide.
Method for determining damping properties of materials using a suspended mechanical oscillator
Biscans, S.; Gras, S.; Evans, M.; Fritschel, P.; Pezerat, C.; Picart, P.
2018-06-01
We present a new approach for characterizing the loss factor of materials, using a suspended mechanical oscillator. Compared to more standard techniques, this method offers freedom in terms of the size and shape of the tested samples. Using a finite element model and the vibration measurements, the loss factor is deduced from the oscillator's ring-down. In this way the loss factor can be estimated independently for shear and compression deformation of the sample over a range of frequencies. As a proof of concept, we present measurements for EPO-TEK 353ND epoxy samples.
Zhao, Bin; Li, Hui; Wang, Mingyu
2014-01-01
This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capaciti...
Superexponentially damped Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space
Sedláček, Zdeněk; Nocera, L.
2002-01-01
Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 65-69 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Vlasov plasma, oscillator Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002
De Raedt, Hans; Barbara, Bernard; Miyashita, Seiji; Michielsen, Kristel; Bertaina, Sylvain; Gambarelli, Serge
2012-01-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments show that the decay of Rabi oscillations of ensembles of spin qubits depends noticeably on the microwave power, and more precisely on the Rabi frequency, an effect recently called "driven decoherence." By direct numerical solution of the time-dependent
Damped nonlinear Schrodinger equation
Nicholson, D.R.; Goldman, M.V.
1976-01-01
High frequency electrostatic plasma oscillations described by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the presence of damping, collisional or Landau, are considered. At early times, Landau damping of an initial soliton profile results in a broader, but smaller amplitude soliton, while collisional damping reduces the soliton size everywhere; soliton speeds at early times are unchanged by either kind of damping. For collisional damping, soliton speeds are unchanged for all time
Interplay between one-body and collisional damping of collective motion in nuclei
Kolomietz, V.M.; Plujko, V.A.; Shlomo, S.
1996-01-01
Damping of giant collective vibrations in nuclei is studied within the framework of the Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation. A phenomenological method of independent sources of dissipation is proposed for taking into account the contributions of one-body dissipation, the relaxation due to the two-body collisions and the particle emission. An expression for the intrinsic width of slow damped collective vibrations is obtained. In the general case, this expression cannot be represented as a sum of the widths associated with the different independent sources of the damping. This is a peculiarity of the collisional Landau-Vlasov equation where the Fermi-surface distortion effect influences both the self-consistent mean field and the memory effect at the relaxation processes. The interplay between the one-body, the two-body, and the particle emission channels which contribute to the formation of the total intrinsic width of the isoscalar 2 + and 3 - and isovector 1 - giant multipole resonances in cold and hot nuclei is discussed. We have shown that the criterion for the transition temperature T tr between the zero-sound and first-sound regimes in hot nuclei is different from the case of infinite nuclear matter due to the contribution from the one-body relaxation and the particle emission. In the case of the isovector GDR the corresponding transition can be reached at temperature T tr =4 endash 5 MeV. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Collective synchronization states in arrays of driven colloidal oscillators
Lhermerout, Romain; Bruot, Nicolas; Kotar, Jurij; Cicuta, Pietro; Cicuta, Giovanni M
2012-01-01
The phenomenon of metachronal waves in cilia carpets has been well known for decades; these waves are widespread in biology, and have fundamental physiological importance. While it is accepted that in many cases cilia are mainly coupled together by the hydrodynamic velocity field, a clear understanding of which aspects determine the collective wave properties is lacking. It is a difficult problem, because both the behavior of the individual cilia and their coupling together are nonlinear. In this work, we coarse-grain the degrees of freedom of each cilium into a minimal description in terms of a configuration-based phase oscillator. Driving colloidal particles with optical tweezers, we then experimentally investigate the coupling through hydrodynamics in systems of many oscillators, showing that a collective dynamics emerges. This work generalizes to a wider class of systems our recent finding that the non-equilibrium steady state can be understood based on the equilibrium properties of the system, i.e. the positions and orientations of the active oscillators. In this model system, it is possible to design configurations of oscillators with the desired collective dynamics. The other face of this problem is to relate the collective patterns found in biology to the architecture and behavior of individual active elements. (paper)
Collective three-flavor oscillations of supernova neutrinos
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol
2008-06-01
Neutrinos and antineutrinos emitted from a core collapse supernova interact among themselves, giving rise to collective flavor conversion effects that are significant near the neutrinosphere. We develop a formalism to analyze these collective effects in the complete three-flavor framework. It naturally generalizes the spin-precession analogy to three flavors and is capable of analytically describing phenomena like vacuum/Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations, synchronized oscillations, bipolar oscillations, and spectral split. Using the formalism, we demonstrate that the flavor conversions may be “factorized” into two-flavor oscillations with hierarchical frequencies. We explicitly show how the three-flavor solution may be constructed by combining two-flavor solutions. For a typical supernova density profile, we identify an approximate separation of regions where distinctly different flavor conversion mechanisms operate, and demonstrate the interplay between collective and MSW effects. We pictorialize our results in terms of the “e3-e8 triangle” diagram, which is a tool that can be used to visualize three-neutrino flavor conversions in general, and offers insights into the analysis of the collective effects in particular.
Exact solutions for oscillators with quadratic damping and mixed-parity nonlinearity
Lai, S K; Chow, K W
2012-01-01
Exact vibration modes of a nonlinear oscillator, which contains both quadratic friction and a mixed-parity restoring force, are derived analytically. Two families of exact solutions are obtained in terms of rational expressions for classical Jacobi elliptic functions. The present solutions allow the investigation of the dynamical behaviour of the system in response to changes in physical parameters that concern nonlinearity. The physical significance of the signs (i.e. attractive or repulsive nature) of the linear, quadratic and cubic restoring forces is discussed. A qualitative analysis is also conducted to provide valuable physical insight into the nature of the system. (paper)
Morato, Josep; Knüppel, Thyge; Østergaard, Jacob
2013-01-01
As wind power plants (WPPs) gradually replace the power production of the conventional generators, many aspects of the power system may be affected, in which the small signal stability is included. Additional control may be needed for wind turbine generators (WTGs) to participate in the power...... oscillation damping. The feasibility of implementing this control needs to be assessed. This paper studies how the damping contribution of a WPP is affected by different operating conditions and its dependence to selected feedback signals. The WPP model used includes individual WTGs to study how internal...
A parameter quantifying radiation damping of bay oscillations excited by incident tsunamis
Endoh, Takahiro; Inazu, Daisuke; Waseda, Takuji; Hibiya, Toshiyuki
2018-04-01
The transient response of a bay with a narrow mouth to incident tsunamis is interpreted as the convolution of the input signal with the impulse response obtained by an inverse Fourier transform of the response curve of the oscillatory system with one degree of freedom. The rate of radiation damping associated with energy escaping seaward through the bay mouth is expressed in terms of the quality factor Q, which determines the decaying envelope of the impulse response. The value of Q of the resonant peak is approximated by the ratio of the resonant frequency ω0 to the bandwidth between frequencies at which the power spectral density of sea level within the bay drops to half of the peak value. Since the shape of the frequency power spectrum during the tsunami event is almost similar to that in the normal state in the neighborhood of ω0, Q can be estimated from sea level datasets in the normal state. Although the amplitude and phase of the impulse response need to be adjusted using the first crest or trough of the observed leading wave, this approach proves to work well in examining the transient responses of Miyako Bay and Kushimoto Bay on the Japanese Pacific coast to incident tsunamis.
Wilches-Bernal, Felipe
Power systems around the world are experiencing a continued increase in wind generation as part of their energy mix. Because of its power electronics interface, wind energy conversion systems interact differently with the grid than conventional generation. These facts are changing the traditional dynamics that regulate power system behavior and call for a re-examination of traditional problems encountered in power systems like frequency response, inter-area oscillations and parameter identification. To address this need, realistic models for wind generation are necessary. The dissertation implements such models in a MATLAB-based flexible environment suited for power system research. The dissertation continues with an analysis of the frequency response of a test power system dependent mainly on a mode referred to as the frequency regulation mode. Using this test system it is shown that its frequency regulation capability is reduced with wind penetration levels of 25% and above. A controller for wind generation to restore the frequency response of the system is then presented. The proposed controller requires the WTG to operate in a deloaded mode, a condition that is obtained through pitching the wind turbine blades. Time simulations at wind penetration levels of 25% and 50% are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Next, the dissertation evaluates how the inter-area oscillation of a two-machine power system is affected by wind integration. The assessment is performed based on the positioning of the WTG, the level of wind penetration, and the loading condition of the system. It is determined that integrating wind reduces the damping of the inter-area mode of the system when performed in an area that imports power. For this worst-case scenario, the dissertation proposes two controllers for wind generation to improve the damping of the inter-area mode. The first controller uses frequency as feedback signal for the active power control
Assessment of remedial control schemes for damping transient oscillations in the Mexican system
Castellanos, R.B.; Sarmiento, H.U.; Pampin, G. [Inst.de Investigaciones Electricas, Morelos (Mexico); Messina, A.R. [Cinvestav, San Pedro Zacatenco (Mexico)
2008-07-01
In order to enhance voltage control and power system dynamic performance, special protection systems (SPS) are increasingly being used in the Mexican Interconnected System (MIS). These include extensive use of direct load shedding schemes, generator tripping schemes, controlled disconnection of lines, and automatic generation rejection and single phase reclosing schemes. Generator tripping based on local detection of severe disturbance is of particular importance and has been used to enhance transient stability. In addition, the onset of system instability has become more complex, often involving interactions between major system modes. Post-fault transient oscillations have become more common following the loss of major system elements and may result in uncontrolled system separation. This has motivated the need to develop system-wide special protection systems. This paper explored the possible benefits and feasibility of employing SPSs to mitigate wide-area inter-area oscillations in the MIS. The paper described the exploratory studies such as the coordinated application of automatic generation tripping schemes and automatic load shedding to enhance system dynamic performance. The paper also explained sensitivity studies that were conducted to determine the amount and location of generation (load) to be shed and suggested extensions to the basic security criteria to maintain network stability. The proposed techniques were developed and tested on a large-scale representation of the Mexican system that included the operation of several FACTS controllers. It was concluded that automatic generation shedding and automatic loading shedding were efficient alternatives to improve generation and transmission use, reliability and flexibility. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.
Mahajan, Sonam; Aggarwal, Neha; ManMohan; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B
2013-01-01
We present a detailed study to show the possibility of approaching the quantum ground state of a hybrid optomechanical quantum device formed by a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) confined inside a high-finesse optical cavity with an oscillatory end mirror. Cooling is achieved using two experimentally realizable schemes: back-action cooling and cold damping quantum feedback cooling. In both the schemes, we found that increasing the two-body atom–atom interaction brings the mechanical oscillator to its quantum ground state. It has been observed that back-action cooling is more effective in the good cavity limit, while the cold damping cooling scheme is more relevant in the bad cavity limit. It is also shown that in the cold damping scheme, the device is more efficient in the presence of a BEC than in the absence of a BEC. (paper)
Zhang Guangjun; Xu Jianxue; Wang Jue; Yue Zhifeng; Zou Hailin
2009-01-01
In this paper stochastic resonance induced by the novel random transitions of two-dimensional weak damping bistable Duffing oscillator is analyzed by moment method. This kind of novel transition refers to the one among three potential well on two sides of bifurcation point of original system at the presence of internal noise. Several conclusions are drawn. First, the semi-analytical result of stochastic resonance induced by the novel random transitions of two-dimensional weak damping bistable Duffing oscillator can be obtained, and the semi-analytical result is qualitatively compatible with the one of Monte Carlo simulation. Second, a bifurcation of double-branch fixed point curves occurs in the moment equations with noise intensity as their bifurcation parameter. Third, the bifurcation of moment equations corresponds to stochastic resonance of original system. Finally, the mechanism of stochastic resonance is presented from another viewpoint through analyzing the energy transfer induced by the bifurcation of moment equation.
S. Zhu
1998-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic damping is one of the important parameters that control the response and stability of maglev systems. An experimental study to measure magnetic damping directly is presented. A plate attached to a permanent magnet levitated on a rotating drum was tested to investigate the effect of various parameters, such as conductivity, gap, excitation frequency, and oscillation amplitude, on magnetic damping. The experimental technique is capable of measuring all of the magnetic damping coefficients, some of which cannot be measured indirectly.
Field-substance interaction and collective oscillation of nuclei
Shermatov, E.N.; Choriev, M.
2004-01-01
Full text: In this work a mechanism of formation of collective excitation in a set of particles, including atomic nuclei, is proposed. According to [1] the energy density of cosmic vacuum significantly exceeds the energy density of an atomic nucleus. In [2] the process of formation of the physical vacuum in surrounding cosmic space was considered. We considered the behavior of a system of particles, which possesses transversal and longitudinal oscillation with frequency ω 0 in the physical or cosmic vacuum. The oscillating influence on the physical vacuum and surrounding particles on a single particle leads to inducing the spins with various directions and magnitudes. This process leads to the formation of oscillating response wave function (RWF) of particles. As a result of a phase coherency among RWF of particles an oscillating self-coordinated field in a set of particles is formed. As a result of realization of the phase coherency among harmonics of RWF of particles there occurs a deformation of the character of distribution of the energy structure of the self-coordinated field, which, finally, transforms into a resonant line. At this occurs a collapse of the RWF of particles there. In terms of these ideas we explained the observed regularities in the self-coordinated field in a set of particles, including the atomic nuclei. It was shown that the giant resonance in spectra of atomic nuclei is a result of manifestation of the self-coordinated field of atomic nuclei. As a result of realization of the phase coherency among harmonics of RWF of atomic nuclei there occurs a collapse of the RWF of particles, and the energy structure of the self-coordinated field of nuclei gains a resonant form, and it is manifested as the giant resonance. In deformable nuclei the RWF of particles possesses two oscillation modes, and that is why in the energy spectrum of the self-coordinated field of nuclei they are manifested as two maximum
Linear stability analysis of collective neutrino oscillations without spurious modes
Morinaga, Taiki; Yamada, Shoichi
2018-01-01
Collective neutrino oscillations are induced by the presence of neutrinos themselves. As such, they are intrinsically nonlinear phenomena and are much more complex than linear counterparts such as the vacuum or Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein oscillations. They obey integro-differential equations, for which it is also very challenging to obtain numerical solutions. If one focuses on the onset of collective oscillations, on the other hand, the equations can be linearized and the technique of linear analysis can be employed. Unfortunately, however, it is well known that such an analysis, when applied with discretizations of continuous angular distributions, suffers from the appearance of so-called spurious modes: unphysical eigenmodes of the discretized linear equations. In this paper, we analyze in detail the origin of these unphysical modes and present a simple solution to this annoying problem. We find that the spurious modes originate from the artificial production of pole singularities instead of a branch cut on the Riemann surface by the discretizations. The branching point singularities on the Riemann surface for the original nondiscretized equations can be recovered by approximating the angular distributions with polynomials and then performing the integrals analytically. We demonstrate for some examples that this simple prescription does remove the spurious modes. We also propose an even simpler method: a piecewise linear approximation to the angular distribution. It is shown that the same methodology is applicable to the multienergy case as well as to the dispersion relation approach that was proposed very recently.
Collective signaling behavior in a networked-oscillator model
Liu, Z.-H.; Hui, P. M.
2007-09-01
We propose and study the collective behavior of a model of networked signaling objects that incorporates several ingredients of real-life systems. These ingredients include spatial inhomogeneity with grouping of signaling objects, signal attenuation with distance, and delayed and impulsive coupling between non-identical signaling objects. Depending on the coupling strength and/or time-delay effect, the model exhibits completely, partially, and locally collective signaling behavior. In particular, a correlated signaling (CS) behavior is observed in which there exist time durations when nearly a constant fraction of oscillators in the system are in the signaling state. These time durations are much longer than the duration of a spike when a single oscillator signals, and they are separated by regular intervals in which nearly all oscillators are silent. Such CS behavior is similar to that observed in biological systems such as fireflies, cicadas, crickets, and frogs. The robustness of the CS behavior against noise is also studied. It is found that properly adjusting the coupling strength and noise level could enhance the correlated behavior.
Can we scan the supernova model space for collective oscillations?
Pehlivan, Y.; Subaşı, A. L.; Birol, S.; Ghazanfari, N.; Yuksel, H.; Balantekin, A. B.; Kajino, Toshitaka
2016-01-01
Collective neutrino oscillations in a core collapse supernova is a many-body phenomenon which can transform the neutrino energy spectra through emergent effects. One example of this behavior is the neutrino spectral swaps in which neutrinos of different flavors partially or completely exchange their spectra. In this talk, we address the question of how model dependent this behavior is. In particular, we demonstrate that these swaps may be independent of the mean field approximation that is typically employed in numerical treatments by showing an example of a spectral swap in the exact many-body picture.
Matter suppression of collective SN neutrino oscillations and stability analysis
Saviano, N.; Chakraborty, S.; Mirizzi, A.
2014-01-01
We perform a detailed analysis of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the early time accretion phase (post-bounce time t pb ≤ 500 ms), characterizing the ν signal by recent SN hydrodynamics simulations. We find that collective oscillations induced the ν-ν interactions in the deepest SN regions are suppressed by trajectory-dependent 'multi-angle' effects associated with the dense ordinary matter. We confirm this result with a linearized stability analysis of the neutrino equations of motion in presence of realistic neutrino energy with angle distributions. (authors)
Jian Zuo
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The potential of utilizing doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind farms to improve power system damping performance and to enhance small signal stability has been proposed by many researchers. However, the simultaneous coordinated tuning of a DFIG power oscillation damper (POD with other damping controllers is rarely involved. A simultaneous robust coordinated multiple damping controller design strategy for a power system incorporating power system stabilizer (PSS, static var compensator (SVC POD and DFIG POD is presented in this paper. This coordinated damping control design strategy is addressed as an eigenvalue-based optimization problem to increase the damping ratios of oscillation modes. Both local and inter-area electromechanical oscillation modes are intended in the optimization design process. Wide-area phasor measurement unit (PMU signals, selected by the joint modal controllability/ observability index, are utilized as SVC and DFIG POD feedback modulation signals to suppress inter-area oscillation modes. The robustness of the proposed coordinated design strategy is achieved by simultaneously considering multiple power flow situations and operating conditions. The recently proposed Grey Wolf optimizer (GWO algorithm is adopted to efficiently optimize the parameter values of multiple damping controllers. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed coordinated design strategy are demonstrated through frequency-domain eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time-domain simulation studies in two modified benchmark test systems. Moreover, the dynamic response simulation results also validate the robustness of the recommended coordinated multiple damping controllers under various system operating conditions.
Dynamics of heterogeneous oscillator ensembles in terms of collective variables
Pikovsky, Arkady; Rosenblum, Michael
2011-04-01
We consider general heterogeneous ensembles of phase oscillators, sine coupled to arbitrary external fields. Starting with the infinitely large ensembles, we extend the Watanabe-Strogatz theory, valid for identical oscillators, to cover the case of an arbitrary parameter distribution. The obtained equations yield the description of the ensemble dynamics in terms of collective variables and constants of motion. As a particular case of the general setup we consider hierarchically organized ensembles, consisting of a finite number of subpopulations, whereas the number of elements in a subpopulation can be both finite or infinite. Next, we link the Watanabe-Strogatz and Ott-Antonsen theories and demonstrate that the latter one corresponds to a particular choice of constants of motion. The approach is applied to the standard Kuramoto-Sakaguchi model, to its extension for the case of nonlinear coupling, and to the description of two interacting subpopulations, exhibiting a chimera state. With these examples we illustrate that, although the asymptotic dynamics can be found within the framework of the Ott-Antonsen theory, the transients depend on the constants of motion. The most dramatic effect is the dependence of the basins of attraction of different synchronous regimes on the initial configuration of phases.
Decoherence and Landau-Damping
Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab
2005-12-01
The terminologies, decoherence and Landau damping, are often used concerning the damping of a collective instability. This article revisits the difference and relation between decoherence and Landau damping. A model is given to demonstrate how Landau damping affects the rate of damping coming from decoherence.
Collective vibrations as doorway states in the damping of nuclear motion
Broglia, R.A.
1983-01-01
The damping of single-particle and giant resonances is studied. Doorway states containing low-lying surface vibrations are found to play a central role in this process. The coupling to these states lead to damping widths consistent with the empirical systematics. It is however not possible to directly relate these two quantities because of the central role played by the correlation between the particles and the hole in the vibration. (Auth.)
Collective oscillations and coupled modes in confined microfluidic droplet arrays
Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard
Microfluidic droplets have a wide range of applications ranging from analytic assays in cellular biology to controlled mixing in chemical engineering. Ensembles of microfluidic droplets are interesting model systems for non-equilibrium many-body phenomena. When flowing in a microchannel, trains of droplets can form microfluidic crystals whose dynamics are governed by long-range hydrodynamic interactions and boundary effects. In this contribution, excitation mechanisms for collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. While longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets, transversely excited modes form propagating waves that behave like microfluidic phonons. We show that the confinement induces a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes. We also investigate the life time of the collective oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic phonons can exhibit effects beyond the linear theory, which can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SE 1118/4.
Nakao, Hiroya; Yasui, Sho; Ota, Masashi; Arai, Kensuke; Kawamura, Yoji
2018-04-01
A general phase reduction method for a network of coupled dynamical elements exhibiting collective oscillations, which is applicable to arbitrary networks of heterogeneous dynamical elements, is developed. A set of coupled adjoint equations for phase sensitivity functions, which characterize the phase response of the collective oscillation to small perturbations applied to individual elements, is derived. Using the phase sensitivity functions, collective oscillation of the network under weak perturbation can be described approximately by a one-dimensional phase equation. As an example, mutual synchronization between a pair of collectively oscillating networks of excitable and oscillatory FitzHugh-Nagumo elements with random coupling is studied.
Rees, John; Chao, Alexander
2008-01-01
Landau damping, as the term is used in accelerator science, is a physical process in which an ensemble of harmonic oscillators--an accelerator beam, for example--that would otherwise be unstable is stabilized by a spread in the natural frequencies of the oscillators. This is a study of the most basic aspects of that process. It has two main goals: to gain a deeper insight into the mechanism of Landau damping and to find the coherent motion of the ensemble and thus the dependence of the total damping rate on the frequency spread
Macias-Diaz, J.E.; Puri, A.
2007-01-01
In the present Letter, we simulate the propagation of binary signals in semi-infinite, mechanical chains of coupled oscillators harmonically driven at the end, by making use of the recently discovered process of nonlinear supratransmission. Our numerical results-which are based on a brand-new computational technique with energy-invariant properties-show an efficient and reliable transmission of information
Wang, Chen-Wen; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Lin, Sheng-Hsien; Yang, Ling; Yu, Jian-Guo
2014-01-01
Damped harmonic oscillators are utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors within displaced harmonic oscillator approximation. This is practically done by scaling unperturbed Hessian matrix that represents local modes of force constants for molecule in gaseous phase, and then by diagonalizing perturbed Hessian matrix it results in direct modification of Huang–Rhys factors which represent normal modes of solute molecule perturbed by solvent environment. Scaling parameters are empirically introduced for simulating absorption and fluorescence spectra of an isolated solute molecule in solution. The present method is especially useful for simulating vibronic spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in which hydrogen atom vibrations in solution can be scaled equally, namely the same scaling factor being applied to all hydrogen atoms in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The present method is demonstrated in simulating solvent enhanced X 1 A g ↔ A 1 B 1u absorption and fluorescence spectra of perylene (medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) in benzene solution. It is found that one of six active normal modes v 10 is actually responsible to the solvent enhancement of spectra observed in experiment. Simulations from all functionals (TD) B3LYP, (TD) B3LYP35, (TD) B3LYP50, and (TD) B3LYP100 draw the same conclusion. Hence, the present method is able to adequately reproduce experimental absorption and fluorescence spectra in both gas and solution phases
Prasad, Mata [ABB, New Delhi (India); Rao, L V; Chakravorty, S; Moni, R S; Dass, R [National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., New Delhi (India); Mishra, R B; Tripathi, D B [Powergrid (India); Bjorklund, Hans; Duchen, Hugo; Westling, Soren [ABB Power Systems, Ludvika (Sweden)
1994-12-31
The Rihand-Delhi Hvdc transmission system comprises of two poles in bipolar mode, each of 750 MW nominal capacity. The length of the transmission line is 814 km and the main objective of the link is the transmission of bulk power from the Singrauli/Rihand thermal generating complex to the major load centers near the National Capital region. As in all major Hvdc schemes, the Rihand-Delhi Hvdc project has also been provided with a SSO damping controller which was extensively tested in the simulator prior to installation. This paper describes some of the important field tests conducted to ascertain actual performance and compares the same with corresponding simulator cases. Also covered is the performance of the frequency controller. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.
Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.
2016-05-01
The general electromagnetic fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is used to calculate the steady-state wave number spectra and total electromagnetic field strength of low-frequency collective weakly damped eigenmodes with parallel wavevectors in a Maxwellian electron-proton plasma. These result from the equilibrium of spontaneous emission and collisionless damping, and they represent the minimum electromagnetic fluctuations guaranteed in quiet thermal space plasmas, including the interstellar and interplanetary medium. Depending on the plasma beta, the ratio of |δB |/B0 can be as high as 10-12 .
The influence of collective neutrino oscillations on a supernova r process
Duan, Huaiyu; Friedland, Alexander; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Surman, Rebecca
2011-03-01
Recently, it has been demonstrated that neutrinos in a supernova oscillate collectively. This process occurs much deeper than the conventional matter-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect and hence may have an impact on nucleosynthesis. In this paper we explore the effects of collective neutrino oscillations on the r-process, using representative late-time neutrino spectra and outflow models. We find that accurate modeling of the collective oscillations is essential for this analysis. As an illustration, the often-used 'single-angle' approximation makes grossly inaccurate predictions for the yields in our setup. With the proper multiangle treatment, the effect of the oscillations is found to be less dramatic, but still significant. Since the oscillation patterns are sensitive to the details of the emitted fluxes and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, so are the r-process yields. The magnitude of the effect also depends sensitively on the astrophysical conditions—in particular on the interplay between the time when nuclei begin to exist in significant numbers and the time when the collective oscillation begins. A more definitive understanding of the astrophysical conditions, and accurate modeling of the collective oscillations for those conditions, is necessary.
Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium discoideum: collective oscillation of cellular contacts.
Edith Schäfer
Full Text Available Chemotactic responses of Dictyostelium discoideum cells to periodic self-generated signals of extracellular cAMP comprise a large number of intricate morphological changes on different length scales. Here, we scrutinized chemotaxis of single Dictyostelium discoideum cells under conditions of starvation using a variety of optical, electrical and acoustic methods. Amebas were seeded on gold electrodes displaying impedance oscillations that were simultaneously analyzed by optical video microscopy to relate synchronous changes in cell density, morphology, and distance from the surface to the transient impedance signal. We found that starved amebas periodically reduce their overall distance from the surface producing a larger impedance and higher total fluorescence intensity in total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Therefore, we propose that the dominant sources of the observed impedance oscillations observed on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing electrodes are periodic changes of the overall cell-substrate distance of a cell. These synchronous changes of the cell-electrode distance were also observed in the oscillating signal of acoustic resonators covered with amebas. We also found that periodic cell-cell aggregation into transient clusters correlates with changes in the cell-substrate distance and might also contribute to the impedance signal. It turned out that cell-cell contacts as well as cell-substrate contacts form synchronously during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium discoideum cells.
Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium discoideum: Collective Oscillation of Cellular Contacts
Schäfer, Edith; Tarantola, Marco; Polo, Elena; Westendorf, Christian; Oikawa, Noriko; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Geil, Burkhard; Janshoff, Andreas
2013-01-01
Chemotactic responses of Dictyostelium discoideum cells to periodic self-generated signals of extracellular cAMP comprise a large number of intricate morphological changes on different length scales. Here, we scrutinized chemotaxis of single Dictyostelium discoideum cells under conditions of starvation using a variety of optical, electrical and acoustic methods. Amebas were seeded on gold electrodes displaying impedance oscillations that were simultaneously analyzed by optical video microscopy to relate synchronous changes in cell density, morphology, and distance from the surface to the transient impedance signal. We found that starved amebas periodically reduce their overall distance from the surface producing a larger impedance and higher total fluorescence intensity in total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Therefore, we propose that the dominant sources of the observed impedance oscillations observed on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing electrodes are periodic changes of the overall cell-substrate distance of a cell. These synchronous changes of the cell-electrode distance were also observed in the oscillating signal of acoustic resonators covered with amebas. We also found that periodic cell-cell aggregation into transient clusters correlates with changes in the cell-substrate distance and might also contribute to the impedance signal. It turned out that cell-cell contacts as well as cell-substrate contacts form synchronously during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. PMID:23349816
Isar, Aurelian
1995-01-01
The harmonic oscillator with dissipation is studied within the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. By using the Wang-Uhlenbeck method, the Fokker-Planck equation, obtained from the master equation for the density operator, is solved for the Wigner distribution function, subject to either the Gaussian type or the delta-function type of initial conditions. The obtained Wigner functions are two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths. Then a closed expression for the density operator is extracted. The entropy of the system is subsequently calculated and its temporal behavior shows that this quantity relaxes to its equilibrium value.
Collective motions of globally coupled oscillators and some probability distributions on circle
Jaćimović, Vladimir [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Cetinjski put, bb., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Crnkić, Aladin, E-mail: aladin.crnkic@hotmail.com [Faculty of Technical Engineering, University of Bihać, Ljubijankićeva, bb., 77000 Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
2017-06-28
In 2010 Kato and Jones described a new family of probability distributions on circle, obtained as Möbius transformation of von Mises distribution. We present the model demonstrating that these distributions appear naturally in study of populations of coupled oscillators. We use this opportunity to point out certain relations between Directional Statistics and collective motion of coupled oscillators. - Highlights: • We specify probability distributions on circle that arise in Kuramoto model. • We study how the mean-field coupling affects the shape of distribution of phases. • We discuss potential applications in some experiments on cell cycle. • We apply Directional Statistics to study collective dynamics of coupled oscillators.
Sun, Miaoping; Nian, Xiaohong; Dai, Liqiong; Guo, Hua
2017-05-01
In this paper, the delay-dependent wide-area dynamic output feedback controller (DOFC) with prescribed degree of stability is proposed for interconnected power system to damp inter-area low-frequency oscillations. Here, the prescribed degree of stability α is used to maintain all the poles on the left of s=-α in the s-plane. Firstly, residue approach is adopted to select input-output control signals and the schur balanced truncation model reduction method is utilized to obtain the reduced power system model. Secondly, based on Lyapunov stability theory and transformation operation in complex plane, the sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for closed-loop power system with prescribed degree of stability α is derived. Then, a novel method based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) is presented to obtain the parameters of DOFC and calculate delay margin of the closed-loop system considering the prescribed degree of stability α. Finally, case studies are carried out on the two-area four-machine system, which is controlled by classical wide-area power system stabilizer (WAPSS) in reported reference and our proposed DOFC respectively. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are verified by the simulation results under different operating conditions. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emergence of Slow Collective Oscillations in Neural Networks with Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity
Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro
2013-05-01
The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike-timing dependent plasticity is studied. The introduction of spike-timing dependent plasticity induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain the oscillations by a mechanism, the Sisyphus Effect, caused by a continuous feedback between the synaptic adjustments and the coherence in the neural firing. Due to this effect, the synaptic weights have oscillating equilibrium values, and this prevents the system from relaxing into a stationary macroscopic state.
Swing damped movement of suspended objects
Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.
1990-01-01
Transportation of large objects such as nuclear waste shipping casks using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object. Residual oscillation from transportation typically must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. By properly programming the acceleration of the transporting device (e.g., crane) an oscillation damped transport and swing free stop are obtainable. This report reviews the theory associated with formulating such oscillation damped trajectories for a simply suspended object (e.g., simple pendulum). In addition, the use of force servo damping to eliminate initial oscillation of simply suspended objects is discussed. This is often needed to provide a well defined initial state for the system prior to executing an oscillation damped move. Also included are descriptions of experiments using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot and results from these experiments. Finally, sources of error resulting in small residual oscillations are identified and possible solutions presented
A harmonic oscillator having “volleyball damping”
Mickens, R. E.; Oyedeji, K.; Rucker, S. A.
2006-05-01
Volleyball damping corresponds to linear damping up to a certain critical velocity, with zero damping above this value. The dynamics of a linear harmonic oscillator is investigated with this damping mechanism.
Transition to collective oscillations in finite Kuramoto ensembles
Peter, Franziska; Pikovsky, Arkady
2018-03-01
We present an alternative approach to finite-size effects around the synchronization transition in the standard Kuramoto model. Our main focus lies on the conditions under which a collective oscillatory mode is well defined. For this purpose, the minimal value of the amplitude of the complex Kuramoto order parameter appears as a proper indicator. The dependence of this minimum on coupling strength varies due to sampling variations and correlates with the sample kurtosis of the natural frequency distribution. The skewness of the frequency sample determines the frequency of the resulting collective mode. The effects of kurtosis and skewness hold in the thermodynamic limit of infinite ensembles. We prove this by integrating a self-consistency equation for the complex Kuramoto order parameter for two families of distributions with controlled kurtosis and skewness, respectively.
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Quadratic friction involves a discontinuous damping term in equations of motion in order that the frictional force always opposes the direction of the motion. Perhaps for this reason this topic is usually omitted from beginning texts in differential equations and physics. However, quadratic damping is more realistic than viscous damping in many…
Damping in nuclear collective modes in a semiclassical fluid-dynamical approximation
Vignolo, C.E.; Hernandez, Susana
1989-01-01
A semiclassical fluiddynamical model based on an usual scaling approximation (SCA) was extended to investigate the role of one and two-body dissipation in the widths of nuclear collective modes. The competition between one and two-body viscosity in: i) the collisionless (elastic) limit; ii) the hydrodynamical case and iii) the general viscoelastic regime is examined over the whole range of nuclear collision time scales. Numerical solutions are investigated for the first magnetic 2 - twist mode in 208 Pb. (Author) [es
Ware, A.G.
1985-01-01
Studies are being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine whether an increase in the damping values used in seismic structural analyses of nuclear piping systems is justified. Increasing the allowable damping would allow fewer piping supports which could lead to safer, more reliable, and less costly piping systems. Test data from availble literature were examined to determine the important parameters contributing to piping system damping, and each was investigated in separate-effects tests. From the combined results a world pipe damping data bank was established and multiple regression analyses performed to assess the relative contributions of the various parameters. The program is being extended to determine damping applicable to higher frequency (33 to 100 Hz) fluid-induced loadings. The goals of the program are to establish a methodology for predicting piping system damping and to recommend revised guidelines for the damping values to be included in analyses
Collective centroid oscillations as an emittance preservation diagnostic in linear collider linacs
Adolphsen, C.E.; Bane, K.L.F.; Spence, W.L.; Woodley, M.D.
1997-08-01
Transverse bunch centroid oscillations, induced at operating beam currents at which transverse wakefields are substantial, and observed at Beam Position Monitors, are sensitive to the actual magnetic focusing, energy gain, and rf phase profiles in a linac, and are insensitive to misalignments and jitter sources. In the pulse stealing set-up implemented at the SLC, they thus allow the frequent monitoring of the stability of the in-place emittance growth inhibiting or mitigating measures--primarily the energy scaled magnetic lattice and the rf phases necessary for BNS damping--independent of the actual emittance growth as driven by misalignments and jitter. The authors have developed a physically based analysis technique to meaningfully reduce the data. Oscillation beta-beating is a primary indicator of beam energy errors; shifts in the invariant amplitude reflect differential internal motion along the longitudinally extended bunch and thus are a sensitive indicator of the real rf phases in the machine; shifts in betatron phase advance contain corroborative information sensitive to both effects
Emergence of slow collective oscillations in neural networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity
Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro
2013-01-01
The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is studied. The introduction of STDP induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain...
Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bindslev, Henrik
2011-01-01
Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillation...
Landau damping dynamic aperture and octupole in LHC
Gareyte, Jacques; Ruggiero, F
1997-01-01
Maximization of the dynamic aperture and Landau damping of the collective instabilities are partly conflicting requirements. On the one hand, the non-linearities of the lattice must be minimized at large oscillation amplitude to guarantee the stability of the single particle motion. On the other hand, a spread of the betatron frequencies is necessary to guarantee the stability of the collective motion of bunches of particles; this requires the introduction of non-linearities effective at small amplitudes. We show in this note that the `natural' spread of betatron tunes due to the field imperfections is inadequate or Landau damping. An octupole scheme is required to provide collective stability at high energy. At low energy it may be used to find the optimum between the correction of the octupolar field imperfections and Landau damping. The solution of the stability problem taking into account the two degrees of freedom of the transverse motion allows a significant saving in octupole strength: 144 octupoles wi...
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…
Neutrino conversion in a neutrino flux: towards an effective theory of collective oscillations
Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.
2018-04-01
Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos above the neutrino sphere can be completely described by the propagation of individual neutrinos in external potentials and are in this sense a linear phenomenon. An effective theory of collective oscillations can be developed based on certain assumptions about time dependence of these potentials. General conditions for strong flavor transformations are formulated and these transformations can be interpreted as parametric resonance effects induced by periodic modulations of the potentials. We study a simplified and solvable example, where a probe neutrino is propagating in a flux of collinear neutrinos, such that ν ν‑ interactions in the flux are absent. Still, this example retains the main feature—the coherent flavor exchange. Properties of the parametric resonance are studied, and it is shown that integrations over energies and emission points of the flux neutrinos suppress modulations of the potentials and therefore strong transformations. The transformations are also suppressed by changes in densities of background neutrinos and electrons.
Majorov, S.A.; Tkachev, A.N.; Yakovlenko, S.I.
1996-01-01
A hypothesis is proposed that a metastable supercooled state of a classic Coulomb particle system can be conditioned by a quasiresonance interaction of bound electrons with the collective oscillations of plasma electrons. This interaction is especially important when the Kepler frequency is of the order of Langmuir oscillation frequency (which takes place when the electron orbit radius is of the order of average distance between the charges). Based on the simulation it is shown that the typical time of the Coulomb particle system dipole moment oscillations appears to be of the order of the Langmuir oscillation frequency. 10 refs.; 3 figs
Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Segura, A.
2017-12-01
When quantized, traces of classically chaotic single-particle systems include eigenvalue statistics and scars in eigenfuntions. Since 2001, many theoretical and experimental works have argued that classically chaotic single-electron dynamics influences and controls collective electron transport. For transport in semiconductor superlattices under tilted magnetic and electric fields, these theories rely on a reduction to a one-dimensional self-consistent drift model. A two-dimensional theory based on self-consistent Boltzmann transport does not support that single-electron chaos influences collective transport. This theory agrees with existing experimental evidence of current self-oscillations, predicts spontaneous collective chaos via a period doubling scenario, and could be tested unambiguously by measuring the electric potential inside the superlattice under a tilted magnetic field.
Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Segura, A
2017-12-01
When quantized, traces of classically chaotic single-particle systems include eigenvalue statistics and scars in eigenfuntions. Since 2001, many theoretical and experimental works have argued that classically chaotic single-electron dynamics influences and controls collective electron transport. For transport in semiconductor superlattices under tilted magnetic and electric fields, these theories rely on a reduction to a one-dimensional self-consistent drift model. A two-dimensional theory based on self-consistent Boltzmann transport does not support that single-electron chaos influences collective transport. This theory agrees with existing experimental evidence of current self-oscillations, predicts spontaneous collective chaos via a period doubling scenario, and could be tested unambiguously by measuring the electric potential inside the superlattice under a tilted magnetic field.
Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.
1984-01-01
A program has been developed to assess the available piping damping data, to generate additional data and conduct seperate effects tests, and to establish a plan for reporting and storing future test results into a data bank. This effort is providing some of the basis for developing higher allowable damping values for piping seismic analyses, which will potentially permit removal of a considerable number of piping supports, particularly snubbers. This in turn will lead to more flexible piping systems which will be less susceptible to thermal cracking, will be easier to maintain and inspect, as well as less costly
Egorov, A. G.; Kamalutdinov, A. M.; Nuriev, A. N.
2018-05-01
The paper is devoted to study of the aerodynamic forces acting on flat cantilever beams performing flexural vibrations in a viscous fluid. Original method for the force evaluation is presented based on analysis of experimental measurements of a logarithmic decrement of vibrations and relative variation in frequency of duralumin test specimens. The theoretical core of the method is based on the classical theory of bending beam oscillations and quasi-two dimensional model of interaction between a beam and a gas. Using the proposed method, extensive series of experiments for a wide range of oscillations parameters were carried out. The processing of the experimental data allowed to establish the global influence of the aerodynamic effects on beam oscillations and the local force characteristics of each cross-section of the beam in the form of universal functions of dimensionless amplitude and dimensionless frequency of oscillation. The obtained estimates of the drag and added mass forces showed a good correspondence with the available numerical and experimental data practically in the entire range of the investigated parameters.
Tan, Shaolin; Wang, Yaonan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Zhen
2016-06-14
Behavioral choice is ubiquitous across a wide range of interactive decision-making processes and a myriad of scientific disciplines. With regard to this issue, one entitative problem is actually to understand how collective social behaviors form and evolve among populations when they face a variety of conflict alternatives. In this paper, a selection-drift dynamic model is formulated to characterize the behavior imitation and exploration processes in social populations. Based on the proposed framework, several typical behavior evolution patterns, including behavioral flocking, collapse, and oscillation, are reproduced with different kinds of behavior networks. Interestingly, for the selection-drift dynamics on homogeneous symmetric behavior networks, we unveil the phase transition from behavioral flocking to collapse and derive the bifurcation diagram of the evolutionary stable behaviors in social behavior evolution. While via analyzing the survival conditions of the best behavior on heterogeneous symmetric behavior networks, we propose a selection-drift mechanism to guarantee consensus at the optimal behavior. Moreover, when the selection-drift dynamics on asymmetric behavior networks is simulated, it is shown that breaking the symmetry in behavior networks can induce various behavioral oscillations. These obtained results may shed new insights into understanding, detecting, and further controlling how social norm and cultural trends evolve.
Probing collective oscillation of d-orbital electrons at the nanoscale
Dhall, Rohan; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Houston Dycus, J.; Kirste, Ronny; Mita, Seiji; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramon; LeBeau, James M.
2018-02-01
Here, we demonstrate that high energy electrons can be used to explore the collective oscillation of s, p, and d orbital electrons at the nanometer length scale. Using epitaxial AlGaN/AlN quantum wells as a test system, we observe the emergence of additional features in the loss spectrum with the increasing Ga content. A comparison of the observed spectra with ab-initio theory reveals that the origin of these spectral features lies in excitations of 3d-electrons contributed by Ga. We find that these modes differ in energy from the valence electron plasmons in Al1-xGaxN due to the different polarizabilities of the d electrons. Finally, we study the dependence of observed spectral features on the Ga content, lending insights into the origin of these spectral features, and their coupling with electron-hole excitations.
Analysis of collective excitations of rapidly rotating nuclei in an oscillator potential
Akbarov, A.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Mikhailov, I.N.; Molina, K.L.; Nazmitdinov, R.G.; Janssen, D.
1981-01-01
The spectrum of positive-parity collective excitations is analyzed in the random phase approximation for a wide range of angular momenta. The Hamiltonian of the model is taken in the form of a spherical harmonic-oscillator potential and isoscalar quadrupole forces. This model permits a description of the known data on the position of a giant quadrupole resonance for small spins and allows the variation of the resonance characteristics to be followed as the spin increases. It is shown that as the rotation velocity increases the energy of one of the branches of the resonance decreases to zero while the state remains strongly collectivized. The model also reproduces the low energy vibration mode which is related to the precession mode. The excitation energy and the B(E2) factor corresponding to this mode differ considerably from the estimates obtained in the rigid rotator model
Probing collective oscillation of d -orbital electrons at the nanoscale
Dhall, Rohan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA; Vigil-Fowler, Derek [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Houston Dycus, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA; Kirste, Ronny [Adroit Materials, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27518, USA; Mita, Seiji [Adroit Materials, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27518, USA; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA; Collazo, Ramon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA; LeBeau, James M. [Adroit Materials, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27518, USA
2018-02-05
Here, we demonstrate that high energy electrons can be used to explore the collective oscillation of s, p, and d orbital electrons at the nanometer length scale. Using epitaxial AlGaN/AlN quantum wells as a test system, we observe the emergence of additional features in the loss spectrum with the increasing Ga content. A comparison of the observed spectra with ab-initio theory reveals that the origin of these spectral features lies in excitations of 3d-electrons contributed by Ga. We find that these modes differ in energy from the valence electron plasmons in Al1-xGaxN due to the different polarizabilities of the d electrons. Finally, we study the dependence of observed spectral features on the Ga content, lending insights into the origin of these spectral features, and their coupling with electron-hole excitations.
Damping rates of the SRRC storage ring
Hsu, K.T.; Kuo, C.C.; Lau, W.K.; Weng, W.T.
1995-01-01
The SRRC storage ring is a low emittance synchrotron radiation machine with nominal operation energy 1.3 GeV. The design damping time due to synchrotron radiation is 10.7, 14.4, 8.7 ms for the horizontal, vertical and longitudinal plane, respectively. The authors measured the real machine damping time as a function of bunch current, chromaticity, etc. To damp the transverse beam instability, especially in the vertical plane, they need to increase chromaticity to large positive value. The damping rates are much larger than the design values. Landau damping contribution in the longitudinal plane is quite large, especially in the multibunch mode. The estimated synchrotron tune spread from the Landau damping is in agreement with the measured coherent longitudinal coupled bunch oscillation amplitude
Density fluctuation effects on collective neutrino oscillations in O-Ne-Mg core-collapse supernovae
Cherry, John F.; Fuller, George M.; Wu Mengru; Qian Yongzhong; Carlson, J.; Duan Huaiyu
2011-01-01
We investigate the effect of matter density fluctuations on supernova collective neutrino flavor oscillations. In particular, we use full multiangle, three-flavor, self-consistent simulations of the evolution of the neutrino flavor field in the envelope of an O-Ne-Mg core-collapse supernova at shock breakout (neutronization neutrino burst) to study the effect of the matter density ''bump'' left by the He-burning shell. We find a seemingly counterintuitive increase in the overall ν e survival probability created by this matter density feature. We discuss this behavior in terms of the interplay between the matter density profile and neutrino collective effects. While our results give new insights into this interplay, they also suggest an immediate consequence for supernova neutrino burst detection: it will be difficult to use a burst signal to extract information on fossil burning shells or other fluctuations of this scale in the matter density profile. Consistent with previous studies, our results also show that the interplay of neutrino self-coupling and matter fluctuation could cause a significant increase in the ν e survival probability at very low energy.
Marten Madissoo
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Modern machinery is highly demanding and the requirement for producing high quality parts is crucial in modern engineering. The most important is the setting of dimensions and tolerances of the surfaces which work together. The shape- and position tolerances may raise the existence of failures and can affect the performance of different machinery. Consequently it is very important that the cutting process is as stable as possible in order to get the best quality parts and to achieve the maximum lifetime of the cutting tool. Unfortunately the machining of complex products from hard materials is accompanied by loss of stability of the cutting process, which leads to tool oscillations, causing an increasing wear of the cutting tools, reducing the lifetime of the machine actuators, which ultimately affects the quality and accuracy of processing responsible products. To avoid this kind of chatter vibrations it is possible to construct specialized cutting tools and tool holder witch reduce this kind of vibrations and can help to increase the manufacturing precision of machine components. In consequence of this the paper focuses on testing the utility effect of a cutting tool holder with alternate bars of different material structure in its construction. The different bars are made from rolled steel and have an anisotropic structure which also has different mechanical properties. This construction is considered as a method to improve the cutting stability of the cutting tool and helps to reduce the oscillations in the finishing turning. The method for the construction of the damper instrument holder with alternate bars is proposed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7351
Seitz, F.; Kirschner, S.; Neubersch, D.
2012-12-01
Earth rotation has been monitored using space geodetic techniques since many decades. The geophysical interpretation of observed time series of Earth rotation parameters (ERP) polar motion and length-of-day is commonly based on numerical models that describe and balance variations of angular momentum in various subsystems of the Earth. Naturally, models are dependent on geometrical, rheological and physical parameters. Many of these are weakly determined from other models or observations. In our study we present an adaptive Kalman filter approach for the improvement of parameters of the dynamic Earth system model DyMEG which acts as a simulator of ERP. In particular we focus on the improvement of the pole tide Love number k2. In the frame of a sensitivity analysis k2 has been identified as one of the most crucial parameters of DyMEG since it directly influences the modeled Chandler oscillation. At the same time k2 is one of the most uncertain parameters in the model. Our simulations with DyMEG cover a period of 60 years after which a steady state of k2 is reached. The estimate for k2, accounting for the anelastic response of the Earth's mantle and the ocean, is 0.3531 + 0.0030i. We demonstrate that the application of the improved parameter k2 in DyMEG leads to significantly better results for polar motion than the original value taken from the Conventions of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS).
Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes
Macridin, Alexandru [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Stern, Eric [Fermilab; Amundson, James [Fermilab; Spentzouris, Panagiotis [Fermilab
2016-09-23
Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it arises through energy transfer from collective modes to the incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the resonant particle's frequency to match the collective mode frequency. We have identified an important new damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, which is driven by the modulation of the mode-particle interaction. This opens new possibilities for stability control through manipulation of both particle and mode-particle coupling spectra. We demonstrate the existence of parametric Landau damping in a simulation of transverse coherent modes of bunched accelerator beams with space charge.
Simple model with damping of the mode-coupling instability
Pestrikov, D V [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki
1996-08-01
In this paper we use a simple model to study the suppression of the transverse mode-coupling instability. Two possibilities are considered. One is due to the damping of particular synchrobetatron modes, and another - due to Landau damping, caused by the nonlinearity of betatron oscillations. (author)
Autonomous third-order duffing-holmes type chaotic oscillator
Lindberg, Erik; Tamaseviciute, E; Mykolaitis, G
2009-01-01
feedback loop. In contrast to many other autonomous chaotic oscillators, including linear unstable resonators and nonlinear damping loops, the novel circuit is based on nonlinear resonator and linear damping loop in the negative feedback. SPICE simulation and hardware experimental investigations...
Electron beam depolarization in a damping ring
Minty, M.
1993-04-01
Depolarization of a polarized electron beam injected into a damping ring is analyzed by extending calculations conventionally applied to proton synchrotrons. Synchrotron radiation in an electron ring gives rise to both polarizing and depolarizing effects. In a damping ring, the beam is stored for a time much less than the time for self polarization. Spin flip radiation may therefore be neglected. Synchrotron radiation without spin flips, however, must be considered as the resonance strength depends on the vertical betatron oscillation amplitude which changes as the electron beam is radiation damped. An expression for the beam polarization at extraction is derived which takes into account radiation damping. The results are applied to the electron ring at the Stanford Linear Collider and are compared with numerical matrix formalisms
Warburg effect—damping of electromagnetic oscillations
Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Borodavka, Fedir
2017-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 3 (2017), s. 270-278 ISSN 1536-8378 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-12757S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Warburg effect * mitochondrial dysfunction * water ordering * mitochondrial membrane potential * biological electromagnetic activity * cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2016
Damping ring designs and issues
Wolski, Andrzej; Decking, Winfried
2003-01-01
The luminosity performance of a future linear collider (LC) will depend critically on the performance of the damping rings. The design luminosities of the current LC proposals require rings with very short damping times, large acceptance, low equilibrium emittance and high beam intensity. We discuss the design strategies for lattices achieving the goals of dynamical stability, examine the challenges for alignment and coupling correction, and consider a variety of collective effects that threaten to limit beam quality. We put the design goals in context by referring to the experience of operating facilities, and outline the further research and development that is needed
Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool
2017-03-27
PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).
Damping in accelerators due to classical radiation
Mills, F.E.
1962-01-01
The rates of change of the magnitudes of the adiabatic invariants is calculated in the case of a Hamiltonian system subjected to generalized non conservative forces. These results are applied to the case of the classical radiation of electrons in an accelerator or storage ring. The resulting expressions for the damping rates of three independent oscillation modes suggest structures which are damping in all three modes, while at the same time allowing 'strong focussing' and the attendant strong momentum compaction. (author)
The damped wave equation with unbounded damping
Freitas, P.; Siegl, Petr; Tretter, C.
2018-01-01
Roč. 264, č. 12 (2018), s. 7023-7054 ISSN 0022-0396 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : damped wave equation * unbounded damping * essential spectrum * quadratic operator funciton with unbounded coefficients * Schrodinger operators with complex potentials Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016
Labonnote, Nathalie
2012-01-01
Key point to development of environmentally friendly timber structures, appropriate to urban ways of living, is the development of high-rise timber buildings. Comfort properties are nowadays one of the main limitations to tall timber buildings, and an enhanced knowledge on damping phenomena is therefore required, as well as improved prediction models for damping. The aim of this work has consequently been to estimate various damping quantities in timber structures. In particular, models h...
Uchida, Nariya; Golestanian, Ramin; Bennett, Rachel R.
2017-10-01
Cooperative motion of flagella and cilia faciliates swimming of microorganisms and material transport in the body of multicellular organisms. Using minimal models, we address the roles of hydrodynamic interaction in synchronization and collective dynamics of flagella and cilia. Collective synchronization of bacterial flagella is studied with a model of bacterial carpets. Cilia and eukaryotic flagella are characterized by periodic modulation of their driving forces, which produces various patterns of two-body synchronization and metachronal waves. Long-range nature of the interaction introduces novel features in the dynamics of these model systems. The flagella of a swimmer synchronize also by a viscous drag force mediated through the swimmer's body. Recent advance in experimental studies of the collective dynamics of flagella, cilia and related artificial systems are summarized.
The damped wave equation with unbounded damping
Freitas, Pedro; Siegl, Petr; Tretter, Christiane
2018-06-01
We analyze new phenomena arising in linear damped wave equations on unbounded domains when the damping is allowed to become unbounded at infinity. We prove the generation of a contraction semigroup, study the relation between the spectra of the semigroup generator and the associated quadratic operator function, the convergence of non-real eigenvalues in the asymptotic regime of diverging damping on a subdomain, and we investigate the appearance of essential spectrum on the negative real axis. We further show that the presence of the latter prevents exponential estimates for the semigroup and turns out to be a robust effect that cannot be easily canceled by adding a positive potential. These analytic results are illustrated by examples.
Damping of liquid sloshing by foams
Sauret, A.; Boulogne, F.; Cappello, J.; Dressaire, E.; Stone, H. A.
2015-02-01
When a container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to oscillate or slosh. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rims of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily as water, which suggests that foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of a liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath. We generate a monodisperse two-dimensional liquid foam in a rectangular container and track the motion of the foam. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is experimentally characterized: only a few layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient through viscous dissipation on the walls of the container. Then we extend our study to confined three-dimensional liquid foam and observe that the behavior of 2D and confined 3D systems are very similar. Thus, we conclude that only the bubbles close to the walls have a significant impact on the dissipation of energy. The possibility to damp liquid sloshing using foam is promising in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquefied gas in tankers or for propellants in rocket engines.
Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok; Oh, Dongseok; Yoon, Kyungho; Kim, Hyungkyu; Kim, Jaeyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping
Kosevich, Yu.A.; Syrkin, E.S.
1990-06-01
Low frequency collective oscillations in a superlattice consisting of alternating highly anisotropic layers are considered. Such superstructure may be formed in the ferroelastic near the structural phase transition by alternation of twins. For the surface waves, propagating along the layers, the conditions and the range of existence of those with the dispersion law ω∼K 1/2 , characteristics for two-dimensional plasmons, have been analyzed for a solid-state system with consideration for elastic anisotropy and retardation of acoustic waves. Such excitations ('dyadons') were used in an attempt to explain the anomalies of low temperature thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of high-T c superconductors. We have shown that the similarity of the densities of the matching phases and the retardation of elastic waves in the crystal narrow the range of existence of dyadons, but high elastic anisotropy of the solid phases enlarges the range of existence of such excitations in solid-state systems. The example of possible crystalline geometry of the phase matching, for which there arise collective excitations of the type under consideration, is found. For transverse and longitudinal waves propagating across the layers, the existence is proved of low frequency acoustic branches separated by a wide gap from the nearest optical branches. (author). 18 refs
Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation
V. Variale
2001-08-01
Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.
Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring
Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.
1993-05-01
The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed
DAMPs, ageing, and cancer: The 'DAMP Hypothesis'.
Huang, Jin; Xie, Yangchun; Sun, Xiaofang; Zeh, Herbert J; Kang, Rui; Lotze, Michael T; Tang, Daolin
2015-11-01
Ageing is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of many forms of damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue level with advancing age. Ageing increases the risk of the onset of chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease. In particular, ageing and cancer share some common origins and hallmarks such as genomic instability, epigenetic alteration, aberrant telomeres, inflammation and immune injury, reprogrammed metabolism, and degradation system impairment (including within the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagic machinery). Recent advances indicate that damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) such as high mobility group box 1, histones, S100, and heat shock proteins play location-dependent roles inside and outside the cell. These provide interaction platforms at molecular levels linked to common hallmarks of ageing and cancer. They can act as inducers, sensors, and mediators of stress through individual plasma membrane receptors, intracellular recognition receptors (e.g., advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptors, AIM2-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, and NOD1-like receptors, and toll-like receptors), or following endocytic uptake. Thus, the DAMP Hypothesis is novel and complements other theories that explain the features of ageing. DAMPs represent ideal biomarkers of ageing and provide an attractive target for interventions in ageing and age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Extended Rayleigh Damping Model
Naohiro Nakamura
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In dynamic analysis, frequency domain analysis can be used if the entire structure is linear. However, time history analysis is generally used if nonlinear elements are present. Rayleigh damping has been widely used in time history response analysis. Many articles have reported the problems associated with this damping and suggested remedies. A basic problem is that the frequency area across which the damping ratio is almost constant is too narrow. If the area could be expanded while incurring only a small increase in computational cost, this would provide an appropriate remedy for this problem. In this study, a novel damping model capable of expanding the constant frequency area by more than five times was proposed based on the study of a causal damping model. This model was constructed by adding two terms to the Rayleigh damping model and can be applied to the linear elements in the time history analysis of a nonlinear structure. The accuracy and efficiency of the model were confirmed using example analyses.
Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator
Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R.
2010-01-01
We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.
Ali Nasser Hussain
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive comparison and assessment of the damping function improvement of power system oscillation for the multiple damping controllers using the simultaneously coordinated design based on Power System Stabilizer (PSS and Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices. FACTS devices can help in the enhancing the stability of the power system by adding supplementary damping controller to the control channel of the FACTS input to implement the task of Power Oscillation Damping (FACT POD controller. Simultaneous coordination can be performed in different ways. First, the dual coordinated designs between PSS and FACTS POD controller or between different FACTS POD controllers are arranged in a multiple FACTS devices without PSS. Second, the simultaneous coordination has been extended to triple coordinated design among PSS and different FACTS POD controllers. The parameters of the damping controllers have been tuned in the individual controllers and coordinated designs by using a Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm that optimized the given eigenvalue-based objective function. The simulation results for a multi-machine power system show that the dual coordinated design provide satisfactory damping performance over the individual control responses. Furthermore, the triple coordinated design has been shown to be more effective in damping oscillations than the dual damping controllers.
Ware, A.G.
1986-01-01
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is conducting a research program to assist the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in determining best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. This paper describes four tasks in the program that were undertaken in FY-86. In the first task, tests were conducted on a 5-in. INEL laboratory piping system and data were analyzed from a 6-in. laboratory system at the ANCO Engineers facility to investigate the parameters influencing damping in the seismic frequency range. Further tests were conducted on 3- and 5-in. INEL laboratory piping systems as the second task to determine damping values representative of vibrations in the 33 to 100 Hz range, typical of hydrodynamic transients. In the third task a statistical evaluation of the available damping data was conduted to determine probability distributions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and the final task evaluated damping data at high strain levels
Turner, Sam
2011-01-01
The phenomenon of process damping as a stabilising effect in milling has been encountered by machinists since milling and turning began. It is of great importance when milling aerospace alloys where maximum surface speed is limited by excessive tool wear and high speed stability lobes cannot be attained. Much of the established research into regenerative chatter and chatter avoidance has focussed on stability lobe theory with different analytical and time domain models developed to expand on the theory first developed by Trusty and Tobias. Process damping is a stabilising effect that occurs when the surface speed is low relative to the dominant natural frequency of the system and has been less successfully modelled and understood. Process damping is believed to be influenced by the interference of the relief face of the cutting tool with the waveform traced on the cut surface, with material properties and the relief geometry of the tool believed to be key factors governing performance. This study combines experimental trials with Finite Element (FE) simulation in an attempt to identify and understand the key factors influencing process damping performance in titanium milling. Rake angle, relief angle and chip thickness are the variables considered experimentally with the FE study looking at average radial and tangential forces and surface compressive stress. For the experimental study a technique is developed to identify the critical process damping wavelength as a means of measuring process damping performance. For the range of parameters studied, chip thickness is found to be the dominant factor with maximum stable parameters increased by a factor of 17 in the best case. Within the range studied, relief angle was found to have a lesser effect than expected whilst rake angle had an influence.
On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...
In this paper we determine the dynamic buckling load of a strictly nonlinear but weakly damped elastic oscillatory model structure subjected to small perturbations The loading history is explicitly time dependent and varies slowly with time over a natural period of oscillation of the structure. A multiple timing regular ...
Charged-particle incoherent-motion damping in storage rings by means of dissipative elements
Derbenev, Ya.S.; Khejfets, S.A.
1979-01-01
In consecutive order a possibility of damping of beam incoherent oscillations in a storage ring was studied by means of an external dissipative system in a sufficient common case. It is shown, that a useful effect, as for the case of electron cooling, is one-particle effect of particle oscillations damping due to nonconservatism of its interaction with an external system. Each other mutual influence through the external system becomes significant with increasing beam density and results in the limitation to achievable damping decrements
Haemmerling, Jens; Gutkin, Boris; Guhr, Thomas, E-mail: jens.haemmerling@uni-due.d [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2010-07-02
We study the emergence of collective dynamics in the integrable Hamiltonian system of two finite ensembles of coupled harmonic oscillators. After identification of a collective degree of freedom, the Hamiltonian is mapped onto a model of Caldeira-Leggett type, where the collective coordinate is coupled to an internal bath of phonons. In contrast to the usual Caldeira-Leggett model, the bath in the present case is part of the system. We derive an equation of motion for the collective coordinate which takes the form of a damped harmonic oscillator. We show that the distribution of quantum transition strengths induced by the collective mode is determined by its classical dynamics.
Haemmerling, Jens; Gutkin, Boris; Guhr, Thomas
2010-01-01
We study the emergence of collective dynamics in the integrable Hamiltonian system of two finite ensembles of coupled harmonic oscillators. After identification of a collective degree of freedom, the Hamiltonian is mapped onto a model of Caldeira-Leggett type, where the collective coordinate is coupled to an internal bath of phonons. In contrast to the usual Caldeira-Leggett model, the bath in the present case is part of the system. We derive an equation of motion for the collective coordinate which takes the form of a damped harmonic oscillator. We show that the distribution of quantum transition strengths induced by the collective mode is determined by its classical dynamics.
Classical plasma dynamics of Mie-oscillations in atomic clusters
Kull, H.-J.; El-Khawaldeh, A.
2018-04-01
Mie plasmons are of basic importance for the absorption of laser light by atomic clusters. In this work we first review the classical Rayleigh-theory of a dielectric sphere in an external electric field and Thomson’s plum-pudding model applied to atomic clusters. Both approaches allow for elementary discussions of Mie oscillations, however, they also indicate deficiencies in describing the damping mechanisms by electrons crossing the cluster surface. Nonlinear oscillator models have been widely studied to gain an understanding of damping and absorption by outer ionization of the cluster. In the present work, we attempt to address the issue of plasmon relaxation in atomic clusters in more detail based on classical particle simulations. In particular, we wish to study the role of thermal motion on plasmon relaxation, thereby extending nonlinear models of collective single-electron motion. Our simulations are particularly adopted to the regime of classical kinetics in weakly coupled plasmas and to cluster sizes extending the Debye-screening length. It will be illustrated how surface scattering leads to the relaxation of Mie oscillations in the presence of thermal motion and of electron spill-out at the cluster surface. This work is intended to give, from a classical perspective, further insight into recent work on plasmon relaxation in quantum plasmas [1].
Jowett, John M; Zimmermann, Frank; Owen, H
2001-01-01
The Compact Linear Colider (CLIC) is designed to operate at 3 TeV centre-of-mass energy with a total luminosity of 10^35 cm^-2 s^-1. The overall system design leads to extremely demanding requirements on the bunch trains injected into the main libac at frequency of 100 Hz. In particular, the emittances of the intense bunches have to be about an order of magnitude smaller than presently achieved. We describe our approach to finding a damping ring design capable of meeting these requirements. Besides lattice design, emittance and damping rate considerations, a number of scattering and instability effects have to be incorporated into the optimisation of parameters. Among these, intra-bem scattering and the electron cloud effect are two of the most significant.
Radiative damping in plasma-based accelerators
I. Yu. Kostyukov
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The electrons accelerated in a plasma-based accelerator undergo betatron oscillations and emit synchrotron radiation. The energy loss to synchrotron radiation may seriously affect electron acceleration. The electron dynamics under combined influence of the constant accelerating force and the classical radiation reaction force is studied. It is shown that electron acceleration cannot be limited by radiation reaction. If initially the accelerating force was stronger than the radiation reaction force, then the electron acceleration is unlimited. Otherwise the electron is decelerated by radiative damping up to a certain instant of time and then accelerated without limits. It is shown that regardless of the initial conditions the infinite-time asymptotic behavior of an electron is governed by a self-similar solution providing that the radiative damping becomes exactly equal to 2/3 of the accelerating force. The relative energy spread induced by the radiative damping decreases with time in the infinite-time limit. The multistage schemes operating in the asymptotic acceleration regime when electron dynamics is determined by the radiation reaction are discussed.
Dislocation damping during irradiation
Burdett, C.F.; Rahmatalla, H.
1977-01-01
The results of Simpson et al (Simpson, H.M., Sosin, A., Johnston, D.F., Phys.Rev. B, 5:1393 (1972)) on the damping produced during electron irradiation of copper are re-examined and it is shown that they can be explained in terms of the model of Granato and Lucke (Granato, A., Lucke, K., J.Appl.Phys., 27:583,789 (1958)). (author)
Mouhot, Clément
2011-09-01
Going beyond the linearized study has been a longstanding problem in the theory of Landau damping. In this paper we establish exponential Landau damping in analytic regularity. The damping phenomenon is reinterpreted in terms of transfer of regularity between kinetic and spatial variables, rather than exchanges of energy; phase mixing is the driving mechanism. The analysis involves new families of analytic norms, measuring regularity by comparison with solutions of the free transport equation; new functional inequalities; a control of non-linear echoes; sharp "deflection" estimates; and a Newton approximation scheme. Our results hold for any potential no more singular than Coulomb or Newton interaction; the limit cases are included with specific technical effort. As a side result, the stability of homogeneous equilibria of the non-linear Vlasov equation is established under sharp assumptions. We point out the strong analogy with the KAM theory, and discuss physical implications. Finally, we extend these results to some Gevrey (non-analytic) distribution functions. © 2011 Institut Mittag-Leffler.
Synchrotron oscillation effects on an rf-solenoid spin resonance
Benati, P.; Chiladze, D.; Dietrich, J.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Guidoboni, G.; Hejny, V.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kulessa, P.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Morse, W. M.; Öllers, D.; Pesce, A.; Polyanskiy, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Talman, R.; Valdau, Yu.; Weidemann, Ch.; Wüstner, P.
2012-12-01
New measurements are reported for the time dependence of the vertical polarization of a 0.97GeV/c deuteron beam circulating in a storage ring and perturbed by an rf solenoid. The storage ring is the cooler synchrotron (COSY) located at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The beam polarization was measured continuously using a 1.5 cm thick carbon target located at the edge of the circulating deuteron beam and the scintillators of the EDDA detector. An rf solenoid mounted on the ring was used to generate fields at and near the frequency of the 1-Gγ spin resonance. Measurements were made of the vertical beam polarization as a function of time with the operation of the rf solenoid in either fixed or continuously variable frequency mode. Using rf-solenoid strengths as large as 2.66×10-5revolutions/turn, slow oscillations (˜1Hz) were observed in the vertical beam polarization. When the circulating beam was continuously electron cooled, these oscillations completely reversed the polarization and showed no sign of diminishing in amplitude. But for the uncooled beam, the oscillation amplitude was damped to nearly zero within a few seconds. A simple spin-tracking model without the details of the COSY ring lattice was successful in reproducing these oscillations and demonstrating the sensitivity of the damping to the magnitude of the synchrotron motion of the beam particles. The model demonstrates that the characteristic features of measurements made in the presence of large synchrotron oscillations are distinct from the features of such measurements when made off resonance. These data were collected in preparation for a study of the spin coherence time, a beam property that needs to become long to enable a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.
Leung, Roger
2010-03-31
Squeeze-film damping on microresonators is a significant damping source even when the surrounding gas is highly rarefied. This article presents a general modeling approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the prediction of squeeze-film damping on resonators in the freemolecule regime. The generality of the approach is demonstrated in its capability of simulating resonators of any shape and with any accommodation coefficient. The approach is validated using both the analytical results of the free-space damping and the experimental data of the squeeze-film damping on a clamped-clamped plate resonator oscillating at its first flexure mode. The effect of oscillation modes on the quality factor of the resonator has also been studied and semi-analytical approximate models for the squeeze-film damping with diffuse collisions have been developed.
Damping measurements in flowing water
Coutu, A.; Seeley, C.; Monette, C.; Nennemann, B.; Marmont, H.
2012-11-01
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI), in the form of mass loading and damping, governs the dynamic response of water turbines, such as Francis turbines. Water added mass and damping are both critical quantities in evaluating the dynamic response of the turbine component. Although the effect of fluid added mass is well documented, fluid damping, a critical quantity to limit vibration amplitudes during service, and therefore to help avoiding possible failure of the turbines, has received much less attention in the literature. This paper presents an experimental investigation of damping due to FSI. The experimental setup, designed to create dynamic characteristics similar to the ones of Francis turbine blades is discussed, together with the experimental protocol and examples of measurements obtained. The paper concludes with the calculated damping values and a discussion on the impact of the observed damping behaviour on the response of hydraulic turbine blades to FSI.
Damping measurements in flowing water
Coutu, A; Monette, C; Nennemann, B; Marmont, H; Seeley, C
2012-01-01
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI), in the form of mass loading and damping, governs the dynamic response of water turbines, such as Francis turbines. Water added mass and damping are both critical quantities in evaluating the dynamic response of the turbine component. Although the effect of fluid added mass is well documented, fluid damping, a critical quantity to limit vibration amplitudes during service, and therefore to help avoiding possible failure of the turbines, has received much less attention in the literature. This paper presents an experimental investigation of damping due to FSI. The experimental setup, designed to create dynamic characteristics similar to the ones of Francis turbine blades is discussed, together with the experimental protocol and examples of measurements obtained. The paper concludes with the calculated damping values and a discussion on the impact of the observed damping behaviour on the response of hydraulic turbine blades to FSI.
Temperature dependent measurement of internal damping of austenitic stainless steels
Oravcová Monika
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This article is aimed on the analysis of the internal damping changes of austenitic stainless steels AISI 304, AISI 316L and AISI 316Ti depending from temperature. In experimental measurements only resonance method was used which is based on continuous excitation of oscillations of the specimens and the whole apparatus vibrates at the frequency near to the resonance. Microplastic processes and dissipation of energy within the metals are evaluated and investigated by internal damping measurements. Damping capacity of materials is closely tied to the presence of defects including second phase particles and voids. By measuring the energy dissipation in the material, we can determine the elastic characteristics, Youngs modulus, the level of stress relaxation and many other.
Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
2009-01-01
This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems usingintentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integra...
Collisional damping rates for plasma waves
Tigik, S. F., E-mail: sabrina.tigik@ufrgs.br; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic (“Spitzer”) formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.
First Results from the DAMPE Mission
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a satellite mission of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) dedicated to high energy cosmic ray detections. Since its successful launch on December 17th, 2015 a large amount of cosmic ray data has been collected. With relatively large acceptance, DAMPE is designed to detect electrons (and positrons) up to 10 TeV with unprecedented energy resolution to search for new features in the cosmic ray electron plus positron (CRE) spectrum. It will also study cosmic ray nuclei up to 100 TeV with good precision, which will bring new input to the study of their still unknown origin and their propagation through the Galaxy. In this talk, the DAMPE mission will be introduced, together with some details of the construction and on-ground calibration of the detector subsystems. The in-orbit detector commissioning, calibration and operation will be described. First data analysis results, including the recently published CRE spectrum from 25 GeV to 4.6 TeV based on the data collected i...
Landau damping of dust acoustic waves in the presence of hybrid nonthermal nonextensive electrons
El-Taibany, W. F.; Zedan, N. A.; Taha, R. M.
2018-06-01
Based on the kinetic theory, Landau damping of dust acoustic waves (DAWs) propagating in a dusty plasma composed of hybrid nonthermal nonextensive distributed electrons, Maxwellian distributed ions and negatively charged dust grains is investigated using Vlasov-Poisson's equations. The characteristics of the DAWs Landau damping are discussed. It is found that the wave frequency increases by decreasing (increasing) the value of nonextensive (nonthermal) parameter, q (α ). It is recognized that α plays a significant role in observing damping or growing DAW oscillations. For small values of α , damping modes have been observed until reaching a certain value of α at which ω i vanishes, then a growing mode appears in the case of superextensive electrons. However, only damping DAW modes are observed in case of subextensive electrons. The present study is useful in the space situations where such distribution exists.
Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.; Lindquist, M.R.; Renkey, E.J.; Ryan, J.A.
1983-06-01
LMFBR pipe systems typically utilize a thicker insulation package than that used on water plant pipe systems. They are supported with special insulated pipe clamps. Mechanical snubbers are employed to resist seismic loads. Recent laboratory testing has indicated that these features provide significantly more damping than presently allowed by Regulatory Guide 1.61 for water plant pipe systems. This paper presents results of additional in-situ vibration tests conducted on FFTF pipe systems. Pipe damping values obtained at various excitation levels are presented. Effects of filtering data to provide damping values at discrete frequencies and the alternate use of a single equivalent modal damping value are discussed. These tests further confirm that damping in typical LMFBR pipe systems is larger than presently used in pipe design. Although some increase in damping occurred with increased excitation amplitude, the effect was not significant. Recommendations are made to use an increased damping value for both the OBE and DBE seismic events in design of LMFBR pipe systems
Fabiano Baroni
2014-05-01
Full Text Available High-frequency oscillations (above 30 Hz have been observed in sensory and higher-order brain areas, and are believed to constitute a general hallmark of functional neuronal activation. Fast inhibition in interneuronal networks has been suggested as a general mechanism for the generation of high-frequency oscillations. Certain classes of interneurons exhibit subthreshold oscillations, but the effect of this intrinsic neuronal property on the population rhythm is not completely understood. We study the influence of intrinsic damped subthreshold oscillations in the emergence of collective high-frequency oscillations, and elucidate the dynamical mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. We simulate neuronal networks composed of either Integrate-and-Fire (IF or Generalized Integrate-and-Fire (GIF neurons. The IF model displays purely passive subthreshold dynamics, while the GIF model exhibits subthreshold damped oscillations. Individual neurons receive inhibitory synaptic currents mediated by spiking activity in their neighbors as well as noisy synaptic bombardment, and fire irregularly at a lower rate than population frequency. We identify three factors that affect the influence of single-neuron properties on synchronization mediated by inhibition: i the firing rate response to the noisy background input, ii the membrane potential distribution, and iii the shape of Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potentials (IPSPs. For hyperpolarizing inhibition, the GIF IPSP profile (factor iii exhibits post-inhibitory rebound, which induces a coherent spike-mediated depolarization across cells that greatly facilitates synchronous oscillations. This effect dominates the network dynamics, hence GIF networks display stronger oscillations than IF networks. However, the restorative current in the GIF neuron lowers firing rates and narrows the membrane potential distribution (factors i and ii, respectively, which tend to decrease synchrony. If inhibition is shunting instead
Baroni, Fabiano; Burkitt, Anthony N; Grayden, David B
2014-05-01
High-frequency oscillations (above 30 Hz) have been observed in sensory and higher-order brain areas, and are believed to constitute a general hallmark of functional neuronal activation. Fast inhibition in interneuronal networks has been suggested as a general mechanism for the generation of high-frequency oscillations. Certain classes of interneurons exhibit subthreshold oscillations, but the effect of this intrinsic neuronal property on the population rhythm is not completely understood. We study the influence of intrinsic damped subthreshold oscillations in the emergence of collective high-frequency oscillations, and elucidate the dynamical mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. We simulate neuronal networks composed of either Integrate-and-Fire (IF) or Generalized Integrate-and-Fire (GIF) neurons. The IF model displays purely passive subthreshold dynamics, while the GIF model exhibits subthreshold damped oscillations. Individual neurons receive inhibitory synaptic currents mediated by spiking activity in their neighbors as well as noisy synaptic bombardment, and fire irregularly at a lower rate than population frequency. We identify three factors that affect the influence of single-neuron properties on synchronization mediated by inhibition: i) the firing rate response to the noisy background input, ii) the membrane potential distribution, and iii) the shape of Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potentials (IPSPs). For hyperpolarizing inhibition, the GIF IPSP profile (factor iii)) exhibits post-inhibitory rebound, which induces a coherent spike-mediated depolarization across cells that greatly facilitates synchronous oscillations. This effect dominates the network dynamics, hence GIF networks display stronger oscillations than IF networks. However, the restorative current in the GIF neuron lowers firing rates and narrows the membrane potential distribution (factors i) and ii), respectively), which tend to decrease synchrony. If inhibition is shunting instead of
Nonlinear resonance in Duffing oscillator with fixed and integrative ...
We study the nonlinear resonance, one of the fundamental phenomena in nonlinear oscillators, in a damped and periodically-driven Dufﬁng oscillator with two types of time-delayed feedbacks, namely, ﬁxed and integrative. Particularly, we analyse the effect of the time-delay parameter and the strength of the ...
Signatures of nonlinearity in single cell noise-induced oscillations
Thomas, P.; Straube, A.V.; Timmer, J.; Fleck, C.; Grima, R.
2013-01-01
A class of theoretical models seeks to explain rhythmic single cell data by postulating that they are generated by intrinsic noise in biochemical systems whose deterministic models exhibit only damped oscillations. The main features of such noise-induced oscillations are quantified by the power
Nonlinear resonance in Duffing oscillator with fixed and integrative ...
2012-03-02
Mar 2, 2012 ... Abstract. We study the nonlinear resonance, one of the fundamental phenomena in nonlinear oscillators, in a damped and periodically-driven Duffing oscillator with two types of time-delayed feedbacks, namely, fixed and integrative. Particularly, we analyse the effect of the time-delay parameter α and the ...
Bullock, J.C.; Kelley, B.E.
1977-01-01
A valve for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system is described. The surge-damping mechanism consists of a slotted, spring-loaded disk adjacent to the valve's vacuum port (the flow passage to the vacuum roughing pump). Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into a sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the gas flow path to narrow slots in the disk's periphery. The increased flow damps out the flow surge. When pressure is equalized on both sides of the valve, the spring load moves the disk away from the port to restore full flow conductance through the valve
Vibrational resonance in the Morse oscillator
In the damped and biharmonically driven classical Morse oscillator, by applying a theoretical approach, an analytical expression is obtained for the response amplitude at the low-frequency . Conditions are identified on the parameters for the occurrence of resonance. The system shows only one resonance and moreover ...
Liquid Oscillations in a U-Tube
Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco; Navarro, Luis Barba
2018-01-01
In hydrostatics, pressure measurement with U-gauges and their relationship to density is a well-known experiment. Very little is studied or experimented with the dynamics of the movement of a liquid in a U-tube probably due to its theoretical complexity but, after all, it is a simple damped oscillating system. In this paper we present a relatively…
Analytical Solution and Physics of a Propellant Damping Device
Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John
2011-01-01
NASA design teams have been investigating options for "detuning" Ares I to prevent oscillations originating in the vehicle solid-rocket main stage from synching up with the natural resonance of the rest of the vehicle. An experimental work started at NASA MSFC center in 2008 using a damping device showed great promise in damping the vibration level of an 8 resonant tank. However, the mechanisms of the vibration damping were not well understood and there were many unknowns such as the physics, scalability, technology readiness level (TRL), and applicability for the Ares I vehicle. The objectives of this study are to understand the physics of intriguing slosh damping observed in the experiments, to further validate a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software in propellant sloshing against experiments with water, and to study the applicability and efficiency of the slosh damper to a full scale propellant tank and to cryogenic fluids. First a 2D fluid-structure interaction model is built to model the system resonance of liquid sloshing and structure vibration. A damper is then added into the above model to simulate experimentally observed system damping phenomena. Qualitative agreement is found. An analytical solution is then derived from the Newtonian dynamics for the thrust oscillation damper frequency, and a slave mass concept is introduced in deriving the damper and tank interaction dynamics. The paper will elucidate the fundamental physics behind the LOX damper success from the derivation of the above analytical equation of the lumped Newtonian dynamics. Discussion of simulation results using high fidelity multi-phase, multi-physics, fully coupled CFD structure interaction model will show why the LOX damper is unique and superior compared to other proposed mitigation techniques.
Center-of-mass and breathing oscillations in small complex plasma disks
Sheridan, T.E.
2005-01-01
Center-of-mass and breathing oscillations of a complex (dusty) plasma disk are excited for n=3 and 5 microspheres (≅10 μm diameter) with neutral argon pressures P≅1-4 Pa. The mode frequencies and damping rates are determined directly from measured resonance curves. Millikan's coefficient for the Epstein drag force, the Debye length, and the particle charge is found by comparison with theory. The damping rates are the same for both modes and for n=3 and 5, as predicted. Millikan's coefficient is found to be δ=1.55±0.16, in agreement with δ=1.44 for diffuse reflection. A consistent value of the Debye length that decreases with pressure is measured. The average particle charge for n=3 particles is found to be more negative than that for n=5 particles for the same conditions, indicating that the effective ion collection area of the particles increases as their separation decreases
Power system damping - Structural aspects of controlling active power
Samuelsson, O.
1997-04-01
Environmental and economical aspects make it difficult to build new power lines and to reinforce existing ones. The continued growth in demand for electric power must therefore to a great extent be met by increased loading of available lines. A consequence is that power system damping is reduced, leading to a risk of poorly damped power oscillations between the generators. This thesis proposes the use of controlled active loads to increase damping of such electro-mechanical oscillations. The focus is on structural aspects of controller interaction and of sensor and actuator placement. On-off control based on machine frequency in a single machine infinite bus system is analysed using energy function analysis and phase plane plots. An on-off controller with estimated machine frequency as input has been implemented. At a field test it damped oscillations of a 0.9 MW hydro power generator by controlling a 20kW load. The linear analysis uses two power system models with three and twenty-three machines respectively. Each damper has active power as output and local bus frequency or machine frequency as input. The power system simulator EUROSTAG is used both for generation of the linearized models and for time simulations. Measures of active power mode controllability and phase angle mode observability are obtained from the eigenvectors of the differential-algebraic models. The geographical variation in the network of these quantities is illustrated using the resemblance to bending modes of flexible mechanical structures. Eigenvalue sensitivities are used to determine suitable damper locations. A spring-mass equivalent to an inter-area mode provides analytical expressions, that together with the concept of impedance matching explain the structural behaviour of the power systems. For large gains this is investigated using root locus plots. 64 refs, 99 figs, 20 tabs
Damping in aerospace composite materials
Agneni, A.; Balis Crema, L.; Castellani, A.
Experimental results are presented on specimens of carbon and Kevlar fibers in epoxy resin, materials used in many aerospace structures (control surfaces and wings in aircraft, large antennas in spacecraft, etc.). Some experimental methods of estimating damping ratios are first reviewed, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain. Some damping factor estimates from experimental tests are then shown; in order to evaluate the effects of the aerospace environment, damping factors have been obtained in a typical range of temperature, namely between +120 C and -120 C, and in the pressure range from room pressure to 10 exp -6 torr. Finally, a theoretical approach for predicting the bounds of the damping coefficients is shown, and prediction data are compared with experimental results.
Amplitude damping of vortex modes
Dudley, Angela L
2010-09-01
Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...
Emittance damping considerations for TESLA
Floettmann, K.; Rossbach, J.
1993-03-01
Two schemes are considered to avoid very large damping rings for TESLA. The first (by K.F.) makes use of the linac tunnel to accomodate most of the damping 'ring' structure, which is, in fact, not a ring any more but a long linear structure with two small bends at each of its ends ('dog-bone'). The other scheme (by J.R.) is based on a positron (or electron, respectively) recycling scheme. It makes use of the specific TESLA property, that the full bunch train is much longer (240 km) than the linac length. The spent beams are recycled seven times after interaction, thus reducing the number of bunches to be stored in the damping ring by a factor of eight. Ultimately, this scheme can be used to operate TESLA in a storage ring mode ('storage linac'), with no damping ring at all. Finally, a combination of both schemes is considered. (orig.)
Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Diao, Ruisheng; Fuller, Jason C.; Mittelstadt, William A.; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.
2010-10-18
Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability in the U.S. power grid. An undamped mode can cause large-amplitude oscillations and may result in system breakups and large-scale blackouts. There have been several incidents of system-wide oscillations. Of those incidents, the most notable is the August 10, 1996 western system breakup, a result of undamped system-wide oscillations. Significant efforts have been devoted to monitoring system oscillatory behaviors from measurements in the past 20 years. The deployment of phasor measurement units (PMU) provides high-precision, time-synchronized data needed for detecting oscillation modes. Measurement-based modal analysis, also known as ModeMeter, uses real-time phasor measurements to identify system oscillation modes and their damping. Low damping indicates potential system stability issues. Modal analysis has been demonstrated with phasor measurements to have the capability of estimating system modes from both oscillation signals and ambient data. With more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to aid grid operation decision making to increase inter-area modal damping. The procedure can provide operation suggestions (such as increasing generation or decreasing load) for mitigating inter-area oscillations.
Vibration damping method and apparatus
Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.
1999-01-01
The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.
To Stabilize Power Systems from Various Kind of Oscillations using a State Feedback Controller
Afridi, M. A.
2012-01-01
Damping of electromechanical oscillations in power systems is one of the major concerns in the operation of power system since many years. These oscillations cause improper of the power system incorporating losses. This thesis work presents the coordinated AVR+PSS structure, called the Desensitized four loops Regulator, designed to damp these oscillations in the power system. It is shown here that it is possible to transform the structure of this controller into any standard IEEE AVR+PSS structure. The AVR+PSS structure obtained through this structure is efficient to damp out many types of oscillations present in the Power system. These models are to be incorporated with the generator models to get a power system model with state feedback control. On simulating the system in Simulink with the controllers we have obtained the power system model with state feedback control and observed that how these controllers are helpful in damping the oscillations. (author)
Etiology of root parsley damping-off
Bogdan Nowicki
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The investigations were done between 1990-1994. Seedlings collected from 120 plantations were evaluated. The fungi responsible for seedling damping-off occurrening most often were Alternariu spp., Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. isolated from 46,3, 32,2 and 16,6% of infected plants, respectively. The most important pathogens were A.petroselini which infected 33% of seedlings and A.radicina - 11%„ Among Fusarium species the most common was F.avenaceum, comprising 61% of total Fusarium isolates. The next were following: F.culmorum - 21%, F.solani - 12,6% and 3% for both F.equiseti and F.oxysporum. Damping-off of se,edlings was also caused by the other fungi but they were noted in low intensity. Among them were following: Phoma spp., A.alternata and Rhizoctonia solani on 2,8; 2,3 and 1,2% of tested seedlings. respectively. The species: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Bipolaris sorokinianu and Septoria petroselini were isolated in total from 0,9% of seedlings. Drechslera biseptata and Stemphylium botryosum caused seedling damping-off sporadically.
Possibility of Landau damping of gravitational waves
Gayer, S.; Kennel, C.F.
1979-01-01
There is considerable uncertainty in the literature concerning whether or not transverse traceless gravitational waves can Landau damp. Physically, the issue is whether particles of nonzero mass can comove with surfaces of constant wave phase, and therefore, loosely, whether gravitational waves can have phase speeds less than that of light. We approach the question of Landau damping in various ways. We consider first the propagation of small-amplitude gravitational waves in an ideal fluid-filled Robertson-Walker universe of zero spatial curvature. We argue that the principle of equivalence requires those modes to be lightlike. We show that a freely moving particle interacting only with the collective fields cannot comove with such waves if it has nonzero mass. The equation for gravitational waves in collisionless kinetic gases differs from that for fluid media only by terms so small that deviations from lightlike propagation are unmeasurable. Thus, we conclude that Landau damping of small-amplitude, transverse traceless gravitational waves is not possible
Damping Measurements of Plasma Modes
Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.
2010-11-01
For azimuthally symmetric plasma modes in a magnesium ion plasma, confined in a 3 Tesla Penning-Malmberg trap with a density of n ˜10^7cm-3, we measure a damping rate of 2s-1plasma column, alters the frequency of the mode from 16 KHz to 192 KHz. The oscillatory fluid displacement is small compared to the wavelength of the mode; in contrast, the fluid velocity, δvf, can be large compared to v. The real part of the frequency satisfies a linear dispersion relation. In long thin plasmas (α> 10) these modes are Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, and for smaller values of α they are Dubin spheroidal modes. However the damping appears to be non-linear; initially large waves have weaker exponential damping, which is not yet understood. Recent theoryootnotetextM.W. Anderson and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007). calculates the damping of TG modes expected from viscosity due to ion-ion collisions; but the measured damping, while having a similar temperature and density dependence, is about 40 times larger than calculated. This discrepancy might be due to an external damping mechanism.
Symmetries and conservation laws of the damped harmonic oscillator
We work with a formulation of Noether-symmetry analysis which uses the properties of infinitesimal point transformations in the space-time variables to establish the association between symmetries and conservation laws of a dynamical system. Here symmetries are expressed in the form of generators. We have studied the ...
Improving the Magnetic Damping of an AS-1 Seismometer
Marton, F.; Echreshzadeh, M.; Tokman, T. L.; Palaric, K. D.; Filippone, N. V.; Balzarette, M.; Sivo, J.
2016-12-01
Last year, students working on the SeismoSTEM project at Bergen Community College in New Jersey successfully manufactured and assembled an AS-1 seismometer1. For 2016, our objective has been to improve the magnetic damping mechanism invented by Chris Chapman2. As the mass on the boom is displaced by seismic waves, the spring will cause the mass to oscillate, therefore, damping is required. To achieve this, a paddle-shaped piece of copper, along with steel plates holding strong neodymium magnets are used. A localized eddy current is then induced, which then creates an opposing magnetic field. The challenges we faced for the summer internship was the fact that there was either too much or too little damping to distinguish the waves of an earthquake. However, we resolved the issue by designing our own prototype for moving the steel plates away and toward the copper paddle, to achieve critical damping. This was successfully completed by attaching two L-shaped pieces of aluminum, along with a cylindrical piece, to form a yoke. We then drilled a hole through the cylindrical piece and a plastic block for a bolt to slide through. Finally, the head of the bolt would then be used as a knob to shift the two plates away from and toward the paddle simultaneously. Although this was our solution for moving the plates horizontally, we also needed to find a way to lock the plates in place once we found the correct amount of damping. We accomplished this task by drilling two slotted holes on two symmetrical sheets of aluminum, which will allow us to slide the plates, and finally, lock them into place to avoid wobbling. References: 1Tokman, T.L. et al., What's shaking? Manufacturing & assembling an AS-1 educational seismometer for undergraduate stem research, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015. 2http://www.jclahr.com/science/psn/chapman/as1%20damping/
Comparison of Damping Mechanisms for Transverse Waves in Solar Coronal Loops
Montes-Solís, María; Arregui, Iñigo, E-mail: mmsolis@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2017-09-10
We present a method to assess the plausibility of alternative mechanisms to explain the damping of magnetohydrodynamic transverse waves in solar coronal loops. The considered mechanisms are resonant absorption of kink waves in the Alfvén continuum, phase mixing of Alfvén waves, and wave leakage. Our methods make use of Bayesian inference and model comparison techniques. We first infer the values for the physical parameters that control the wave damping, under the assumption of a particular mechanism, for typically observed damping timescales. Then, the computation of marginal likelihoods and Bayes factors enable us to quantify the relative plausibility between the alternative mechanisms. We find that, in general, the evidence is not large enough to support a single particular damping mechanism as the most plausible one. Resonant absorption and wave leakage offer the most probable explanations in strong damping regimes, while phase mixing is the best candidate for weak/moderate damping. When applied to a selection of 89 observed transverse loop oscillations, with their corresponding measurements of damping timescales and taking into account data uncertainties, we find that positive evidence for a given damping mechanism is only available in a few cases.
Comparison of Damping Mechanisms for Transverse Waves in Solar Coronal Loops
Montes-Solís, María; Arregui, Iñigo
2017-01-01
We present a method to assess the plausibility of alternative mechanisms to explain the damping of magnetohydrodynamic transverse waves in solar coronal loops. The considered mechanisms are resonant absorption of kink waves in the Alfvén continuum, phase mixing of Alfvén waves, and wave leakage. Our methods make use of Bayesian inference and model comparison techniques. We first infer the values for the physical parameters that control the wave damping, under the assumption of a particular mechanism, for typically observed damping timescales. Then, the computation of marginal likelihoods and Bayes factors enable us to quantify the relative plausibility between the alternative mechanisms. We find that, in general, the evidence is not large enough to support a single particular damping mechanism as the most plausible one. Resonant absorption and wave leakage offer the most probable explanations in strong damping regimes, while phase mixing is the best candidate for weak/moderate damping. When applied to a selection of 89 observed transverse loop oscillations, with their corresponding measurements of damping timescales and taking into account data uncertainties, we find that positive evidence for a given damping mechanism is only available in a few cases.
The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets
Li Kewei; Lin Jiahuang; Kang Zi Yang; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Juan, Jeremias Wong Say
2011-01-01
The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.
Unimodal optimal passive electromechanical damping of elastic structures
Ben Mekki, O; Bourquin, F; Merliot, E; Maceri, F
2013-01-01
In this paper, a new electromechanical damper is presented and used, made of a pendulum oscillating around an alternator axis and connected by a gear to the vibrating structure. In this way, the mechanical energy of the oscillating mass can be transformed into electrical energy to be dissipated when the alternator is branched on a resistor. This damping device is intrinsically non-linear, and the problem of the optimal parameters and of the best placement of this damper on the structure is studied. The optimality criterion chosen here is the maximum exponential time decay rate (ETDR) of the structural response. This criterion leads to new design formulas. The case of a bridge under construction is considered and the analytical results are compared with experimental ones, obtained on a mock-up made of a vertical tower connected to a free-end horizontal beam, to simulate the behavior of a cable-stayed bridge during the erection phase. Up to three electromechanical dampers are placed in order to study the multi-modal damping. The satisfactory agreement between the theoretical model and the experiments suggests that a multi-modal passive damping of electromagnetic type could be effective on lightweight flexible structures, when dampers are suitably placed. (paper)
McNeill, G.A.
1981-01-01
Present high-speed data acquisition systems in nuclear diagnostics use high-frequency oscillators to provide timing references for signals recorded on fast, traveling-wave oscilloscopes. An oscillator's sinusoidal wave shape is superimposed on the recorded signal with each cycle representing a fixed time increment. During data analysis the sinusoid is stripped from the signal, leaving a clean signal shape with known timing. Since all signal/time relationships are totally dependant upon working oscillators, these critical devices must have remote verification of proper operation. This manual presents the newly-developed oscillator monitor which will provide the required verification
Sensitivity Analysis for the CLIC Damping Ring Inductive Adder
Holma, Janne
2012-01-01
The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse generators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the CLIC damping rings are particularly demanding: the flattop of the output pulse must be 160 ns duration, 12.5 kV and 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. An inductive adder allows the use of different modulation techniques and is therefore a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. PSpice has been utilised to carry out a sensitivity analysis of the predicted output pulse to the value of both individual and groups of circuit compon...
Human-in-the-loop evaluation of RMS Active Damping Augmentation
Demeo, Martha E.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Lepanto, Janet A.; Bains, Elizabeth M.; Jensen, Mary C.
1993-01-01
Active Damping Augmentation is the insertion of Controls-Structures Integration Technology to benefit the on-orbit performance of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The goal is to reduce the vibration decay time of the Remote Manipulator System following normal payload maneuvers and operations. Simulation of Active Damping Augmentation was conducted in the realtime human-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The objective of this study was to obtain a qualitative measure of operational performance improvement from astronaut operators and to obtain supporting quantitative performance data. Sensing of vibratory motions was simulated using a three-axis accelerometer mounted at the end of the lower boom of the Remote Manipulator System. The sensed motions were used in a feedback control law to generate commands to the joint servo mechanisms which reduced the unwanted oscillations. Active damping of the Remote Manipulator System with an attached 3990 lb. payload was successfully demonstrated. Six astronaut operators examined the performance of an Active Damping Augmentation control law following single-joint and coordinated six-joint translational and rotational maneuvers. Active Damping Augmentation disturbance rejection of Orbiter thruster firings was also evaluated. Significant reductions in the dynamic response of the 3990 lb. payload were observed. Astronaut operators recommended investigation of Active Damping Augmentation benefits to heavier payloads where oscillations are a bigger problem (e.g. Space Station Freedom assembly operators).
Tuning of damping controller for UPFC using quantum particle swarm optimizer
Shayeghi, H., E-mail: hshayeghi@gmail.co [Technical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Department, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-11-15
On the basis of the linearized Phillips-Herffron model of a single machine power system, we design optimally the unified power flow controller (UPFC) based damping controller in order to enhance power system low frequency oscillations. The problem of robustly UPFC based damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem according to the time domain-based objective function which is solved using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) technique that has fewer parameters and stronger search capability than the particle swarm optimization (PSO), as well as is easy to implement. To ensure the robustness of the proposed damping controller, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through non-linear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies under various disturbance conditions of over a wide range of loading conditions. The results analysis reveals that the designed QPSO based UPFC controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations in comparison with the designed classical PSO (CPSO) based UPFC controller and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the {delta}{sub E} based damping controller is superior to the m{sub B} based damping controller.
Lites, B.W.; Rutten, R.J.; Thomas, J.H.
1995-01-01
We show results from SO/Sacramento Peak data to discuss three issues: (i)--the spatial occurrence of chromospheric 3--min oscillations; (ii)--the validity of Ca II H&K line-center Doppler Shift measurements; (iii)--the signi ?cance of oscillation power and phase at frequencies above 10 mHz.
Yuce, C [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kilic, A [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Coruh, A [Physics Department, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)
2006-07-15
The inverted harmonic oscillator problem is investigated quantum mechanically. The exact wavefunction for the confined inverted oscillator is obtained and it is shown that the associated energy eigenvalues are discrete, and the energy is given as a linear function of the quantum number n.
Robust Rudder Roll Damping Control
Yang, C.
The results of a systematic research to solve a specific ship motion control problem, simultaneous roll damping and course keeping using the rudder are presented in this thesis. The fundamental knowledge a priori is that rudder roll damping is highly sensitive to the model uncertainty, therefore H-infinity...... theory is used to deal with the problem. The necessary mathematical tools and the H-Infinity theory as the basis of controller design are presented in Chapter 2 and 3. The mu synthesis and the D-K iteration are introduced in Chapter 3. The ship dynamics and modeling technology are discussed in Chapter 4...
The Microstructural Basis of Damping in High Damping Alloys
1989-09-01
This transformation is diffusionless and is characterized by the cooperative movement of atoms in a given section of crystal. Removal of the stress...martensites. The cooperative movement of atoms causes large internal friction and high damping. The temperature range in which this transformation can
Symbolic-Numerical Modeling of the Influence of Damping Moments on Satellite Dynamics
Gutnik, Sergey A.; Sarychev, Vasily A.
2018-02-01
The dynamics of a satellite on a circular orbit under the influence of gravitational and active damping torques, which are proportional to the projections of the angular velocity of the satellite, is investigated. Computer algebra Gröbner basis methods for the determination of all equilibrium orientations of the satellite in the orbital coordinate system with given damping torque and given principal central moments of inertia were used. The conditions of the equilibria existence depending on three damping parameters were obtained from the analysis of the real roots of the algebraic equations spanned by the constructed Gröbner basis. Conditions of asymptotic stability of the satellite equilibria and the transition decay processes of the spatial oscillations of the satellite at different damping parameters have also been obtained.
Study of the phase delay in the amplitude-modulated harmonic oscillator
Krupska, Aldona; Krupski, Marcin
2003-01-01
The delayed response of a damped harmonic oscillator (RLC circuit) to a slow periodic disturbance is presented. This communication is supplementary to the paper published recently (Krupska et al 2001 Eur. J. Phys. 22 133-8)
Damping Effects of Drogue Parachutes on Orion Crew Module Dynamics
Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Owens, D. Bruce
2016-01-01
Because simulations of the Orion Crew Module (CM) dynamics with drogue parachutes deployed were under-predicting the amount of damping seen in free-flight tests, an attach-point damping model was applied to the Orion system. A key hypothesis in this model is that the drogue parachutes' net load vector aligns with the CM drogue attachment point velocity vector. This assumption seems reasonable and has historically produced good results, but has never been experimentally verified. The wake of the CM influences the drogue parachutes, which makes performance predictions of the parachutes difficult. Many of these effects are not currently modeled in the simulations. A forced oscillation test of the CM with parachutes was conducted in the NASA LaRC 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) to gather additional data to validate and refine the attach-point damping model. A second loads balance was added to the original Orion VST model to measure the drogue parachute loads independently of the CM. The objective of the test was to identify the contribution of the drogues to CM damping and provide additional information to quantify wake effects and the interactions between the CM and parachutes. The drogue parachute force vector was shown to be highly dependent on the CM wake characteristics. Based on these wind tunnel test data, the attach-point damping model was determined to be a sufficient approximation of the parachute dynamics in relationship to the CM dynamics for preliminary entry vehicle system design. More wake effects should be included to better model the system.
Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator
Alex Elías-Zúñiga
2013-01-01
oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.
On the mechanism of oscillations in neutrophils
Brasen, Jens Christian; Barington, Torben; Olsen, Lars Folke
2010-01-01
We have investigated the regulation of the oscillatory generation of H(2)O(2) and oscillations in shape and size in neutrophils in suspension. The oscillations are independent of cell density and hence do not represent a collective phenomena. Furthermore, the oscillations are independent...... of the external glucose concentration and the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production are 180 degrees out of phase with the oscillations in NAD(P)H. Cytochalasin B blocked the oscillations in shape and size whereas it increased the period of the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. 1- and 2-butanol also blocked...... the oscillations in shape and size, but only 1-butanol inhibited the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. We conjecture that the oscillations are likely to be due to feedback regulations in the signal transduction cascade involving phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). We have tested this using a simple mathematical...
Rotational damping motion in nuclei
Egido, J.L.; Faessler, A.
1991-01-01
The recently proposed model to explain the mechanism of the rotational motion damping in nuclei is exactly solved. When compared with the earlier approximative solution, we find significative differences in the low excitation energy limit (i.e. Γ μ 0 ). For the strength functions we find distributions going from the Wigner semicircle through gaussians to Breit-Wigner shapes. (orig.)
Dampness in buildings and health
Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Blomquist, G.; Gyntelberg, F.
2001-01-01
Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown in the epidem...
Nonlocal quasilinear damped differential inclusions
Mouffak Benchohra
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of mild solutions to second order initial value problems for a class of damped differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the multivalued map has convex and nonconvex values.
Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas
Pecseli, Hans L
2012-01-01
The result of more than 15 years of lectures in plasma sciences presented at universities in Denmark, Norway, and the United States, Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas addresses central issues in modern plasma sciences. The book covers fluid models as well as kinetic plasma models, including a detailed discussion of, for instance, collisionless Landau damping. Offering a clear separation of linear and nonlinear models, the book can be tailored for readers of varying levels of expertise.Designed to provide basic training in linear as well as nonlinear plasma dynamics, and practical in areas as d
Marhauser, Frank
2017-06-01
Research and development for superconducting radio-frequency cavities has made enormous progress over the last decades from the understanding of theoretical limitations to the industrial mass fabrication of cavities for large-scale particle accelerators. Key technologies remain hot topics due to continuously growing demands on cavity performance, particularly when in pursuit of high quality beams at higher beam currents or higher luminosities than currently achievable. This relates to higher order mode (HOM) damping requirements. Meeting the desired beam properties implies avoiding coupled multi-bunch or beam break-up instabilities depending on the machine and beam parameters that will set the acceptable cavity impedance thresholds. The use of cavity HOM-dampers is crucial to absorb the wakefields, comprised by all beam-induced cavity Eigenmodes, to beam-dynamically safe levels and to reduce the heat load at cryogenic temperature. Cavity damping concepts may vary, but are principally based on coaxial and waveguide couplers as well as beam line absorbers or any combination. Next generation energy recovery linacs and circular colliders call for cavities with strong HOM-damping that can exceed the state-of-the-art, while the operating mode efficiency shall not be significantly compromised concurrently. This imposes major challenges given the rather limited damping concepts. A detailed survey of established cavities is provided scrutinizing the achieved damping performance, shortcomings, and potential improvements. The scaling of the highest passband mode impedances is numerically evaluated in dependence on the number of cells for a single-cell up to a nine-cell cavity, which reveals the increased probability of trapped modes. This is followed by simulations for single-cell and five-cell cavities, which incorporate multiple damping schemes to assess the most efficient concepts. The usage and viability of on-cell dampers is elucidated for the single-cell cavity since it
Nuclear piping system damping data studies
Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.
1985-01-01
A programm has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to study structural damping data for nuclear piping systems and to evaluate if changes in allowable damping values for structural seismic analyses are justified. The existing pipe damping data base was examined, from which a conclusion was made that there were several sets of data to support higher allowable values. The parameters which most influence pipe damping were identified and an analytical investigation demonstrated that increased damping would reduce the required number of seismic supports. A series of tests on several laboratory piping systems was used to determine the effect of various parameters such as types of supports, amplitude of vibration, frequency, insulation, and pressure on damping. A multiple regression analysis was used to statistically assess the influence of the various parameters on damping, and an international pipe damping data bank has been formed. (orig.)
IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.
the law of mass-action that every simple reaction approaches ... from thermodynamic equilibrium. Such oscillating systems cor- respond to thermodynamically open systems. .... experimentally observable, and the third is always unstable.
Collisional width of giant resonances and interplay with Landau damping
Bonasera, A.; Burgio, G.F.; Di Toro, M.; Wolter, H.H.
1989-01-01
We present a semiclassical method to calculate the widths of giant resonances. We solve a mean-field kinetic equation (Vlasov equation) with collision terms treated within the relaxation time approximation to construct a damped strength distribution for collective motions. The relaxation time is evaluated from the time evolution of distortions in the nucleon momentum distribution using a test-particle approach. The importance of an energy dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section is stressed. Results are shown for isoscalar giant quadrupole and octupole motions. A quite important interplay between self-consistent (Landau) and collisional damping is revealed
Damping characteristics of reinforced concrete structures
Hisano, M.; Nagashima, I.; Kawamura, S.
1987-01-01
Reinforced concrete structures in a nuclear power plant are not permitted to go far into the inelasticity generally, even when subjected to strong ground motion. Therefore it is important to evaluate the damping appropriately in linear and after cracking stage before yielding in the dynamic response analysis. Next three dampings are considered of reinforced concrete structures. 1) Internal damping in linear range material damping of concrete without cracks;2) Hysteretic damping in inelastic range material hysteretic damping of concrete due to cracking and yielding;3) Damping due to the energy dissipation into the ground. Among these damping material damping affects dynamic response of a nuclear power plant on hard rock site where damping due to energy dissipation into the ground is scarcely expected. However material damping in linear and slightly nonlinear range have only been assumed without enough experimental data. In this paper such damping is investigated experimentally by the shaking table tests of reinforced concrete box-walls which modeled roughly the outer wall structure of a P.W.R. type nuclear power plant
Impact of Cyber Attacks on High Voltage DC Transmission Damping Control
Rui Fan
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Hybrid AC/HVDC (AC-HVDC grids have evolved to become huge cyber-physical systems that are vulnerable to cyber attacks because of the wide attack surface and increasing dependence on intelligent electronic devices, computing resources and communication networks. This paper, for the first time, studies the impact of cyber attacks on HVDC transmission oscillation damping control.Three kinds of cyber attack models are considered: timing attack, replay attack and false data injection attack. Followed by a brief introduction of the HVDC model and conventional oscillation damping control method, the design of three attack models is described in the paper. These attacks are tested on a modified IEEE New England 39-Bus AC-HVDC system. Simulation results have shown that all three kinds of attacks are capable of driving the AC-HVDC system into large oscillations or even unstable conditions.
Transit-Time Damping, Landau Damping, and Perturbed Orbits
Simon, A.; Short, R. W.
1997-11-01
Transit-time damping(G.J. Morales and Y.C. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33), 1534 (1974).*^,*(P.A. Robinson, Phys. Fluids B 3), 545 (1991).** has traditionally been obtained by calculating the net energy gain of transiting electrons, of velocity v, to order E^2* in the amplitude of a localized electric field. This necessarily requires inclusion of the perturbed orbits in the equation of motion. A similar method has been used by others(D.R. Nicholson, Introduction to Plasma Theory) (Wiley, 1983).*^,*(E.M. Lifshitz and L.P. Pitaevskifi, Physical Kinetics) (Pergamon, 1981).** to obtain a ``physical'' picture of Landau damping in a nonlocalized field. The use of perturbed orbits seems odd since the original derivation of Landau (and that of Dawson) never went beyond a linear picture of the dynamics. We introduce a novel method that takes advantage of the time-reversal invariance of the Vlasov equation and requires only the unperturbed orbits to obtain the result. Obviously, there is much reduction in complexity. Application to finite slab geometry yields a simple expression for the damping rate. Equivalence to much more complicated results^2* is demonstrated. This method allows us to calculate damping in more complicated geometries and more complex electric fields, such as occur in SRS in filaments. See accompanying talk.(R.W. Short and A. Simon, this conference.) This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Co-op Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.
Huang, Weiquan; Fang, Tao; Luo, Li; Zhao, Lin; Che, Fengzhu
2017-07-03
The grid strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) used in polar navigation also includes three kinds of periodic oscillation errors as common SINS are based on a geographic coordinate system. Aiming ships which have the external information to conduct a system reset regularly, suppressing the Schuler periodic oscillation is an effective way to enhance navigation accuracy. The Kalman filter based on the grid SINS error model which applies to the ship is established in this paper. The errors of grid-level attitude angles can be accurately estimated when the external velocity contains constant error, and then correcting the errors of the grid-level attitude angles through feedback correction can effectively dampen the Schuler periodic oscillation. The simulation results show that with the aid of external reference velocity, the proposed external level damping algorithm based on the Kalman filter can suppress the Schuler periodic oscillation effectively. Compared with the traditional external level damping algorithm based on the damping network, the algorithm proposed in this paper can reduce the overshoot errors when the state of grid SINS is switched from the non-damping state to the damping state, and this effectively improves the navigation accuracy of the system.
Yanfeng Ma
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Large-scale wind power interfacing to the power grid has an impact on the stability of the power system. However, with an additional damping controller of the wind generator, new ways for improving system damping and suppressing the low frequency oscillation (LFO of power systems can be put forward. In this paper, an active-reactive power additional damping controller based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC is proposed. In order to improve the precision of the controller, the theory of data driven control is adopted, using the numerical algorithms for subspace state space system identification (N4SID to obtain the two order model of the ADRC controlled object. Based on the identification model, the ADRC additional damping controller is designed. Taking a 2-area 4-machine system containing the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG wind farm as an example, it is verified that the active-reactive additional damping controller designed in this paper performs well in suppressing negative-damping LFO and forced power oscillation. When the operation state of the power system changes, it can still restrain the LFO effectively, showing stronger robustness and better effectiveness compared to the traditional proportional–integral–derivative (PID additional damping controller.
Self-oscillation in spin torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque
Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi
2014-01-01
The effect of the field-like torque on the self-oscillation of the magnetization in spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer was studied theoretically. A stable self-oscillation at zero field is excited for negative β while the magnetization dynamics stops for β = 0 or β > 0, where β is the ratio between the spin torque and the field-like torque. The reason why only the negative β induces the self-oscillation was explained from the view point of the energy balance between the spin torque and the damping. The oscillation power and frequency for various β were also studied by numerical simulation
Development of new damping devices for piping
Kobayashi, Hiroe
1991-01-01
An increase of the damping ratio is known to be very effective for the seismic design of a piping system. Increasing the damping ratio and reducing the seismic response of the piping system, the following three types of damping devices for piping systems are introduced: (1) visco-elastic damper, (2) elasto-plastic damper and (3) compact dynamic damper. The dynamic characteristics of these damping devices were investigated by the component test and the applicability of them to the piping system was confirmed by the vibration test using a three dimensional piping model. These damping devices are more effective than mechanical snubbers to reduce the vibration of the piping system. (author)
Reconstructing baryon oscillations: A Lagrangian theory perspective
Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Cohn, J. D.
2009-01-01
Recently Eisenstein and collaborators introduced a method to 'reconstruct' the linear power spectrum from a nonlinearly evolved galaxy distribution in order to improve precision in measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. We reformulate this method within the Lagrangian picture of structure formation, to better understand what such a method does, and what the resulting power spectra are. We show that reconstruction does not reproduce the linear density field, at second order. We however show that it does reduce the damping of the oscillations due to nonlinear structure formation, explaining the improvements seen in simulations. Our results suggest that the reconstructed power spectrum is potentially better modeled as the sum of three different power spectra, each dominating over different wavelength ranges and with different nonlinear damping terms. Finally, we also show that reconstruction reduces the mode-coupling term in the power spectrum, explaining why miscalibrations of the acoustic scale are reduced when one considers the reconstructed power spectrum.
Yew, Alvin G.; Chai, Dean J.; Olney, David J.
2010-01-01
The goal of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is to understand magnetic reconnection with sensor measurements from four spinning satellites flown in a tight tetrahedron formation. Four of the six electric field sensors on each satellite are located at the end of 60- meter wire booms to increase measurement sensitivity in the spin plane and to minimize motion coupling from perturbations on the main body. A propulsion burn however, might induce boom oscillations that could impact science measurements if oscillations do not damp to values on the order of 0.1 degree in a timely fashion. Large damping time constants could also adversely affect flight dynamics and attitude control performance. In this paper, we will discuss the implementation of a high resolution method for calculating the boom's intrinsic damping, which was used in multi-body dynamics simulations. In summary, experimental data was obtained with a scaled-down boom, which was suspended as a pendulum in vacuum. Optical techniques were designed to accurately measure the natural decay of angular position and subsequently, data processing algorithms resulted in excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. This method was repeated in a parametric study for various lengths, root tensions and vacuum levels. For all data sets, regression models for damping were applied, including: nonlinear viscous, frequency-independent hysteretic, coulomb and some combination of them. Our data analysis and dynamics models have shown that the intrinsic damping for the baseline boom is insufficient, thereby forcing project management to explore mitigation strategies.
Spatial xenon oscillation control with expert systems
Alten, S.; Danofsky, R.A.
1993-01-01
Spatial power oscillations were attributed to the xenon transients in a reactor core in 1958 by Randall and St. John. These transients are usually initiated by a local reactivity insertion and lead to divergent axial flux oscillations in the core at constant power. Several heuristic manual control strategies and automatic control methods were developed to damp the xenon oscillations at constant power operations. However, after the load-follow operation of the reactors became a necessity of life, a need for better control strategies arose. Even though various advanced control strategies were applied to solve the xenon oscillation control problem for the load-follow operation, the complexity of the system created difficulties in modeling. The strong nonlinearity of the problem requires highly sophisticated analytical approaches that are quite inept for numerical solutions. On the other hand, the complexity of a system and heuristic nature of the solutions are the basic reasons for using artificial intelligence techniques such as expert systems
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
First integral method for an oscillator system
Xiaoqian Gong
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider the nonlinear Duffing-van der Pol-type oscillator system by means of the first integral method. This system has physical relevance as a model in certain flow-induced structural vibration problems, which includes the van der Pol oscillator and the damped Duffing oscillator etc as particular cases. Firstly, we apply the Division Theorem for two variables in the complex domain, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, to explore a quasi-polynomial first integral to an equivalent autonomous system. Then, through solving an algebraic system we derive the first integral of the Duffing-van der Pol-type oscillator system under certain parametric condition.
Route Flap Damping Made Usable
Pelsser, Cristel; Maennel, Olaf; Mohapatra, Pradosh; Bush, Randy; Patel, Keyur
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the de facto inter-domain routing protocol of the Internet, is known to be noisy. The protocol has two main mechanisms to ameliorate this, MinRouteAdvertisementInterval (MRAI), and Route Flap Damping (RFD). MRAI deals with very short bursts on the order of a few to 30 seconds. RFD deals with longer bursts, minutes to hours. Unfortunately, RFD was found to severely penalize sites for being well-connected because topological richness amplifies the number of update messages exchanged. So most operators have disabled it. Through measurement, this paper explores the avenue of absolutely minimal change to code, and shows that a few RFD algorithmic constants and limits can be trivially modified, with the result being damping a non-trivial amount of long term churn without penalizing well-behaved prefixes' normal convergence process.
Damping of Quasi-stationary Waves Between Two Miscible Liquids
Duval, Walter M. B.
2002-01-01
Two viscous miscible liquids with an initially sharp interface oriented vertically inside a cavity become unstable against oscillatory external forcing due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The instability causes growth of quasi-stationary (q-s) waves at the interface between the two liquids. We examine computationally the dynamics of a four-mode q-s wave, for a fixed energy input, when one of the components of the external forcing is suddenly ceased. The external forcing consists of a steady and oscillatory component as realizable in a microgravity environment. Results show that when there is a jump discontinuity in the oscillatory excitation that produced the four-mode q-s wave, the interface does not return to its equilibrium position, the structure of the q-s wave remains imbedded between the two fluids over a long time scale. The damping characteristics of the q-s wave from the time history of the velocity field show overdamped and critically damped response; there is no underdamped oscillation as the flow field approaches steady state. Viscous effects serve as a dissipative mechanism to effectively damp the system. The stability of the four-mode q-s wave is dependent on both a geometric length scale as well as the level of background steady acceleration.
Thermal Degradation and Damping Characteristic of UV Irradiated Biopolymer
Anika Zafiah M. Rus
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Biopolymer made from renewable material is one of the most important groups of polymer because of its versatility in application. In this study, biopolymers based on waste vegetable oil were synthesized and cross-link with commercial polymethane polyphenyl isocyanate (known as BF. The BF was compressed by using hot compression moulding technique at 90°C based on the evaporation of volatile matter, known as compress biopolymer (CB. Treatment with titanium dioxide (TiO2 was found to affect the physical property of compressed biopolymer composite (CBC. The characterization of thermal degradation, activation energy, morphology structure, density, vibration, and damping of CB were determined after UV irradiation exposure. This is to evaluate the photo- and thermal stability of the treated CB or CBC. The vibration and damping characteristic of CBC samples is significantly increased with the increasing of UV irradiation time, lowest thickness, and percentages of TiO2 loading at the frequency range of 15–25 Hz due to the potential of the sample to dissipate energy during the oscillation harmonic system. The damping property of CBC was improved markedly upon prolonged exposure to UV irradiation.
Modelling of Dampers and Damping in Structures
Høgsberg, Jan Riess
2006-01-01
and the maximum attainable damping are found by maximizing the expression for the damping ratio. The theory is formulated for linear damper models, but may also be applied for non-linear dampers in terms of equivalent linear parameters for stiffness and damping, respectively. The format of the expressions......, and thereby the damping, of flexible structures are generally described in terms of the dominant vibration modes. A system reduction technique, where the damped vibration mode is constructed as a linear combination of the undamped mode shape and the mode shape obtained by locking the damper, is applied....... This two-component representation leads to a simple solution for the modal damping representing the natural frequency and the associated damping ratio. It appears from numerical examples that this system reduction technique provides very accurate results. % Analytical expressions for the optimal tuning...
Multiparticle phenomena and Landau damping
Talman, R.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to survey various methods of studying multiparticle phenomena in accelerators. Both experimental and theoretical methods are described. An effort has been made to emphasize the intuitive and qualitative aspects rather than the detailed mathematics. Some of the terms or concepts to be explained are coherent and incoherent tunes, normal modes, Landau damping, beam-transfer functions, and feedback. These are all of daily importance in the interpretation of colliding-beam observations and the control of performance
Sheath waves, non collisional dampings
Marec, Jean Lucien Ernest
1974-01-01
When a metallic conductor is inserted into an ionised gas, an area of electron depletion is formed between the conductor and the plasma: the ionic sheath. Moreover, if the conductor is excited by an electric field, this ionic sheath plays an important role with respect to microwave properties. In this research thesis, the author addresses the range of frequencies smaller than the plasma frequency, and reports the study of resonance phenomena. After a presentation of the problem through a bibliographical study, the author recalls general characteristics of sheath wave propagation and of sheath resonances, and discusses the validity of different hypotheses (for example and among others, electrostatic approximations, cold plasma). Then, the author more particularly addresses theoretical problems related to non collisional dampings: brief bibliographical study, detailed presentation and description of the theoretical model, damping calculation methods. The author then justifies the design and performance of an experiment, indicates measurement methods used to determine plasma characteristics as well as other magnitudes which allow the description of mechanisms of propagation and damping of sheath waves. Experimental results are finally presented with respect to various parameters. The author discusses to which extent the chosen theoretical model is satisfying [fr
The DAMPE silicon tungsten tracker
Gallo, Valentina; Asfandiyarov, R; Azzarello, P; Bernardini, P; Bertucci, B; Bolognini, A; Cadoux, F; Caprai, M; Domenjoz, M; Dong, Y; Duranti, M; Fan, R; Franco, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gong, K; Guo, D; Husi, C; Ionica, M; Lacalamita, N; Loparco, F; Marsella, G; Mazziotta, M N; Mongelli, M; Nardinocchi, A; Nicola, L; Pelleriti, G; Peng, W; Pohl, M; Postolache, V; Qiao, R; Surdo, A; Tykhonov, A; Vitillo, S; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wu, D; Wu, X; Zhang, F; De Mitri, I; La Marra, D
2017-01-01
The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite has been successfully launched on the 17th December 2015. It is a powerful space detector designed for the identification of possible Dark Matter signatures thanks to its capability to detect electrons and photons with an unprecedented energy resolution in an energy range going from few GeV up to 10 TeV. Moreover, the DAMPE satellite will contribute to a better understanding of the propagation mechanisms of high energy cosmic rays measuring the nuclei flux up to 100 TeV. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is made of twelve layers of single-sided AC-coupled silicon micro-strip detectors for a total silicon area of about 7 $m^2$ . To promote the conversion of incident photons into electron-positron pairs, tungsten foils are inserted into the supporting structure. In this document, a detailed description of the STK constructi...
Nayfeh, Ali Hasan
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim
Solution Hamilton-Jacobi equation for oscillator Caldirola-Kanai
LEONARDO PASTRANA ARTEAGA
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The method allows Hamilton-Jacobi explicitly determine the generating function from which is possible to derive a transformation that makes soluble Hamilton's equations. Using the separation of variables the partial differential equation of the first order called Hamilton-Jacobi equation is solved; as a particular case consider the oscillator Caldirola-Kanai (CK, which is characterized in that the mass presents a temporal evolution exponentially . We demonstrate that the oscillator CK position presents an exponential decay in time similar to that obtained in the damped sub-critical oscillator, which reflects the dissipation of total mechanical energy. We found that in the limit that the damping factor is small, the behavior is the same as an oscillator with simple harmonic motion, where the effects of energy dissipation is negligible.
Structural Damping with Friction Beams
L. Gaul
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In the last several years, there has been increasing interest in the use of friction joints for enhancing damping in structures. The joints themselves are responsible for the major part of the energy dissipation in assembled structures. The dissipated work in a joint depends on both the applied normal force and the excitation force. For the case of a constant amplitude excitation force, there is an optimal normal force which maximizes the damping. A ‘passive’ approach would be employed in this instance. In most cases however, the excitation force, as well as the interface parameters such as the friction coefficient, normal pressure distribution, etc., are not constant. In these cases, a ‘semi-active’ approach, which implements an active varying normal force, is necessary. For the ‘passive’ and ‘semi-active’ approaches, the normal force has to be measured. Interestingly, since the normal force in a friction joint influences the local stiffness, the natural frequencies of the assembled structure can be tuned by adjusting the normal force. Experiments and simulations are performed for a simple laboratory structure consisting of two superposed beams with friction in the interface. Numerical simulation of the friction interface requires non-linear models. The response of the double beam system is simulated using a numerical algorithm programmed in MATLAB which models point-to-point friction with the Masing friction model. Numerical predictions and measurements of the double beam free vibration response are compared. A practical application is then described, in which a friction beam is used to damp the vibrations of the work piece table on a milling machine. The increased damping of the table reduces vibration amplitudes, which in turn results in enhanced surface quality of the machined parts, reduction in machine tool wear, and potentially higher feed rates. Optimal positioning of the friction beams is based on knowledge of the mode
Damping of resistive instability in UNK-1 with digital electronics in feedback
Zhabitskij, V.M.; Ivanov, I.N.; Korenev, I.L.; Yudin, L.A.
1991-01-01
The basis of resistive instability damper system for the UNK-1 is obtained. The system for each of two directions of beam transverse oscillations includes two pairs of pick-up electrodes and damping kickers connected by delayed negative feedback with digital electronics. The requirements for digital electronics in feedback are discussed. The influence of a notch filter is under consideration. In turns out that a 0.8 MHz feedback system damps the resistive instability in the UNK-1 with increment of 0.7 revolution frequency (for low frequencies). 7 refs.; 8 figs
On damping of screw dislocation bending vibrations in dissipative crystal: limiting cases
Dezhin, V. V.
2018-03-01
The expression for the generalized susceptibility of the dislocation obtained earlier was used. The electronic drag mechanism of dislocations is considered. The study of small dislocation oscillations was limited. The contribution of the attenuation of low-frequency bending screw dislocation vibrations to the overall coefficient of dynamic dislocation drag in the long-wave and short-wave limits is calculated. The damping of short-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations caused by an external action of an arbitrary frequency has been investigated. The contribution of long-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations damping in the total drag coefficient at an arbitrary frequency is found.
Impedance effects in the CLIC damping rings
Koukovini-Platia, E; Mounet, N; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B
2011-01-01
Due to the unprecedented brilliance of the beams, the performance of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) damping rings (DR) is affected by collective effects. Single bunch instability thresholds based on a broad-band resonator model and the associated coherent tune shifts have been evaluated with the HEADTAIL code. Simulations performed for positive and negative values of chromaticity showed that higher order bunch modes can be potentially dangerous for the beam stability. This study also includes the effects of high frequency resistive wall impedance due to different coatings applied on the chambers of the wigglers for e-cloud mitigation and/or ultra-low vacuum pressure. The impact of the resistive wall wake fields on the transverse impedance budget is finally discussed.
Kim, Hak Soon; Sohn, Chae Hoon
2007-01-01
In a liquid rocket engine, acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied experimentally for combustion stability by adopting linear acoustic test. In the previous work, it has been found that gas-liquid scheme injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping or absorption when it is tuned finely. Based on this finding, acoustic-damping characteristics of multi-injectors are intensively investigated. From the experimental data, it is found that acoustic oscillations are almost damped out by multi-injectors when they have the tuning length proposed in the previous study. The length corresponds to a half wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling inside the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. But, new injector-coupled acoustic modes show up in the chamber with the injectors of the tuning length although the target mode is nearly damped out. And, appreciable frequency shift is always observed except for the case of the worst tuned injector. Accordingly, it is proposed that the tuning length is adjusted to have the shorter length than a half wavelength when these phenomena are considered
The Frequency-dependent Damping of Slow Magnetoacoustic Waves in a Sunspot Umbral Atmosphere
Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verth, G. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morton, R. J. [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Fedun, V. [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Christian, D. J., E-mail: krishna.prasad@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)
2017-09-20
High spatial and temporal resolution images of a sunspot, obtained simultaneously in multiple optical and UV wavelengths, are employed to study the propagation and damping characteristics of slow magnetoacoustic waves up to transition region heights. Power spectra are generated from intensity oscillations in sunspot umbra, across multiple atmospheric heights, for frequencies up to a few hundred mHz. It is observed that the power spectra display a power-law dependence over the entire frequency range, with a significant enhancement around 5.5 mHz found for the chromospheric channels. The phase difference spectra reveal a cutoff frequency near 3 mHz, up to which the oscillations are evanescent, while those with higher frequencies propagate upward. The power-law index appears to increase with atmospheric height. Also, shorter damping lengths are observed for oscillations with higher frequencies suggesting frequency-dependent damping. Using the relative amplitudes of the 5.5 mHz (3 minute) oscillations, we estimate the energy flux at different heights, which seems to decay gradually from the photosphere, in agreement with recent numerical simulations. Furthermore, a comparison of power spectra across the umbral radius highlights an enhancement of high-frequency waves near the umbral center, which does not seem to be related to magnetic field inclination angle effects.
Study on Active Suppression Control of Drivetrain Oscillations in an Electric Vehicle
Huang, Lei; Cui, Ying
2017-07-01
Due to the low damping in a central driven electric vehicle and lack of passive damping mechanisms as compared with a conventional vehicle, the vehicle may endure torsional vibrations which may deteriorates the vehicle’s drivability. Thus active damping control strategy is required to reduce the undesirable oscillations in an EV. In this paper, the origin of the vibration and the design of a damping control method to suppress such oscillations to improve the drivability of an EV are studied. The traction motor torque that is given by the vehicle controller is adjusted according to the acceleration rate of the motor speed to attenuate the resonant frequency. Simulations and experiments are performed to validate the system. The results show that the proposed control system can effectively suppress oscillations and hence improve drivability.
Kun, S.Y.; Vagov, A.V.
1997-01-01
We employ the statistical reactions with memory approach to study oscillating excitation functions in the 28 Si(E lab =120-126.75 MeV)+ 64 Ni strongly dissipative reaction and the time evolution of the collision process. The nonself-averaging of the oscillations in the excitation functions is interpreted as indication of quantum chaos and damping of the coherent nuclear rotation in dissipative heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)
Anisotropic damping of Timoshenko beam elements
Hansen, M.H.
2001-05-01
This report contains a description of a structural damping model for Timoshenko beam elements used in the aeroelastic code HawC developed at Risoe for modeling wind turbines. The model has been developed to enable modeling of turbine blades which often have different damping characteristics for flapwise, edgewise and torsional vibrations. The structural damping forces acting on the beam element are modeled by viscous damping described by an element damping matrix. The composition of this matrix is based on the element mass and stiffness matrices. It is shown how the coefficients for the mass and stiffness contributions can be calibrated to give the desired modal damping in the complete model of a blade. (au)
Introduction to Classical and Quantum Harmonic Oscillators
Latal, H
1997-01-01
As the title aptly states, this book deals with harmonic oscillators of various kinds, from classical mechanical and electrical oscillations up to quantum oscillations. It is written in a lively language, and occasional interspersed anecdotes make the reading of an otherwise mathematically oriented text quite a pleasure. Although the author claims to have written an 'elementary introduction', it is certainly necessary to have a good deal of previous knowledge in physics (mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum theory), electrical engineering and, of course, mathematics in order to follow the general line of his arguments. The book begins with a thorough treatment of classical oscillators (free, damped, forced) that is followed by an elaboration on Fourier analysis. Lagrange and Hamilton formalisms are then introduced before the problem of coupled oscillations is attacked. A chapter on statistical perspectives leads over to the final discussion of quantum oscillations. With the book comes a diskette containing a number of worksheets (Microsoft Excel) that can be used by the reader for instant visualization to get a better qualitative and quantitative understanding of the material. To the reviewer it seems difficult to pinpoint exactly the range of prospective readership of the book. It can certainly not be intended as a textbook for students, but rather as a reference book for teachers of physics or researchers, who want to look up one or other aspect of harmonic oscillations, for which purpose the diskette represents a very valuable tool. (book review)
Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M A; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain
2016-01-01
Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation.
Naz Niamul Islam
Full Text Available Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA. A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation.
DRK methods for time-domain oscillator simulation
Sevat, M.F.; Houben, S.H.M.J.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Peletier, M.A.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a new Runge-Kutta type integration method that is well-suited for time-domain simulation of oscillators. A unique property of the new method is that its damping characteristics can be controlled by a continuous parameter.
An Empirical Method for Particle Damping Design
Zhi Wei Xu
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Particle damping is an effective vibration suppression method. The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirical method for particle damping design based on extensive experiments on three structural objects – steel beam, bond arm and bond head stand. The relationships among several key parameters of structure/particles are obtained. Then the procedures with the use of particle damping are proposed to provide guidelines for practical applications. It is believed that the results presented in this paper would be helpful to effectively implement the particle damping for various structural systems for the purpose of vibration suppression.
Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets
Akosa, Collins Ashu; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles; Manchon, Aurelien
2016-01-01
A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.
Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2016-06-21
A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.
Shayeghi, H., E-mail: hshayeghi@gmail.co [Technical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Department, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-10-15
In this paper, a new approach based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is proposed to tune the parameters of the thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) power oscillation damping controller. The design problem of the damping controller is converted to an optimization problem with the time-domain-based objective function which is solved by a PSO technique which has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes a wide range of operating conditions into account. The performance of the newly designed controller is evaluated in a four-machine power system subjected to the different types of disturbances in comparison with the genetic algorithm based damping controller. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through the nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the tuned PSO based TCSC damping controller using the proposed fitness function has an excellent capability in damping power system inter-area oscillations and enhances greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, it is superior to the genetic algorithm based damping controller.
Damping forces—a friend or a foe in explaining mechanical motion?
Bartos, Jirí; Musilová, Jana
2006-03-01
This paper presents simple, cheap, easily accessible and, for students, impressive demonstration experiments for three typical examples of physical systems for which damping forces ought to be involved in the equations of motion: a body falling in air, a damped mechanical oscillator, and Foucault currents. The various models of such forces are studied using an elementary physical and mathematical approach. It appears, maybe as a slightly surprising result, that a commonly used model of damping forces in mechanics—air drag force linearly depending on velocity—is not realistic in many typical situations. Equations of motion are solved numerically with standard software packages, even in cases where an analytical solution exists. Thus, the explanation of solved problems is on a level corresponding to an undergraduate university course in general physics. The results of these demonstration experiments are compared with the graphical outputs of numerical solutions.
Damping and non-linearity of a levitating magnet in rotation above a superconductor
Druge, J; Jean, C; Laurent, O; Méasson, M-A; Favero, I
2014-01-01
We study the dissipation of moving magnets in levitation above a superconductor. The rotation motion is analyzed using optical tracking techniques. It displays a remarkable regularity together with long damping time up to several hours. The magnetic contribution to the damping is investigated in detail by comparing 14 distinct magnetic configurations and points towards amplitude-dependent dissipation mechanisms. The non-linear dynamics of the mechanical rotation motion is also revealed and described with an effective Duffing model. The magnetic mechanical damping is consistent with measured hysteretic cycles M(H) that are discussed within a modified critical state model. The obtained picture of the coupling of levitating magnets to their environment sheds light on their potential as ultra-low dissipation mechanical oscillators for high precision physics. (paper)
Damping forces-a friend or a foe in explaining mechanical motion?
Bartos, JirI; Musilova, Jana
2006-01-01
This paper presents simple, cheap, easily accessible and, for students, impressive demonstration experiments for three typical examples of physical systems for which damping forces ought to be involved in the equations of motion: a body falling in air, a damped mechanical oscillator, and Foucault currents. The various models of such forces are studied using an elementary physical and mathematical approach. It appears, maybe as a slightly surprising result, that a commonly used model of damping forces in mechanics-air drag force linearly depending on velocity-is not realistic in many typical situations. Equations of motion are solved numerically with standard software packages, even in cases where an analytical solution exists. Thus, the explanation of solved problems is on a level corresponding to an undergraduate university course in general physics. The results of these demonstration experiments are compared with the graphical outputs of numerical solutions
Oscillations in the dark energy equation of state: New MCMC lessons
Lazkoz, Ruth; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene
2010-01-01
We study the possibility of detecting oscillating patterns in the equation of state (EoS) of the dark energy using different cosmological datasets. We follow a phenomenological approach and study three different oscillating models for the EoS, one of them periodic and the other two damped (proposed here for the first time). All the models are characterized by the amplitude, the center and the frequency of oscillations. In contrast to previous works in the literature, we do not fix the frequency to a fiducial value related to the time extension of chosen datasets, but consider a discrete set of values, so to avoid arbitrariness and try to detect any possible time period in the EoS. We test the models using a recent collection of SNeIa, direct Hubble data and Gamma Ray Bursts data. Main results are: I. even if constraints on the amplitude are not too strong, we detect a trend of it versus the frequency, i.e. decreasing (and even negatives) amplitudes for higher frequencies; II. the center of oscillation (which corresponds to the present value of the EoS parameter) is very well constrained, and phantom behavior seems statistically disfavored; III. the frequency is hard to constrain, showing similar statistical validity for all the values of the discrete set chosen, but the best fit of all the considered scenarios is associated with a period which is in the redshift range depicted by our cosmological data. The 'best' oscillating models are compared with ΛCDM using different dimensionally consistent and Bayesian-based information criteria; the conclusion is reached that at present, data cannot discriminate between a cosmological constant and oscillating equation of state.
Performance of a correlator filter in betatron tune measurements and damping on the NSLS booster
Galayda, J.
1985-01-01
A ''compensated correlator filter'', described by Kramer, et al. has been used for measurement and damping of betatron oscillations in the NSLS booster. The filter consists of a zero-degree power splitter, a 180-degree splitter, a length of 7/8'' air dielectric coaxial cable, and a short length of RG-58 cable. Connected to a beam position monitor, the output of the filter is proportional to the difference in transverse position of each bunch on subsequent turns. The useful bandwidth of the filter for damping rigid bunch oscillations extends from 10 MHz to 250 MHz, in contrast with the gigahertz bandwidth requirements for stochastic cooling, for which the filter was originally proposed. Attenuation of all rotation harmonics in this bandwidth is 40 to 60 dB
Pivi, Mauro; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Ghalam, Ali; Harkay, Katherine; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank
2005-01-01
Collective instabilities caused by the formation of an electron cloud (EC) are a potential limitation to the performances of the damping rings for a future linear collider. In this paper, we present recent simulation results for the electron cloud build-up in damping rings of different circumferences and discuss the single-bunch instabilities driven by the electron cloud
Micro-machined resonator oscillator
Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.
1994-01-01
A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.
Contact stiffness and damping of liquid films in dynamic atomic force microscope
Xu, Rong-Guang; Leng, Yongsheng
2016-01-01
The mechanical properties and dissipation behaviors of nanometers confined liquid films have been long-standing interests in surface force measurements. The correlation between the contact stiffness and damping of the nanoconfined film is still not well understood. We establish a novel computational framework through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the first time to study small-amplitude dynamic atomic force microscopy (dynamic AFM) in a simple nonpolar liquid. Through introducing a tip driven dynamics to mimic the mechanical oscillations of the dynamic AFM tip-cantilever assembly, we find that the contact stiffness and damping of the confined film exhibit distinct oscillations within 6-7 monolayer distances, and they are generally out-of-phase. For the solid-like film with integer monolayer thickness, further compression of the film before layering transition leads to higher stiffness and lower damping, while much lower stiffness and higher damping occur at non-integer monolayer distances. These two alternating mechanisms dominate the mechanical properties and dissipation behaviors of simple liquid films under cyclic elastic compression and inelastic squeeze-out. Our MD simulations provide a direct picture of correlations between the structural property, mechanical stiffness, and dissipation behavior of the nanoconfined film.
CORONAL DENSITY STRUCTURE AND ITS ROLE IN WAVE DAMPING IN LOOPS
Cargill, P. J. [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); De Moortel, I.; Kiddie, G., E-mail: p.cargill@imperial.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2016-05-20
It has long been established that gradients in the Alfvén speed, and in particular the plasma density, are an essential part of the damping of waves in the magnetically closed solar corona by mechanisms such as resonant absorption and phase mixing. While models of wave damping often assume a fixed density gradient, in this paper the self-consistency of such calculations is assessed by examining the temporal evolution of the coronal density. It is shown conceptually that for some coronal structures, density gradients can evolve in a way that the wave-damping processes are inhibited. For the case of phase mixing we argue that (a) wave heating cannot sustain the assumed density structure and (b) inclusion of feedback of the heating on the density gradient can lead to a highly structured density, although on long timescales. In addition, transport coefficients well in excess of classical are required to maintain the observed coronal density. Hence, the heating of closed coronal structures by global oscillations may face problems arising from the assumption of a fixed density gradient, and the rapid damping of oscillations may have to be accompanied by a separate (non-wave-based) heating mechanism to sustain the required density structuring.
Lubrication pressure and fractional viscous damping effects on the spring-block model of earthquakes
Tanekou, G. B.; Fogang, C. F.; Kengne, R.; Pelap, F. B.
2018-04-01
We examine the dynamical behaviours of the "single mass-spring" model for earthquakes considering lubrication pressure effects on pre-existing faults and viscous fractional damping. The lubrication pressure supports a part of the load, thereby reducing the normal stress and the associated friction across the gap. During the co-seismic phase, all of the strain accumulated during the inter-seismic duration does not recover; a fraction of this strain remains as a result of viscous relaxation. Viscous damping friction makes it possible to study rocks at depth possessing visco-elastic behaviours. At increasing depths, rock deformation gradually transitions from brittle to ductile. The fractional derivative is based on the properties of rocks, including information about previous deformation events ( i.e., the so-called memory effect). Increasing the fractional derivative can extend or delay the transition from stick-slip oscillation to a stable equilibrium state and even suppress it. For the single block model, the interactions of the introduced lubrication pressure and viscous damping are found to give rise to oscillation death, which corresponds to aseismic fault behaviour. Our result shows that the earthquake occurrence increases with increases in both the damping coefficient and the lubrication pressure. We have also revealed that the accumulation of large stresses can be controlled via artificial lubrication.
Mahéo, Laurent; Grolleau, Vincent; Rio, Gérard
2009-11-01
To deal with dynamic and wave propagation problems, dissipative methods are often used to reduce the effects of the spurious oscillations induced by the spatial and time discretization procedures. Among the many dissipative methods available, the Tchamwa-Wielgosz (TW) explicit scheme is particularly useful because it damps out the spurious oscillations occurring in the highest frequency domain. The theoretical study performed here shows that the TW scheme is decentered to the right, and that the damping can be attributed to a nodal displacement perturbation. The FEM study carried out using instantaneous 1-D and 3-D compression loads shows that it is useful to display the damping versus the number of time steps in order to obtain a constant damping efficiency whatever the size of element used for the regular meshing. A study on the responses obtained with irregular meshes shows that the TW scheme is only slightly sensitive to the spatial discretization procedure used. To cite this article: L. Mahéo et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).
Contact stiffness and damping of liquid films in dynamic atomic force microscope
Xu, Rong-Guang; Leng, Yongsheng, E-mail: leng@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)
2016-04-21
The mechanical properties and dissipation behaviors of nanometers confined liquid films have been long-standing interests in surface force measurements. The correlation between the contact stiffness and damping of the nanoconfined film is still not well understood. We establish a novel computational framework through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the first time to study small-amplitude dynamic atomic force microscopy (dynamic AFM) in a simple nonpolar liquid. Through introducing a tip driven dynamics to mimic the mechanical oscillations of the dynamic AFM tip-cantilever assembly, we find that the contact stiffness and damping of the confined film exhibit distinct oscillations within 6-7 monolayer distances, and they are generally out-of-phase. For the solid-like film with integer monolayer thickness, further compression of the film before layering transition leads to higher stiffness and lower damping, while much lower stiffness and higher damping occur at non-integer monolayer distances. These two alternating mechanisms dominate the mechanical properties and dissipation behaviors of simple liquid films under cyclic elastic compression and inelastic squeeze-out. Our MD simulations provide a direct picture of correlations between the structural property, mechanical stiffness, and dissipation behavior of the nanoconfined film.
Active Damping of a Piezoelectric Tube Scanner using Self-Sensing Piezo Actuation
Kuiper, S.; Schitter, G.
2010-01-01
In most Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM), a piezoelectric tube scanner is used to position the sample underneath the measurement probe. Oscillations stemming from the weakly damped resonances of the tube scanner are a major source of image distortion, putting a limitation on the achievable imaging speed. This paper demonstrates active damping of these oscillations in multiple scanning axes without the need for additional position sensors. By connecting the tube scanner in a capacitive bridge circuit the scanner oscillations can be measured in both scanning axes, using the same piezo material as an actuator and sensor simultaneously. In order to compensate for circuit imbalance caused by hysteresis in the piezo element, an adaptive balancing circuit is used. The obtained measurement signal is used for feedback control, reducing the resonance peaks in both scanning axes by 18 dB and the cross-coupling at those frequencies by 30 dB. Experimental results demonstrate a significant reduction in scanner oscillations when applying the typical triangular scanning signals, as well as a strong reduction in coupling induced oscillations. Recorded AFM images show a considerable reduction in image distortion due to the proposed control method, enabling artifact free AFM imaging at a speed of 122 lines per second with a standard piezoelectric tube scanner. PMID:26412944
Graf, Rudolf F
1996-01-01
This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing
Damping-off in forest nurseries
Carl Hartley
1921-01-01
Damping-off is the commonest English name for a symptomatic group of diseases affecting great numbers of plant species of widely separated phylogenetic groups. It is commonly used for any disease which results in the rapid decay of young succulent seedlings or soft cuttings. Young shoots from underground rootstocks may also be damped-off before they break through the...
Beam dynamic issues in TESLA damping ring
Shiltsev, V.
1996-05-01
In this paper we study general requirements on impedances of the linear collider TESLA damping ring design. Quantitative consideration is performed for 17-km long ''dog-bone'' ring. Beam dynamics in alternative options of 6.3 and 2.3-km long damping rings is briefly discussed. 5 refs., 2 tabs
On Collisionless Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves
Jensen, Vagn Orla; Petersen, P.I.
1973-01-01
Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero.......Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero....
Study for ILC Damping Ring at KEKB
Flanagan, J.W.; Fukuma, H.; Kanazawa, K.I.; Koiso, H.; Masuzawa, M.; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Y.; Oide, Katsunobu; Suetsugu, Y.; Tobiyama, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Pivi, M.; /SLAC
2011-11-04
ILC damping ring consists of very low emittance electron and positron storage rings. It is necessary for ILC damping ring to study electron cloud effects in such low emittance positron ring. We propose a low emittance operation of KEKB to study the effects.
Identification of Damping from Structural Vibrations
Bajric, Anela
Reliable predictions of the dynamic loads and the lifetime of structures are inﬂuenced by the limited accuracy concerning the level of structural damping. The mechanisms of damping cannot be derived analytically from ﬁrst principles, and in the design of structures the damping is therefore based...... on experience or estimated from measurements. This thesis consists of an extended summary and three papers which focus on enhanced methods for identiﬁcation of damping from random struc-tural vibrations. The developed methods are validated by stochastic simulations, experimental data and full-scale measurements...... which are representative of the vibrations in small and large-scale structures. The ﬁrst part of the thesis presents an automated procedure which is suitable for estimation of the natural frequencies and the modal damping ratios from random response of structures. The method can be incorporated within...
Jianxiu QIN
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In order to numerically evaluate the acoustic characteristics of liquid rocket engine thrust chambers by means of a computational fluid dynamics method, a mathematical model of an artificial constant-volume bomb is proposed in this paper. A localized pressure pulse with a very high amplitude can be imposed on specified regions in a combustion chamber, the numerical procedure of which is described. Pressure oscillations actuated by the released constant-volume bomb can then be analyzed via Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT, and their modes can be identified according to the theoretical acoustic eigenfrequencies of the thrust chamber. The damping performances of the corresponding acoustic modes are evaluated by the half-power bandwidth method. The predicted acoustic characteristics and their damping for a special engine combustor agree well with the experimental data, validating the mathematical model and its numerical procedures. A small-thrust liquid rocket engine chamber is then analyzed by the present model. The First Longitudinal (1L acoustic mode can be excited easily and is hard to be damped. The axial position of the central constant-volume bomb has little influence on the amplitude and damping capacity of the First Radial (1R and 1L acoustic modes. Tangential acoustic modes can only be triggered by an off-centered constant-volume bomb, among which the First Tangential (1T mode is the strongest and regarded as the most harmful one. The amplitude of the 1L acoustic mode is smaller, but its damping factor is larger, as a constant-volume bomb is imposed approaching the injector face. These results are contributed to evaluate the acoustic characteristics and their damping of the combustion chamber. Keywords: Acoustic mode, Constant-volume bomb, Damping characteristics, Damping factor, Half-power bandwidth, Pressure oscillation
Prevention of Pressure Oscillations in Modeling a Cavitating Acoustic Fluid
B. Klenow
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Cavitation effects play an important role in the UNDEX loading of a structure. For far-field UNDEX, the structural loading is affected by the formation of local and bulk cavitation regions, and the pressure pulses resulting from the closure of the cavitation regions. A common approach to numerically modeling cavitation in far-field underwater explosions is Cavitating Acoustic Finite Elements (CAFE and more recently Cavitating Acoustic Spectral Elements (CASE. Treatment of cavitation in this manner causes spurious pressure oscillations which must be treated by a numerical damping scheme. The focus of this paper is to investigate the severity of these oscillations on the structural response and a possible improvement to CAFE, based on the original Boris and Book Flux-Corrected Transport algorithm on structured meshes [6], to limit oscillations without the energy loss associated with the current damping schemes.
Overview on methods for formulating explicit damping matrices for non-classically damped structures
Xu, J.
1998-04-01
In computing the dynamic response of a connected system with multiple components having dissimilar damping characteristics, which is often referred to as nonclassically damped system such as nuclear power plant piping systems supported by stiff structures, one needs to define the system-level damping based upon the damping information of components. This is frequently done in practice using approximate methods expressed as composite modal damping with weighting functions. However, when the difference in damping among components is substantial, the composite modal damping may become inappropriate in the characterization of the damping behavior of such systems. In recent years, several new methods have emerged with the expectation that they could produce more exact system-level damping for a group of nonclassically damped structures which are comprised of components that possess classical modal damping. In this paper, an overview is presented to examine these methods in the light of their theoretical basis, the technical merits, and practical applications. To this end, a synthesis method is described, which was shown to reduce to the other methods in the literature
Experimental determination of damping factors for walls of masonry and reinforced concrete
Buttman, P.
1983-01-01
'Damping' is a fundamental parameter for the determination of the internal force with a given acceleration response spectrum when designing and dimensioning masonry and reinforced concrete walls for the loading case earthquake. The actual dampings of masonry and reinforced concrete walls are determined on a scale of 1:1 by means of a horizontal excitation at a chosen test setup. The test specimen have the dimensions b/h/d=100/200/11,5 cm and 24 cm. The horizontal and sinusoidal excitation of the test specimen is effected by a dynamic oscillating excitation with a maximum power of 20 kN. The evaluation of the measurements shows that the assumed damping values of 4% for the operating basis earthquake are realistic. In case of amplitudes corresponding to the loadings of the safe shutdown earthquake, however, dampings of 11% for reinforced concrete walls and of 24% for masonry walls were determined. This real damping behavior of reinforced concrete and masonry walls was documented by means of measurements, films and pictures. (orig.)
Review of structure damping values for elastic seismic analysis of nuclear power plants
Hashimoto, P.S.; Steele, L.K.; Johnson, J.J.; Mensing, R.W.
1993-03-01
Current US Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance on structure damping values for elastic seismic design analysis of nuclear power plants are contained in Regulatory Guide 1.61 (R.G. 1.61). The objectives of the study described in this report are to investigate the adequacy of R.G1.61 structure damping values based on currently available data, and to recommend revisions to R.G. 1.61 as appropriate. Measured structure damping values, and associated structure, foundation, excitation, and input/response parameters, were collected and compiled. These data were analyzed to identify the parameters that significantly influence structure damping and to quantify structure damping in terms of these parameters. Based on this study, current R.G. 1.61 damping values for structure design are either adequate, or require only minor revision, depending on the structure material. More explicit guidance on structure damping values for seismic analysis to determine input to equipment has been prepared, along with other recommendations to improve the applicability of R.G. 1.61
Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator
Habibollah Razmi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.
One dimension harmonic oscillator
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.
1977-01-01
The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr
Collective motion in quantum many-body systems
Haemmerling, Jens
2011-06-07
We study the emergence of collective dynamics in the integrable Hamiltonian system of two finite ensembles of coupled harmonic oscillators. After identification of a collective degree of freedom, the Hamiltonian is mapped onto a model of Caldeira-Leggett type, where the collective coordinate is coupled to an internal bath of phonons. In contrast to the usual Caldeira-Leggett model, the bath in the present case is part of the system. We derive an equation of motion for the collective coordinate which takes the form of a damped harmonic oscillator. We show that the distribution of quantum transition strengths induced by the collective mode is determined by its classical dynamics. This allows us to derive the spreading for the collective coordinate from first principles. After that we study the interplay between collective and incoherent single-particle motion in a model of two chains of particles whose interaction comprises a non-integrable part. In the perturbative regime, but for a general form of the interaction, we calculate the Fourier transform of the time correlation for the collective coordinate. We obtain the remarkable result that it always has a unique semi-classical interpretation. We show this by a proper renormalization procedure which also allows us to map the non-integrable system to the integrable model of Caldeira-Leggett-type considered previously in which the bath is part of the system.
Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
2009-01-01
of swing. The design of the delayed feedback controller is presented as an optimization problem which gives the possibility of an automated design process. Simulations and flight test verifications of the control system on two different autonomous helicopters are presented and it is shown how a significant......This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous...... helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...
Akhiezer, A.I.; Davydov, L.N.; Spol'nik, Z.A.
1976-01-01
Oscillations of a nonideal crystal are studied, in which macroscopic defects (pores) form a hyperlattice. It is shown that alongside with acoustic and optical phonons (relative to the hyperlattice), in such a crystal oscillations of the third type are possible which are a hydridization of sound oscillations of atoms and surface oscillations of a pore. Oscillation spectra of all three types were obtained
Preliminary Design of an Inductive Adder for CLIC Damping Rings
Holma, J
2011-01-01
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC damping rings will produce ultra-low emittance beam, with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the damping rings kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses: specifications call for a 160 ns duration flattop of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. A solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is a very promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications; this topology allows the use of both digital and analogue modulation. To effectively use modulation techniques to achieve such low ripple and droop requires an in-depth knowledge of the behaviour of the solid-state switching components and their gate drivers, as well as a good understanding of the overa...
Pulse Power Modulator development for the CLIC Damping Ring Kickers
Holma, Janne
2012-01-01
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity (10-34 – 10-35 cm-2s-1) and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV: CLIC would complement LHC physics in the multi-TeV range. The CLIC design relies on Pre-Damping Rings (PDR) and Damping Rings (DR) to achieve the very low emittance, through synchrotron radiation, needed for the luminosity requirements of CLIC. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the DR kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses: the 2 GHz specification called for a 160 ns duration flat-top of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. In order to meet these demanding specifications, a combination of broadband impedance matching, optimized electrical circuit layout and advanced control techniques is required. A solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is the most promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications...
The short circumference damping ring design for the ILC
Korostelev, Maxim S; Kuriki, Masao; Kuroda, Shigeru; Naito, Takashi; Ross, Marc; Urakawa, Junji; Zimmermann, Frank
2005-01-01
The ILC damping ring tentative design is driven by the operational scenario of the main linac, the beam-dynamics demand of producing a stable and high-quality beam, the injection/extraction scheme and the kicker performance. In this paper, a short circumference damping ring design based on TME cells is described. The ring accommodates injection kickers which provide a flat top of 280 nsec and a 60 nsec rise and fall time and very fast strip-line kickers for beam extraction with a 2 nsec rise and fall time for 3-MHz operation. The potential impact of collective effects and the possible degradation of the dynamic aperture by nonlinear-wiggler fields are estimated.
Asymptotical Behavior of the Solution of a SDOF Linear Fractionally Damped Vibration System
Z.H. Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Fractional-order derivative has been shown an adequate tool to the study of so-called "anomalous" social and physical behaviors, in reflecting their non-local, frequency- and history-dependent properties, and it has been used to model practical systems in engineering successfully, including the famous Bagley-Torvik equation modeling forced motion of a rigid plate immersed in Newtonian fluid. The solutions of the initial value problems of linear fractional differential equations are usually expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions or some other kind of power series. Such forms of solutions are not good for engineers not only in understanding the solutions but also in investigation. This paper proves that for the linear SDOF oscillator with a damping described by fractional-order derivative whose order is between 1 and 2, the solution of its initial value problem free of external excitation consists of two parts, the first one is the 'eigenfunction expansion' that is similar to the case without fractional-order derivative, and the second one is a definite integral that is independent of the eigenvalues (or characteristic roots. The integral disappears in the classical linear oscillator and it can be neglected from the solution when stationary solution is addressed. Moreover, the response of the fractionally damped oscillator under harmonic excitation is calculated in a similar way, and it is found that the fractional damping with order between 1 and 2 can be used to produce oscillation with large amplitude as well as to suppress oscillation, depending on the ratio of the excitation frequency and the natural frequency.
Shape memory alloys as damping materials
Humbeeck, J. van
2000-01-01
Shape memory alloys are gaining an increased interest as passive as well as active damping materials. This damping ability when applied in structural elements can lead to a better noise control, improved life time and even better performance of the envisaged tools. By passive damping, it is understood that the material converts a significant part of unwanted mechanical energy into heat. This mechanical energy can be a (resonance) vibration, impact loading or shock waves. This high damping capacity finds its origin in the thermoelastic martensitic phase due to the hysteretic mobility of martensite-variants or different phase interfaces. The damping capacity increases with increasing amplitude of the applied vibration or impact and is almost frequency independent. Special interest exists moreover for damping extreme large displacements by applying the mechanical hysteresis performed during pseudoelastic loading. This aspect is nowadays very strongly studied as a tool for protecting buildings against earthquakes in seismic active regions. Active damping can be obtained in hybrid composites by controlling the recovery stresses or strains of embedded shape memory alloy wires. This controls the internal energy fo a structure which allows controlled modal modification and tuning of the dynamical properties of structural elements. But also impact damage, acoustic radiation, dynamic shape control can be actively controlled. As a consequence improved fatigue-resistance, better performance and a longer lifetime of the structural elements can be obtained. (orig.)
Lifetime measurement of ATF damping ring
Okugi, T.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Naito, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Zimmermann, F.
1998-06-01
The purpose of the ATF damping ring is the development of technologies for producing a low emittance beam required in future linear colliders such as JLC. The lifetime of the damping ring is very short (typically a few minutes). It is limited by elastic beam-gas scattering along with a small dynamic aperture, and by single intra-beam scattering (Touschek effect). The Touschek lifetime strongly depends upon the charge density of the beam, especially, the size of the vertical emittance. In this paper, the authors report the results of beam lifetime measurements in the ATF damping ring and the estimation of the vertical emittance from these measurements
A Resonant Damping Study Using Piezoelectric Materials
Min, J. B.; Duffy, K. P.; Choi, B. B.; Morrison, C. R.; Jansen, R. H.; Provenza, A. J.
2008-01-01
Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue (HCF) problems requiring damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery blade research, a feasibility study of resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches with passive and active control techniques has been conducted on cantilever beam specimens. Test results for the passive damping circuit show that the optimum resistive shunt circuit reduces the third bending resonant vibration by almost 50%, and the optimum inductive circuit reduces the vibration by 90%. In a separate test, active control reduced vibration by approximately 98%.
Magma chamber interaction giving rise to asymmetric oscillations
Walwer, D.; Ghil, M.; Calais, E.
2017-12-01
Geodetic time series at four volcanoes (Okmok, Akutan, Shishaldin, and Réunion) are processed using Multi-channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) and reveal sawtooth-shaped oscillations ; the latter are characterized by short intervals of fast inflations followed by longer intervals of slower deflations. At Okmok and Akutan, the oscillations are first damped and then accentuated. At Okmok, the increase in amplitude of the oscillations is followed by an eruption. We first show that the dynamics of these four volcanoes bears similarities with that of a simple nonlinear, dissipative oscillator, indicating that the inflation-deflation episodes are relaxation oscillations. These observations imply that ab initio dynamical models of magma chambers should possess an asymmetric oscillatory regime. Next, based on the work of Whitehead and Helfrich [1991], we show that a model of two magma chambers — connected by a cylindrical conduit in which the magma viscosity depends on temperature — gives rise to asymmetric overpressure oscillations in the magma reservoirs. These oscillations lead to surface deformations that are consistent with those observed at the four volcanoes in this study. This relaxation oscillation regime occurs only when the vertical temperature gradient in the host rock between the two magma chambers is large enough and when the magma flux entering the volcanic system is sufficiently high. The magma being supplied by a deeper source region, the input flux depends on the pressure difference between the source and the deepest reservoir. When this difference is not sufficiently high, the magma flux exponentially decreases, leading to damped oscillations as observed at Akutan and Okmok. The combination of observational and modeling results clearly supports the role of relaxation oscillations in the dynamics of volcanic systems.
Oscillators - a simple introduction
Lindberg, Erik
2013-01-01
Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?......Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?...
Lindberg, Erik
1997-01-01
In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear wit...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos....
Effective mass and damping of submerged structures
Dong, R.G.
1979-01-01
A number of structures important for safety in nuclear power plants are submerged in water. These include spent fuel storage racks, main pressure relief valve lines, and internal structures in the reactor vessel. Dynamic analyses of such structures must include the force and damping effects of water. A wide variety of modeling assumptions are being used in design analyses, and currently there are no uniform positions by which to judge the adequacy of the assumptions . A study was caried out to establish a technical basis for evaluating the assymptions and to recommend suitable methods to describe the effects of the water. The results of the study were based on information published in the literature or conveyed by industrial firms. A survey of 32 firms and 49 technical references was carried out. Heavy emphasis was placed on validating the results with available experimental data. The information collected apply generally to idealized structures such as single isolated members, arrays of members and coaxial cylinders. The results of the study are categorized with respect to such idealized structures, and the applicability to actual reactor structures was discussed through observations and recommendations. (orig.)
Resonant Electromagnetic Shunt Damping of Flexible Structures
Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic transducers convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. Effective passive vibration damping of flexible structures can therefore be introduced by shunting with an accurately calibrated resonant electrical network thatcontains a capacitor to create the desired...
Offline software for the DAMPE experiment
Wang, Chi; Liu, Dong; Wei, Yifeng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yunlong; Wang, Xiaolian; Xu, Zizong; Huang, Guangshun; Tykhonov, Andrii; Wu, Xin; Zang, Jingjing; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei; Wen, Sicheng; Wu, Jian; Chang, Jin
2017-10-01
A software system has been developed for the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) mission, a satellite-based experiment. The DAMPE software is mainly written in C++ and steered using a Python script. This article presents an overview of the DAMPE offline software, including the major architecture design and specific implementation for simulation, calibration and reconstruction. The whole system has been successfully applied to DAMPE data analysis. Some results obtained using the system, from simulation and beam test experiments, are presented. Supported by Chinese 973 Program (2010CB833002), the Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) (XDA04040202-4), the Joint Research Fund in Astronomy under cooperative agreement between the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and CAS (U1531126) and 100 Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Science
Simplified Model of Nonlinear Landau Damping
Yampolsky, N.A.; Fisch, N.J.
2009-01-01
The nonlinear interaction of a plasma wave with resonant electrons results in a plateau in the electron distribution function close to the phase velocity of the plasma wave. As a result, Landau damping of the plasma wave vanishes and the resonant frequency of the plasma wave downshifts. However, this simple picture is invalid when the external driving force changes the plasma wave fast enough so that the plateau cannot be fully developed. A new model to describe amplification of the plasma wave including the saturation of Landau damping and the nonlinear frequency shift is proposed. The proposed model takes into account the change of the plasma wave amplitude and describes saturation of the Landau damping rate in terms of a single fluid equation, which simplifies the description of the inherently kinetic nature of Landau damping. A proposed fluid model, incorporating these simplifications, is verified numerically using a kinetic Vlasov code.
Damping Wiggler Study at KEK-ATF
Naito, Takashi; Honda, Yosuke; Korostelev, Maxim S; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuriki, Masao; Kuroda, Shigeru; Muto, Toshiya; Nakamura, Norio; Ross, Marc; Sakai, Hiroshi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; Zimmermann, Frank
2005-01-01
The effects by damping wiggler magnets have been studied at KEK-ATF. The damping ring of the KEK-ATF is a 1.3 GeV storage ring capable of producing ultra-low emittance electron beams. It is significant issue to realize fast damping in the damping ring. The tuning method with 4 sets of wiggler was investigated for the ultra-low emittance beam. The performance on the beam quality, which is related to the transverse (x and y) and the longitudinal (z and dp/p), has been measured by the SR monitor, the laser wire, the streak camera and the energy spread monitor at the extraction line. We report on the operation condition and the measurement results.
Damping of type III solar radio bursts
Levin, B.N.
1982-01-01
The meter- and decameter-wavelength damping of type III bursts may be attributable to stabilization of the Langmuir-wave instability of the fast-electron streams through excitation of cyclotron-branch plasma waves
Xenon-induced axial power oscillations in the 400 MW PBMR
Strydom, Gerhard
2008-01-01
The redistribution of the spatial xenon concentration in the 400 MW Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) core has a non-linear, time-dependent feedback effect on the spatial power density during several types of operational transient events. Due to the inherent weak coupling that exists between the iodine and xenon formation and destruction rates, as well as the complicating effect of spatial variance in the thermal flux field, reactor cores have been analyzed for a number of decades for the occurrence and severity of xenon-induced axial power oscillations. Of specific importance is the degree of oscillation damping exhibited by the core during transients, which involves axial variations in the local power density. In this paper the TINTE reactor dynamics code is used to assess the stability of the current 400 MW PBMR core design with regard to axial xenon oscillations. The focus is mainly on the determination of the inherent xenon and power oscillation damping properties by utilizing a set of hypothetical control rod insertion transients at various power levels. The oscillation damping properties of two 100%-50%-100% load-follow transients, one of which includes the de-stabilizing axial effects of moving control rods, are also discussed in some detail. The study shows that, although first axial mode oscillations do occur in the 400 MW PBMR core, the inherent damping of these oscillations is high, and that none of the investigated load-follow transients resulted in diverging oscillations. It is also shown that the PBMR core exhibits no radial oscillation components for these xenon-induced axial power oscillations
Proceedings of Damping Volume 1 of 3
1993-06-01
paper. This work will present a passive piezoelectric damping implementation on ASTREX, a large space structure. The motivation behind this research is...Presented at Damping San Francisco, CA February 24-26, 1993 Motivation "• Accurate design of precision structures "* Computer modelling - Design...14) (KI f(0)/Fl,.) FRom equations (3) and (6), Young’s modulus of rubber specimen is written as; L Ea-K (15) A E - EJ(I+ PS4 ) (16) NONRESONANT TEST
Critical current oscillations in S/F heterostructures in the presence of s-d scattering
Vedyayev, A.V.; Ryzhanova, N.V.; Pugach, N.G.
2006-01-01
Josephson current is investigated in the superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction. It was shown that the current exhibited damping oscillations as a function of the ferromagnetic layer thickness. Previous theories based on Usadel or Eilenberger equations have predicted that the damping length and oscillation period divided by 2π were the same for weak ferromagnetic spacer. This contradicts past experiments. A new calculation of the Josephson current is proposed. The Gorkov equations are solved taking into account s-d scattering in ferromagnet. It is shown that the oscillation period depends only on the exchange magnetic field in the spacer, whereas the damping length is connected to the ferromagnetic mean free path. The concordance with the former experiment allows one to conclude that s-d scattering as a pair-breaking mechanism plays a significant role in the proximity effect in S/F heterostructures
Edme, R.
1983-01-01
If a dynamic response analysis (harmonic excitation) is carried out with the modal method, the modal damping coefficients must be approximated to match the structural damping. The program ASKA-Damping, which also supplies an error assessment of the approximation, was developed for this purpose. The modal method and the direct method are applied to a test example and their results compared. It is suggested that the ASKA manufacturers extend the spectral earthquake response analysis to take these modal damping coefficients into account so that the results become less conservative. (orig.) [de
Optics design of Intrabeam Scattering dominated damping rings
Antoniou, Fanouria; Papaphilippou, Ioannis
A e+/e- linear collider, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is under design at CERN, aiming to explore the terascale particle physics regime. The collider has been optimized at 3 TeV center of mass energy and targets a luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. In order to achieve this high luminosity, high intensity bunches with ultra low emittances, in all three planes, are required. The generation of ultra low emittance is achieved in the Damping Rings (DR) complex of the collider. The large input beam emittances, especially the ones coming from the positron source, and the requirement of ultra low emittance production in a fast repetition time of 20 ms, imply that the beam damping is done in two stages. Thus, a main-damping ring (DR) and a predamping ring (PDR) are needed, for each particle species. The high bunch brightness gives rise to several collective effects, with Intra-beam scattering (IBS) being the main limitation to the ultra-low emittance. This thesis elaborates the lattice design and non-linear optimizatio...
Temperature effects on MIPs in the BGO calorimeters of DAMPE
Wang, Yuan-Peng; Wen, Si-Cheng; Jiang, Wei; Yue, Chuan; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Wei, Yi-Feng; Zhang, YunLong; Zang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Jian
2017-10-01
In this paper, we present a study of temperature effects on BGO calorimeters using proton MIPs collected in the first year of operation of DAMPE. By directly comparing MIP calibration constants used by the DAMPE data production pipe line, we find an experimental relation between the temperature and signal amplitudes of each BGO bar: a general deviation of -1.162%/°C, and -0.47%/°C to -1.60%/°C statistically for each detector element. During 2016, DAMPE’s temperature changed by ˜8°C due to solar elevation angle, and the corresponding energy scale bias is about 9%. By frequent MIP calibration operation, this kind of bias is eliminated to an acceptable value. This work was supported by National Key Program for Research and Development (No. 2016YFA0400200) and by NSFC (11303105, 11673021). The DAMPE mission was funded by the strategic priority science and technology projects in space science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA04040000 and No. XDA04040400)
Bryan's effect and anisotropic nonlinear damping
Joubert, Stephan V.; Shatalov, Michael Y.; Fay, Temple H.; Manzhirov, Alexander V.
2018-03-01
In 1890, G. H. Bryan discovered the following: "The vibration pattern of a revolving cylinder or bell revolves at a rate proportional to the inertial rotation rate of the cylinder or bell." We call this phenomenon Bryan's law or Bryan's effect. It is well known that any imperfections in a vibratory gyroscope (VG) affect Bryan's law and this affects the accuracy of the VG. Consequently, in this paper, we assume that all such imperfections are either minimised or eliminated by some known control method and that only damping is present within the VG. If the damping is isotropic (linear or nonlinear), then it has been recently demonstrated in this journal, using symbolic analysis, that Bryan's law remains invariant. However, it is known that linear anisotropic damping does affect Bryan's law. In this paper, we generalise Rayleigh's dissipation function so that anisotropic nonlinear damping may be introduced into the equations of motion. Using a mixture of numeric and symbolic analysis on the ODEs of motion of the VG, for anisotropic light nonlinear damping, we demonstrate (up to an approximate average), that Bryan's law is affected by any form of such damping, causing pattern drift, compromising the accuracy of the VG.
Piping system damping data at higher frequencies
Ware, A.G.
1987-01-01
Research has been performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to determine best-estimate damping values for dynamic analyses of nuclear piping systems excited in the 20 to 100 Hz frequency range. Vibrations in this frequency range are typical of fluid-induced transients, for which no formal pipe damping guidelines exist. The available data found in the open literature and the USNRC/INEL nuclear piping damping data bank were reviewed, and a series of tests on a straight 3-in. (76-mm) piping system and a 5-in. (127-mm) system with several bends and elbows were conducted as part of this research program. These two systems were supported with typical nuclear piping supports that could be changed from test to test during the series. The resulting damping values were ≥ those of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) proposal for unisulated piping. Extending the PVRC damping curve from 20 to 100 Hz at 3% of critical damping would give a satisfactory representation of the test data. This position has been endorsed by the PVRC Technical Committee on Piping Systems. 14 refs
Seismic metamaterials based on isochronous mechanical oscillators
Finocchio, G., E-mail: gfinocchio@unime.it; Garescì, F.; Azzerboni, B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Casablanca, O.; Chiappini, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Via Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma (Italy); Ricciardi, G. [Department of Civil, Informatic, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering and Applied Mathematics, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Alibrandi, U. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2014-05-12
This Letter introduces a seismic metamaterial (SM) composed by a chain of mass-in-mass system able to filter the S-waves of an earthquake. We included the effect of the SM into the mono dimensional model for the soil response analysis. The SM modifies the soil behavior and in presence of an internal damping the amplitude of the soil amplification function is reduced also in a region near the resonance frequency. This SM can be realized by a continuous structure with inside a 3d-matrix of isochronous oscillators based on a sphere rolling over a cycloidal trajectory.
SELECTIVE MODAL ANALYSIS OF POWER FLOW OSCILLATION IN LARGE SCALE LONGITUDINAL POWER SYSTEMS
Wirindi -
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Novel selective modal analysis for the determination of low frequency power flow oscillation behaviour based on eigenvalues with corresponding damping ratio, cumulative damping index, and participation factors is proposed. The power system being investigated consists of three large longitudinally interconnected areas with some weak tie lines. Different modes, such as exciter modes, inter area modes, and local modes of the dominant poles are fully studied to find out the significant level of system damping and other factors producing power flow instability. The nature of the energy exchange between area is determined and strategic power flow stability improvement is developed and tested.
A lattice with larger momentum compaction for the NLC main damping rings
Wolski, Andrzej; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Woodley, Mark; Wu, Juhao
2004-01-01
Previous lattice designs for the Next Linear Collider Main Damping Rings [1] have met the specifications for equilibrium emittance, damping rate and dynamic aperture. Concerns about the effects of the damping wiggler on the beam dynamics [2] led to the aim of reducing the total length of the wiggler to a minimum consistent with the required damping rate, so high-field dipoles were used to provide a significant energy loss in the arcs. However, recent work has shown that the wiggler effects may not be as bad as previously feared. Furthermore, other studies have suggested the need for an increased momentum compaction (by roughly a factor of four) to raise the thresholds of various collective effects. We have therefore developed a new lattice design in which we increase the momentum compaction by reducing the field strength in the arc dipoles, compensating the loss in damping rate by increasing the length of the wiggler. The new lattice again meets the specifications for emittance, damping rate and dynamic aperture, while having the benefit of significantly higher thresholds for a number of instabilities
Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos of Microcantilever-Based TM-AFMs with Squeeze Film Damping Effects
Jie-Yu Chen
2009-05-01
Full Text Available In Atomic force microscope (AFM examination of a vibrating microcantilever, the nonlinear tip-sample interaction would greatly influence the dynamics of the cantilever. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics and chaos of a tip-sample dynamic system being run in the tapping mode (TM were investigated by considering the effects of hydrodynamic loading and squeeze film damping. The microcantilever was modeled as a spring-mass-damping system and the interaction between the tip and the sample was described by the Lennard-Jones (LJ potential. The fundamental frequency and quality factor were calculated from the transient oscillations of the microcantilever vibrating in air. Numerical simulations were carried out to study the coupled nonlinear dynamic system using the bifurcation diagram, Poincaré maps, largest Lyapunov exponent, phase portraits and time histories. Results indicated the occurrence of periodic and chaotic motions and provided a comprehensive understanding of the hydrodynamic loading of microcantilevers. It was demonstrated that the coupled dynamic system will experience complex nonlinear oscillation as the system parameters change and the effect of squeeze film damping is not negligible on the micro-scale.
Damping of liquid sloshing by foams: from everyday observations to liquid transport
Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, Francois; Cappello, Jean; Stone, Howard
2014-11-01
When a liquid-filled container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to slosh, i.e. oscillate. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rim of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily, which suggests that the presence of foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath in a Hele-Shaw cell. We generate a monodisperse 2D liquid foam and track its motion. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is characterized: 2 to 3 layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. For more than 5 layers of bubbles, the original vertical motion of the foam becomes mainly horizontal. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient. This study motivated by everyday observations has promising applications in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquid in cargoes.
Granados, Albert
2017-01-01
Energy harvesting systems based on oscillators aim to capture energy from mechanical oscillations and convert it into electrical energy. Widely extended are those based on piezoelectric materials, whose dynamics are Hamiltonian submitted to different sources of dissipation: damping and coupling...... in Hamiltonian systems and hence could be very useful in energy harvesting applications. This article is a first step towards this goal. We consider two piezoelectric beams submitted to a small forcing and coupled through an electric circuit. By considering the coupling, damping and forcing as perturbations, we...
Nonlinear oscillation regime of electromagnetic disturbances in the equatorial F region
Sazonov, S.V.
1990-01-01
Nonlinear oscillation regime of electromagnetic dicturbances within equatorial ionosphere F-region resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instability, gradient-drift instability and recombination processes is investigated on the basis of two-liquid quasihydrodynamics equations. It is shown, that at positive linear increment the oscillations are developing in regime with aggregation and are terminated by increment the effect of threshold destabilization, when under certain initial conditions underlgoes oscillation nonlinear swinging, resulting, as well, in bubble formation in contrast to small damping oscillations, is detected
PSS and TCSC damping controller coordinated design using PSO in multi-machine power system
Shayeghi, H., E-mail: hshayeghi@gmail.co [Technical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safari, A.; Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-12-15
The paper develops a new design procedure for simultaneous coordinated designing of the thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) damping controller and power system stabilizer (PSS) in multi-machine power system. The coordinated design problem of PSS and TCSC damping controllers over a wide range of loading conditions is converted to an optimization problem with the time domain-based objective function that is solved by a particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique which has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. By minimizing the proposed fitness function in which oscillatory characteristics between areas are included and thus the interactions among the TCSC controller and PSS under transient conditions in the multi-machine power system are improved. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes a wide range of operating conditions into account. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through the nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results of these studies show that the proposed coordinated controllers have an excellent capability in damping power system inter-area oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power system. Moreover, it is superior to both the uncoordinated designed stabilizers of the PSS and the TCSC damping controller.
Yamanaka, Shuji; Yayama, Hideki; Arai, Toshikazau; Anju Sawada, Anju; Fukuda, Akira
2013-01-01
We measured the resonance spectra of edge magnetoplasmon (EMP) oscillations in a two-dimensional (2D) electron system located on a liquid-helium surface below 1.1 K. Systematic measurements of the resonance frequency and the damping rate as a function of the lateral confinement electric field strength shows clear evidence of the oscillation mode transformation. A pronounced change corresponding to the mode transformation was observed in the damping rate. When 2D electrons are confined in a strong lateral electric field, the damping is weak. As the lateral confinement electric field is reduced below a certain threshold value, an abrupt enhancement of the damping rate is observed. We hypothesize that the weak damping mode in the strong lateral confinement electric field is the compressive density oscillation of the electrons near the edge (conventional EMP) and the strong damping mode in the weak confinement field is the coupled mode of conventional EMP and the boundary displacement wave (BDW). The observation of the strong damping in the BDW-EMP coupled mode is a manifestation of the nearly incompressible feature of strongly interacting classical electrons, which agrees with earlier theoretical predictions.
Hagerhed, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan
2002-01-01
Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type of found......Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type...... of "Dry air" in 17.3 and 33.7% respectively. Older buildings and the use of natural ventilation were associated with increased frequency of dampness indicators as well as to increased frequencies of complaints on bad indoor air quality....
Numerical studies of shear damped composite beams using a constrained damping layer
Kristensen, R.F.; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
2008-01-01
Composite beams containing one or more damping layers are studied numerically. The work is based on a semi-analytical model using a Timoshenko beam theory and a full 2D finite element model. The material system analysed, is inspired by a train wagon suspension system used in a EUREKA project Sigma......!1841. For the material system, the study shows that the effect of the damping layer is strongly influenced by the presence of a stiff constraining layer, that enforces large shear strain amplitudes. The thickness of the damping rubber layer itself has only a minor influence on the overall damping....... In addition, a large influence of ill positioned cuts in the damping layer is observed....
Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping
Choi, Yun Seok
2015-07-28
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.
Characterization of fluid forces exerted on a cylinder array oscillating laterally in axial flow
Divaret, Lise
2014-01-01
This thesis presents an experimental and a numerical study of the fluid forces exerted on a cylinder or a cylinder array oscillating laterally in an axial flow. The parameters of the system are the amplitude, the oscillation frequency, the confinement and the length to diameter ratio of the cylinder. The objective is to determine the fluid damping created by the axial flow, i.e. the dissipative force. The industrial application of this thesis is the determination of the fluid damping of the fuel assemblies in the core of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake. The study focuses on the configurations where the oscillation velocity is small compared to the axial flow velocity. In a first part, we study the case of a cylinder with no confinement oscillating in axial flow. Two methods are used: a dynamical and a quasi-static approach. In dynamics, the damping rate is measured during free oscillations of the cylinder. In the quasi-static approach, the damping coefficient is calculated from the normal force measured on a yawed cylinder. The range of the small ratios between the oscillation and the axial flow velocities corresponds to a range of low yaw angle where the cylinder is in near-axial flow in statics. The case of a yawed cylinder has been studied both experimentally with experiments in a wind tunnel and numerically with CFD calculations. The analyses of the fluid forces shows that for yaw angles smaller than 5 degrees, a linear lift with the yaw angle creates the damping. The origin of the lift force is discussed from pressure and velocity measurements. The results of the quasi-static approach are compared to the results of the dynamical experiments. In a second part, an experimental study is performed on a rigid cylinder array made up of 40 cylinders oscillating in an axial flow. The normal force and the displacement of the cylinder array are measured simultaneously. The added mass and damping coefficient are calculated and their variation with the
A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations
Farahani, Mohsen, E-mail: m.farahani@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Hamedan-Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-12-14
This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.
A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations
Farahani, Mohsen
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.
H. Brekke
1985-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of the dissertation has been to establish a complete stability analysis of a hydroelectric power plant. The most important part in this study has been to establish a theory for the damping of oscillatory flow in tunnels and pipes. The influence of the turbine characteristics is also important and has been included by differentiation of the turbine equation. The partial derivative values can be found by means of the characteristic diagram of the turbine. Special attention is paid to establishing an empirical friction function for tunnels with rough walls. The author has based his theory on experimental tests carried out for damping of sea waves on rough beds, and the friction factor is a function of both frequency, amplitudes, cross section area and roughness of the wall (Jonsson 1978. Further, the damping of oscillations in shafts leading to tunnels taking into account the mean velocity in the tunnel has been established.
Damping in heat exchanger tube bundles. A review
Iqbal, Qamar; Khushnood, Shahab; Ghalban, Ali Roheim El; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Malik, Muhammad Afzaal; Arastu, Asif
2007-01-01
Damping is a major concern in the design and operation of tube bundles with loosely supported tubes in baffles for process shell and tube heat exchangers and steam generators which are used in nuclear, process and power generation industries. System damping has a strong influence on the amplitude of vibration. Damping depends upon the mechanical properties of the tube material, geometry of intermediate supports and the physical properties of shell-side fluid. Type of tube motion, number of supports, tube frequency, vibration amplitude, tube mass or diameter, side loads, support thickness, higher modes, shell-side temperature etc., affect damping in tube bundles. The importance of damping is further highlighted due to current trend of larger exchangers with increased shell-side velocities in modern units. Various damping mechanisms have been identified (Friction damping, Viscous damping, Squeeze film damping, Support damping. Two-Phase damping, and very recent-Thermal damping), which affect the performance of process exchangers and steam generators with respect to flow induced vibration design, including standard design guidelines. Damping in two-phase flow is very complex and highly void fraction, and flow-regime dependent. The current paper focuses on the various known damping mechanisms subjected to both single and two-phase cross-flow in process heat exchangers and steam generators and formulates the design guidelines for safer design. (author)
Parameters of oscillation generation regions in open star cluster models
Danilov, V. M.; Putkov, S. I.
2017-07-01
We determine the masses and radii of central regions of open star cluster (OCL) models with small or zero entropy production and estimate the masses of oscillation generation regions in clustermodels based on the data of the phase-space coordinates of stars. The radii of such regions are close to the core radii of the OCL models. We develop a new method for estimating the total OCL masses based on the cluster core mass, the cluster and cluster core radii, and radial distribution of stars. This method yields estimates of dynamical masses of Pleiades, Praesepe, and M67, which agree well with the estimates of the total masses of the corresponding clusters based on proper motions and spectroscopic data for cluster stars.We construct the spectra and dispersion curves of the oscillations of the field of azimuthal velocities v φ in OCL models. Weak, low-amplitude unstable oscillations of v φ develop in cluster models near the cluster core boundary, and weak damped oscillations of v φ often develop at frequencies close to the frequencies of more powerful oscillations, which may reduce the non-stationarity degree in OCL models. We determine the number and parameters of such oscillations near the cores boundaries of cluster models. Such oscillations points to the possible role that gradient instability near the core of cluster models plays in the decrease of the mass of the oscillation generation regions and production of entropy in the cores of OCL models with massive extended cores.
Chimera states in a population of identical oscillators under planar ...
finding, observed in both a collection of van der Pol oscillators and chaotic Rössler oscillators, fur- ther simplifies the existence criterion for chimeras, thereby broadens the range of their applicability to real-world situations. Keywords. Synchronization; chimera; Rössler system; van der Pol oscillator. PACS Nos 05.45.
Nony, Laurent; Bocquet, Franck; Para, Franck; Loppacher, Christian
2016-09-01
A combined experimental and theoretical approach to the coupling between frequency-shift (Δ f ) , damping, and tunneling current (It) in combined noncontact atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy using quartz tuning forks (QTF)-based probes is reported. When brought into oscillating tunneling conditions, the tip located at the QTF prong's end radiates an electromagnetic field which couples to the QTF prong motion via its piezoelectric tensor and loads its electrodes by induction. Our approach explains how those It-related effects ultimately modify the Δ f and the damping measurements. This paradigm to the origin of the coupling between It and the nc-AFM regular signals relies on both the intrinsic piezoelectric nature of the quartz constituting the QTF and its electrodes design.
Dynamics of vibration isolation system with rubber-cord-pneumatic spring with damping throttle
Burian, Yu A.; Silkov, M. V.
2017-06-01
The study refers to the important area of applied mechanics; it is the theory of vibration isolation of vibroactive facilities. The design and the issues of mathematical modeling of pneumatic spring perspective design made on the basis of rubber-cord shell with additional volume connected with its primary volume by means of throttle passageway are considered in the text. Damping at the overflow of air through the hole limits the amplitude of oscillation at resonance. But in contrast to conventional systems with viscous damping it does not increase transmission ratio at high frequencies. The mathematical model of suspension allowing selecting options to reduce the power transmission ratio on the foundation, especially in the high frequency range is obtained
Transport of energy and momentum due to spatial Landau damping and growth of electrostatic waves
Lacina, J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that Landau damping in space (LDS), occuring for time-periodic electrostatic waves, does not lead to any deposition of energy in plasmas. A steady-state balance and a steady-state transport of energy, momentum and particles take place both for damped and growing waves. Because of the phase interference of coherent free and forced particle oscillations, the oscillatory energy of particles increases in the direction of wave propagation; the time-averaged flow of plasma kinetic energy being constant in space for these waves, the LDS must take place for a Maxwellian plasma in order to compensate for the growth of the particle oscillatory energy in space. (Author)
Damping the e-p instability in the SNS accumulator ring
Evans, N. J.; Deibele, C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Xie, Z.
2018-03-01
A broadband, digital damper system for both transverse planes developed for the SNS accumulator ring has recently damped the first indications of the broadband 50-150 MHz e-p instability in a 1.2 MW neutron production beam. This paper presents details of the design and operation of the SNS damper system as well as results of active damping of the e-p instability in the SNS ring showing a reduction in power of betatron oscillation over the 10-300 MHz band of up to 70%. The spectral content of the beam during operation, with and without the damper system is presented and performance of the damper system is evaluated.
Evaluation of Resonant Damping Techniques for Z-Source Current-Type Inverter
Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Gajanayake, C.J.
2008-01-01
For the renewable energy sources whose outputs vary continuously, a Z-source current-type inverter has been proposed as a possible buck-boost alternative for grid-interfacing. With a unique X-shaped LC network connected between its dc power source and inverter topology, Z-source current......-type inverter is however expected to suffer from compounded resonant complications in addition to those associated with its second-order output filter. To improve its damping performance, this paper proposes the careful integration of Posicast or three-step compensators before the inverter pulse-width modulator...... for damping triggered resonant oscillations. In total, two compensators are needed for wave-shaping the inverter boost factor and modulation ratio, and they can conveniently be implemented using first-in first-out stacks and embedded timers of modern digital signal processors widely used in motion control...
Flutter analysis of an airfoil with nonlinear damping using equivalent linearization
Chen Feixin
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The equivalent linearization method (ELM is modified to investigate the nonlinear flutter system of an airfoil with a cubic damping. After obtaining the linearization quantity of the cubic nonlinearity by the ELM, an equivalent system can be deduced and then investigated by linear flutter analysis methods. Different from the routine procedures of the ELM, the frequency rather than the amplitude of limit cycle oscillation (LCO is chosen as an active increment to produce bifurcation charts. Numerical examples show that this modification makes the ELM much more efficient. Meanwhile, the LCOs obtained by the ELM are in good agreement with numerical solutions. The nonlinear damping can delay the occurrence of secondary bifurcation. On the other hand, it has marginal influence on bifurcation characteristics or LCOs.
Nuclear power plant piping damping parametric effects
Ware, A.G.
1983-01-01
The NRC and EG and G Idaho are engaged in programs to evaluate piping-system damping, in order to provide realistic and less conservative values to be used in seismic analyses. To generate revised guidelines, solidly based on technical data, new experimental data need to be generated and assessed, and the parameters which influence piping-system damping need to be quantitatively identified. This paper presents the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the United States on parameters which influence piping-system damping. Examples of inconsistencies in the data and areas of uncertainty are explained. A discussion of programs by EG and G Idaho and other organizations to evaluate various effects are included, and both short-and long-range goals of the program are outlined
Radiation damping in focusing-dominated systems
Huang, Zhirong; Chen, Pisin; Ruth, R.D.
1995-01-01
A quasi-classical method is developed to calculate the radiation damping of a relativistic particle in a straight, continuous focusing system. In one limiting case where the pitch angle of the particle θ p is much larger than the radiation opening angle 1/γ, the radiation power spectrum is similar to synchrotron radiation and the relative damping rate of the transverse action is proportional to the relative energy loss rate. In the other limiting case where θ p much-lt 1/γ, the radiation is dipole in nature and the relative damping rate of the transverse action is energy-independent and is much faster than the relative energy rate. Quantum excitation to the transverse action is absent in this focusing channel. These results can be extended to bent systems provided that the focusing field dominates over the bending field
Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations
Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters
Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... dominated vibrations.The first part of the thesis presents the theoretical framework for implementation of supplemental dampers in wind turbines. It is demonstrated that the feasibility of installing dampers at the bottom of the tower is significantly increased when placing passive or semiactive dampers...... in a stroke amplifying brace, which amplifies the displacement across the damper and thus reduces the desired level of damper force. For optimal damping of the two lowest tower modes, a novel toggle-brace concept for amplifying the bending deformation of the tower is presented. Numerical examples illustrate...
Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity
Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.
1995-01-01
The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system
Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Hagerhed-Engman, L.
2005-01-01
-sectional data on home characteristics including 'dampness' problems, and symptoms in airway, nose, and skin among 10,851 children (1-6 years), were collected by means of a questionnaire to the parents. The prevalence of wheezing during the last 12 months was 18.9% and doctor-diagnosed asthma 5.4%. Rhinitis......There is convincing epidemiological evidence that 'dampness' in buildings is associated with respiratory effects. In order to identify health-relevant exposures in buildings with 'dampness', the study 'Dampness in Buildings and Health' (DBH) was initiated. In the first step of the study, cross...
Mathematical model of rod oscillations with account of material relaxation behaviour
Kudinov, I. V.; Kudinov, V. A.; Eremin, A. V.; Zhukov, V. V.
2018-03-01
Taking into account the bounded velocity of strains and deformations propagation in the formula given in the Hooke’s law, the authors have obtained the differential equation of rod damped oscillations that includes the first and the third time derivatives of displacement as well as the mixed derivative (with respect to space and time variables). Study of its precise analytical solution found by means of separation of variables has shown that rod recovery after being disturbed is accompanied by low-amplitude damped oscillations that occur at the start time and only within the range of positive displacement values. The oscillations amplitude decreases with increase of relaxation factor. Rod is recovered virtually without an oscillating process both in the limit and with any high values of the relaxation factor.
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim
1996-01-01
in an exponentially decreasing width of the solution in the long-time limit. We also find that a sufficiently large noise variance may cause an initially localized distribution to spread instead of contracting, and that the critical variance necessary to cause dispersion will for small damping be the same......We study the effect of adding noise and nonlinear damping in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS). Using a collective approach, we find that for initial conditions where total collapse occurs in the unperturbed NLS, the presence of the damping term will instead...
Variable stiffness and damping MR isolator
Zhang, X Z; Wang, X Y; Li, W H; Kostidis, K [University of Wollongong, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, NSW 2522 (Australia)], E-mail: weihuali@uow.edu.au
2009-02-01
This paper presents the development of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based variable stiffness and damping isolator for vibration suppressions. The MR fluid isolator used a sole MR control unit to achieve the variable stiffness and damping in stepless and relative large scope. A mathematical model of the isolator was derived, and a prototype of the MR fluid isolator was fabricated and its dynamic behavior was measured in vibration under various applied magnetic fields. The parameters of the model under various magnetic fields were identified and the dynamic performances of isolator were evaluated.
Modulated Langmuir waves and nonlinear Landau damping
Yajima, Nobuo; Oikawa, Masayuki; Satsuma, Junkichi; Namba, Chusei.
1975-01-01
The nonlinear Schroedinger euqation with an integral term, iusub(t)+P/2.usub(xx)+Q/u/ 2 u+RP∫sub(-infinity)sup(infinity)[/u(x',t)/ 2 /(x-x')]dx'u=0, which describes modulated Langmuir waves with the nonlinear Landau damping effect, is solved by numerical calculations. Especially, the effects of nonlinear Landau damping on solitary wave solutions are studied. For both cases, PQ>0 and PQ<0, the results show that the solitary waves deform in an asymmetric way changing its velocity. (auth.)
Damping of multispan heat exchanger tubes. Pt. 1: in gases
Pettigrew, M.J.; Goyder, H.G.D.; Qiao, Z.L.; Axisa, F.
1986-07-01
Flow-induced vibration analyses of heat exchanger tubes require the knowledge of damping. This paper treats the question of damping on multispan heat exchanger tubes in air and gases. The different energy dissipation mechanisms that contribute to tube damping are discussed. The available experimental data are reviewed and analysed. We find that the main damping mechanism in gases is friction between tube and tube-supports. Damping is strongly related to tube-support thickness. Damping values are recommended for design purposes. This study is interesting in the nuclear industry for it often uses heat exchangers
Hou, Junfang; jing, Min; Zhang, Weihua; Lu, Yahui; He, Haiwen
2017-12-01
As for the isolation problem of electronic equipments on vehicle, the vibration response characteristics of dry friction damping isolation system under base displacement excitation was analyzed in theory by harmonic balance method, and the displacement response was compared between the isolation systems with dry friction damping and vicious damping separately. The results show that the isolation system with small dry friction damping can’t meet the demands of displacement reduction close to the natural frequency, and it can realize full-frequency vibration isolation by improving dry friction damping when the lock frequency passes beyond the resonance frequency band. The results imply that the damping mechanism of dry friction isolator can’t be described only by dry friction damping, and the composite damping with dry friction and vicious damping is more appropriate.
Lázaro, Mario
2018-01-01
In this paper, nonviscous, nonproportional, vibrating structures are considered. Nonviscously damped systems are characterized by dissipative mechanisms which depend on the history of the response velocities via hereditary kernel functions. Solutions of the free motion equation lead to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem involving mass, stiffness and damping matrices. Viscoelasticity leads to a frequency dependence of this latter. In this work, a novel closed-form expression to estimate complex eigenvalues is derived. The key point is to consider the damping model as perturbed by a continuous fictitious parameter. Assuming then the eigensolutions as function of this parameter, the computation of the eigenvalues sensitivity leads to an ordinary differential equation, from whose solution arises the proposed analytical formula. The resulting expression explicitly depends on the viscoelasticity (frequency derivatives of the damping function), the nonproportionality (influence of the modal damping matrix off-diagonal terms). Eigenvectors are obtained using existing methods requiring only the corresponding eigenvalue. The method is validated using a numerical example which compares proposed with exact ones and with those determined from the linear first order approximation in terms of the damping matrix. Frequency response functions are also plotted showing that the proposed approach is valid even for moderately or highly damped systems.
Santoyo, B.M.
1989-01-01
The author studies in full detail a possible mechanism of superconductivity in slender electronic systems of finite cross section. This mechanism is based on the pairing interaction mediated by the multiple modes of acoustic plasmons in these structures. First, he shows that multiple non-Landau-damped acoustic plasmon modes exist for electrons in a quasi-one dimensional wire at finite temperatures. These plasmons are of two basic types. The first one is made up by the collective longitudinal oscillations of the electrons essentially of a given transverse energy level oscillating against the electrons in the neighboring transverse energy level. The modes are called Slender Acoustic Plasmons or SAP's. The other mode is the quasi-one dimensional acoustic plasmon mode in which all the electrons oscillate together in phase among themselves but out of phase against the positive ion background. He shows numerically and argues physically that even for a temperature comparable to the mode separation Δω the SAP's and the quasi-one dimensional plasmon persist. Then, based on a clear physical picture, he develops in terms of the dielectric function a theory of superconductivity capable of treating the simultaneous participation of multiple bosonic modes that mediate the pairing interaction. The effect of mode damping is then incorporated in a simple manner that is free of the encumbrance of the strong-coupling, Green's function formalism usually required for the retardation effect. Explicit formulae including such damping are derived for the critical temperature T c and the energy gap Δ 0 . With those modes and armed with such a formalism, he proceeds to investigate a possible superconducting mechanism for high T c in quasi-one dimensional single-wire and multi-wire systems
Sustaining GHz oscillation of carbon nanotube based oscillators via a MHz frequency excitation
Motevalli, Benyamin; Taherifar, Neda; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-01-01
There have been intensive studies to investigate the properties of gigahertz nano-oscillators based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Many of these studies, however, revealed that the unique telescopic translational oscillations in such devices would damp quickly due to various energy dissipation mechanisms. This challenge remains the primary obstacle against its practical applications. Herein, we propose a design concept in which a GHz oscillation could be re-excited by a MHz mechanical motion. This design involves a triple-walled CNT, in which sliding of the longer inner tube at a MHz frequency can re-excite and sustain a GHz oscillation of the shorter middle tube. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulations prove this design concept at ∼10 nm scale. A mathematical model is developed to explore the feasibility at a larger size scale. As an example, in an oscillatory system with the CNT’s length above 100 nm, the high oscillatory frequency range of 1.8–3.3 GHz could be excited by moving the inner tube at a much lower frequency of 53.4 MHz. This design concept together with the mechanical model could energize the development of GHz nano-oscillators in miniaturized electro-mechanical devices. (paper)
Dipole oscillations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of defects and disorder.
Albert, M; Paul, T; Pavloff, N; Leboeuf, P
2008-06-27
We consider dipole oscillations of a trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of a scattering potential consisting either in a localized defect or in an extended disordered potential. In both cases the breaking of superfluidity and the damping of the oscillations are shown to be related to the appearance of a nonlinear dissipative flow. At supersonic velocities the flow becomes asymptotically dissipationless.
Analyzing Damping Vibration Methods of Large-Size Space Vehicles in the Earth's Magnetic Field
G. A. Shcheglov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available It is known that most of today's space vehicles comprise large antennas, which are bracket-attached to the vehicle body. Dimensions of reflector antennas may be of 30 ... 50 m. The weight of such constructions can reach approximately 200 kg.Since the antenna dimensions are significantly larger than the size of the vehicle body and the points to attach the brackets to the space vehicles have a low stiffness, conventional dampers may be inefficient. The paper proposes to consider the damping antenna in terms of its interaction with the Earth's magnetic field.A simple dynamic model of the space vehicle equipped with a large-size structure is built. The space vehicle is a parallelepiped to which the antenna is attached through a beam.To solve the model problems, was used a simplified model of Earth's magnetic field: uniform, with intensity lines parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the antenna.The paper considers two layouts of coils with respect to the antenna, namely: a vertical one in which an axis of magnetic dipole is perpendicular to the antenna plane, and a horizontal layout in which an axis of magnetic dipole lies in the antenna plane. It also explores two ways for magnetic damping of oscillations: through the controlled current that is supplied from the power supply system of the space vehicle, and by the self-induction current in the coil. Thus, four objectives were formulated.In each task was formulated an oscillation equation. Then a ratio of oscillation amplitudes and their decay time were estimated. It was found that each task requires the certain parameters either of the antenna itself, its dimensions and moment of inertia, or of the coil and, respectively, the current, which is supplied from the space vehicle. In each task for these parameters were found the ranges, which allow us to tell of efficient damping vibrations.The conclusion can be drawn based on the analysis of tasks that a specialized control system
Using qubits to reveal quantum signatures of an oscillator
Agarwal, Shantanu
In this thesis, we seek to study the qubit-oscillator system with the aim to identify and quantify inherent quantum features of the oscillator. We show that the quantum signatures of the oscillator get imprinted on the dynamics of the joint system. The two key features which we explore are the quantized energy spectrum of the oscillator and the non-classicality of the oscillator's wave function. To investigate the consequences of the oscillator's discrete energy spectrum, we consider the qubit to be coupled to the oscillator through the Rabi Hamiltonian. Recent developments in fabrication technology have opened up the possibility to explore parameter regimes which were conventionally inaccessible. Motivated by these advancements, we investigate in this thesis a parameter space where the qubit frequency is much smaller than the oscillator frequency and the Rabi frequency is allowed to be an appreciable fraction of the bare frequency of the oscillator. We use the adiabatic approximation to understand the dynamics in this quasi-degenerate qubit regime. By deriving a dressed master equation, we systematically investigate the effects of the environment on the system dynamics. We develop a spectroscopic technique, using which one can probe the steady state response of the driven and damped system. The spectroscopic signal clearly reveals the quantized nature of the oscillator's energy spectrum. We extend the adiabatic approximation, earlier developed only for the single qubit case, to a scenario where multiple qubits interact with the oscillator. Using the extended adiabatic approximation, we study the collapse and revival of multi-qubit observables. We develop analytic expressions for the revival signals which are in good agreement with the numerically evaluated results. Within the quantum restriction imposed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the uncertainty in the position and momentum of an oscillator is minimum and shared equally when the oscillator is prepared
Ma, Hongbin
2015-01-01
This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation, theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer, neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes. The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...
Dry friction damping couple at high frequencies
Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Košina, Jan; Radolfová, Alena
2014-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 91-100 ISSN 1802-680X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : dry friction * damping * high frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/acm/article/view/239/265
Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls
Jué , Emilie; Safeer, C. K.; Drouard, Marc; Lopez, Alexandre; Balint, Paul; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Boulle, Olivier; Auffret, Stephane; Schuhl, Alain; Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles
2015-01-01
Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).
Piezoelectric RL shunt damping of flexible structures
Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen
2015-01-01
in the present analysis is based on equal damping of the two modes associated with the resonant vibration form of the structure. An important result of the presented calibration procedure is the explicit inclusion of a quasi-static contribution from the non-resonant vibration modes of the structure via a single...
Stiffness and damping in mechanical design
Rivin, Eugene I
1999-01-01
... important conceptual issues are stiffness of mechanical structures and their components and damping in mechanical systems sensitive to and/or generating vibrations. Stiffness and strength are the most important criteria for many mechanical designs. However, although there are hundreds of books on various aspects of strength, and strength issues ar...
Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls
Jué, Emilie
2015-12-21
Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).
Active damping based on decoupled collocated control
Holterman, J.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Auer, Frank; Gardonio, P.; Rafaely, B.
2002-01-01
High-precision machines typically suffer from small but persistent vibrations. As it is difficult to damp these vibrations by passive means, research at the Drebbel Institute at the University of Twente is aimed at the development of an active structural element that can be used for vibration
BNS damping of beam breakup instability
Stupakov, G.V.
1997-08-01
The author studies BNS damping of the beam breakup instability in a simple model assuming a constant beam energy, flat bunch distribution, and a smooth transverse focusing. The model allows an analytic solution for a constant and linear wake functions. Scaling dimensionless parameters are derived and the beam dynamics is illustrated for the range of parameters relevant to the Stanford Linear Collider
The DAMPE silicon–tungsten tracker
Azzarello, P., E-mail: philipp.azzarello@unige.ch [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Ambrosi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Asfandiyarov, R. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Cadoux, F. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Caprai, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); De Mitri, I. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Domenjoz, M. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Dong, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Duranti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Fan, R. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); and others
2016-09-21
The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a spaceborne astroparticle physics experiment, launched on 17 December 2015. DAMPE will identify possible dark matter signatures by detecting electrons and photons in the 5 GeV–10 TeV energy range. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100 TeV, for the study of the high energy cosmic ray origin and propagation mechanisms. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon–tungsten tracker–converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is composed of six tracking planes of 2 orthogonal layers of single-sided micro-strip detectors, for a total detector surface of ca. 7 m{sup 2}. The STK has been extensively tested for space qualification. Also, numerous beam tests at CERN have been done to study particle detection at silicon module level, and at full detector level. After description of the DAMPE payload and its scientific mission, we will describe the STK characteristics and assembly. We will then focus on some results of single ladder performance tests done with particle beams at CERN.
Kicker for the SLC electron damping ring
Bartelson, L.; Crawford, C.; Dinkel, J.; Kerns, Q.; Howell, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walton, J.
1987-01-01
The SLC electron damping ring requires two kickers each providing a 5 mr kick at 1.2 GEV to pairs of electron bunches spaced 61.63 nsec apart. The exact shape of the kick is unimportant, but the specification applies to the field the bunches see
Nuclear power plant piping damping parametric effects
Ware, A.G.
1983-01-01
The present NRC guidelines for structural damping to be used in the dynamic stress analyses of nuclear power plant piping systems are generally considered to be overly conservative. As a result, plant designers have in many instances used a considerable number of seismic supports to keep stresses calculated by large scale piping computer codes below the allowable limits. In response to this problem, the NRC and EG and G Idaho are engaged in programs to evaluate piping system damping, in order to provide more realistic and less conservative values to be used in seismic analyses. To generate revised guidelines, solidly based on technical data, new experimental data need to be generated and assessed, and the parameters which influence piping system damping need to be quantitatively identified. This paper presents the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the United States on parameters which influence piping system damping. Examples of inconsistencies in the data and areas of uncertainty are explained. A discussion of programs by EG and G Idaho and other organizations to evaluate various effects is included, and both short and long range goals of the program are outlined
Factors controlling superelastic damping capacity of SMAs
Heller, Luděk; Šittner, Petr; Pilch, Jan; Landa, Michal
2009-01-01
Roč. 18, 5-6 (2009), 603-611 ISSN 1059-9495 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloys * superelastic damping * thermomechanical testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2009
Structural dynamic modification using additive damping
elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modification ... to a system changes its mass, stiffness and damping. Thus ... due to the phase difference between stress ' and strain or 'a И E1 З iE2 for direct strain.
Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves ...
The uncertainty in the radiative relaxation time, how- ever, does .... For spatial damping, we take ω to be real and k to be complex as kR +ikI . The disper- ... bances may travel up in the solar atmosphere through the magnetic field lines that are.
On the Possibility of Using Nonlinear Elements for Landau Damping in High-Intensity Beams
Alexahin, Y. [Fermilab; Gianfelice-Wendt, E. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Valishev, A. [Fermilab
2016-09-30
Direct space-charge force shifts incoherent tunes downwards from the coherent ones breaking the Landau mechanism of coherent oscillations damping at high beam intensity. To restore it nonlinear elements can be employed which move back tunes of large amplitude particles. In the present report we consider the possibility of creating a “nonlinear integrable optics” insertion in the Fermilab Recycler to host either octupoles or hollow electron lens for this purpose. For comparison we also consider the classic scheme with distributed octupole families. It is shown that for the Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP II) parameters the required nonlinear tune shift can be created without destroying the dynamic aperture.
Active tower damping and pitch balancing – design, simulation and field test
Duckwitz, Daniel; Shan, Martin
2014-01-01
The tower is one of the major components in wind turbines with a contribution to the cost of energy of 8 to 12% [1]. In this overview the load situation of the tower will be described in terms of sources of loads, load components and fatigue contribution. Then two load reduction control schemes are described along with simulation and field test results. Pitch Balancing is described as a method to reduce aerodynamic asymmetry and the resulting fatigue loads. Active Tower Damping is reducing the tower oscillations by applying appropiate pitch angle changes. A field test was conducted on an Areva M5000 wind turbine
Active tower damping and pitch balancing - design, simulation and field test
Duckwitz, Daniel; Shan, Martin
2014-12-01
The tower is one of the major components in wind turbines with a contribution to the cost of energy of 8 to 12% [1]. In this overview the load situation of the tower will be described in terms of sources of loads, load components and fatigue contribution. Then two load reduction control schemes are described along with simulation and field test results. Pitch Balancing is described as a method to reduce aerodynamic asymmetry and the resulting fatigue loads. Active Tower Damping is reducing the tower oscillations by applying appropiate pitch angle changes. A field test was conducted on an Areva M5000 wind turbine.
Zhang, Chi; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos
2014-01-01
LCL filters play an important role in grid-connected converters when trying to reduce switching-frequency ripple currents injected into the grid. Besides, their small size and low cost make them attractive for many practical applications. However, the LCL filter is a third-order system, which...... presents a resonance peak frequency. Oscillation will occur in the control loop in high frequency ranges, especially in current loop in double-loops controlled converters. In order to solve this, many strategies have been proposed to damp resonance, including passive and active methods. This paper makes...
A radiative neutrino mass model in light of DAMPE excess with hidden gauged U(1) symmetry
Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi; Wu, Peiwen
2018-05-01
We propose a one-loop induced neutrino mass model with hidden U(1) gauge symmetry, in which we successfully involve a bosonic dark matter (DM) candidate propagating inside a loop diagram in neutrino mass generation to explain the e+e‑ excess recently reported by the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) experiment. In our scenario dark matter annihilates into four leptons through Z' boson as DM DM → Z' Z' (Z' → l+ l‑) and Z' decays into leptons via one-loop effect. We then investigate branching ratios of Z' taking into account lepton flavor violations and neutrino oscillation data.
1981-03-01
Final Report: February 1978 ZAUTOMATIC OSCILLATING TURRET SYSTEM September 1980 * 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER .J7. AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...o....e.... *24 APPENDIX P-4 OSCILLATING BUMPER TURRET ...................... 25 A. DESCRIPTION 1. Turret Controls ...Other criteria requirements were: 1. Turret controls inside cab. 2. Automatic oscillation with fixed elevation to range from 20* below the horizontal to
Neutrino oscillations in matter
Mikheyev, S.P.; Smirnov, A.Yu.
1986-01-01
In this paper we describe united formalism of ν-oscillations for different regimes, which is immediate generalization of vacuum oscillations theory. Adequate graphical representation of this formalism is given. We summarize main properties of ν-oscillations for different density distributions. (orig./BBOE)
The colpitts oscillator family
Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.
A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...
A review of experimental soil-structure interaction damping
Tsai, N.C.
1981-01-01
In soil-structure interaction analysis, the foundation soil is usually represented by impedance springs and dampers. The impedance damping includes the effect of both the material damping and the radiation damping. Because the impedance theory normally assumes a rigid structural base and an elastic bond between the soil and structure, it is generally held that the radiation damping has been overestimated by the theory. There are some published information on the dynamic tests of footings and structures that allow direct or indirect assessments of the validity of the analytical radiation damping. An overview of such information is presented here. Based on these limited test data, it is concluded that for horizontal soil-structure interaction analysis the analytical radiation damping alone is sufficient to represent the combined material and radiation damping in the field. On the other hand, for vertical analysis it appears that the theory may have overestimated the radiation damping and certain reduction is recommended. (orig.)
Damped time advance methods for particles and EM fields
Friedman, A.; Ambrosiano, J.J.; Boyd, J.K.; Brandon, S.T.; Nielsen, D.E. Jr.; Rambo, P.W.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in the application of damped time advance methods to plasma simulations include the synthesis of implicit and explicit ''adjustably damped'' second order accurate methods for particle motion and electromagnetic field propagation. This paper discusses this method
Exponential decay for solutions to semilinear damped wave equation
Gerbi, Sté phane; Said-Houari, Belkacem
2011-01-01
This paper is concerned with decay estimate of solutions to the semilinear wave equation with strong damping in a bounded domain. Intro- ducing an appropriate Lyapunov function, we prove that when the damping is linear, we can find initial data
Damping values for nuclear power plant piping during seismic events and fluid-induced transients
Ware, A.G.
1986-01-01
For several years the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in efforts to establish best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. Data from a number of piping vibration tests conducted at facilities worldwide (including the INEL) have been collected, evaluated, reported, and placed in a nuclear piping data bank at the INEL. These data are being used to justify changes in allowable damping values for use in nuclear piping design, thus making piping systems safer, less costly, and easier to inspect and maintain
Plasmonic Landau damping in active environments
Thakkar, Niket; Montoni, Nicholas P.; Cherqui, Charles; Masiello, David J.
2018-03-01
Optical manipulation of charge on the nanoscale is of fundamental importance to an array of proposed technologies from selective photocatalysis to nanophotonics. Open plasmonic systems where collective electron oscillations release energy and charge to their environments offer a potential means to this end as plasmons can rapidly decay into energetic electron-hole pairs; however, isolating this decay from other plasmon-environment interactions remains a challenge. Here we present an analytic theory of noble-metal nanoparticles that quantitatively models plasmon decay into electron-hole pairs, demonstrates that this decay depends significantly on the nanoparticle's dielectric environment, and disentangles this effect from competing decay pathways. Using our approach to incorporate embedding material and substrate effects on plasmon-electron interaction, we show that predictions from the model agree with four separate experiments. Finally, examination of coupled nanoparticle-emitter systems further shows that the hybridized in-phase mode more efficiently decays to photons whereas the out-of-phase mode more efficiently decays to electron-hole pairs, offering a strategy to tailor open plasmonic systems for charge manipulation.
Onset of chaos in Josephson junctions with intermediate damping
Yao, X.; Wu, J.Z.; Ting, C.S.
1990-01-01
By use of the analytical solution of the Stewart-McCumber equation including quadratic damping and dc bias, the Melnikov method has been extended to the parameter regions of intermediate damping and dc bias for the Josephson junctions with quadratic damping and with linear damping and cosφ term. The comparison between the thresholds predicted by the Melnikov method and that derived from numerical simulation has been studied. In addition, the validity conditions for the Melnikov threshold are also discussed
Su, Chi
and residue identification. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this damping controller under different operating conditions of the SSSC. Influence of a direct‐drive‐full‐convertor based wind farm ancillary frequency control and voltage control on power system oscillation performance is investigated...... oscillation mode damping ratio, respectively. The former controller is implemented in individual wind turbines; the latter controller is implemented in the wind farm level as a supplementary damping controller. Finally, the coordinating selection and parameter design strategy for PSS is extended for all types...... to this problem need to be implemented in the power systems. On the other hand, wind power especially largescale wind farms are increasingly integrated into modern power systems and bring new challenges to power system operation and control. The influence of wind power integration on system oscillation...
Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load
Zheng Lu
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided.
Tai-Hong Cheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Composite materials are increasingly used in wind blade because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio. This paper presents vibration and damping analysis of fiberreinforced composite wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping treatment. The finite element method based on full layerwise displacement theory was employed to analyze the damping, natural frequency, and modal loss factor of composite shell structure. The lamination angle was considered in mathematical modeling. The curved geometry, transverse shear, and normal strains were exactly considered in present layerwise shell model, which can depict the zig-zag in-plane and out-of-plane displacements. The frequency response functions of curved composite shell structure and wind blade were calculated. The results show that the damping ratio of viscoelastic layer is found to be very sensitive to determination of magnitude of composite structures. The frequency response functions with variety of thickness of damping layer were investigated. Moreover, the natural frequency, modal loss factor, and mode shapes of composite fiber reinforced wind blade with viscoelastic damping control were calculated.
A study of oscillation amplitude settling transients in a molecular beam maser
Lefrere, P.R.; Laine, D.C.
1977-01-01
The dynamic behaviour of oscillation amplitude build-up from noise has been studied in a molecular beam maser (MBM). The three forms of growth curve, predicted theoretically, namely exponential, aperiodic and damped periodic have been observed with their associated 'times of silence'. (Auth.)
Spectral density of oscillator with bilinear stiffness and white noise excitation
Rüdinger, Finn; Krenk, Steen
2003-01-01
The power spectral density of an oscillator with bilinear stiffness excited by Gaussian white noise is considered. A method originally proposed by Krenk and Roberts [J Appl Mech 66 (1999) 225] relying on slowly changing energy for lightly damped systems is applied. In this method an approximate...
Active and passive damping based on piezoelectric elements -controllability issues-
Holterman, J.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, Jan B.; Jonker, J.B.
2001-01-01
Piezoelectric elements are widely used for damping micro-vibrations in mechanical structures. Active damping can be realised robustly by means of collocated actuator-sensor-pairs, controlled so as to extract vibration energy. Excellent damping performance is possible as long as sufficient
Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations
Kajita, Takaaki
2016-01-01
The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Takaaki Kajita of Tokyo University is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande. This volume of collected works of Kajita on neutrino oscillations provides a good glimpse into as well as a record of the rise and the role of Asian research in the frontiers of neutrino physics. Japan is now a major force in the study of the 3 families of neutrinos. Much remains to be done to clarify the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of the neutrino, and the cosmological implications of the neutrino. The collected works of Kajita and his Super-Kamiokande group will leave an indelible foot-print in the history of big and better science.
Nature's Autonomous Oscillators
Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.
2012-01-01
Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.
Magnetoelastic damping and ΔE effect in Fe45Co45Zr10 amorphous alloy
Zolotukhin, I.V.; Kalinin, Yu.E.; Kondusov, V.A.
1990-01-01
Internal friction and ΔE effect in Fe 45 Co 45 Zr 10 amorphous alloy of 5-120 μm thickness, prepared by the ion-plasma spraying method, are studied. The measurements are carried out at room temperature in the 0.15-1.5 MHz range. The peak is observed on the frequency curve of internal friction, which height and position depend on the specimen thickness: with the thickness increase the peak grows and shifts towards the lower frequencies due to the dominating contribution of eddy currents into elastic oscillations damping. The ΔE effect decreases with the oscillation frequency increase for all the tested thicknesses. The decreased material thickness causes the ΔE effect growth due to more effective remagnetization of the material through the whole thickness
Ponomarenko, V I; Kulminskiy, D D; Prokhorov, M D
2017-08-01
We study the collective dynamics of oscillators in a network of identical bistable time-delayed feedback systems globally coupled via the mean field. The influence of delay and inertial properties of the mean field on the collective behavior of globally coupled oscillators is investigated. A variety of oscillation regimes in the network results from the presence of bistable states with substantially different frequencies in coupled oscillators. In the physical experiment and numerical simulation we demonstrate the existence of chimeralike states, in which some of the oscillators in the network exhibit synchronous oscillations, while all other oscillators remain asynchronous.
Damping Estimation of Friction Systems in Random Vibrations
Friis, Tobias; Katsanos, Evangelos; Amador, Sandro
Friction is one of the most efficient and economical mechanisms to reduce vibrations in structural mechanics. However, the estimation of the equivalent linear damping of the friction damped systems in experimental modal analysis and operational modal analysis can be adversely affected by several...... assumptions regarding the definition of the linear damping and the identification methods or may be lacking a meaningful interpretation of the damping. Along these lines, this project focuses on assessing the potential to estimate efficiently the equivalent linear damping of friction systems in random...
Relativity damps OPEP in nuclear matter
Banerjee, M.K.
1998-06-01
Using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis the OPEP contribution to the ground state energy of nuclear matter is studied. In the study the pion is derivative-coupled. The author finds that the role of the tensor force in the saturation mechanism is substantially reduced compared to its dominant role in a usual nonrelativistic treatment. He shows that the damping of derivative-coupled OPEP is actually due to the decrease of M * /M with increasing density. He points out that if derivative-coupled OPEP is the preferred form of nuclear effective lagrangian nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter is in trouble. Lacking the notion of M * it cannot replicate the damping. He suggests an examination of the feasibility of using pseudoscalar coupled πN interaction before reaching a final conclusion about nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter
Damping system immersed in a fluid
1980-01-01
The invention relates to a damping system which is immersed in a fluid and allows slow motion, while opposing fast motion of a mobile or deformable system immersed in a fluid. Nuclear reactors utilize fabricated assemblies immmersed in the spent fuel storage pool to support the fuel elements placed in the pool, e.g., when refueling the reactor. These fabricated assemblies must be held in position, relative to the concrete walls of the pool, so as to allow slow deformation of the assemblies due to thermal expansion, while curbing fast motion, e.g., earthquake-induced motion. Such fast motion due to earthquakes might be the cause of resonance phenomena involving the fuel storage rack structure and the pool walls, should the rack structure and pool walls have the same resonant frequency. In the event of an earthquake, the damping system would provide for fast curbing of structure motion to prevent uncontrolled deformation which might result in breaks and destruction [fr
Barotropic FRW cosmologies with Chiellini damping
Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico); Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: stefan.mancas@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Chen, Pisin, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA) and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2015-05-08
It is known that barotropic FRW equations written in the conformal time variable can be reduced to simple linear equations for an exponential function involving the conformal Hubble rate. Here, we show that an interesting class of barotropic universes can be obtained in the linear limit of a special type of nonlinear dissipative Ermakov–Pinney equations with the nonlinear dissipation built from Chiellini's integrability condition. These cosmologies, which evolutionary are similar to the standard ones, correspond to barotropic fluids with adiabatic indices rescaled by a particular factor and have amplitudes of the scale factors inverse proportional to the adiabatic index. - Highlights: • Chiellini-damped Ermakov–Pinney equations are used in barotropic FRW cosmological context. • Chiellini-damped scale factors of the barotropic FRW universes are introduced. • These scale factors are similar to the undamped ones.
WAKEFIELD DAMPING FOR THE CLIC CRAB CAVITY
Ambattu, P; Dexter, A; Carter, R; Khan, V; Jones, R; Dolgashev, V
2009-01-01
A crab cavity is required in the CLIC to allow effective head-on collision of bunches at the IP. A high operating frequency is preferred as the deflection voltage required for a given rotation angle and the RF phase tolerance for a crab cavity are inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The short bunch spacing of the CLIC scheme and the high sensitivity of the crab cavity to dipole kicks demand very high damping of the inter-bunch wakes, the major contributor to the luminosity loss of colliding bunches. This paper investigates the nature of the wakefields in the CLIC crab cavity and the possibility of using various damping schemes to suppress them effectively.
System Reduction and Damping of Flexible Structures
Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen
2007-01-01
An increasing number of flexible structures such as cable-stayed bridges, pedestrian bridges and high-rise buildings are fitted with local dampers to mitigate vibration problems. In principle the effect of local dampers can be analyzed by use of complex modes, e.g. in conjunction with an averaging...... technique for local linearization of the damper characteristics. However, the complex mode shapes and frequencies depend on the magnitude of the damper and therefore are less suitable for design of the damper system. An efficient alternative consists in the use of a two-component representation...... of the damped modes of the structure. The idea is to represent the damped mode as a linear combination of the modes that occur in two distinctly different situations representing extreme conditions: the mode shape of the structure without the damper(s), and the mode shape of the structure, when the damper...
A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
2012-10-06
This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.
A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.
2012-01-01
This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.
On the theory of nuclear quadrupole oscillations
Abrosimov, V.I.; Strutinskij, V.M.
1978-01-01
Presented is a deduction and a convinient writing form of the secular equation for nuclear quadrupole oscillations. The deduction is consistent with usual random phase approximation. It is regarded that the oscillations of the nuclear average potential are adiabatic with respect to formation of the Cooper pairs and the collective motion arises as a result of the coherent distortion of the quasiparticle wave functions. The energy gap changes are also taken into account
Quantum oscillations in vortex-liquids
Banerjee, Sumilan; Zhang, Shizhong; Randeria, Mohit
2012-02-01
Motivated by observations of quantum oscillations in underdoped cuprates [1], we examine the electronic density of states (DOS) in a vortex-liquid state, where long-range phase coherence is destroyed by an external magnetic field H but the local pairing amplitude survives. We note that this regime is distinct from that studied in most of the recent theories, which have focused on either a Fermi liquid with a competing order parameter or on a d-wave vortex lattice. The cuprate experiments are very likely in a resistive vortex-liquid state. We generalize the s-wave analysis of Maki and Stephen [2] to d-wave pairing and examine various regimes of the chemical potential, gap and field. We find that the (1/H) oscillations of the DOS at the chemical potential in a d-wave vortex-liquid are much more robust, i.e., have a reduced damping, compared to the s-wave case. We critically investigate the conventional wisdom relating the observed frequency to the area of an underlying Fermi surface. We also show that the oscillations in the DOS cross over to a √H behavior in the low field limit, in agreement with the recent specific heat measurements. [1] L. Taillefer, J. Phys. Cond. Mat. 21, 164212 (2009). [2] M. J. Stephen, Phys. Rev. B 45, 5481 (1992).
Molecular dynamics simulation of square graphene-nanoflake oscillator on graphene nanoribbon.
Kang, Jeong Won; Lee, Kang Whan
2014-12-01
Graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been of interest for a building block in order to develop electromechanical devices on a nanometer scale. Here, we present the oscillation motions of a square GNF oscillator on graphene nanoribbon (GNR) in the retracting-motions by performing classical molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results showed that the GNF oscillators can be considered as a building block for nanoelectromechanical systems such as carbon-nanotube (CNT) oscillators. The oscillation dynamics of the GNF oscillator were similar to those of the CNT oscillators. When the square GNF had an initial velocity as impulse dynamics, its oscillation motions on the GNR were achieved from its self-retracting van der Waals force. For low initial velocity, its translational motions were dominant in its motions rather than its rotational motions. The kinetic energy damping ratio rapidly decreased as initial velocity increased and the kinetic energy for the translational motion of the GNF oscillator rapidly transferred into that for its rotational motion. The oscillation frequency of the GNF oscillator was dependent on its initial velocity.
Dynamics and Collapse in a Power System Model with Voltage Variation: The Damping Effect.
Ma, Jinpeng; Sun, Yong; Yuan, Xiaoming; Kurths, Jürgen; Zhan, Meng
2016-01-01
Complex nonlinear phenomena are investigated in a basic power system model of the single-machine-infinite-bus (SMIB) with a synchronous generator modeled by a classical third-order differential equation including both angle dynamics and voltage dynamics, the so-called flux decay equation. In contrast, for the second-order differential equation considering the angle dynamics only, it is the classical swing equation. Similarities and differences of the dynamics generated between the third-order model and the second-order one are studied. We mainly find that, for positive damping, these two models show quite similar behavior, namely, stable fixed point, stable limit cycle, and their coexistence for different parameters. However, for negative damping, the second-order system can only collapse, whereas for the third-order model, more complicated behavior may happen, such as stable fixed point, limit cycle, quasi-periodicity, and chaos. Interesting partial collapse phenomena for angle instability only and not for voltage instability are also found here, including collapse from quasi-periodicity and from chaos etc. These findings not only provide a basic physical picture for power system dynamics in the third-order model incorporating voltage dynamics, but also enable us a deeper understanding of the complex dynamical behavior and even leading to a design of oscillation damping in electric power systems.
Maiti, Soumyabrata; Bandyopadhyay, Ritwik; Chatterjee, Anindya
2018-01-01
We study free and harmonically forced vibrations of an Euler-Bernoulli beam with rate-independent hysteretic dissipation. The dissipation follows a model proposed elsewhere for materials with randomly dispersed frictional microcracks. The virtual work of distributed dissipative moments is approximated using Gaussian quadrature, yielding a few discrete internal hysteretic states. Lagrange's equations are obtained for the modal coordinates. Differential equations for the modal coordinates and internal states are integrated together. Free vibrations decay exponentially when a single mode dominates. With multiple modes active, higher modes initially decay rapidly while lower modes decay relatively slowly. Subsequently, lower modes show their own characteristic modal damping, while small amplitude higher modes show more erratic decay. Large dissipation, for the adopted model, leads mathematically to fast and damped oscillations in the limit, unlike viscously overdamped systems. Next, harmonically forced, lightly damped responses of the beam are studied using both a slow frequency sweep and a shooting-method based search for periodic solutions along with numerical continuation. Shooting method and frequency sweep results match for large ranges of frequency. The shooting method struggles near resonances, where internal states collapse into lower dimensional behavior and Newton-Raphson iterations fail. Near the primary resonances, simple numerically-aided harmonic balance gives excellent results. Insights are also obtained into the harmonic content of secondary resonances.
Scalar dark matter, type II seesaw and the DAMPE cosmic ray e+ + e- excess
Li, Tong; Okada, Nobuchika; Shafi, Qaisar
2018-04-01
The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) has reported a measurement of the flux of high energy cosmic ray electrons plus positrons (CREs) in the energy range between 25GeV and 4.6TeV. With unprecedented high energy resolution, the DAMPE data exhibit an excess of the CREs flux at an energy of around 1.4TeV. In this letter, we discuss how the observed excess can be understood in a minimal framework where the Standard Model (SM) is supplemented by a stable SM singlet scalar as dark matter (DM) and type II seesaw for generating the neutrino mass matrix. In our framework, a pair of DM particles annihilates into a pair of the SM SU(2) triplet scalars (Δs) in type II seesaw, and the subsequent Δ decays create the primary source of the excessive CREs around 1.4TeV. The lepton flavor structure of the primary source of CREs has a direct relation with the neutrino oscillation data. We find that the DM interpretation of the DAMPE excess determines the pattern of neutrino mass spectrum to be the inverted hierarchy type, taking into account the constraints from the Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.
Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC
Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S.
1993-02-01
An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. ne particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turn while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.
Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC
Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75237 (United States))
1993-12-25
An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. The particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turns while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.
Size effect related to damping caused by water submersion
Dong, R.G.
1981-01-01
An important effect of water submersion on the dynamic response of a structure is the increase in effective damping. The dynamic response of submerged structures is of interest in the nuclear power industry for reasons of operational safety during seismic and other dynamic excitations. In this paper, the added damping contribution that results from the viscosity of water and the dependence of the contribution on structural size are examined. Other factors considered are the applicable range of viscous damping with respect to displacement amplitude and, as far as damping is concerned, how far neighboring members must be from each other to respond as if in open water. An expression is derived for relating the damping value to structural size. Estimated added-damping values for representative fuel elements, fuel bundles, and main steam-pressure-relief-valve lines are given based on our derived expression for added damping
Tuned mass absorbers on damped structures under random load
Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2008-01-01
the mass ratio alone, and the damping can be determined subsequently. Only approximate results are available for the influence of damping in the original structure, typically in the form of series expansions. In the present paper it is demonstrated that for typical mass ratios in the order of a few percent......A substantial literature exists on the optimal choice of parameters of a tuned mass absorber on a structure excited by a force or by ground acceleration with random characteristics in the form of white noise. In the absence of structural damping the optimal frequency tuning is determined from...... for the response variance of a structure with initial damping in terms of the mass ratio and both damping ratios. Within this format the optimal tuning of the absorber turns out to be independent of the structural damping, and a simple explicit expression is obtained for the equivalent total damping....
Single bunch beam breakup in linacs and BNS damping
Toyomasu, Takanori
1991-12-01
We study a single-bunch beam breakup (BBU) problem by a macro-particle model. We consider both the BBU solution and the Landau damping solution which includes the Balakin-Novokhatsky-Smirnov (BNS) damping. In the BBU solution, we get an analytic solution which includes both the Chao-Richter-Yao solution and the two-particle model solution and which agrees well with simulation. The solution can also be used in a multi-bunch case. In the Landau damping solution, we can be see the mechanism of Landau damping formally and can get some insights into BNS damping. We confirm that a two-particle model criterion for BNS damping is a good one. We expect that the two-particle model criterion is represented by the first order interaction in Landau damping solution of a macro-particle model. (author)
A review of damping of two-phase flows
Hara, Fumio
1993-01-01
Damping of two-phase flows has been recognized as one of the most unknown parameters in analyzing vibrational characteristics of structures subjected to two-phase flows since it seems to be influenced by many physical parameters involved in the physics of dynamic energy dissipation of a vibrating structure, for example, liquid viscosity, surface tension, flow velocity, mass ratio, frequency, void fraction, flow regime and so forth. This paper deals with a review of scientific works done to date on the damping of two phase flows and discussions about what has been clarified and what has not been known to us, or what kinds of research are needed about two-phase flow damping. The emphasis is put on the definition of two-phase fluid damping, damping measurement techniques, damping characteristics in relation to two phase flow configurations, and damping generation mechanisms
Multibunch resistive wall instability damping with feedback
Zhabitskij, V.M.; Korenev, I.L.; Yudin, L.A.
1992-01-01
The theory of multibunch transverse resistive wall instability damping with feedback is development. The system of coupling equations is obtained for description of bunched beam motion. The general solution and eigen frequencies are found. But for two bunches or multi bunches the tune splitting is found. The band of the tune splitting is calculated. The influence of the tune splitting on the damper system stability is discussed. 14 refs
Kun, S.Yu.; Australian Nat. Univ., Canberra; Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT
1997-01-01
We employ stochastic modelling of statistical reactions with memory to study quasiperiodic oscillations in the excitation functions of dissipative heavy-ion collisions. The Fourier analysis of excitation function oscillations is presented. It suggests that S-matrix spin and parity decoherence, damping of the coherent nuclear rotation and quantum chaos are sufficient conditions to explain the nonself-averaging of quasiperiodic oscillations in the excitation functions of dissipative heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)
Abbas Shoulaie
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Torsional torques on turbine-generator shaft which are yields of disturbances in power systems, can reduce the useful lifetime of shaft. In this paper, these oscillations will be damped and controlled by novel Power System Stabilizers (PSSs. Complex PSS which is used in this paper will act on the excitation system in generator set and also on the controller of in High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC system. This PSS uses three terms (generator angle deviation, frequency oscillation and capacitor voltage deviation in HVDC system of the study system which includes two ties AC and DC. This is the reason that this PSS is named novel one against the conventional PSSs. In order to adjust the PSS parameters to damp the oscillations, genetic algorithm is used. To improve the application of this PSS, fuzzy logic control methods are also used which has notable effect on controlling the oscillations in study system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of designed PSS in controlling the torsional torques in turbine-generator shaft.
Metallic materials for mechanical damping capacity applications
Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoeșu, R.; (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Manole, V.; Paraschiv, P.; Chicet, D. L.
2016-08-01
Some metallic materials exhibit good damping capacity of mechanical energy into thermal energy. This property along with the others metallic characteristics make this materials interesting for a big number of applications. These materials can be used as bumpers in different applications including automotive field. Beside grey cast iron and shape memory alloys few new metallic materials are presented for the supposition of high damping capacity. We analyze the causes that increase the internal friction of some metallic materials and possibilities to enhance this property through different mechanical, physical or chemical methods. Shape memory alloys, especially those based on copper, present a different damping capacity on martensite, austenite or transition state. In the transformation range M ↔A, which in case of copper base shape memory alloys is quite large, the metallic intelligent materials present a high internal friction, almost comparable with natural rubber behavior that can transform mechanical energy into thermal energy till a certain value of the external solicitation. These materials can be used as noise or small vibrations bumpers or even as shock absorbers in automotive industry.
Limitations of modal analysis of damped structures
Krapf, K.G.; Woelfel, H.
1983-01-01
Quite recently discrete spring-damper elements are increasingly used for the low-tuned supports of nuclear power-plant buildings and equipment (reactor building, turbine-fundaments etc.) to reduce the vibration response due to the dynamic load cases earthquake and airplane crash. Because of this development, it is to be investigated whether the usual modal analysis method is applicable within the design process or should be changed respectively replaced in special cases. The paper contributes to this discussion by demonstrating and valuing the discrepancies in the different ways for the implementation of damping. Different methods for uncoupling (energy weighting, reduction to Rayleigh-damping) are compared with the solution of the coupled equations of motion. In particular vertical vibrations of a spring-damper-supported building on foundation (including ground springs) are examined using a two-degree-of-freedom-system. The results of coupled and (by force) uncoupled methods are interpreted concerning free vibration by comparison of the damping of natural vibrations, natural frequencies and natural mode shapes. The effect on the forced vibrations is shown by floor response spectra to an earthquake accelerogram. (orig./HP)
Landau damping in trapped Bose condensed gases
Jackson, B; Zaremba, E [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada)
2003-07-01
We study Landau damping in dilute Bose-Einstein condensed gases in both spherical and prolate ellipsoidal harmonic traps. We solve the Bogoliubov equations for the mode spectrum in both of these cases, and calculate the damping by summing over transitions between excited quasiparticle states. The results for the spherical case are compared to those obtained in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation, where the excitations take on a single-particle character, and excellent agreement between the two approaches is found. We have also taken the semiclassical limit of the HF approximation and obtain a novel expression for the Landau damping rate involving the time-dependent self-diffusion function of the thermal cloud. As a final approach, we study the decay of a condensate mode by making use of dynamical simulations in which both the condensate and thermal cloud are evolved explicitly as a function of time. A detailed comparison of all these methods over a wide range of sample sizes and trap geometries is presented.
DAMPs and influenza virus infection in ageing.
Samy, Ramar Perumal; Lim, Lina H K
2015-11-01
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a serious global health problem worldwide due to frequent and severe outbreaks. IAV causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population, due to the ineffectiveness of the vaccine and the alteration of T cell immunity with ageing. The cellular and molecular link between ageing and virus infection is unclear and it is possible that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) may play a role in the raised severity and susceptibility of virus infections in the elderly. DAMPs which are released from damaged cells following activation, injury or cell death can activate the immune response through the stimulation of the inflammasome through several types of receptors found on the plasma membrane, inside endosomes after endocytosis as well as in the cytosol. In this review, the detriment in the immune system during ageing and the links between influenza virus infection and ageing will be discussed. In addition, the role of DAMPs such as HMGB1 and S100/Annexin in ageing, and the enhanced morbidity and mortality to severe influenza infection in ageing will be highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.