Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Index
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Madden Julian Oscillation index (MJO) is a dataset that allows evaluation of the strength and phase of the MJO during the dataset...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poveda, German; Mesa, Oscar; Agudelo, Paula; Alvarez, Juan; Arias, Paola; Moreno, Hernan; Salazar, Luis; Toro, Vladimir; Vieira, Sara
2002-01-01
We study the effects of large-scale ocean-atmospheric, astronomic phenomena on the diurnal cycle of precipitation at the tropical Andes of Colombia. Such phenomena include both phases of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), namely El Nino and La Nina, the intra seasonal Madden-Julian oscillation, tropical easterly waves (4-8 days), moon phases and hurricanes over the Atlantic and eastern pacific oceans. We found a clear-cut effect of both ENSO phases: El Nino is associated with a diminished rainfall diurnal cycle, and La Nina intensifies it. Thus, ENSO modulates precipitation in Colombia at timescales ranging from hours to decades. We identified a close association with different phases of the Madden-Julian oscillation, as the diurnal cycle is intensified (larger amplitude) during its westerly phase, but it gets decreased during its easterly phase. For both ENSO and the Madden-Julian oscillation we identified a clear-cut influence on the amplitude of the diurnal cycle, yet the phase is conserved for the most part. Tropical easterly waves appear to affect the diurnal cycle, but no clear overall signal is pervasive throughout the region. We al so found a significant statistical association with hurricanes occurring over the northeastern pacific ocean with the diurnal cycle of precipitation at rain gages located over the eastern slope of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. Rainfall at all the remaining slopes of the Andes is statistically associated with hurricanes occurring at the tropical north Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. Moon phases are not statistically associated with the diurnal cycle and daily total rainfall
Development of convection along the SPCZ within a Madden-Julian oscillation
Matthews, AJ; Hoskins, BJ; Slingo, JM; Blackburn, M
1996-01-01
A subtropical Rossby wave propagation mechanism is proposed to account for the poleward and eastward progression of intraseasonal convective anomalies along the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) that is observed in a significant proportion of Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJOs). Large scale convection, associated with an MJO, is assumed to be already established over the Indonesian region. The latent heating associated with this convection forces an equatorial Rossby wave response with an u...
A Mechanism Denial Study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
In-Sik Kang
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A series of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO mechanism-denial experiments is performed using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM. Daily climatological seasonal cycles of i surface latent heat flux, ii net radiative heating rate, and iii surface wind stress are obtained from a control simulation and prescribed in place of the normal interactive computations of these fields in order to turn off the i wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE, ii cloud-radiation interaction (CRI, and iii frictional wave-CISK (FWC mechanisms, respectively. Dual and triple mechanism denial experiments are also conducted by switching off multiple mechanisms together. The influence of each mechanism is assessed by comparing experiments with that mechanism turned off to those in which it is not. CRI and WISHE are both found to be important to the simulated MJO amplitude and propagation speed, while FWC has weaker and less systematic effects. The MJO is weakened when CRI is turned off, but strengthened when WISHE is turned off, indicating that CRI amplifies the MJO in the control simulation while WISHE weakens it. The negative influence of WISHE is shown to result from simulated phase relationships between surface winds, surface fluxes and convection which differ significantly from those found in observations, and thus is not interpreted as evidence against a positive role for WISHE in the development and maintenance of the observed MJO. The positive influence of CRI in the model is consistent with a strong simulated relationship between daily grid-point column-integrated radiative and convective heating; the mean ratio of the latter to the former exceeds 0.2 for rain rates less than 14 mm d-1. CRI is also shown to suppress an excessive excitation of the convectively coupled Kelvin wave so that the amplitude and frequency of the MJO is maintained.
Would Jule Charney Have Cracked the Madden-Julian Oscillation?
Emanuel, K.
2017-12-01
Jule Charney's approach to science often involved looking at old problems in new ways. One example was his theory of baroclinic instability, which followed on the heels of long-standing efforts to explain well-observed cyclones and anticyclones. He mastered the art of boiling a physical phenomenon down to its essence, throwing away many things that others had considered important while expressing that which he retained in the simplest possible way. To help honor Charney's legacy, I will review the history of another well-observed phenomenon - the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) - together with the many largely unsuccessful efforts to explain it, culminating finally in a satisfying explanation that Jule would have loved.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vialard, J.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Mc; Shankar, D.; Durand, F.; Fernando, V.; Shetye, S.R.
Author version: Geophys. Res. Lett.: 36(14); 2009; doi:10.1029/2009GL038450; 5 pp Intraseasonal response of Northern Indian Ocean coastal waveguide to the Madden-Julian Oscillation J. Vialard 1 2 , S.S.C Shenoi 2 , J.P. McCreary 3 , D. Shankar 2... involving both equatorial wave dynamics and coastal wave propagation around the perimeter of the northern Indian Ocean [McCreary et al., 1993]. The East India Coastal Current (EICC), for example, is strongly influenced by remote wind forcing from...
Modulation of Atlantic Aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation
Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Wong, S.
2010-01-01
Much like the better-known EI Nino-Southern Oscillation, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a global-scale atmospheric phenomenon. The MJO involves periodic, systematic changes in the distribution of clouds and precipitation over the western Pacific and Indian oceans, along with differences in wind intensity over even more extensive areas, including the north and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. The lead authors of this paper developed a sophisticated mathematical technique for mapping the spatial and temporal behavior of changes in the atmosphere produced by the MJO. In a previous paper, we applied this technique to search for modulation of airborne particle amount in the eastern hemisphere associated with the "wet" (cloudy) vs. "dry" phases of the MJO. The study used primarily AVHRR, MODIS, and TOMS satellite-retrieved aerosol amount, but concluded that other factors, such as cloud contamination of the satellite signals, probably dominated the observed variations. The current paper looks at MJO modulation of desert dust transport eastward across the Atlantic from northern Africa, a region much less subject to systematic cloud contamination than the eastern hemisphere areas studied previously. In this case, a distinct aerosol signal appears, showing that dust is transported westward much more effectively during the MJO phase that favors westward-flowing wind, and such transport is suppressed when the MJO reduces these winds. Aside form the significant achievement in identifying such an effect, the result implies that an important component of global dust transport can be predicted based on the phase of the MJO. As a consequence, the impact of airborne dust on storm development in the Atlantic, and on dust deposition downwind of the desert sources, can also be predicted and more accurately modeled.
The Madden-Julian Oscillation in NCEP Coupled Model Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wanqiu Wang Kyong-Hwan Seo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This study documents a detailed analysis on the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO simulated by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP using the Global Forecast System (GFS model version 2003 coupled with the Climate Forecast System model (CFS consisting of the 2003 version of GFS and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL Modular Ocean Model V.3 (MOM3. The analyses are based upon a 21-year simulation of AMIP-type with GFS and CMIP-type with CFS. It is found that air-sea coupling in CFS is shown to improve the coherence between convection and large-scale circulation associated with the MJO. The too fast propagation of convection from the Indian Ocean to the maritime continents and the western Pacific in GFS is improved (slowed down in CFS. Both GFS and CFS produce too strong intraseasonal convective heating and circulation anomalies in the central-eastern Pacific; further, the air-sea coupling in CFS enhances this unrealistic feature. The simulated mean slow phase speed of east ward propagating low-wavenumber components shown in the wavenumber-frequency spectra is due to the slow propagation in the central-eastern Pacific in both GFS and CFS. Errors in model climatology may have some effect upon the simulated MJO and two possible influences are: (i CFS fails to simulate the westerlies over maritime continents and western Pacific areas, resulting in an unrealistic representation of surface latent heat flux associated with the MJO; and (ii vertical easterly wind shear from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in CFS is much weaker than that in the observation and in GFS, which may adversely affect the eastward propagation of the simulated MJO.
Using AMIE data to study cloud processes within the Madden-Julian Oscillation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Houze, Robert A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences
2015-12-17
This study uses AMIE data to show how the small clouds in the Madden-Julian Oscillation first organize into lines and other patterns, how they develop the first rainshowers, how those showers deposit cool air over the ocean surface, how this cool air spreads and triggers deeper convection, how the deep convection develops into mesoscale systems, how the mesoscale systems modify the heating profile through the depth of the troposphere, and how the development of the clouds responds to and interacts with large-scale waves circumnavigating the globe at upper levels, and how equatorial trapped waves at lower levels modulates the development of the cloud population. The techniques used to analyze the radar and sounding data collected in AMIE to achieve the above results are innovative, and to obtain more general results we have used regional modeling with a variety of cloud microphysical schemes in combination with the data analyses.
Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.
2016-07-01
Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.
Extratropical Forcing Triggered the 2015 Madden-Julian Oscillation-El Niño Event.
Hong, Chi-Cherng; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lee, Ming-Ying; Chow, Chun-Hoe; Jiang, Li-Chiang
2017-04-24
In this paper, we report the triggering effect of extratropical perturbation on the onset of an atypical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and onset of the 2015-16 El Niño in March 2015. The MJO exhibited several unique characteristics: the effect of extratropical forcing, atypical genesis location and timing in the equatorial western Pacific, and the extremity of amplitudes in many aspects. The southward-penetrating northerly associated with the extratropical disturbances in the extratropical western North Pacific contributed to triggering the deep convection and westerly wind burst (WWB) and onset of the MJO over the anomalously warm tropical western Pacific in early March. The persisting strong WWB forced downwelling Kelvin wave-like oceanic perturbation that propagated eastward and led to the onset of the 2015-16 El Niño. The proposed novel extratropical forcing mechanism explaining the unique extratropics-MJO-El Niño association, based on both data diagnostics and numerical experiments, warrants further attention for a more detailed understanding of the onset of the MJO and its potential effect on El Niño.
Intraseasonal interaction between the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation.
Cassou, Christophe
2008-09-25
Bridging the traditional gap between the spatio-temporal scales of weather and climate is a significant challenge facing the atmospheric community. In particular, progress in both medium-range and seasonal-to-interannual climate prediction relies on our understanding of recurrent weather patterns and the identification of specific causes responsible for their favoured occurrence, persistence or transition. Within this framework, I here present evidence that the main climate intra-seasonal oscillation in the tropics-the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)-controls part of the distribution and sequences of the four daily weather regimes defined over the North Atlantic-European region in winter. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) regimes are the most affected, allowing for medium-range predictability of their phase far exceeding the limit of around one week that is usually quoted. The tropical-extratropical lagged relationship is asymmetrical. Positive NAO events mostly respond to a mid-latitude low-frequency wave train initiated by the MJO in the western-central tropical Pacific and propagating eastwards. Precursors for negative NAO events are found in the eastern tropical Pacific-western Atlantic, leading to changes along the North Atlantic storm track. Wave-breaking diagnostics tend to support the MJO preconditioning and the role of transient eddies in setting the phase of the NAO. I present a simple statistical model to quantitatively assess the potential predictability of the daily NAO index or the sign of the NAO regimes when they occur. Forecasts are successful in approximately 70 per cent of the cases based on the knowledge of the previous approximately 12-day MJO phase used as a predictor. This promising skill could be of importance considering the tight link between weather regimes and both mean conditions and the chances of extreme events occurring over Europe. These findings are useful for further stressing the need to better simulate and forecast the tropical
A Madden-Julian oscillation event realistically simulated by a global cloud-resolving model.
Miura, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masaki; Nasuno, Tomoe; Noda, Akira T; Oouchi, Kazuyoshi
2007-12-14
A Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a massive weather event consisting of deep convection coupled with atmospheric circulation, moving slowly eastward over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Despite its enormous influence on many weather and climate systems worldwide, it has proven very difficult to simulate an MJO because of assumptions about cumulus clouds in global meteorological models. Using a model that allows direct coupling of the atmospheric circulation and clouds, we successfully simulated the slow eastward migration of an MJO event. Topography, the zonal sea surface temperature gradient, and interplay between eastward- and westward-propagating signals controlled the timing of the eastward transition of the convective center. Our results demonstrate the potential making of month-long MJO predictions when global cloud-resolving models with realistic initial conditions are used.
The Madden-Julian Oscillation and the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool
Raymond, David J.; Fuchs, Željka
2018-04-01
A minimal model of the interaction of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) with the Indo-Pacific warm pool is presented. This model is based on the linear superposition of the flow associated with a highly simplified treatment of the MJO plus the flow induced by the warm pool itself. Both of these components parameterize rainfall as proportional to the column water vapor, which in turn is governed by a linearized moisture equation in which WISHE (wind induced surface heat exchange) plays a governing role. The MJO component has maximum growth rate for planetary wavenumber 1 and is equatorially trapped with purely zonal winds. The warm pool component exhibits a complex flow pattern, differing significantly from the classical Gill model as a result of the mean easterly flow. The combination of the two produce a flow that reproduces many aspects of the observed global flow associated with the MJO.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.
2016-07-01
Every 30–90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall. This phenomenon is referred to as the Madden–Julian Oscillation, or MJO, named after the scientists who identified this cycle. The MJO significantly affects weather and rainfall patterns around the world (Zhang 2013). To improve predictions of the MJO—especially about how it forms and evolves throughout its lifecycle—an international group of scientists collected an unprecedented set of observations from the Indian Ocean and western Pacific region from October 2011 through March 2012 through several coordinated efforts. The coordinated field campaigns captured six distinct MJO cycles in the Indian Ocean. The rich set of observations capturing several MJO events from these efforts will be used for many years to study the physics of the MJO. Here we highlight early research results using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment (AMIE), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.
Low and high frequency Madden-Julian oscillations in austral summer: interannual variations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izumo, Takeshi [Research Institute For Global Change (JAMSTEC), Yokohama (Japan); LOCEAN, IRD-CNRS-UPMC, Paris (France); Masson, Sebastien; Vialard, Jerome; Madec, Gurvan [LOCEAN, IRD-CNRS-UPMC, Paris (France); Boyer Montegut, Clement de [IFREMER, Brest (France); Behera, Swadhin K. [Research Institute For Global Change (JAMSTEC), Yokohama (Japan); Takahashi, Keiko [Earth Simulator Center (JAMSTEC), Yokohama (Japan); Yamagata, Toshio [Research Institute For Global Change (JAMSTEC), Yokohama (Japan); University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
2010-09-15
The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the main component of intraseasonal variability of the tropical convection, with clear climatic impacts at an almost-global scale. Based on satellite observations, it is shown that there are two types of austral-summer MJO events (broadly defined as 30-120 days convective variability with eastward propagation of about 5 m/s). Equatorial MJO events have a period of 30-50 days and tend to be symmetric about the equator, whereas MJO events centered near 8 S tend to have a longer period of 55-100 days. The lower-frequency variability is associated with a strong upper-ocean response, having a clear signature in both sea surface temperature and its diurnal cycle. These two MJO types have different interannual variations, and are modulated by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Following a negative IOD event, the lower-frequency southern MJO variability increases, while the higher-frequency equatorial MJO strongly diminishes. We propose two possible explanations for this change in properties of the MJO. One possibility is that changes in the background atmospheric circulation after an IOD favour the development of the low-frequency MJO. The other possibility is that the shallower thermocline ridge and mixed layer depth, by enhancing SST intraseasonal variability and thus ocean-atmosphere coupling in the southwest Indian Ocean (the breeding ground of southern MJO onset), favour the lower-frequency southern MJO variability. (orig.)
Prediction of North Pacific Height Anomalies During Strong Madden-Julian Oscillation Events
Kai-Chih, T.; Barnes, E. A.; Maloney, E. D.
2017-12-01
The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) creates strong variations in extratropical atmospheric circulations that have important implications for subseasonal-to-seasonal prediction. In particular, certain MJO phases are characterized by a consistent modulation of geopotential height in the North Pacific and adjacent regions across different MJO events. Until recently, only limited research has examined the relationship between these robust MJO tropical-extratropical teleconnections and model prediction skill. In this study, reanalysis data (MERRA and ERA-Interim) and ECMWF ensemble hindcasts are used to demonstrate that robust teleconnections in specific MJO phases and time lags are also characterized by excellent agreement in the prediction of geopotential height anoma- lies across model ensemble members at forecast leads of up to 3 weeks. These periods of enhanced prediction capabilities extend the possibility for skillful extratropical weather prediction beyond traditional 10-13 day limits. Furthermore, we also examine the phase dependency of teleconnection robustness by using Linear Baroclinic Model (LBM) and the result is consistent with the ensemble hindcasts : the anomalous heating of MJO phase 2 (phase 6) can consistently generate positive (negative) geopotential height anomalies around the extratropical Pacific with a lead of 15-20 days, while other phases are more sensitive to the variaion of the mean state.
Ham, Yoo-Geun; Schubert, Siegfried; Chang, Yehui
2012-01-01
An initialization strategy, tailored to the prediction of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), is evaluated using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5), coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The approach is based on the empirical singular vectors (ESVs) of a reduced-space statistically determined linear approximation of the full nonlinear CGCM. The initial ESV, extracted using 10 years (1990-99) of boreal winter hindcast data, has zonal wind anomalies over the western Indian Ocean, while the final ESV (at a forecast lead time of 10 days) reflects a propagation of the zonal wind anomalies to the east over the Maritime Continent an evolution that is characteristic of the MJO. A new set of ensemble hindcasts are produced for the boreal winter season from 1990 to 1999 in which the leading ESV provides the initial perturbations. The results are compared with those from a set of control hindcasts generated using random perturbations. It is shown that the ESV-based predictions have a systematically higher bivariate correlation skill in predicting the MJO compared to those using the random perturbations. Furthermore, the improvement in the skill depends on the phase of the MJO. The ESV is particularly effective in increasing the forecast skill during those phases of the MJO in which the control has low skill (with correlations increasing by as much as 0.2 at 20 25-day lead times), as well as during those times in which the MJO is weak.
Role of Longwave Cloud-Radiation Feedback in the Simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation
Kim, Daehyun; Ahn, Min-Seop; Kang, In-Sik; Del Genio, Anthony D.
2015-01-01
The role of the cloud-radiation interaction in the simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is investigated. A special focus is on the enhancement of column-integrated diabatic heating due to the greenhouse effects of clouds and moisture in the region of anomalous convection. The degree of this enhancement, the greenhouse enhancement factor (GEF), is measured at different precipitation anomaly regimes as the negative ratio of anomalous outgoing longwave radiation to anomalous precipitation. Observations show that the GEF varies significantly with precipitation anomaly and with the MJO cycle. The greenhouse enhancement is greater in weak precipitation anomaly regimes and its effectiveness decreases monotonically with increasing precipitation anomaly. The GEF also amplifies locally when convection is strengthened in association with the MJO, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). A robust statistical relationship is found among CMIP5 climate model simulations between the GEF and the MJO simulation fidelity. Models that simulate a stronger MJO also simulate a greater GEF, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). Models with a greater GEF in the strong precipitation anomaly regime (greater than 30 mm day(-1)) represent a slightly slower MJO propagation speed. Many models that lack the MJO underestimate the GEF in general and in particular in the weak precipitation anomaly regime. The results herein highlight that the cloud-radiation interaction is a crucial process for climate models to correctly represent the MJO.
Simulations of the Madden-Julian oscillation in four pairs of coupled and uncoupled global models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Chidong; Dong, Min [RSMAS, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Gualdi, Silvio [National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Bologna (Italy); Hendon, Harry H. [BMRC, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Maloney, Eric D. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Marshall, Andrew [Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Sperber, Kenneth R. [PCMDI, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Wanqiu [CPC/NCEP/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States)
2006-11-15
The status of the numerical reproduction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) by current global models was assessed through diagnoses of four pairs of coupled and uncoupled simulations. Slow eastward propagation of the MJO, especially in low-level zonal wind, is realistic in all these simulations. However, the simulated MJO suffers from several common problems. The MJO signal in precipitation is generally too weak and often eroded by an unrealistic split of an equatorial maximum of precipitation into a double ITCZ structure over the western Pacific. The MJO signal in low-level zonal wind, on the other hand, is sometimes too strong over the eastern Pacific but too weak over the Indian Ocean. The observed phase relationship between precipitation and low-level zonal wind associated with the MJO in the western Pacific and their coherence in general are not reproduced by the models. The seasonal migration in latitude of MJO activity is missing in most simulations. Air-sea coupling generally strengthens the simulated eastward propagating signal, but its effects on the phase relationship and coherence between precipitation and low-level zonal wind, and on their geographic distributions, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability are inconsistent among the simulations. Such inconsistency cautions generalization of results from MJO simulations using a single model. In comparison to observations, biases in the simulated MJO appear to be related to biases in the background state of mean precipitation, low-level zonal wind, and boundary-layer moisture convergence. This study concludes that, while the realistic simulations of the eastward propagation of the MJO are encouraging, reproducing other fundamental features of the MJO by current global models remains an unmet challenge. (orig.)
Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Taylor, Patrick
2014-01-01
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) represents a prominent mode of intraseasonal tropical variability. It is manifest by coherent large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation, convection, and thermodynamic processes. Preconditioning of the environment prior to the active phase of the MJO has been noted, but the balance of theorized mechanisms to accomplish this process remains unresolved. Further, there is a lack of consensus on the means by which primary initiation of an MJO event occurs. Observational and modeling efforts have recently been undertaken to advance our understanding of the physical underpinnings governing MJO development. However these intensive studies are often limited in space and/or time and are potentially subject to model deficiencies. Satellite observations, especially those providing vertical resolution of temperature and moisture, provide an opportunity to expand our knowledge of processes critical to MJO initiation and preconditioning. This work will provide an analysis of suppressed phase thermodynamics with an emphasis on the use of a complementary suite of satellite observations including AIRS/AMSU-A profiles, CERES radiative fluxes, and cloud properties observed by MODIS. Emphasis of this work will regard the distribution of cloud regimes, their radiative-convective effects, and their relationship to moist static energy during the recharge and suppressed stages of MJO initiation and eastward propagation. The analyses will make use of cloud regimes from MODIS observations to provide a compositing technique that enables the identification of systematic connections between different cloud regimes and the larger scale environment. Within these cloud regimes, the relationship between the associated cloud-radiative effects observed by CERES, vertically-resolved and vertically-integrated thermodynamics using AIRS/AMSU-A observations, and atmospheric boundary layer fluxes will be demonstrated.
The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sperber, Kenneth R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Livermore, CA (United States); Gualdi, Silvio [National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Bologna (Italy); Legutke, Stephanie; Gayler, Veronika [Max Planck Institute of Meteorology, Models and Data Group, Hamburg (Germany)
2005-08-01
The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30-70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space-time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which 100 years of daily data is available, Monte Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of 0.5 C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air-sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat flux anomalies
Prediction of the Midlatitude Response to Strong Madden-Julian Oscillation Events on S2S Time Scales
Tseng, K.-C.; Barnes, E. A.; Maloney, E. D.
2018-01-01
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) forces strong variations in extratropical atmospheric circulations that have important implications for subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction. In particular, certain MJO phases are characterized by a consistent modulation of geopotential height in the North Pacific and adjacent regions across different MJO events. Until recently, only limited research has examined the relationship between these robust MJO tropical-extratropical teleconnections and model prediction skill. In this study, reanalysis data and numerical forecast model ensemble hindcasts are used to demonstrate that robust teleconnections in specific MJO phases and time lags are also characterized by excellent agreement in the prediction of geopotential height anomalies across model ensemble members at forecast leads of up to 3 weeks. These periods of enhanced prediction capabilities extend the possibility for skillful extratropical weather prediction beyond traditional 10-13 day limits.
Saragih, R. M.; Fajarianti, R.; Winarso, P. A.
2018-03-01
During the Asian winter Monsoon (November-March), the Indonesia Maritime Continent is an area of deep convection. In that period, there is a synoptic scale disturbance over Northwest of Borneo Island called Borneo vortex. In addition to the impact of Asian Winter Monsoon, Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) also have an impact on deep convection during an active period. This study aims to study the impact of interaction Borneo vortex and MJO (during MJO active period in phase 3, 4 and 5) and rainfall condition over the western part of Indonesia Maritime Continent using compositing technique in the period of November-March 2015/2016. The parameters used to identify the incidence of Borneo vortex, MJO, and its interaction is vertical velocity. When MJO is active, Borneo vortex occurs most often in phase 5 and at least in phase 3. However, Borneo vortex occurs most often when the MJO is inactive. The interaction between Borneo vortex and MJO seems may affect not so much rainfall occurrence in the western part of IMC.
Kim, Go-Un; Seo, Kyong-Hwan
2018-01-01
A key physical factor in regulating the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) simulation is examined by using 26 climate model simulations from the World Meteorological Organization's Working Group for Numerical Experimentation/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Atmospheric System Study (WGNE and MJO-Task Force/GASS) global model comparison project. For this, intraseasonal moisture budget equation is analyzed and a simple, efficient physical quantity is developed. The result shows that MJO skill is most sensitive to vertically integrated intraseasonal zonal wind convergence (ZC). In particular, a specific threshold value of the strength of the ZC can be used as distinguishing between good and poor models. An additional finding is that good models exhibit the correct simultaneous convection and large-scale circulation phase relationship. In poor models, however, the peak circulation response appears 3 days after peak rainfall, suggesting unfavorable coupling between convection and circulation. For an improving simulation of the MJO in climate models, we propose that this delay of circulation in response to convection needs to be corrected in the cumulus parameterization scheme.
Development of convection along the SPCZ within a Madden-Julian oscillation
Matthews, Adrian J.; Hoskins, Brian J.; Slingo, Julia M.; Blackburn, Mike
1996-01-01
A subtropical Rossby-wave propagation mechanism is proposed to account for the poleward and eastward progression of intraseasonal convective anomalies along the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) that is observed in a significant proportion of Madden–Julian oscillations (MJOs). Large-scale convection, associated with an MJO, is assumed to be already established over the Indonesian region. The latent heating associated with this convection forces an equatorial Rossby-wave response with an u...
Notaro, Michael
2018-01-01
A regional climate modeling analysis of the Australian monsoon system reveals a substantial modulation of vegetation-rainfall feedbacks by the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), both of which operate at similar sub-seasonal time scales, as evidence that the intensity of land-atmosphere interactions is sensitive to the background atmospheric state. Based on ensemble experiments with imposed modification of northern Australian leaf area index (LAI), the atmospheric responses to LAI anomalies are composited for negative and positive modes of the propagating MJO. In the regional climate model (RCM), northern Australian vegetation feedbacks are characterized by evapotranspiration (ET)-driven rainfall responses, with the moisture feedback mechanism dominating over albedo and roughness feedback mechanisms. During November-April, both Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and RCM data reveal MJO's pronounced influence on rainfall patterns across northern Australia, tropical Indian Ocean, Timor Sea, Arafura Sea, and Gulf of Carpentaria, with the MJO dominating over vegetation feedbacks in terms of regulating monsoon rainfall variability. Convectively-active MJO phases support an enhancement of positive vegetation feedbacks on monsoon rainfall. While the MJO imposes minimal regulation of ET responses to LAI anomalies, the vegetation feedback-induced responses in precipitable water, cloud water, and rainfall are greatly enhanced during convectively-active MJO phases over northern Australia, which are characterized by intense low-level convergence and efficient precipitable water conversion. The sub-seasonal response of vegetation-rainfall feedback intensity to the MJO is complex, with significant enhancement of rainfall responses to LAI anomalies in February during convectively-active MJO phases compared to minimal modulation by the MJO during prior and subsequent calendar months.
Hermawan, E.
2018-04-01
This study is mainly concerned an application of Mini Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) at Kototabang, West Sumatera nearby the location of an Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) side. We are interest to use this data to investigate the propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). We examined of daily MAWS data for 3 years observations started from January 2001 to Mei 2004. By applying wavelet analysis, we found the MJO at Kototabang have 32 days oscillations as shown in Fig.1 below. In this study, we concentrate just for local mechanis only. We will show in this paper that at the phase of the MJO with a dipole structure to the convection anomalies, there is enhanced tropical convection over the eastern Indian Ocean and reduced convection over the western Pacific. Over the equatorial western Indian Ocean, the equatorial Rossby wave response to the west of the enhanced convection includes a region of anomalous surface divergence associated with the anomalous surface westerlies and pressure ridge. This tends to suppress ascent in the boundary layer and shuts off the deep convection, eventually leading to a convective anomaly of the opposite sign. Over the Indonesian sector, the equatorial Kelvin wave response to the east of the enhanced convection includes a region of anomalous surface convergence into the anomalous equatorial surface easterlies and pressure trough, which will tend to favour convection in this region. The Indonesian sector is also influenced by an equatorial Rossby wave response (of opposite sign) to the west of the reduced convection over the western Pacific, which also has a region of anomalous surface convergence associated with its anomalous equatorial surface easterlies and pressure trough. Hence, convective anomalies of either sign tend to erode themselves from the west and initiate a convective anomaly of opposite sign via their equatorial Rossby wave response, and expand to the east via their equatorial Kelvin wave response.
Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Hye-Mi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Yoo, Jin Ho
2014-01-01
This study examines the influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on tropical storm (TS) activity in the western North Pacific, using observations and GEOS-5 simulations at 50-km horizontal resolution. While GEOS-5 produces an MJO of faster propagation and weaker amplitude, it nevertheless reproduces the observed modulation of TS activity by the MJO with the highest TS genesis and increased track density in the active phases of MJO. The study suggests that the simulation of the sub-seasonal variability of TS activity could be improved by improving the simulations of the MJO in climate models.
Heidinger, H.; Jones, C.; Carvalho, L. V.
2015-12-01
Extreme rainfall is important for the Andean region because of the large contribution of these events to the seasonal totals and consequent impacts on water resources for agriculture, water consumption, industry and hydropower generation, as well as the occurrence of floods and landslides. Over Central and Southern Peruvian Andes (CSPA), rainfall exceeding the 90th percentile contributed between 44 to 100% to the total Nov-Mar 1979-2010 rainfall. Additionally, precipitation from a large majority of stations in the CSPA exhibits statistically significant spectral peaks on intraseasonal time-scales (20 to 70 days). The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the most important intraseasonal mode of atmospheric circulation and moist convection in the tropics and the occurrence of extreme weather events worldwide. Mechanisms explaining the relationships between the MJO and precipitation in the Peruvian Andes have not been properly described yet. The present study examines the relationships between the activity and phases of the MJO and the occurrence of extreme rainfall over the CSPA. We found that the frequency of extreme rainfall events increase in the CSPA when the MJO is active. MJO phases 5, 6 and 7 contribute to the overall occurrence of extreme rainfall events over the CSPA. However, how the MJO phases modulate extreme rainfall depends on the location of the stations. For instance, extreme precipitation (above the 90th percentile) in stations in the Amazon basin are slightly more sensitive to phases 2, 3 and 4; the frequency of extremes in stations in the Pacific basin increases in phases 5, 6 and 7 whereas phase 2, 3 and 7 modulates extreme precipitation in stations in the Titicaca basin. Greater variability among stations is observed when using the 95th and 99th percentiles to identify extremes. Among the main mechanisms that explain the increase in extreme rainfall events in the Peruvian Andes is the intensification of the easterly moisture flux anomalies, which
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Vialard, Jerome; Lengaigne, M. [CNRS, UPMC, IRD, Case 100, Universite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, LOCEAN, Paris Cedex 05 (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); McCreary, Julian P. [University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Centre, Hawaii (United States); Praveen Kumar, B. [National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India)
2011-12-15
During boreal winter, there is a prominent maximum of intraseasonal sea-surface temperature (SST) variability associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) along a Thermocline Ridge located in the southwestern Indian Ocean (5 S-10 S, 60 E-90 E; TRIO region). There is an ongoing debate about the relative importance of air-sea heat fluxes and oceanic processes in driving this intraseasonal SST variability. Furthermore, various studies have suggested that interannual variability of the oceanic structure in the TRIO region could modulate the amplitude of the MJO-driven SST response. In this study, we use observations and ocean general circulation model (OGCM) experiments to quantify these two effects over the 1997-2006 period. Observational analysis indicates that Ekman pumping does not contribute significantly (on average) to intraseasonal SST variability. It is, however, difficult to quantify the relative contribution of net heat fluxes and entrainment to SST intraseasonal variability from observations alone. We therefore use a suite of OGCM experiments to isolate the impacts of each process. During 1997-2006, wind stress contributed on average only about 20% of the intraseasonal SST variability (averaged over the TRIO region), while heat fluxes contributed about 70%, with forcing by shortwave radiation (75%) dominating the other flux components (25%). This estimate is consistent with an independent air-sea flux product, which indicates that shortwave radiation contributes 68% of intraseasonal heat flux variability. The time scale of the heat-flux perturbation, in addition to its amplitude, is also important in controlling the intraseasonal SST signature, with longer periods favouring a larger response. There are also strong year-to-year variations in the respective role of heat fluxes and wind stress. Of the five strong cooling events identified in both observations and the model (two in 1999 and one in 2000, 2001 and 2002), intraseasonal-wind stress dominates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ray, Pallav; Zhang, Chidong [University of Miami, RSMAS/MPO, Miami, FL (United States); Moncrieff, Mitchell W.; Dudhia, Jim; Caron, Julie M.; Bruyere, Cindy [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Ruby Leung, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)
2011-01-15
Tropical channel models, defined as models that are global in the zonal direction but bounded in the meridional direction, are particularly useful for simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and understanding its physical and dynamical basis. Influences from the extratropics through the lateral boundaries have been found to be essential to the reproduction of the initiation of certain MJO events. This led to a hypothesis that multi-year simulations using a tropical channel model would reproduce reasonable MJO statistics under the influence of prescribed lateral boundary conditions derived from global reanalyses. Interestingly, the MJO statistics in such a multi-year simulation by a high-resolution tropical channel model are not better than those from global climate models. The error in the atmospheric mean state is found to be a possible reason for the poor MJO statistics in the simulation. Nevertheless, even with a large error in the mean state, the multi-year simulation captures two MJO events previously found to be initiated by extratropical influences. However, the model does not reproduce a third event, whose initiation is not directly influenced by the extratropics. This implies that in the absence of dynamical interactions between the MJO and the lateral boundary conditions, the error in the mean state could be sufficient to prevent the MJO initiation. To explore this third MJO event further, a series of sensitivity tests are conducted. These tests show that the simulation of this event is neither critically influenced by the cumulus parameterization employed, nor the initial conditions when the model is integrated 2 weeks prior to the MJO initiation. The model captures this event when the MJO signal is already present in the initial conditions. The use of high-resolution sea surface temperature does not improve the simulation of the third MJO event. A higher-resolution nested domain covering the Indo-Pacific warm pool region and including a cloud
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naziah Madani
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Latar belakang penelitian ini adalah pentingnya kajian mengenai MJO sebagai salah satu osilasi dominan di kawasan ekuator. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat model prediksi MJO berdasarkan analisis data WPR. Pada penelitian ini kejadian MJO diidentifikasi dari data kecepatan angin zonal pada lapisan 850 mb di kawasan Pontianak, Manado, dan Biak. Sebelum data angin zonal ini dimanfaatkan untuk melihat perilaku MJO, maka data angin tersebut terlebih dahulu dibandingkan dengan data indeks MJO yaitu RMM1 dan RMM2. RMM1 dan RMM2 merupakan sepasang indeks untuk memonitor kejadian MJO secara realtime. Hasil analisis Power Spectral Density (PSD data kecepatan angin zonal lapisan 850 mb menunjukkan adanya sinyal MJO kuat yang dicirikan dengan adanya osilasi sekitar 45 harian. Hasil korelasi dan regresi juga menunjukkan bahwa terdapat keterkaitan yang signifikan antara kedua data tersebut. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa data kecepatan angin zonal lapisan 850 mb dapat digunakan untuk analisis MJO. Pada penelitian ini, prediksi MJO didasarkan pada data kecepatan angin zonal menggunakan metode ARIMA Box-Jenkins. Melalui metode ini, model yang mendekati data deret waktu kecepatan angin zonal pada lapisan 850 mb di Pontianak adalah ARIMA(2,0,0, model prediksi untuk Manado adalah ARIMA(2,1,2, sedangkan untuk Biak adalah ARIMA(0,1,3. Model-model tersebut bermanfaat untuk melihat perilaku sinyal MJO pada data angin zonal berkaitan dengan pola curah hujan di wilayah kajian. Background of this research is to study the importance of MJO as one of the predominant peak oscillation in the equator area. This study aims to make prediction models of MJO based on the analysis of zonal wind speed data observed by WPR that compared by the MJO index data, namely RMM1 and RMM2. The results of PSD show strong MJO signal of 45 day periods oscillations. The result of corrrelation and regression analyses also show significant relationship between both data. Therefore
Yadav, P.; Straus, D. M.
2017-12-01
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a potential source of predictability in the extratropics in extended range weather forecasting. The nature of MJO is sporadic and therefore, the mid-latitude response may depend on the nature of the MJO event, in particular the phase speed. We discuss the results of our observational and modeling study of mid-latitude circulation response to Fast and Slow MJO episodes using wintertime ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the CFSv2 coupled model of NOAA. The observational study shows that the mid-latitude response to different propagating speeds is not the same. The propagation speed is defined by the time the OLR takes to propagate from phase 3 to phase 6. The mid-latitude response is assessed in terms of composite maps and frequency of occurrence of robust circulation regimes. Fast episode composite anomalies of 500hPa height show a developing Rossby wave in the mid-Pacific with downstream propagation through MJO phases 2- 4. Development of NAO+ teleconnection pattern is stronger in Slow that in Fast MJO episodes, and occurs with a greater time lag after MJO heating is in the Indian Ocean (phase 3). Previous results find an increase in occurrence of NAO- regime following phase 6. We have found that much of this behavior is due to the slow episodes. Based on these observational results, intervention experiments using CFSv2 are designed to better understand the impact of heating/cooling and to estimate mid-latitude response to Fast and Slow MJO episodes. The added heating experiments consist of 31 year reforecasts for December 1 initial conditions from CFS reanalysis (1980-2011) in which the identical MJO evolution of three-dimensional diabatic heating has been added, thus producing fast and slow MJO episodes with well-defined phase speeds. We will discuss the results of these experiments with a focus on understanding the role of phase speed and interference in setting up the response, and to understand the mechanisms that
Schubert, Siegfried; Kang, In-Sik; Reale, Oreste
2009-01-01
This talk gives an update on the progress and further plans for a coordinated project to carry out and analyze high-resolution simulations of tropical storm activity with a number of state-of-the-art global climate models. Issues addressed include, the mechanisms by which SSTs control tropical storm. activity on inter-annual and longer time scales, the modulation of that activity by the Madden Julian Oscillation on sub-seasonal time scales, as well as the sensitivity of the results to model formulation. The project also encourages companion coarser resolution runs to help assess resolution dependence, and. the ability of the models to capture the large-scale and long-terra changes in the parameters important for hurricane development. Addressing the above science questions is critical to understanding the nature of the variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and its regional impacts, and thus CLIVAR RAMP fully endorses the proposed tropical storm simulation activity. The project is open to all interested organizations and investigators, and the results from the runs will be shared among the participants, as well as made available to the broader scientific community for analysis.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Pohl, B
2010-01-01
Full Text Available range, it is not unambiguously related to the global-scale Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) activity, with in particular no coherent phase relationship with the MJO index. Moreover, in the high southern latitudes, the MJO-associated anomaly fields do...
Yuan, J.
2016-12-01
Vertical structures of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) during the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) are investigated using 2006-2011 CloudSat radar measurements for Indo-Pacific oceanic areas. In active phases of the MJO relatively more large MCSs and connected MCSs occur. The frequency of occurrence of connected MCSs peaks in the onset phase, a phase earlier than separated MCSs. Compared to separated MCSs, connected MCSs in all sizes have weaker reflectivity above 8 km in their deep precipitating portions and thick anvil clouds closely linked to them, suggesting more "stratiform" physics associated with them. Separated MCSs and connected MCSs together produce relatively the least anvil clouds in the onset phase while their deep precipitating portions show stronger/weaker reflectivity above 8 km before/after the onset phase. Thus after the onset phase of the MJO, MCSs shift toward more "convective" organization because separated MCSs maximize after the onset, while their internal structures appear more "stratiform" because internally they have weaker reflectivity above 8km. Connected MCSs coincide with a more humid middle troposphere spatially, even at the same places a few days before they occur. Middle-tropospheric moistening peaks in the onset phase. Moistening of the free troposphere around deep convective systems shows relatively stronger moistening/drying below the 700 hPa before/after the onset phase compared to domain-mean averages. Lower-topped clouds occur most frequently around CMCSs and in active phases, consistent with the presence of a moister free troposphere. Coexistence of these phenomena suggests that the role of middle troposphere moisture in the formation of CMCSs needs to be better understood.
Yuan, Jian
2016-09-01
Vertical structures of deep convective systems during the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) are investigated using CloudSat radar measurements in Indo-Pacific oceanic areas. In active phases of the MJO, relatively more large systems and connected mesoscale convective systems (CMCSs) occur. The occurrence frequency of CMCSs peaks in the onset phase, a phase earlier than separated mesoscale convective systems (SMCSs). Compared with SMCSs, CMCSs of all sizes have weaker reflectivity above 8 km in their deep precipitating portions and thick anvil clouds closely linked to them, suggesting more "stratiform" physics associated with them. SMCSs and CMCSs together produce relatively the least anvil clouds in the onset phase, while their deep precipitating portions show stronger/weaker reflectivity above 8 km before/after the onset phase. Thus, after the onset phase of the MJO, mesoscale convective systems shift toward a more "convective" organization because SMCSs maximize after the onset, while their internal structures appear more stratiform because internally they have weaker reflectivity above 8 km. CMCSs coincide with a more humid middle troposphere spatially, even at the same locations a few days before they occur. Middle-tropospheric moistening peaks in the onset phase. Moistening of the free troposphere around deep convective systems shows relatively stronger moistening/drying below 700 hPa before/after the onset phase than domain-mean averages. Low-topped clouds occur most frequently around CMCSs and in active phases, consistent with the presence of a moister free troposphere. Coexistence of these phenomena suggests that the role of middle troposphere moisture in the formation of CMCSs should be better understood.
Barrett, B.; Davies, A. R.; Steppe, C. N.; Hackbarth, C.
2017-12-01
In the first part of this study, time-lagged composites of upper-ocean currents from February to May of 1993-2016 were binned by active phase of the leading atmospheric mode of intraseasonal variability, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Seven days after the convectively active phase of the MJO enters the tropical Indian Ocean, anomalously strong south-southeastward upper-ocean currents are observed along the majority of U.S. west coast. Seven days after the convectively active phase enters the tropical western Pacific Ocean, upper-ocean current anomalies reverse along the U.S. west coast, with weaker southward flow. A physical pathway to the ocean was found for both of these: (a) tropical MJO convection modulates upper-tropospheric heights and circulation over the Pacific Ocean; (b) those anomalous atmospheric heights adjust the strength and position of the Aleutian Low and Hawaiian High; (c) surface winds change in response to the adjusted atmospheric pressure patterns; and (d) those surface winds project onto upper-ocean currents. In the second part of this study, we investigated if the MJO modulated intraseasonal variability of surface wind forcing and upper-ocean currents projected onto phytoplankton abundance along the U.S. west coast. Following a similar methodology, time-lagged, level 3 chlorophyll-a satellite products (a proxy for photosynthetic primary production) were binned by active MJO phase and analyzed for statistical significance using the Student's t test. Results suggest that intraseasonal variability of biological production along the U.S. west coast may be linked to the MJO, particularly since the time scale of the life cycle of phytoplankton is similar to the time scale of the MJO.
Harris, S. M.; Carvalho, L. V.; Jones, C.
2013-12-01
This study aimed to understand the patterns and variations of extreme precipitation events that occur in Santa Barbara County and determine the relationships with various phenomena that affect the region. Santa Barbara, CA is an area with complex topography that is disposed to numerous hazard events including landslides and flooding, particularly during the region's rainy season (Nov.-Apr.). These incidents are especially frequent in the seasons after fire-events, another hazard common to the region. In addition, Santa Barbara is affected by several tropical phenomena that influence precipitation on varying timescales including the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and atmospheric rivers (ARs). It is well known that ENSO and the MJO influence storms that occur in southern California through processes such as the modulation of the upper level jet and the low level moisture flux. ARs have been revealed to be responsible for the movement of large quantities of water vapor from tropical areas to the midlatitudes and have been linked to high-intensity storms throughout the western coast of North America. We examined rainy season (Nov.-Apr.) precipitation within Santa Barbara County using hourly rainfall data spanning approximately forty years (~1971-2010) from seven, local, rain gauge stations. The distributions as well as totals of precipitation on varying timescales (hourly, daily, seasonal, and yearly) were defined for specified intensities of rainfall based upon the 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. Persistence, expressed as the number of consecutive hours (or days) including intense precipitation defined according to the percentiles, was investigated on the hourly and daily timescales. In addition, specified storm episodes identified in this study were examined with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission in order to assess the spatial features of high-intensity storms. Results from this analysis will be
Madden-Julian Oscillation: Western Pacific and Indian Ocean
Fuchs, Z.; Raymond, D. J.
2016-12-01
The MJO has been and still remains a "holy grail" of today's atmospheric science research. Why does the MJO propagate eastward? What makes it unstable? What is the scaling for the MJO, i.e. why does it prefer long wavelengths or planetary wavenumbers 1-3? The MJO has the strongest signal in the Indian ocean and in the West Pacific, but the average vertical structure is very different in each of those basins. We look at the reanalysis/analysis FNL, ERAI vertical structure of temperature and moisture as well as the surface zonal winds for two ocean basins. We also look at data from DYNAMO and TOGA_COARE in great detail (saturation fraction, temperature, entropy, surface zonal winds, gross moist stability, etc). The findings from observations and field projects for the two ocean basins are then compared to a linear WISHE model on an equatorial beta plane. Though linear WISHE has long been discounted as a plausible model for the MJO, the version we have developed explains many of the observed features of this phenomenon, in particular, the preference for large zonal scale, the eastward propagation, the westward group velocity, and the thermodynamic structure. There is no need to postulate large-scale negative gross moist stability, as destabilization occurs via WISHE at long wavelengths only. This differs from early WISHE models because we take a moisture adjustment time scale of order one day in comparison to the much shorter time scales assumed in earlier models. Linear modeling cannot capture all of the features of the MJO, so we are in the process of adding nonlinearity.
Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.
1991-12-31
Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency ``Madden-Julian oscillation`` observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.
Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.
1991-01-01
Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency Madden-Julian oscillation'' observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.
Lee, June-Yi; Hsu, Pang-Chi; ha, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hae-Jeong; Jung, Yoo-Rim
2017-04-01
The summer of 2016 was the earth's hottest summer on record since 1880. Especially, in August, the global mean temperature was 1.66 degree higher than normal and heat waves set records across Asia, Europe, and North America. This study proposes that boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) played an important role in heat wave outbreaks over many regions of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropics in the summer 2016 in addition to other factors including global warming, atmosphere-land interaction, and Africa-Pakistan heavy rainfall. By utilizing the real-time multivariate BSISO indices recently proposed, it has been demonstrated that the two dominant BSISO modes significantly modulate occurrence probability and spatial distributions of extreme rainfall and heat wave over Asia and Europe depending on their phases. The BSISO1 represents the canonical northward propagating variability that often occurs in conjunction with the eastward propagating Madden-Julian Oscillation with quasi-oscillating periods of 30-60 days. The BSISO2 represents the northward/northwestward propagating variability with periods of 10-30 days during primarily the pre-monsoon and monsoon-onset season. In August of 2016, BSISO1 was very active with amplitude up to 2 standard deviation and stayed at phase 7 state for about 20 days. During the phase 7 of BSISO1, extreme convective activity over the South China Sea and western North Pacific typically exerts significant global teleconnection leading to heat wave occurrence over East Asia including Korea and Japan, some part of Russia and Europe, and the western and eastern part of North America. In particular, anticyclonic circulation anomaly tends to be developed over East Asia inducing enhanced adiabatic and diabatic warming over Korea and Japan providing a favorable condition for extreme heat wave occurrence. The August of 2016 exhibited the typical global teleconnection pattern of BSISO1 associated with active convection over the western
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.
1979-01-01
Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)
2012-09-30
order to understand its role in transporting moisture into the upper troposphere and effect on the initiation and propagation phases of the Madden...estimates of cloud base from ceilometer. The gray lines are composted insolation measurements to indicate day vs night conditions.
Coronal Waves and Oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakariakov Valery M.
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.
Acoustics waves and oscillations
Sen, S.N.
2013-01-01
Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...
Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2016-01-01
We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....
Oscillations and Waves in Sunspots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Khomenko
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A magnetic field modifies the properties of waves in a complex way. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of the physics of sunspot waves with the help of high-resolution observations, analytical theories, as well as numerical simulations. We review the current ideas in the field, providing the most coherent picture of sunspot oscillations as by present understanding.
Wave Physics Oscillations - Solitons - Chaos
Nettel, Stephen
2009-01-01
This textbook is intended for those second year undergraduates in science and engineering who will later need an understanding of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The classical physics of oscillations and waves is developed at a more advanced level than has been customary for the second year, providing a basis for the quantum mechanics that follows. In this new edition the Green's function is explained, reinforcing the integration of quantum mechanics with classical physics. The text may also form the basis of an "introduction to theoretical physics" for physics majors. The concluding chapters give special attention to topics in current wave physics: nonlinear waves, solitons, and chaotic behavior.
Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas
Pecseli, Hans L
2012-01-01
The result of more than 15 years of lectures in plasma sciences presented at universities in Denmark, Norway, and the United States, Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas addresses central issues in modern plasma sciences. The book covers fluid models as well as kinetic plasma models, including a detailed discussion of, for instance, collisionless Landau damping. Offering a clear separation of linear and nonlinear models, the book can be tailored for readers of varying levels of expertise.Designed to provide basic training in linear as well as nonlinear plasma dynamics, and practical in areas as d
Waves and oscillations in nature an introduction
Narayanan, A Satya
2015-01-01
Waves and oscillations are found in large scales (galactic) and microscopic scales (neutrino) in nature. Their dynamics and behavior heavily depend on the type of medium through which they propagate.Waves and Oscillations in Nature: An Introduction clearly elucidates the dynamics and behavior of waves and oscillations in various mediums. It presents different types of waves and oscillations that can be observed and studied from macroscopic to microscopic scales. The book provides a thorough introduction for researchers and graduate students in assorted areas of physics, such as fluid dynamics,
Isotropic oscillator: spheroidal wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Ter-Antonyan, V.M.; Sisakyan, A.N.
1985-01-01
Solutions of the Schroedinger equation are found for an isotropic oscillator (10) in prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates. It is shown that the obtained solutions turn into spherical and cylindrical bases of the isotropic oscillator at R→0 and R→ infinity (R is the dimensional parameter entering into the definition of prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates). The explicit form is given for both prolate and oblate basis of the isotropic oscillator for the lowest quantum states
Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Laing, Arlene
2012-01-01
In this study, it is proposed that twin tropical cyclones (TCs), Kesiny and 01A, in May 2002 formed in association with the scale interactions of three gyres that appeared as a convectively coupled mixed Rossby gravity (ccMRG) wave during an active phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This is shown by analyzing observational data, including NCEP reanalysis data and METEOSAT 7 IR satellite imagery, and performing numerical simulations using a global mesoscale model. A 10-day control run is initialized at 0000 UTC 1 May 2002 with grid-scale condensation but no sub-grid cumulus parameterizations. The ccMRG wave was identified as encompassing two developing and one non-developing gyres, the first two of which intensified and evolved into the twin TCs. The control run is able to reproduce the evolution of the ccMRG wave and thus the formation of the twin TCs about two and five days in advance as well as their subsequent intensity evolution and movement within an 8-10 day period. Five additional 10-day sensitivity experiments with different model configurations are conducted to help understand the interaction of the three gyres, leading to the formation of the TCs. These experiments suggest the improved lead time in the control run may be attributed to the realistic simulation of the ccMRG wave with the following processes: (1) wave deepening (intensification) associated with a reduction in wavelength and/or the intensification of individual gyres, (2) poleward movement of gyres that may be associated with boundary layer processes, (3) realistic simulation of moist processes at regional scales in association with each of the gyres, and (4) the vertical phasing of low- and mid-level cyclonic circulations associated with a specific gyre.
Neutrino wave function and oscillation suppression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.D.; Lychkovskiy, O.V.; Mamonov, A.A.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.
2005-01-01
We consider a thought experiment, in which a neutrino is produced by an electron on a nucleus in a crystal. The wave function of the oscillating neutrino is calculated assuming that the electron is described by a wave packet. If the electron is relativistic and the spatial size of its wave packet is much larger than the size of the crystal cell, then the wave packet of the produced neutrino has essentially the same size as the wave packet of the electron. We investigate the suppression of neutrino oscillations at large distances caused by two mechanisms: (1) spatial separation of wave packets corresponding to different neutrino masses; (2) neutrino energy dispersion for given neutrino mass eigenstates. We resolve the contributions of these two mechanisms. (orig.)
Waves and oscillations in plasma crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piel, A; Homann, A; Klindworth, M; Melzer, A; Zafiu, C; Nosenko, V; Goree, J
2003-01-01
An overview of the properties of plasma crystals and clusters is given with emphasis on oscillations of particles in the plasma trap, instabilities associated with the solid-liquid phase transition and the propagation of waves. It is demonstrated how laser manipulation can be used to stimulate particle motion and waves. From characteristic resonance frequencies and from wave dispersion the particle charge and shielding length parameters, which determine the interparticle forces, can be quantitatively measured
Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Valderrama
Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.
Noncommuting limits of oscillator wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daboul, J.; Pogosyan, G. S.; Wolf, K. B.
2007-01-01
Quantum harmonic oscillators with spring constants k > 0 plus constant forces f exhibit rescaled and displaced Hermite-Gaussian wave functions, and discrete, lower bound spectra. We examine their limits when (k, f) → (0, 0) along two different paths. When f → 0 and then k → 0, the contraction is standard: the system becomes free with a double continuous, positive spectrum, and the wave functions limit to plane waves of definite parity. On the other hand, when k → 0 first, the contraction path passes through the free-fall system, with a continuous, nondegenerate, unbounded spectrum and displaced Airy wave functions, while parity is lost. The subsequent f → 0 limit of the nonstandard path shows the dc hysteresis phenomenon of noncommuting contractions: the lost parity reappears as an infinitely oscillating superposition of the two limiting solutions that are related by the symmetry
Flashing coupled density wave oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Zhang Youjie
1997-07-01
The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The phenomenon and mechanism of different kinds of two-phase flow instabilities, namely geyser instability, flashing instability and flashing coupled density wave instability are described. The especially interpreted flashing coupled density wave instability has never been studied well, it is analyzed by using a one-dimensional non-thermo equilibrium two-phase flow drift model computer code. Calculations are in good agreement with the experiment results. (5 refs.,5 figs., 1 tab.)
Wave oscillations in colloid oxyhydrates wave oscillations in colloid oxyhydrates
Sucharev, Yuri I
2010-01-01
The importance of coherent chemistry, that is, the chemistry of periodic oscillatory processes, is increasing at a rapid rate in specific chemical disciplines. While being perfectly understood and highly developed in the fields of physical chemistry, chemical physics and biological chemistry, the periodic developmental paradigm of processes and phenomena still remains poorly developed and misunderstood in classical inorganic chemistry and related branches, such as colloid chemistry. The probability is that we miss subtle colloid chemical phenomena that could be of utmost importance if taken into consideration when catalysis or adsorption is involved. The author here reveals all of the astonishing vistas that periodic wave paradigms open up to researchers in certain colloid chemical systems, and will doubtless stimulate researchers to look at them in a new light.Review from Book News Inc.: Coherent chemistry, the chemistry of periodical oscillatory processes, is well established in physical chemistry, chemical...
Shukla, Ravi P.; Kinter, James L.; Shin, Chul-Su
2018-03-01
This study evaluates the effect of El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) events on 14-day mean significant wave height (SWH) at 3 weeks lead time (Wk34) over the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2). The WAVEWATCH-3 (WW3) model is forced with daily 10m-winds predicted by a modified version of CFSv2 that is initialized with multiple ocean analyses in both January and May for 1979-2008. A significant anomaly correlation of predicted and observed SWH anomalies (SWHA) at Wk34 lead-time is found over portions of the domain, including the central western Pacific, South China Sea (SCS), Bay of Bengal (BOB) and southern Indian Ocean (IO) in January cases, and over BOB, equatorial western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and southern IO in May cases. The model successfully predicts almost all the important features of the observed composite SWHA during El Niño events in January, including negative SWHA in the central IO where westerly wind anomalies act on an easterly mean state, and positive SWHA over the southern Ocean (SO) where westerly wind anomalies act on a westerly mean state. The model successfully predicts the sign and magnitude of SWHA at Wk34 lead-time in May over the BOB and SCS in composites of combined phases-2-3 and phases-6-7 of MJO. The observed leading mode of SWHA in May and the third mode of SWHA in January are influenced by the combined effects of ENSO and MJO. Based on spatial and temporal correlations, the spatial patterns of SWHA in the model at Wk34 in both January and May are in good agreement with the observations over the equatorial western Pacific, equatorial and southern IO, and SO.
Will oscillating wave surge converters survive tsunamis?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. O’Brien
2015-07-01
Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on renewable energy resources, wave power technology is becoming one of the realistic solutions. However, the 2011 tsunami in Japan was a harsh reminder of the ferocity of the ocean. It is known that tsunamis are nearly undetectable in the open ocean but as the wave approaches the shore its energy is compressed, creating large destructive waves. The question posed here is whether an oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC could withstand the force of an incoming tsunami. Several tools are used to provide an answer: an analytical 3D model developed within the framework of linear theory, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations and empirical formulas. Numerical results show that run-up and draw-down can be amplified under some circumstances, leading to an OWSC lying on dry ground!
Gravitational wave emission from oscillating millisecond pulsars
Alford, Mark G.; Schwenzer, Kai
2015-02-01
Neutron stars undergoing r-mode oscillation emit gravitational radiation that might be detected on the Earth. For known millisecond pulsars the observed spin-down rate imposes an upper limit on the possible gravitational wave signal of these sources. Taking into account the physics of r-mode evolution, we show that only sources spinning at frequencies above a few hundred Hertz can be unstable to r-modes, and we derive a more stringent universal r-mode spin-down limit on their gravitational wave signal. We find that this refined bound limits the gravitational wave strain from millisecond pulsars to values below the detection sensitivity of next generation detectors. Young sources are therefore a more promising option for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by r-modes and to probe the interior composition of compact stars in the near future.
Collective neutrino oscillations and neutrino wave packets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhmedov, Evgeny; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kopp, Joachim, E-mail: akhmedov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: jkopp@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: lindner@mpi-hd.mpg.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)
2017-09-01
Effects of decoherence by wave packet separation on collective neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases are considered. We estimate the length of the wave packets of neutrinos produced in core collapse supernovae and the expected neutrino coherence length, and then proceed to consider the decoherence effects within the density matrix formalism of neutrino flavour transitions. First, we demonstrate that for neutrino oscillations in vacuum the decoherence effects are described by a damping term in the equation of motion of the density matrix of a neutrino as a whole (as contrasted to that of the fixed-momentum components of the neutrino density matrix). Next, we consider neutrino oscillations in ordinary matter and dense neutrino backgrounds, both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes. In the latter case we study two specific models of adiabaticity violation—one with short-term and another with extended non-adiabaticity. It is demonstrated that, while in the adiabatic case a damping term is present in the equation of motion of the neutrino density matrix (just like in the vacuum oscillation case), no such term in general appears in the non-adiabatic regime.
Nonlinear transient waves in coupled phase oscillators with inertia.
Jörg, David J
2015-05-01
Like the inertia of a physical body describes its tendency to resist changes of its state of motion, inertia of an oscillator describes its tendency to resist changes of its frequency. Here, we show that finite inertia of individual oscillators enables nonlinear phase waves in spatially extended coupled systems. Using a discrete model of coupled phase oscillators with inertia, we investigate these wave phenomena numerically, complemented by a continuum approximation that permits the analytical description of the key features of wave propagation in the long-wavelength limit. The ability to exhibit traveling waves is a generic feature of systems with finite inertia and is independent of the details of the coupling function.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A majority of millimeter wave based systems used for space exploration, communications and research, require a millimeter wave oscillator. These oscillators have...
Linear theory of plasma filled backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Shih-Hung; Chen, Liu
2013-01-01
The nonstationary oscillation of the gyrotron backward wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) with cylindrical interaction structure was studied utilizing both steady-state analyses and time-dependent simulations. Comparisons of the numerical results reveal that the gyro-BWO becomes nonstationary when the trailing field structure completely forms due to the dephasing energetic electrons. The backward propagation of radiated waves with a lower resonant frequency from the trailing field structure interferes with the main internal feedback loop, thereby inducing the nonstationary oscillation of the gyro-BWO. The nonstationary gyro-BWO exhibits the same spectral pattern of modulated oscillations with a constant frequency separation between the central frequency and sidebands throughout the whole system. The frequency separation is found to be scaled with the square root of the maximum field amplitude, thus further demonstrating that the nonstationary oscillation of the gyro-BWO is associated with the beam-wave resonance detuning
Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Langmuir Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1976-01-01
The dielectric function for long-wavelength, low-frequency ion acoustic waves in the presence of short-wavelength, high-frequency electron oscillations is presented, where the ions are described by the collision-free Vlasov equation. The effect of the electron oscillations can be appropriately...
Planetary-scale circulations in the presence of climatological and wave-induced heating
Salby, Murry L; Garcia, Rolando R.; Hendon, Harry H.
1994-01-01
Interaction between the large-scale circulation and the convective pattern is investigated in a coupled system governed by the linearized primitive equations. Convection is represented in terms of two components of heating: A 'climatological component' is prescribed stochastically to represent convection that is maintained by fixed distributions of land and sea and sea surface temperature (SST). An 'induced component' is defined in terms of the column-integrated moisture flux convergence to represent convection that is produced through feedback with the circulation. Each component describes the envelope organizing mesoscale convective activity. As SST on the equator is increased, induced heating amplifies in the gravest zonal wavenumbers at eastward frequencies, where positive feedback offsets dissipation. Under barotropic stratification, a critical SST of 29.5 C results in positive feedback exactly cancelling dissipation in wavenumber 1 for an eastward phase speed of 6 m/s. Sympathetic interaction between the circulation and the induced heating is the basis for 'frictional wave-Conditional Instability of the Second Kind (CISK)', which is distinguished from classical wave-CISK by rendering the gravest zonal dimensions most unstable. Under baroclinic stratification, the coupled system exhibits similar behavior. The critical SST is only 26.5 C for conditions representative of equinox, but in excess of 30 C for conditions representative of solstice. Having the form of an unsteady Walker circulation, the disturbance produced by frictional wave-CISK compares favorably with the observed life cycle of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). SST above the critical value produces an amplifying disturbance in which enhanced convection coincides with upper-tropospheric westerlies and is positively correlated with temperature and surface convergence. Conversely, SST below the critical value produces a decaying disturbance in which enhanced convection coincides with upper
Chirality oscillation of primordial gravitational waves during inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Yong; Wang, Yu-Tong [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Piao, Yun-Song [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China)
2017-03-06
We show that if the gravitational Chern-Simons term couples to a massive scalar field (m>H), the primordial gravitational waves (GWs) will show itself the chirality oscillation, i.e., the amplitudes of the left- and right-handed GWs modes will convert into each other and oscillate in their propagations. This oscillation will eventually develop a permanent difference of the amplitudes of both modes, which leads to nearly opposite oscillating shapes in the power spectra of the left- and right-handed primordial GWs. We discuss its implication to the CMB B-mode polarization.
Development of a 2 MW relativistic backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, a high power relativistic backward wave oscillator (BWO) experiment is reported. A 230 keV, 2 kA, 150 ns relativistic electron beam is generated using a Marx generator. The beam is then injected into a hollow rippled wall metallic cylindrical tube that forms a slow wave structure. The beam is guided using an ...
Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.
1975-01-01
A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations
Studies of hydromagnetic waves and oscillations in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawley, M.L.
1980-10-01
Small amplitude magnetoacoustic oscillations in a partially ionized, non-uniform, current carrying plasma column of finite beta are considered. The linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations are used to develop a theory describing both free and forced magnetoacoustic oscillations. The results of numerical calculations are given for the specific case of diffuse pinch equilibrium configurations. In an experimental study the amplitude of the oscillating axial magnetic flux is determined for several frequencies in the vicinity of the first magnetoacoustic resonance. Accurate determination of the plasma density profile is shown to be possible. Finite-amplitude effects on the propagation of axisymmetric hydromagnetic waves are examined. A nonlinear theory is developed which describes the second-order perturbation that accompanies the primary wave. The influence of Hall currents and the presence of neutral atoms on the second-order fields is treated. In an investigation on the propagation of torsional waves the observed second-order fields are shown to exhibit good quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations for moderate primary wave amplitudes. The re-ionization of the plasma by a torsional wave is investigated. A theoretical description is given of the nonlinear excitation of magnetoacoustic oscillations by means of an oscillating axial current
An Introduction to Waves and Oscillations in the Sun
Narayanan, A Satya
2013-01-01
Astrophysicists and others studying the Sun will find this expansive coverage of what we know about waves and oscillations in our nearest star an informative introduction to a hot contemporary topic. After a section summarizing the Sun's physical characteristics, the volume moves on to explore the basics of electrodynamics, which in turn facilitate a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The material also details the often complex nature of waves and oscillations in uniform and non-uniform media, before categorizing the observational signatures of oscillations and exploring the instabilities in fluid, dealing with a range of known forms. Lastly, a section on helioseismology explores our growing familiarity with the internal structure of the Sun. This book is a unified portal to a thorough grounding in solar waves that includes a wealth of explanatory vignettes demystifying concepts such as flux tubes, current-free and force-free magnetic fields, the prominences, and the relationship between the vorticity ...
Nonlinearly driven oscillations in the gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, C. C.; Pao, K. F.; Yan, Y. C.; Chu, K. R.; Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.
2008-01-01
By delivering unprecedented power and gain, the gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWT) offers great promise for advanced millimeter wave radars. However, the underlying physics of this complex nonlinear system is yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we report a new phenomenon in the form of nonlinearly driven oscillations. A zero-drive stable gyro-TWT is shown to be susceptible to a considerably reduced dynamic range at the band edge, followed by a sudden transition into driven oscillations and then a hysteresis effect. An analysis of this unexpected behavior and its physical interpretation are presented.
Investigation of density-wave oscillation in parallel boiling channels under high pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ming Xiao; Xuejun Chen; Mingyuan Zhang
1992-01-01
This paper presents experimental results on density-wave instability in parallel boiling channels. Experiments have been done in a high pressure steam-water loop. Different types of two-phase flow instabilities have been observed, including density-wave oscillation, pressure-drop type oscillation, thermal oscillation and secondary density-wave oscillation. The secondary density-wave oscillation appears at very low exit steam quality (less than 0.1) and at the positive portion of Δ P-G curves with both channels' flow rate oscillating in phase. Density-wave oscillation can appear at pressure up to 192 bar and disappear over 207 bar. (6 figures) (Author)
Maximum covariance analysis to identify intraseasonal oscillations over tropical Brazil
Barreto, Naurinete J. C.; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Mendes, David; Spyrides, Maria H. C.; Pedra, George U.; Lucio, Paulo S.
2017-09-01
A reliable prognosis of extreme precipitation events in the tropics is arguably challenging to obtain due to the interaction of meteorological systems at various time scales. A pivotal component of the global climate variability is the so-called intraseasonal oscillations, phenomena that occur between 20 and 100 days. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is directly related to the modulation of convective precipitation in the equatorial belt, is considered the primary oscillation in the tropical region. The aim of this study is to diagnose the connection between the MJO signal and the regional intraseasonal rainfall variability over tropical Brazil. This is achieved through the development of an index called Multivariate Intraseasonal Index for Tropical Brazil (MITB). This index is based on Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) applied to the filtered daily anomalies of rainfall data over tropical Brazil against a group of covariates consisting of: outgoing longwave radiation and the zonal component u of the wind at 850 and 200 hPa. The first two MCA modes, which were used to create the { MITB}_1 and { MITB}_2 indices, represent 65 and 16 % of the explained variance, respectively. The combined multivariate index was able to satisfactorily represent the pattern of intraseasonal variability over tropical Brazil, showing that there are periods of activation and inhibition of precipitation connected with the pattern of MJO propagation. The MITB index could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool for intraseasonal forecasting.
Injection locking of optomechanical oscillators via acoustic waves
Huang, Ke; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani
2018-04-01
Injection locking is a powerful technique for synchronization of oscillator networks and controlling the phase and frequency of individual oscillators using similar or other types of oscillators. Here, we present the first demonstration of injection locking of a radiation-pressure driven optomechanical oscillator (OMO) via acoustic waves. As opposed to previously reported techniques (based on pump modulation or direct application of a modulated electrostatic force), injection locking of OMO via acoustic waves does not require optical power modulation or physical contact with the OMO and it can easily be implemented on various platforms. Using this approach we have locked the phase and frequency of two distinct modes of a microtoroidal silica OMO to a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). We have characterized the behavior of the injection locked OMO with three acoustic excitation configurations and showed that even without proper acoustic impedance matching the OMO can be locked to the PZT and tuned over 17 kHz with only -30 dBm of RF power fed to the PZT. The high efficiency, simplicity and scalability of the proposed approach paves the road toward a new class of photonic systems that rely on synchronization of several OMOs to a single or multiple RF oscillators with applications in optical communication, metrology and sensing. Beyond its practical applications, injection locking via acoustic waves can be used in fundamental studies in quantum optomechanics where thermal and optical isolation of the OMO are critical.
Plasma-ﬁlled rippled wall rectangular backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Performance of the backward wave oscillator (BWO) is greatly enhanced with the introduction of plasma. Linear theory of the dispersion relation and the growth rate have been derived and analysed numerically for plasma-ﬁlled rippled wall rectangular waveguide driven by sheet electron beam. To see the effect of plasma ...
Limit cycle analysis of nuclear coupled density wave oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, M.E.
1985-01-01
An investigation of limit cycle behavior for the nuclear-coupled density wave oscillation (NCDWO) in a boiling water reactor (BWR) was performed. A simplified nonlinear model of BWR core behavior was developed using a two-region flow channel representation, coupled with a form of the point-kinetics equation. This model has been used to investigate the behavior of large amplitude NCDWO's through conventional time-integration solutions and through application of a direct relaxation-oscillation limit cycle solution in phase space. The numerical solutions demonstrate the potential for severe global power and flow oscillations in a BWR core at off-normal conditions, such as might occur during Anticipated Transients without Scram. Because of the many simplifying assumptions used, it is felt that the results should not be interpreted as an absolute prediction of core behavior, but as an indication of the potential for large oscillations and a demonstration of the corresponding limit cycle mechanisms. The oscillations in channel density drive the core power variations, and are reinforced by heat flux variations due to the changing fuel temperature. A global temperature increase occurs as energy is accumulated in the fuel, and limits the magnitude of the oscillations because as the average channel density decreases, the amplitude and duration of positive void reactivity at a given oscillation amplitude is lessened
'Oscillator-wave' model: properties and heuristic instances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damgov, Vladimir; Trenchev, Plamen; Sheiretsky, Kostadin
2003-01-01
The article considers a generalized model of an oscillator, subjected to the influence of an external wave. It is shown that the systems of diverse physical background, which this model encompasses by their nature, should belong to the broader, proposed in previous works class of 'kick-excited self-adaptive dynamical systems'. The theoretical treatment includes an analytic approach to the conditions for emergence of small and large amplitudes, i.e. weak and strong non-linearity of the system. Derived also are generalized conditions for the transition of systems of this 'oscillator-wave' type to non-regular and chaotic behaviour. For the purpose of demonstrating the heuristic properties of the generalized oscillator-wave model from this point of view are considered the relevant systems and phenomena of the quantized cyclotron resonance and the megaquantum resonance-wave model of the Solar System. We point to a number of other natural and scientific phenomena, which can be effectively analyzed from the point of view of the developed approach. In particular we stress on the possibility for development and the wide applicability of specific wave influences, for example for the improvement and the speeding up of technological processes
Oscillations in the wake of a flare blast wave
Tothova, D.; Innes, D. E.; Stenborg, G.
2011-04-01
Context. Oscillations of coronal loops in the Sun have been reported in both imaging and spectral observations at the onset of flares. Images reveal transverse oscillations, whereas spectra detect line-of-sight velocity or Doppler-shift oscillations. The Doppler-shift oscillations are commonly interpreted as longitudinal modes. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the relationship between loop dynamics and flows seen in TRACE 195 Å images and Doppler shifts observed by SUMER in Si iii 1113.2 Å and FeXIX 1118.1 Å at the time of a C.8-class limb flare and an associated CME. Methods: We carefully co-aligned the sequence of TRACE 195 Å images to structures seen in the SUMER Si iii, CaX, and FeXIX emission lines. Additionally, Hα observations of a lifting prominence associated with the flare and the coronal mass ejection (CME) are available in three bands around 6563.3 Å. They give constraints on the timing and geometry. Results: Large-scale Doppler-shift oscillations in FeXIX and transverse oscillations in intensity images were observed over a large region of the corona after the passage of a wide bright extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) disturbance, which suggests ionization, heating, and acceleration of hot plasma in the wake of a blast wave. The online movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org and at http://www.mps.mpg.de/data/outgoing/tothova/movie.gif
Injection locking of optomechanical oscillators via acoustic waves.
Huang, Ke; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani
2018-04-02
Injection locking is an effective technique for synchronization of oscillator networks and controlling the phase and frequency of individual oscillators. As such, exploring new mechanisms for injection locking of emerging oscillators is important for their usage in various systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of injection locking of a radiation pressure driven optomechanical oscillator (OMO) via acoustic waves. As opposed to previously reported techniques (based on pump modulation or direct application of a modulated electrostatic force), injection locking of OMO via acoustic waves does not require optical power modulation or physical contact with the OMO and it can be easily implemented on various platforms to lock different types of OMOs independent of their size and structure. Using this approach we have locked the phase and frequency of two distinct modes of a microtoroidal silica OMO to a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). We have characterized the behavior of the injection locked OMO with three acoustic excitation configurations and showed that even without proper acoustic impedance, matching the OMO can be locked to the PZT and tuned over 17 kHz with only -30 dBm of RF power fed to the PZT. The high efficiency, simplicity, and scalability of the proposed approach paves the road toward a new class of photonic systems that rely on synchronization of several OMOs to a single or multiple RF oscillators with applications in optical communication, metrology, and sensing. Beyond its practical applications, injection locking via acoustic waves can be used in fundamental studies in quantum optomechanics where thermal and optical isolation of the OMO are critical.
Comparison of heaving buoy and oscillating flap wave energy converters
Abu Bakar, Mohd Aftar; Green, David A.; Metcalfe, Andrew V.; Najafian, G.
2013-04-01
Waves offer an attractive source of renewable energy, with relatively low environmental impact, for communities reasonably close to the sea. Two types of simple wave energy converters (WEC), the heaving buoy WEC and the oscillating flap WEC, are studied. Both WECs are considered as simple energy converters because they can be modelled, to a first approximation, as single degree of freedom linear dynamic systems. In this study, we estimate the response of both WECs to typical wave inputs; wave height for the buoy and corresponding wave surge for the flap, using spectral methods. A nonlinear model of the oscillating flap WEC that includes the drag force, modelled by the Morison equation is also considered. The response to a surge input is estimated by discrete time simulation (DTS), using central difference approximations to derivatives. This is compared with the response of the linear model obtained by DTS and also validated using the spectral method. Bendat's nonlinear system identification (BNLSI) technique was used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic system since the spectral analysis was only suitable for linear dynamic system. The effects of including the nonlinear term are quantified.
Strongest gravitational waves from neutrino oscillations at supernova core bounce
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosquera Cuesta, H.J.; Fiuza, K.
2004-01-01
Resonant active-to-active (ν a →ν a ), as well as active-to-sterile (ν a →ν s ) neutrino (ν) oscillations can take place during the core bounce of a supernova collapse. Besides, over this phase, weak magnetism increases the antineutrino (anti ν) mean free path, and thus its luminosity. Because the oscillation feeds mass-energy into the target ν species, the large mass-squared difference between the species (ν a →ν s ) implies a huge amount of energy to be given off as gravitational waves (L GW ∝10 49 erg s -1 ), due to anisotropic but coherent ν flow over the oscillation length. This asymmetric ν-flux is driven by both the spin-magnetic and the universal spin-rotation coupling. The novel contribution of this paper stems from (1) the new computation of the anisotropy parameter α∝0.1-0.01, and (2) the use of the tight constraints from neutrino experiments as SNO and KamLAND, and the cosmic probe WMAP, to compute the gravitational-wave emission during neutrino oscillations in supernovae core collapse and bounce. We show that the mass of the sterile neutrino ν s that can be resonantly produced during the flavor conversions makes it a good candidate for dark matter as suggested by Fuller et al., Phys. Rev. D 68, 103002 (2003). The new spacetime strain thus estimated is still several orders of magnitude larger than those from ν diffusion (convection and cooling) or quadrupole moments of neutron star matter. This new feature turns these bursts into the more promising supernova gravitational-wave signals that may be detected by observatories as LIGO, VIRGO, etc., for distances far out to the VIRGO cluster of galaxies. (orig.)
Solar atmosphere wave dynamics generated by solar global oscillating eigenmodes
Griffiths, M. K.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.; Zheng, R.
2018-01-01
The solar atmosphere exhibits a diverse range of wave phenomena, where one of the earliest discovered was the five-minute global acoustic oscillation, also referred to as the p-mode. The analysis of wave propagation in the solar atmosphere may be used as a diagnostic tool to estimate accurately the physical characteristics of the Sun's atmospheric layers. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and upward propagation of waves which are generated by the solar global eigenmodes. We report on a series of hydrodynamic simulations of a realistically stratified model of the solar atmosphere representing its lower region from the photosphere to low corona. With the objective of modelling atmospheric perturbations, propagating from the photosphere into the chromosphere, transition region and low corona, generated by the photospheric global oscillations the simulations use photospheric drivers mimicking the solar p-modes. The drivers are spatially structured harmonics across the computational box parallel to the solar surface. The drivers perturb the atmosphere at 0.5 Mm above the bottom boundary of the model and are placed coincident with the location of the temperature minimum. A combination of the VALIIIC and McWhirter solar atmospheres are used as the background equilibrium model. We report how synthetic photospheric oscillations may manifest in a magnetic field free model of the quiet Sun. To carry out the simulations, we employed the magnetohydrodynamics code, SMAUG (Sheffield MHD Accelerated Using GPUs). Our results show that the amount of energy propagating into the solar atmosphere is consistent with a model of solar global oscillations described by Taroyan and Erdélyi (2008) using the Klein-Gordon equation. The computed results indicate a power law which is compared to observations reported by Ireland et al. (2015) using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly.
Modeling Tides, Planetary Waves, and Equatorial Oscillations in the MLT
Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Applying Hines Doppler Spread Parameterization for gravity waves (GW), our 3D model reproduces some essential features that characterize the observed seasonal variations of tides and planetary waves in the upper mesosphere. In 2D, our model also reproduces the large Semi-Annual Oscillation (SAO) and Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) observed in this region at low latitudes. It is more challenging to describe these features combined in a more comprehensive self consistent model, and we give a progress report that outlines the difficulties and reports some success. In 3D, the GW's are partially absorbed by tides and planetary waves to amplify them. Thus the waves are less efficient in generating the QBO and SAO at equatorial latitudes. Some of this deficiency is compensated by the fact that the GW activity is observed to be enhanced at low latitudes. Increasing the GW source has the desired effect to boost the QBO, but the effect is confined primarily to the stratosphere. With increasing altitude, the meridional circulation becomes more important in redistributing the momentum deposited in the background flow by the GW's. Another factor involved is the altitude at which the GW's originate, which we had originally chosen to be the surface. Numerical experiments show that moving this source altitude to the top of the troposphere significantly increases the efficiency for generating the QBO without affecting much the tides and planetary waves in the model. Attention to the details in which the GW source comes into play thus appears to be of critical importance in modeling the phenomenology of the MLT. Among the suite of numerical experiments reported, we present a simulation that produced significant variations of tides and planetary waves in the upper mesosphere. The effect is related to the QBO generated in the model, and GW filtering is the likely cause.
Integrated flux-flow oscillators for submillimeter wave receivers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshelets, V.P.; Shchukin, A.V.; Shitov, S.V.; Filippenko, L.V.; Fischer, G.M.; Mygind, J.
1994-01-01
A superconducting Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) integrated on the same chip with a small Josephson junction detector has been experimentally investigated in the frequency range 100 - 450 GHz. Both the emitted power and the frequency of the FFO can be varied by adjusting the dc bias current and/or the applied dc magnetic field. Microwave powers as high as 0.3 μW have been measured at 375 GHz. The spectral width of the FFO is about 1 MHz as estimated from harmonic mixing experiments. Also a fully integrated superconducting submillimeter wave receiver using the FFO as local oscillator has been successfully tested. The circuit included coupling transformers, a superconducting variable attenuator and a detector junction with tuned-out capacitance. (orig.)
Coronal seismology waves and oscillations in stellar coronae
Stepanov, Alexander; Nakariakov, Valery M
2012-01-01
This concise and systematic account of the current state of this new branch of astrophysics presents the theoretical foundations of plasma astrophysics, magneto-hydrodynamics and coronal magnetic structures, taking into account the full range of available observation techniques -- from radio to gamma. The book discusses stellar loops during flare energy releases, MHD waves and oscillations, plasma instabilities and heating and charged particle acceleration. Current trends and developments in MHD seismology of solar and stellar coronal plasma systems are also covered, while recent p
Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere
Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.
2013-12-01
Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started
Experimental high power plasma-filled backward wave oscillator results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minami, K.; Lou, W.R.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Granatstein, V.L.; Carmel, Y.
1988-01-01
Previous results have indicated that a background gas can be used to increase the output microwave power of relativistic backward wave oscillators (BWOs) two or three times the vacuum case. In their experiments, two methods of plasma production are investigated in detail: the use of the electron beam to ionize a background gas, and the use of a plasma gun to inject a background plasma into the slow-wave structure of a BWO. It is found in the first case that there was a resonant increase in microwave power at a particular pressure of the background gas by a factor of ten. In the second case, power also increased compared with power production in vacuum. Detailed results are presented and the relative merits of the two approaches is discussed and compared with theoretical expectations
Magnetization oscillations and waves driven by pure spin currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demidov, V.E. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2-4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Loubens, G. de [SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Demokritov, S.O., E-mail: demokrit@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2-4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of RAS, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation)
2017-02-23
Recent advances in the studies of pure spin currents–flows of angular momentum (spin) not accompanied by the electric currents–have opened new horizons for the emerging technologies based on the electron’s spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. The main advantage of pure spin current, as compared to the spin-polarized electric current, is the possibility to exert spin transfer torque on the magnetization in thin magnetic films without the electrical current flow through the material. In addition to minimizing Joule heating and electromigration effects, this enables the implementation of spin torque devices based on the low-loss insulating magnetic materials, and offers an unprecedented geometric flexibility. Here we review the recent experimental achievements in investigations of magnetization oscillations excited by pure spin currents in different nanomagnetic systems based on metallic and insulating magnetic materials. We discuss the spectral properties of spin-current nano-oscillators, and relate them to the spatial characteristics of the excited dynamic magnetic modes determined by the spatially-resolved measurements. We also show that these systems support locking of the oscillations to external microwave signals, as well as their mutual synchronization, and can be used as efficient nanoscale sources of propagating spin waves.
Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sowade, Rosita
2010-12-15
Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)
Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sowade, Rosita
2010-12-01
Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard Alan
2014-10-01
This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.
Study of a Novel Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Choiniere, Michael [University of Maine; Thiagarajan, Krish P. [University of Maine
2017-08-01
This study investigates the performance of an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) that utilizes adjustable geometry as a means of controlling the hydrodynamic coefficients, a concept originally proposed by [1]. The body of the device consists of a bottom-hinged solid rectangular frame with five horizontal flaps spanning the interior of the frame. The flaps can rotate independently about their center of rotation within the frame like a large window shutter. Changing the orientation of the flaps alters the hydrodynamic coefficients and natural frequency of the device as well as the ability to shed or absorb structural loads accordingly. This ability may allow the device to operate in a wider range of sea states than other current wave energy converter designs. This paper presents and compares the results of numerical simulations and experimental testing of the OSWEC's response to regular waves with all five of the horizontal fin configurations sharing the same orientation of 0 degrees (fully closed interior) and 90 degrees (fully open). The numerical simulations were performed using WAMIT, which calculates hydrodynamic coefficients using a boundary element method code to solve the linear potential flow problem, and WEC-Sim, a MATLAB-based tool that simulates multibody devices in the time domain by solving the governing equations of motion. A 1:14 scale model of the device was built for experimental evaluation in an 8-m-long, 1-m wide wave tank, which supports a water depth of 0.7 m. The OSWEC motion in different wave conditions was measured with displacement sensors while nonlinear wave-structure interaction effects like slamming and overtopping were captured using a high-speed camera and used to understand differences between the simulation and experiments.
Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan
2017-08-01
The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.
Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan
2017-01-01
The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.
Waves of El Nino-southern Oscillation and Influenza Pandemics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olusegun Steven Ayodele Oluwole
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Influenza pandemics have occurred at irregular intervals for over 500 years, unlike seasonal influenza epidemics which occur annually. Although the risk factors are known, the basis for the timing of influenza pandemic waves are unknown. Coherence of peaks of El Niño and influenza pandemic in 2009–2010, however, suggests that both waves are coupled. This study was done to determine the relation of influenza pandemics to the peaks and waveforms of El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO. ENSO cycles from 1871–2015 which had El Niño phases were windowed from Multivariate El Niño Index. Influenza pandemic peaks were mapped to ENSO monthly time series. ENSO waveforms were compared graphically, and fitted to nonstationary cosinor models. Second order polynomial regression model was fitted to the peak and duration of El Niño. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster of ENSO waveforms was performed. All influenza pandemic peaks mapped to El Niño peaks, with lags of 0–5 months. ENSO waveforms during influenza pandemics share parameters of oscillation. Nonstationary cosinor models showed that ENSO cycles are complex waves. There was second order polynomial relationship between peak and duration of El Niños, p < 0.0001. ENSO waveforms clustered into four distinct groups. ENSO waveforms during influenza pandemics of 1889–1900, 1957–1958, and 1968–1969 linked closely. ENSO indices were significantly high from 7–16 months after onset of cycles, p < 0.0001. Surveillance for El Niño events to forecast periods of maximal transmission and survival of influenza A viruses is, therefore, crucial for public health control strategies.
Wecpos - Wave Energy Coastal Protection Oscillating System: A Numerical Assessment
Dentale, Fabio; Pugliese Carratelli, Eugenio; Rzzo, Gianfranco; Arsie, Ivan; Davide Russo, Salvatore
2010-05-01
In recent years, the interest in developing new technologies to produce energy with low environmental impact by using renewable sources has grown exponentially all over the world. In this context, the experiences made to derive electricity from the sea (currents, waves, etc.) are of particular interest. At the moment, due to the many existing experiments completed or still in progress, it is quite impossible explain what has been obtained but it is worth mentioning the EMEC, which summarizes the major projects in the world. Another important environmental aspect, also related to the maritime field, is the coastal protection from the sea waves. Even in this field, since many years, the structural and non-structural solutions which can counteract this phenomenon are analyzed, in order to cause the least possible damage to the environment. The studies in development by the researchers of the University of Salerno are based on these two aspect previously presented. Considering the technologies currently available, a submerged system has been designed, WECPOS (Wave Energy Coastal Protection Oscillating System), to be located on relatively shallow depths, to can be used simultaneously for both electricity generation and for the coastal protection using the oscillating motion of the water particles. The single element constituting the system is realized by a fixed base and three movable panels that can fluctuate in a fixed angle. The waves interact with the panels generating an alternative motion which can be exploited to produce electricity. At the same time, the constraint movement imposed for the rotation of the panels is a barrier to the wave propagation phenomena, triggering the breaking in the downstream part of the device. So the wave energy will be dissipated obtaining a positive effect for the coastal protection. Currently, the efficiency and effectiveness of the system (WECPOS single module) has been studied by using numerical models. Using the FLOW-3D
Asymptotic approach for the nonlinear equatorial long wave interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez Gutierrez, Enver; Silva Dias, Pedro L; Raupp, Carlos
2011-01-01
In the present work we use an asymptotic approach to obtain the long wave equations. The shallow water equation is put as a function of an external parameter that is a measure of both the spatial scales anisotropy and the fast to slow time ratio. The values given to the external parameters are consistent with those computed using typical values of the perturbations in tropical dynamics. Asymptotically, the model converge toward the long wave model. Thus, it is possible to go toward the long wave approximation through intermediate realizable states. With this approach, the resonant nonlinear wave interactions are studied. To simplify, the reduced dynamics of a single resonant triad is used for some selected equatorial trios. It was verified by both theoretical and numerical results that the nonlinear energy exchange period increases smoothly as we move toward the long wave approach. The magnitude of the energy exchanges is also modified, but in this case depends on the particular triad used and also on the initial energy partition among the triad components. Some implications of the results for the tropical dynamics are discussed. In particular, we discuss the implications of the results for El Nino and the Madden-Julian in connection with other scales of time and spatial variability.
Multiple sine wave excitation of a hard spring oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curreri, J.R.; Bezler, P.
1976-06-01
The vibration testing of non-linear systems has not received much attention in the literature. Frequently, linear procedures are used in the hope that large differences between the linear and non-linear responses will not occur. This may be valid for certain small ranges of the non-linearity and for a single harmonic component excitation. However, for multi-component periodic inputs, there is very little guidance in the literature for even a qualitative evaluation of the probable response. With multi-component periodic inputs, it has been shown that sub-combination frequencies can occur in cubic non-linear systems. Under these conditions, large responses can develop. The critical nature of the development of the large response has not been discussed. This is the subject of this paper. The qualitative response of a two component sine wave applied to a hard spring oscillator is shown
Design of an electronically tunable millimeter wave Gyrotron Backward Wave Oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caplan, M.
1987-01-01
A non-linear self-consistent computer simulation code is used to analyze the saturated output of the Gyrotron Backward Wave Oscillator (Gyro BWO) which can be used as a tunable driver for a 250 GHz FEL amplifier. Simulations show that the Gyrotron BWO using a Pierce/Wiggler gun configuration can produce at least 10 kW of microwave power over the range 249 GHz to 265 GHz by varying beam voltage alone
Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, D. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, L. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2015-01-01
This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.
Nonstationary behavior in a delayed feedback traveling wave tube folded waveguide oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryskin, N.M.; Titov, V.N.; Han, S.T.; So, J.K.; Jang, K.H.; Kang, Y.B.; Park, G.S.
2004-01-01
Folded waveguide traveling-wave tubes (FW TWT) are among the most promising candidates for powerful compact amplifiers and oscillators in millimeter and submillimeter wave bands. In this paper, the nonstationary behavior of a FW TWT oscillator with delayed feedback is investigated. Starting conditions of the oscillations are derived analytically. Results of numerical simulation of single-frequency, self-modulation (multifrequency) and chaotic generation regimes are presented. Mode competition phenomena, multistability and hysteresis are discussed
Southern annular mode: tropical-extratropical interactions and impacts
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Fauchereau, N
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this study the authors investigate in particular its links with the Madden Julian Oscillation and ENSO, the dominant modes of tropical atmospheric variability at the intraseasonal and interannual timescales, respectively. It is showed here that...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asai, Ayumi; Isobe, Hiroaki [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; UeNo, Satoru; Nagata, Shin' ichi; Morita, Satoshi; Nishida, Keisuke; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shiota, Daikou [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Oi, Akihito [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Akioka, Maki, E-mail: asai@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Hiraiso Solar Observatory, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan)
2012-02-15
We report on the first simultaneous observation of an H{alpha} Moreton wave, the corresponding EUV fast coronal waves, and a slow and bright EUV wave (typical EIT wave). We observed a Moreton wave, associated with an X6.9 flare that occurred on 2011 August 9 at the active region NOAA 11263, in the H{alpha} images taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory of Kyoto University. In the EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory we found not only the corresponding EUV fast 'bright' coronal wave, but also the EUV fast 'faint' wave that is not associated with the H{alpha} Moreton wave. We also found a slow EUV wave, which corresponds to a typical EIT wave. Furthermore, we observed, for the first time, the oscillations of a prominence and a filament, simultaneously, both in the H{alpha} and EUV images. To trigger the oscillations by the flare-associated coronal disturbance, we expect a coronal wave as fast as the fast-mode MHD wave with the velocity of about 570-800 km s{sup -1}. These velocities are consistent with those of the observed Moreton wave and the EUV fast coronal wave.
A millimeter wave linear superposition oscillator in 0.18 μm CMOS technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Dong; Mao Luhong; Su Qiujie; Xie Sheng; Zhang Shilin
2014-01-01
This paper presents a millimeter wave (mm-wave) oscillator that generates signal at 36.56 GHz. The mm-wave oscillator is realized in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The linear superposition (LS) technique breaks through the limit of cut-off frequency (f T ), and realizes a much higher oscillation than f T . Measurement results show that the LS oscillator produces a calibrated −37.17 dBm output power when biased at 1.8 V; the output power of fundamental signal is −10.85 dBm after calibration. The measured phase noise at 1 MHz frequency offset is −112.54 dBc/Hz at the frequency of 9.14 GHz. This circuit can be properly applied to mm-wave communication systems with advantages of low cost and high integration density. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Shock Waves Oscillations in the Interaction of Supersonic Flows with the Head of the Aircraft
Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.
2016-01-01
In this article we reviewed the shock wave oscillation that occurs when supersonic flows interact with conic, blunt or flat nose of aircraft, taking into account the aerospike attached to it. The main attention was paid to the problem of numerical modeling of such oscillation, flow regime classification, and cases where aerospike attachment can…
Development of stochastic webs in a wave-driven linear oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Sadayoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Akira.
1988-01-01
We present developments of stochastic webs in a linear oscillator which is driven by a finite number (N) of external waves with frequency ω o (harmonic of the linear oscillator frequency). The expansion of the stochastic domain as functions of the number of waves and their amplitudes is studied numerically. The results with small amplitude waves compares well with the perturbation theory. When the amplitude of external waves is small a leaf structure which expands with N develops radially in the phase space. (author)
An elementary introduction to the problem of density wave oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svanholm, Kjell; Friedly, John C.
1990-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate a simple graphical method for analysis of density wave instability in two-phase channels. The objectives are to give the reader a basic knowledge of the physical mechanism behind the oscillations, an understanding of the effect of some of the channel parameters on instability, and a means of qualitatively analyzing for the effect of more complicated operating conditions. The methodology proposed should be useful in providing physical insight into the effect of design modifications, before extensive simulations are carried out, or understanding the physics of the problem enough to appreciate the results of mathematical stability analyses. In summary: a graphical analysis of the principal features of density wave instability has been suggested. The approach is approximate, but incorporates what is believed to be the most important aspects of the physics of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the elementary graphical analysis technique permits incorporation of other effect superimposed on those considered. This permits the designer to make a quick estimate of the effect of certain discrepancies between a real application and the idea cases considered here. Such an estimate may well be used to decide whether it is worthwhile to consider more detailed simulation of the effect. The above analysis can be used very rapidly to investigate qualitatively the effect of a number of parametric effects that may be important in a particular application. Because the analysis is approximative however the reader is cautioned to consider the results estimates only. A practical application may well include effects which tends to dominate those considered most important in the above discussion. The treatment considers the effect on the two-phase density by the inlet velocity (and the velocity of the boiling boundary) and its propagation the most important to determining stability. As presented here it does not include the effect of the varying velocities in the two
Dynamic analysis of the conditional oscillator underlying slow waves in thalamocortical neurons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francois eDavid
2016-02-01
Full Text Available During non-REM sleep the EEG shows characteristics waves that are generated by the dynamic interactions between cortical and thalamic oscillators. In thalamic neurons, low-threshold T-type Ca2+ channels play a pivotal role in almost every type of neuronal oscillations, including slow (<1 Hz waves, sleep spindles and delta waves. The transient opening of T channels gives rise to the low threshold spikes (LTSs, and associated high frequency bursts of action potentials, that are characteristically present during sleep spindles and delta waves, whereas the persistent opening of a small fraction of T channels, (i.e. ITwindow is responsible for the membrane potential bistability underlying sleep slow oscillations. Surprisingly thalamocortical (TC neurons express a very high density of T channels that largely exceed the amount required to generate LTSs and therefore, to support certain, if not all, sleep oscillations. Here, to clarify the relationship between T current density and sleep oscillations, we systematically investigated the impact of the T conductance level on the intrinsic rhythmic activities generated in TC neurons, combining in vitro experiments and TC neuron simulation. Using bifurcation analysis, we provide insights into the dynamical processes taking place at the transition between slow and delta oscillations. Our results show that although stable delta oscillations can be evoked with minimal T conductance, the full range of slow oscillation patterns, including groups of delta oscillations separated by Up states (grouped-delta slow waves requires a high density of T channels. Moreover, high levels of T conductance ensure the robustness of different types of slow oscillations.
Phase locking in backward-wave oscillators with strong end reflections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nusinovich, G. S.; Sinitsyn, O. V.; Rodgers, J.; Shkvarunets, A. G.; Carmel, Y.
2007-01-01
The theory of phase-locked oscillations in a backward-wave oscillator with strong end reflections is developed. Numerical results demonstrate that the locking bandwidth of such a device phase-locked by a prebunched electron beam can be twice the bandwidth of a resonator formed by a waveguide with strong end reflections. It is also shown that the device can operate with the efficiency exceeding 50% and that, in some cases, it can exhibit a hysteresis in the process of tuning the signal frequency. The applicability of the results obtained to the experiments with the plasma-assisted backward-wave oscillator currently underway at the University of Maryland is discussed
Study on density wave oscillation in parallel channel by section form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Jun; Huang Yanping; Wang Yanlin
2013-01-01
Based on 170 density wave oscillation experimental data from parallel round tube and narrow rectangular channel, the experiment method, identification method of oscillation and analysis method of experimental data have be uniformed, and the oscillation boundary of round tube and narrow rectangular channel have be analyzed. The investigation results show that the oscillation boundary is not affected by the channel section forms with identical equivalent diameter with pressure l.0∼19.2 MPa, mass flux 101.9∼1200.0 kg·m-2·s -1 and inlet sub cooling 18.0∼85.2℃. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Orozco-Santillán, Arturo; Ruiz-Boullosa, Ricardo; Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente
2007-01-01
It is well known that acoustic waves exert forces on a boundary with which they interact; these forces can be so intense that they can compensate for the weight of small objects up to a few grams. In this way, it is possible to maintain solid or liquid samples levitating in a fluid, avoiding...... the use of containers, which may be undesirable for certain applications. Moreover, small samples can be manipulated by means of acoustic waves. In this paper, we report a study on the oscillational instabilities that can appear on a levitated solid sphere in single-axis acoustic devices. A theory...... proportional to the oscillation frequency of the levitated sample. We also present experimental results that show that the oscillational instabilities can be reduced if the amplitude of the acoustic wave is increased; as a result, stable conditions can be obtained where the oscillations of the sphere...
Demonstration of a Submillimeter-Wave HEMT Oscillator Module at 330 GHz
Radisic, Vesna; Deal, W. R.; Mei, X. B.; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, P. H.; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd;
2010-01-01
In this work, radial transitions have been successfully mated with a HEMT-based MMIC (high-electron-mobility-transistor-based monolithic microwave integrated circuit) oscillator circuit. The chip has been assembled into a WR2.2 waveguide module for the basic implementation with radial E-plane probe transitions to convert the waveguide mode to the MMIC coplanar waveguide mode. The E-plane transitions have been directly integrated onto the InP substrate to couple the submillimeter-wave energy directly to the waveguides, thus avoiding wire-bonds in the RF path. The oscillator demonstrates a measured 1.7 percent DC-RF efficiency at the module level. The oscillator chip uses 35-nm-gate-length HEMT devices, which enable the high frequency of oscillation, creating the first demonstration of a packaged waveguide oscillator that operates over 300 GHz and is based on InP HEMT technology. The oscillator chip is extremely compact, with dimensions of only 1.085 x 320 sq mm for a total die size of 0.35 sq mm. This fully integrated, waveguide oscillator module, with an output power of 0.27 mW at 330 GHz, can provide low-mass, low DC-power-consumption alternatives to existing local oscillator schemes, which require high DC power consumption and large mass. This oscillator module can be easily integrated with mixers, multipliers, and amplifiers for building high-frequency transmit and receive systems at submillimeter wave frequencies. Because it requires only a DC bias to enable submillimeter wave output power, it is a simple and reliable technique for generating power at these frequencies. Future work will be directed to further improving the applicability of HEMT transistors to submillimeter wave and terahertz applications. Commercial applications include submillimeter-wave imaging systems for hidden weapons detection, airport security, homeland security, and portable low-mass, low-power imaging systems
Rapidly tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser
Klein, M.E.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.; Auerbach, M.; Wessels, P.; Fallnich, C.
2003-01-01
We report on rapid, all-electronically controlled wavelength tuning of a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an ytterbium fiber laser. The OPO is singly resonant for the signal wave and consists of a 40-mm-long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in a
Bull, Diana
2014-01-01
A stochastic approach is used to gain a sophisticated understanding of a non-axisymmetric floating oscillating water column's response to random waves. A linear, frequency-domain performance model that links the oscillating structure to air-pressure fluctuations with a Wells Turbine in 3-dimensions is used to study the device performance at a northern California deployment location. Both short-term, sea-state, and long-term, annual, predictions are made regarding the devices performance. U...
Mechanical Properties of Laminate Materials: From Surface Waves to Bloch Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liang, Z.; Willatzen, Morten; Christensen, Johan
2015-01-01
for designing Bloch oscillations in classical plate structures and show how mechanical Bloch oscillations can be generated in arrays of solid plates when the modal wavelength is gradually reduced. The design recipe describes how Bloch oscillations in classical structures of arbitrary dimensions can be generated......We propose hitherto unexplored and fully analytical insights into laminate elastic materials in a true condensed-matter-physics spirit. Pure mechanical surface waves that decay as evanescent waves from the interface are discussed, and we demonstrate how these designer Scholte waves are controlled......, and we demonstrate this numerically for structures with millimeter and centimeter dimensions in the kilohertz to megahertz range. Analytical predictions agree entirely with full wave simulations showing how elastodynamics can mimic quantum-mechanical condensed-matter phenomena....
Persistence of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 over Europe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Laštovička
2003-07-01
Full Text Available Planetary waves are oscillations of very predominantly tropospheric origin with typical periods of about 2–30 days. Their dominant zonal wave numbers are 1, 2 and 3, i.e. the waves are of large-scale (global character. The planetary wave type oscillations have been observed in the lower and middle atmosphere but also in the ionosphere, including the ionospheric F2-layer. Here, we deal only with the oscillations analyzed for four European stations over a solar cycle with the use of the Meyer and Morlet wavelet transforms. Waves with periods near 5, 10 and 16 days are studied. Only events with a duration of three wave-cycles and more are considered. The 5-day period wave events display a typical duration of 4 cycles, while 10- and 16-day wave events are less persistent, with a typical duration of about 3.5 cycles and 3 cycles, respectively. The persistence pattern in terms of number of cycles and in terms of number of days is different. In terms of number of cycles, the typical persistence of oscillations decreases with increasing period. On the other hand, in terms of number of days the typical persistence evidently increases with increasing period. The spectral distribution of event duration is too broad to allow for a reasonable prediction of event duration. Thus, the predictability of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 seems to be very questionable.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interaction, mid-latitude ionosphere, ionospheric disturbances – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides
Transonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions on an Oscillating Airfoil
Davis, Sanford S.; Malcolm, Gerald N.
1980-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic loads were measured on an oscillating NACA 64A010 airfoil In the NASA Ames 11 by 11 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. Data are presented to show the effect of the unsteady shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction on the fundamental frequency lift, moment, and pressure distributions. The data show that weak shock waves induce an unsteady pressure distribution that can be predicted quite well, while stronger shock waves cause complex frequency-dependent distributions due to flow separation. An experimental test of the principles of linearity and superposition showed that they hold for weak shock waves while flows with stronger shock waves cannot be superimposed.
Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.; Spiga, A.; Flasar, F. M.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Gorius, N.
2018-01-01
Thermal infrared spectra acquired by Cassini/Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in limb-viewing geometry in 2015 are used to derive 2-D latitude-pressure temperature and thermal wind maps. These maps are used to study the vertical structure and evolution of Saturn's equatorial oscillation (SEO), a dynamical phenomenon presenting similarities with the Earth's quasi-biennal oscillation (QBO) and semi-annual oscillation (SAO). We report that a new local wind maximum has appeared in 2015 in the upper stratosphere and derive the descent rates of other wind extrema through time. The phase of the oscillation observed in 2015, as compared to 2005 and 2010, remains consistent with a ˜15 year period. The SEO does not propagate downward at a regular rate but exhibits faster descent rate in the upper stratosphere, combined with a greater vertical wind shear, compared to the lower stratosphere. Within the framework of a QBO-type oscillation, we estimate the absorbed wave momentum flux in the stratosphere to be on the order of ˜7 × 10-6 N m-2. On Earth, interactions between vertically propagating waves (both planetary and mesoscale) and the mean zonal flow drive the QBO and SAO. To broaden our knowledge on waves potentially driving Saturn's equatorial oscillation, we searched for thermal signatures of planetary waves in the tropical stratosphere using CIRS nadir spectra. Temperature anomalies of amplitude 1-4 K and zonal wave numbers 1 to 9 are frequently observed, and an equatorial Rossby (n = 1) wave of zonal wave number 3 is tentatively identified in November 2009.
Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators
Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Volokhine, I.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.
2006-01-01
Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for
Vacuum Rabi Oscillation of an Atom without Rotating-Wave Approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fa-Qiang, Wang; Wei-Ci, Liu; Rui-Sheng, Liang
2008-01-01
We have investigated vacuum Rabi oscillation of an atom coupled with single-mode cavity field exactly, and compared the results with that of the Jaynes–Cummings (J–C) model. The results show that for resonant case, there is no Rabi oscillation for an atom. For small detuning and weak coupling case, the probability for the atom in excited state oscillates against time with different frequencies and amplitudes from that of the J-C model. It exhibits that the counter-rotating wave interaction could significantly effect the dynamic behaviour of the atom, even under the condition in which the RWA is considered to be justified
Density wave oscillations of a boiling natural circulation loop induced by flashing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furuya, Masahiro; Inada, Fumio; Yasuo, Akira [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)
1995-09-01
Experiments are conducted to investigate two-phase flow instabilities in a boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney due to flashing in the chimney at lower pressure. The test facility used in this experiment is designed to have non-dimensional values which are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR. Stability maps in reference to the heat flux, the inlet subcooling, the system pressure are presented. This instability is suggested to be density wave oscillations due to flashing in the chimney, and the differences from other phenomena such as flow pattern oscillations and geysering phenomena are discussed by investigating the dynamic characteristics, the oscillation period, and the transient flow pattern.
Traveling wave tube oscillator/amplifier with superconducting rf circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasper, L.J. Jr.
1989-01-01
This patent describes a device comprising: an electron gun for producing an electron beam; a collector for collecting the electron beam; a vacuum housing surrounding the electron beam and having an integral slow wave circuit, the circuit being made from superconducting ceramic material; means for maintaining the temperature of the superconducting ceramic below its critical temperature; means for extracting an output signal from the slow wave circuit; means for creating a magnetic field within the vacuum housing so that interaction between the electron beam and the slow wave circuit produces the output signal
Stability of a family of travelling wave solutions in a feedforward chain of phase oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lanford, O E III; Mintchev, S M
2015-01-01
Travelling waves are an important class of signal propagation phenomena in extended systems with a preferred direction of information flow. We study the generation of travelling waves in unidirectional chains of coupled oscillators communicating via a phase-dependent pulse-response interaction borrowed from mathematical neuroscience. Within the context of such systems, we develop a widely applicable, jointly numerical and analytical methodology for deducing existence and stability of periodic travelling waves. We provide careful numerical studies that support the existence of a periodic travelling wave solution as well as the asymptotic relaxation of a single oscillator to the wave when it is forced with the wave profile. Using this evidence as an assumption, we analytically prove global stability of waves in the infinite chain, with respect to initial perturbations of downstream sites. This rigorous stability result suggests that asymptotic relaxation to the travelling wave occurs even when the forcing is perturbed from the wave profile, a property of the motivating system that is supported by previous work as well as the convergence of the more sophisticated numerical algorithm that we propose in order to compute a high-precision approximation to the solution. We provide additional numerical studies that show that the wave is part of a one-parameter family, and we illustrate the structural robustness of this family with respect to changes in the coupling strength. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, J.O.
2004-01-01
Analytic expressions are presented for conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and magnetosonic waves by scattering off a small scale density cavity. The governing equations are solved in slab geometry with wave vectors perpendicular to both the ambient magnetic field and the density gradient associated with density cavity using a scale length separation method. The theory predicts strong excitation of localized lower hybrid oscillations for a set of frequencies between the lower hybrid frequency of the ambient plasma and the minimum lower hybrid frequency inside the cavity. The theory is relevant for the lower hybrid solitary structures observed in space plasmas
Lagrangian analysis of two-phase hydrodynamic and nuclear-coupled density-wave oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Yadigaroglu, G.
1974-01-01
The mathematical technique known as the ''method of characteristics'' has been used to construct an exact, analytical solution to predict the onset of density-wave oscillations in diabatic two-phase systems, such as Boiling Water Nuclear Reactors (BWR's). Specifically, heater wall dynamics, boiling boundary dynamics and nuclear kinetics have been accounted for in this analysis. Emphasis is placed on giving the reader a clear physical understanding of the phenomena of two-phase density-wave oscillations. Explanations are presented in terms of block diagram logic, and phasor representations of the various pressure drop perturbations are given. (U.S.)
Dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator and a low-amplitude frequency-modulated wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.C.; McNamara, B.
1987-01-01
When the frequency of a small amplitude plane wave is varied slowly over a large enough bandwidth and this wave is incident upon a nonlinear oscillator, the resulting perturbed motion can exhibit stochastic behavior. Applications for the study of this system are wide and varied. We apply Lie-transform perturbation theory and mapping techniques in the analysis of the stochastic transition and the consequent induced diffusion in the oscillator phase space. A constant of the motion to the first order in a peturbation parameter is calculated, a mapping approximation is derived, and diffusion calculations from the mapping are given. Copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc
Shao, Meng; Xiao, Chengsi; Sun, Jinwei; Shao, Zhuxiao; Zheng, Qiuhong
2017-12-01
The paper analyzes hydrodynamic characteristics and the strength of a novel dot-matrix oscillating wave energy converter, which is in accordance with nowadays’ research tendency: high power, high efficiency, high reliability and low cost. Based on three-dimensional potential flow theory, the paper establishes motion control equations of the wave energy converter unit and calculates wave loads and motions. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model of the device is built to check its strength. Through the analysis, it can be confirmed that the WEC is feasible and the research results could be a reference for wave energy’s exploration and utilization.
Tropical intraseasonal oscillation simulated in an AMIP-type experiment by NICAM
Kikuchi, Kazuyoshi; Kodama, Chihiro; Nasuno, Tomoe; Nakano, Masuo; Miura, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masaki; Noda, Akira T.; Yamada, Yohei
2017-04-01
It is the first time for the non-hydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model (NICAM), at a horizontal mesh size of approximately 14-km, to conduct a continuous long-term Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project-type simulation. This study examines the performance of NICAM in simulating the tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) from a statistical point of view using 30-year data (1979-2008) in the context of the bimodal ISO representation concept proposed by Kikuchi et al., which allows us to examine the seasonally varying behavior of the ISO in great detail, in addition to the MJO working group level 2 diagnostics. It is found that many of the fundamental features of the ISO are well captured by NICAM. The evolution of the ISO convection as well as large-scale circulation over the course of its life cycle is reasonably well reproduced throughout the year. As in the observation, the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) mode, characterized by prominent eastward propagation of convection, is predominant during boreal winter, whereas the boreal summer ISO (BSISO) mode, by a combination of pronounced eastward and northward propagation, during summer. The overall shape of the seasonal cycle as measured by the numbers of significant MJO and BSISO days in a month is relatively well captured. Two major biases, however, are also identified. The amplitude of the simulated ISO is weaker by a factor of 2. Significant BSISO events sometimes appear even during winter (December-April), amounting to 30 % of the total significant ISO days as opposed to 2 % in the observation. The results here warrant further studies using the simulation dataset to understand not only many aspects of the dynamics and physics of the ISO but also its role in weather and climate. It is also demonstrated that the concept of the bimodal ISO representation provides a useful framework for assessing model's capability to simulate, and illuminating model's deficiencies in reproducing, the ISO. The nature and
High-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted ring-cavity configuration.
Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Yao, Jianquan
2016-05-15
A surface-emitted ring-cavity terahertz (THz) wave parametric oscillator has been demonstrated for high-energy THz output and fast frequency tuning in a wide frequency range. Through the special optical design with a galvano-optical scanner and four-mirror ring-cavity structure, the maximum THz wave output energy of 12.9 μJ/pulse is achieved at 1.359 THz under the pump energy of 172.8 mJ. The fast THz frequency tuning in the range of 0.7-2.8 THz can be accessed with the step response of 600 μs. Moreover, the maximum THz wave output energy from this configuration is 3.29 times as large as that obtained from the conventional surface-emitted THz wave parametric oscillator with the same experimental conditions.
Oscillations in sunspot umbras due to trapped Alfven waves excited by overstability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchida, Yutaka; Sakurai, Takashi.
1975-01-01
Oscillations observed in sunspot umbras are interpreted as a vertical motion in the atmosphere induced by a standing Alfven wave trapped in the region between the overstable layer under the photosphere and the chromosphere-corona transition layer. The Alfven wave motion is considered to be excited by the overstable convection occurring at the bottom of the abovementioned oscillating layer, and waves with special frequencies are selected as eigen-mode waves standing in the ''cavity,'' while other waves which are out of phase with themselves after reflections will disappear. It is shown by solving the eigen-value problem that the fundamental eigen frequency falls in a range around 0.04 rad s -1 (corresponding to 140-180 s) for the condition in the umbra of a typical spot, and also that the eigen frequencies do not depend greatly on the circumstantial physical or geometric parameters of the model atmosphere, such as the temperature in the layer, or the height of the transition layer, etc. The eigen frequencies, however, depend on the Alfven velocity at the base of the oscillating layer (or at the top of the overstable layer), but the latter quantity, which represents the stiffness of the magnetic tube of force against the overturning motion, takes roughly a common value for different sunspots according to SAVAGE's (1969) stability analysis of the umbral atmosphere against thermal convection, and thus gives a comparatively narrow range of resonant frequencies. In addition to the selection mechanism for oscillations of 140-180-s period, some other aspects of the oscillation, such as the relation to the running penumbral waves, are discussed. (auth.)
Zimányi, László; Khoroshyy, Petro; Mair, Thomas
2010-06-01
In the present work we demonstrate that FTIR-spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the time resolved and noninvasive measurement of multi-substrate/product interactions in complex metabolic networks as exemplified by the oscillating glycolysis in a yeast extract. Based on a spectral library constructed from the pure glycolytic intermediates, chemometric analysis of the complex spectra allowed us the identification of many of these intermediates. Singular value decomposition and multiple level wavelet decomposition were used to separate drifting substances from oscillating ones. This enabled us to identify slow and fast variables of glycolytic oscillations. Most importantly, we can attribute a qualitative change in the positive feedback regulation of the autocatalytic reaction to the transition from homogeneous oscillations to travelling waves. During the oscillatory phase the enzyme phosphofructokinase is mainly activated by its own product ADP, whereas the transition to waves is accompanied with a shift of the positive feedback from ADP to AMP. This indicates that the overall energetic state of the yeast extract determines the transition between spatially homogeneous oscillations and travelling waves.
On the Quantum Potential and Pulsating Wave Packet in the Harmonic Oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubois, Daniel M.
2008-01-01
A fundamental mathematical formalism related to the Quantum Potential factor, Q, is presented in this paper. The Schroedinger equation can be transformed to two equations depending on a group velocity and a density of presence of the particle. A factor, in these equations, was called ''Quantum Potential'' by D. Bohm and B. Hiley. In 1999, I demonstrated that this Quantum Potential, Q, can be split in two Quantum Potentials, Q 1 , and Q 2 , for which the relation, Q=Q 1 +Q 2 , holds. These two Quantum Potentials depend on a fundamental new variable, what I called a phase velocity, u, directly related to the probability density of presence of the wave-particle, given by the modulus of the wave function. This paper gives some further developments for explaining the Quantum Potential for oscillating and pulsating Gaussian wave packets in the Harmonic Oscillator. It is shown that the two Quantum Potentials play a central role in the interpretation of quantum mechanics. A breakthrough in the formalism of the Quantum Mechanics could be provoked by the physical properties of these Quantum Potentials. The probability density of presence of the oscillating and pulsating Gaussian wave packets in the Harmonic Oscillator is directly depending on the ratio Q 2 /Q 1 of the two Quantum Potentials. In the general case, the energy of these Gaussian wave packets is not constant, but is oscillating. The energy is given by the sum of the kinetic energy, T, the potential energy, V, and the two Quantum Potentials: E=T+V+Q 1 +Q 2 . For some conditions, given in the paper, the energy can be a constant. The first remarkable result is the fact that the first Quantum Potential, Q 1 , is related to the ground state energy, E 0 , of the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator: Q 1 =h-bar ω/2=E 0 . The second result is related to the property of the second Quantum Potential, Q 2 , which plays the role of an anti-potential, Q 2 =-V(x), where V is the harmonic oscillator potential. This Quantum Potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudkov, V.V.; Zhevstovskikh, I.V.; Zimbovskaya, N.A.; Okulov, V.I.
1991-01-01
The quantum oscillations are studied of ellipcity, the rotation angle of the ultrasound polarization plane, the velocity and absorption of waves polarized circularly at the 196 MHz frequency in a tungsten single crystal in magnetic field of 30-80 kOe at temperature 1,8 K. The oscillation amplitudes of ellipticity and rotation angle of the ultrasound polarization plane beyond the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance are found to vary nonmonotonously with field and to be large enough, so that they are not described by the simple expressions for high fields. The explanation for the oscillation amplification of the polarization parameters is given within the theory involving the ultrasound-spiral wave coupling predicted by Kaner and Skobov. The quantitative comparison in details demonstrates a good agreement in the theory and experimental data and allows to find the numerical values of new parameters characterizing the Fermi surface, electron relaxation frequency, and deformation potential
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg
This report describes the behavior and preliminary performance of a simplified standard oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The same tests will be conducted at different scales at 6 different test facilities and the results obtained will be used for comparison. This project...
Spiral wave chimera states in large populations of coupled chemical oscillators
Totz, Jan Frederik; Rode, Julian; Tinsley, Mark R.; Showalter, Kenneth; Engel, Harald
2018-03-01
The coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in a population of identically coupled oscillators is known as a chimera state1,2. Discovered in 20023, this counterintuitive dynamical behaviour has inspired extensive theoretical and experimental activity4-15. The spiral wave chimera is a particularly remarkable chimera state, in which an ordered spiral wave rotates around a core consisting of asynchronous oscillators. Spiral wave chimeras were theoretically predicted in 200416 and numerically studied in a variety of systems17-23. Here, we report their experimental verification using large populations of nonlocally coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical oscillators10,18 in a two-dimensional array. We characterize previously unreported spatiotemporal dynamics, including erratic motion of the asynchronous spiral core, growth and splitting of the cores, as well as the transition from the chimera state to disordered behaviour. Spiral wave chimeras are likely to occur in other systems with long-range interactions, such as cortical tissues24, cilia carpets25, SQUID metamaterials26 and arrays of optomechanical oscillators9.
Extreme Wave-Induced Oscillation in Paradip Port Under the Resonance Conditions
Kumar, Prashant; Gulshan
2017-12-01
A mathematical model is constructed to analyze the long wave-induced oscillation in Paradip Port, Odisha, India under the resonance conditions to avert any extreme wave hazards. Boundary element method (BEM) with corner contribution is utilized to solve the Helmholtz equation under the partial reflection boundary conditions. Furthermore, convergence analysis is also performed for the boundary element scheme with uniform and non-uniform discretization of the boundary. The numerical scheme is also validated with analytic approximation and existing studies based on harbor resonance. Then, the amplification factor is estimated at six key record stations in the Paradip Port with multidirectional incident waves and resonance modes are also estimated at the boundary of the port. Ocean surface wave field is predicted in the interior of Paradip Port for the different directional incident wave at various resonance modes. Moreover, the safe locations in the port have been identified for loading and unloading of moored ship with different resonance modes and directional incident waves.
Planetary and tidal wave-type oscillations in the ionospheric sporadic E layers over Tehran region
Karami, K.; Ghader, S.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Joghataei, M.; Neyestani, A.; Mohammadabadi, A.
2012-04-01
It is believed that in the lower ionosphere, particularly in the ionospheric sporadic E (Es) layers (90-130 km), the planetary and tidal wave-type oscillations in the ionized component indicate the planetary and tidal waves in the neutral atmosphere. In the present work, the presence of wave-type oscillations, including planetary and tidal waves in the ionospheric sporadic E layers over Tehran region is examined. Data measured by a digital ionosonde at the ionospheric station of the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, from July 2006 to June 2007 are used to investigate seasonal variations of planetary and tidal waves activities. For the purpose of accurate comparison between different seasons, wavelet transform is applied to time series of foEs and h‧Es, namely, the critical frequency and virtual height of Es layers, respectively. The results show that the sporadic E layers over Tehran region are strongly under the influence of upward propagation of waves from below. More specifically, among diverse range of periodicities in the sporadic E layers, we found that diurnal (24 hours) and semidiurnal (12 hours) oscillations in all seasons for both parameters. Moreover, terdiurnal (8 hours) tide-like variation is observed during spring and summer for foEs parameter and summer and winter for h‧Es. Furthermore, the results show that diurnal tidal waves obtain their maximum activities during autumn and winter seasons, and their activities decrease during the late spring and summer. In addition, periods of about 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, and 16 days in our observation verifies the hypothesis of upward propagation of planetary waves from lower atmosphere to the ionosphere. Moreover, planetary waves have their maximum activities during equinox.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.
2003-01-01
When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and
Zhang, Xian-tao; Yang, Jian-min; Xiao, Long-fei
2016-07-01
Floating oscillating bodies constitute a large class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. Usually the Power-Take-Off (PTO) system is a directly linear electric generator or a hydraulic motor that drives an electric generator. The PTO system is simplified as a linear spring and a linear damper. However the conversion is less powerful with wave periods off resonance. Thus, a nonlinear snap-through mechanism with two symmetrically oblique springs and a linear damper is applied in the PTO system. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is characteristics of negative stiffness and double-well potential. An important nonlinear parameter γ is defined as the ratio of half of the horizontal distance between the two springs to the original length of both springs. Time domain method is applied to the dynamics of wave energy converter in regular waves. And the state space model is used to replace the convolution terms in the time domain equation. The results show that the energy harvested by the nonlinear PTO system is larger than that by linear system for low frequency input. While the power captured by nonlinear converters is slightly smaller than that by linear converters for high frequency input. The wave amplitude, damping coefficient of PTO systems and the nonlinear parameter γ affect power capture performance of nonlinear converters. The oscillation of nonlinear wave energy converters may be local or periodically inter well for certain values of the incident wave frequency and the nonlinear parameter γ, which is different from linear converters characteristics of sinusoidal response in regular waves.
Experiment on a large-diameter plasma-filled backward-wave oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogura, K.; Minami, K.; Kurashina, K.I.; Kim, W.; Watanabe, T.; Ishii, K.; Sugito, S.
1995-01-01
A large-diameter plasma-filled backward-wave oscillator (BWO) is investigated experimentally. The parameters of slow wave structure are chosen so that the oscillation frequency is about 20GHz at 60keV beam energy. Plasma is produced by the beam and has favorable effects for beam propagation and Cerenkov oscillations. The output power of the BWO with plasma is observed to be three to six times that of vacuum BWO. The power level is several kilowatts and the efficiency is about 0.01%. For Cerenkov oscillations of a large-diameter BWO, the beam energy mainly determines the starting conditions for oscillation. The output power is strongly enhanced when the guiding magnetic field approaches the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance. This mechanism is closely related to the anomalous Doppler cyclotron resonance. The maximum power of 480kW with an efficiency of 5% is achieved even for a relatively low beam energy of 60keV. ((orig.))
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, F.; Chudley, J.; Dai, Y.M.
2003-07-01
This report summarises the findings of a project to prolong the sea trials of a multiple oscillating water column wave energy converter (MOWC) device for another 12 months to obtain further data. The objectives of the project include the evaluation of the ability of the MOWC to generate reliable energy to produce electricity, the estimation of the conversion efficiency, and the identification of improvements to increase the conversion efficiency, Details are given of the analysis of the sea trials data, and the performance of the broadband oscillating water column prototype.
A one-dimensional model of the semiannual oscillation driven by convectively forced gravity waves
Sassi, Fabrizio; Garcia, Rolando R.
1994-01-01
A one-dimensional model that solves the time-dependent equations for the zonal mean wind and a wave of specified zonal wavenumber has been used to illustrate the ability of gravity waves forced by time-dependent tropospheric heating to produce a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the middle atmosphere. When the heating has a strong diurnal cycle, as observed over tropical landmasses, gravity waves with zonal wavelengths of a few thousand kilometers and phase velocities in the range +/- 40-50 m/sec are excited efficiently by the maximum vertical projection criterion (vertical wavelength approximately equals 2 x forcing depth). Calculations show that these waves can account for large zonal mean wind accelerations in the middle atmosphere, resulting in realistic stratopause and mesopause oscillations. Calculations of the temporal evolution of a quasi-conserved tracer indicate strong down-welling in the upper stratosphere near the equinoxes, which is associated with the descent of the SAO westerlies. In the upper mesosphere, there is a semiannual oscillation in tracer mixing ratio driven by seasonal variability in eddy mixing, which increases at the solstices and decreases at the equinoxes.
Study of the wave packet treatment of neutrino oscillation at Daya Bay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, F.P. [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Balantekin, A.B. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Band, H.R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: Daya Bay Collaboration; and others
2017-09-15
The disappearance of reactor anti ν{sub e} observed by the Daya Bay experiment is examined in the framework of a model in which the neutrino is described by a wave packet with a relative intrinsic momentum dispersion σ{sub rel}. Three pairs of nuclear reactors and eight antineutrino detectors, each with good energy resolution, distributed among three experimental halls, supply a high-statistics sample of anti ν{sub e} acquired at nine different baselines. This provides a unique platform to test the effects which arise from the wave packet treatment of neutrino oscillation. The modified survival probability formula was used to fit Daya Bay data, providing the first experimental limits: 2.38 x 10{sup -17} < σ{sub rel} < 0.23. Treating the dimensions of the reactor cores and detectors as constraints, the limits are improved: 10{sup -14}
Study of the wave packet treatment of neutrino oscillation at Daya Bay
Daya Bay Collaboration
2017-09-01
The disappearance of reactor \\bar{ν }_e observed by the Daya Bay experiment is examined in the framework of a model in which the neutrino is described by a wave packet with a relative intrinsic momentum dispersion σ _{rel}. Three pairs of nuclear reactors and eight antineutrino detectors, each with good energy resolution, distributed among three experimental halls, supply a high-statistics sample of \\bar{ν }_e acquired at nine different baselines. This provides a unique platform to test the effects which arise from the wave packet treatment of neutrino oscillation. The modified survival probability formula was used to fit Daya Bay data, providing the first experimental limits: 2.38 × 10^{-17}< σ _{rel} < 0.23. Treating the dimensions of the reactor cores and detectors as constraints, the limits are improved: 10^{-14} ≲ σ _ {rel} < 0.23, and an upper limit of σ _ {rel}<0.20 (which corresponds to σ _x ≳ 10^{-11} {cm }) is obtained. All limits correspond to a 95% C.L. Furthermore, the effect due to the wave packet nature of neutrino oscillation is found to be insignificant for reactor antineutrinos detected by the Daya Bay experiment thus ensuring an unbiased measurement of the oscillation parameters sin ^22θ _{13} and Δ m^2_{32} within the plane wave model.
Helioseismology and asteroseismology: looking for gravitational waves in acoustic oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopes, Ilídio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@tecnico.ulisboa.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France)
2014-10-10
Current helioseismology observations allow the determination of the frequencies and surface velocity amplitudes of solar acoustic modes with exceptionally high precision. In some cases, the frequency accuracy is better than one part in a million. We show that there is a distinct possibility that quadrupole acoustic modes of low order could be excited by gravitational waves (GWs), if the GWs have a strain amplitude in the range 10{sup –20} h {sub –20} with h {sub –20} ∼ 1 or h {sub –20} ∼ 10{sup 3}, as predicted by several types of GW sources, such as galactic ultracompact binaries or extreme mass ratio inspirals and coalescence of black holes. If the damping rate at low order is 10{sup –3}η {sub N} μHz, with η {sub N} ∼ 10{sup –3}-1, as inferred from the theory of stellar pulsations, then GW radiation will lead to a maximum rms surface velocity amplitude of quadrupole modes of the order of h{sub −20}η{sub N}{sup −1}∼ 10{sup –9}-10{sup –3} cm s{sup –1}, on the verge of what is currently detectable via helioseismology. The frequency and sensitivity range probed by helioseismological acoustic modes overlap with, and complement, the capabilities of eLISA for the brightest resolved ultracompact galactic binaries.
Acoustic Gravity Waves Generated by an Oscillating Ice Sheet in Arctic Zone
Abdolali, A.; Kadri, U.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.
2016-12-01
We investigate the formation of acoustic-gravity waves due to oscillations of large ice blocks, possibly triggered by atmospheric and ocean currents, ice block shrinkage or storms and ice-quakes.For the idealized case of a homogeneous weakly compressible water bounded at the surface by ice sheet and a rigid bed, the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by the water depth h and angular frequency of oscillating ice sheet ω ; The acoustic wave field is governed by the leading mode given by: Nmax=\\floor {(ω h)/(π c)} where c is the sound speed in water and the special brackets represent the floor function (Fig1). Unlike the free-surface setting, the higher acoustic modes might exhibit a larger contribution and therefore all progressive acoustic modes have to be considered.This study focuses on the characteristics of acoustic-gravity waves generated by an oscillating elastic ice sheet in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with a free surface model [Abdolali et al. 2015] representing shrinking ice blocks in realistic sea state, where the randomly oriented ice sheets cause inter modal transition and multidirectional reflections. A theoretical solution and a 3D numerical model have been developed for the study purposes. The model is first validated against the theoretical solution [Kadri, 2016]. To overcome the computational difficulties of 3D models, we derive a depth-integrated equation valid for spatially varying ice sheet thickness and water depth. We show that the generated acoustic-gravity waves contribute significantly to deep ocean currents compared to other mechanisms. In addition, these waves travel at the sound speed in water carrying information on ice sheet motion, providing various implications for ocean monitoring and detection of ice-quakes. Fig1:Snapshots of dynamic pressure given by an oscillating ice sheet; h=4500m, c=1500m/s, semi-length b=10km, ζ =1m, omega=π rad/s. Abdolali, A., Kirby, J. T. and Bellotti, G
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, Y.S.; Chang, T.H.; Wu, T.S.
2004-01-01
A comparative analysis between the fundamental and second cyclotron harmonics of gyrotron backward-wave oscillators (gyro-BWOs) is presented. The simulation results reveal that nonlinear field contraction is a common feature for both harmonic interactions. Besides, the electron transit angle, used to characterize the axial modes of the fundamental harmonic TE 11 mode at the start-oscillation conditions, is found to be applicable even for the second harmonic TE 21 mode. Each axial mode of either the fundamental harmonic TE 11 or the second harmonic TE 21 modes is maintained at a constant value of the electron transit angle while changing the operating parameters, such as magnetic field and beam voltage. Extensive numerical calculations are conducted for the start-oscillation currents and tuning properties. Moreover, single-mode operating regimes are suggested where the second harmonic TE 21 gyro-BWO could generate a considerable output power, comparing with the fundamental harmonic TE 11 gyro-BWO
Phase and Amplitude Drift Research of Millimeter Wave Band Local Oscillator System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changhoon Lee
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a local oscillator (LO system of millimeter wave band receiver for radio astronomy observation. We measured the phase and amplitude drift stability of this LO system. The voltage control oscillator (VCO of this LO system use the 3 mm band Gunn oscillator. We developed the digital phase locked loop (DPLL module for the LO PLL function that can be computer-controlled. To verify the performance, we measured the output frequency/power and the phase/amplitude drift stability of the developed module and the commercial PLL module, respectively. We show the good performance of the LO system based on the developed PLL module from the measured data analysis. The test results and discussion will be useful tutorial reference to design the LO system for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI receiver and single dish radio astronomy receiver at the 3 mm frequency band.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiuderi, C; Giovanardi, C [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia
1979-11-01
This paper presents a detailed discussion of the properties of linear, periodic acoustic waves that propagate vertically in a non-isothermal atmosphere. In order to retain the basic feature of the solar atmosphere we have chosen a temperature profile presenting a minimum. An analytical solution of the problem is possible if T/..mu.., ..mu.. being the mean molecular weight, varies parabolically with height. The purpose of this study is to point out the qualitative differences existing between the case treated here and the customary analysis based on a locally isothermal treatment. The computed velocity amplitude and the temperature-perturbation as functions of the wave period exhibit a sharp peak in the region between 180 and 300 s, thus showing the possibility of interpreting the five-minute oscillations as a resonant phenomenon. The propagating or stationary nature of the waves is investigated by a study of the phase of the proposed analytical solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Elhanafi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, hydrodynamic wave loads on an offshore stationary–floating oscillating water column (OWC are investigated via a 2D and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling based on the RANS equations and the VOF surface capturing scheme. The CFD model is validated against previous experiments for nonlinear regular wave interactions with a surface-piercing stationary barge. Following the validation stage, the numerical model is modified to consider the pneumatic damping effect, and an extensive campaign of numerical tests is carried out to study the wave–OWC interactions for different wave periods, wave heights and pneumatic damping factors. It is found that the horizontal wave force is usually larger than the vertical one. Also, there a direct relationship between the pneumatic and hydrodynamic vertical forces with a maximum vertical force almost at the device natural frequency, whereas the pneumatic damping has a little effect on the horizontal force. Additionally, simulating the turbine damping with an orifice plate induces higher vertical loads than utilizing a slot opening. Furthermore, 3D modeling significantly escalates and declines the predicted hydrodynamic vertical and horizontal wave loads, respectively.
Wave fronts and spatiotemporal chaos in an array of coupled Lorenz oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazo, Diego; Montejo, Noelia; Perez-Munuzuri, Vicente
2001-01-01
The effects of coupling strength and single-cell dynamics (SCD) on spatiotemporal pattern formation are studied in an array of Lorenz oscillators. Different spatiotemporal structures (stationary patterns, propagating wave fronts, short wavelength bifurcation) arise for bistable SCD, and two well differentiated types of spatiotemporal chaos for chaotic SCD (in correspondence with the transition from stationary patterns to propagating fronts). Wave-front propagation in the bistable regime is studied in terms of global bifurcation theory, while a short wavelength pattern region emerges through a pitchfork bifurcation
Self-diffraction oscillations of two-wave mixing in a acrylamide photopolymer film
Kwak, C H; Sung, G Y; Choe, O S; Lee, Y W; Lee, I W
1999-01-01
Degenerate two-wave energy-coupling experiments were performed on a thick photopolymer film. It was found that the observed periodic oscillations of the energy couplings between the two pump beams were closely related to mixed gratings of the phase and the absorption gratings and to nonzero spatial phase shifts of the gratings with respect to the intensity interference patterns. A simple theory based on coupled wave theory was developed in conjunction with nonlocal responses of the mixed gratings and was compared with the experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan; Lawson, Michael; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan
2015-09-09
The aim of this paper is to present a novel wave energy converter device concept that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The proposed concept combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter with active control surfaces. These active control surfaces allow for the device geometry to be altered, which leads to changes in the hydrodynamic properties. The device geometry will be controlled on a sea state time scale and combined with wave-to-wave power-take-off control to maximize power capture, increase capacity factor, and reduce design loads. The paper begins with a traditional linear frequency domain analysis of the device performance. Performance sensitivity to foil pitch angle, the number of activated foils, and foil cross section geometry is presented to illustrate the current design decisions; however, it is understood from previous studies that modeling of current oscillating wave energy converter designs requires the consideration of nonlinear hydrodynamics and viscous drag forces. In response, a nonlinear model is presented that highlights the shortcomings of the linear frequency domain analysis and increases the precision in predicted performance.
THz Backward-wave oscillators for plasma diagnostic in nuclear fusion
Paoloni, Claudio; Yue, Lingna; Tang, Xiaopin; Zhang, Fuzhi; Popovic, Branko; Himes, Logan; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Mineo, Mauro; Letizia, Rosa; Luhmann Jr., Neville C.
2015-01-01
Summary form only given. The understanding of plasma turbulence in nuclear fusion is related to the availability of powerful THz sources and the possibility to map wider plasma regions. A novel approach to realize compact THz sources to be implemented in the plasma diagnostic at NSTX experiment (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA) is reported.Two novel 0.346 THz Backward-Wave Oscillators (BWOs) have been designed and are presently in the fabrication phase. One BWO is based on the Double...
Analysis of wave-like oscillations in parameters of sporadic E layer and neutral atmosphere
Mošna, Z.; Koucká Knížová, P.
2012-12-01
The present study mainly concerns the wave-like activity in the ionospheric sporadic E layer (Es) and in the lower lying stratosphere. The proposed analysis involves parameters describing the state of plasma in the sporadic E layer. Critical frequencies foEs and layer heights hEs were measured at the Pruhonice station (50°N, 14.5°E) during summer campaigns 2004, 2006 and 2008. Further, we use neutral atmosphere (temperature data at 10 hPa) data from the same time interval. The analysis concentrates on vertically propagating wave-like structures within distant atmospheric regions. By means of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) we have detected significant wave-like oscillation at periods covering tidal and planetary oscillation domains both in the Es layer parameters (some of them were reported earlier, for instance in works of Abdu et al., 2003; Pancheva and Mitchel, 2004; Pancheva et al., 2003; Šauli and Bourdillon, 2008) and in stratospheric temperature variations. Further analyses using cross wavelet transform (XWT) and wavelet coherence analysis (WTC) show that despite high wave-like activity in a wide period range, there are only limited coherent wave-like bursts present in both spectra. Such common coherent wave bursts occur on periods close to eigen-periods of the terrestrial atmosphere. We suppose that vertical coupling between atmospheric regions realized by vertically propagating planetary waves occurs predominantly on periods close to those of Rossby modes. Analysis of the phase shift between data from distant atmospheric regions reveals high variability and very likely supports the non-linear scenario of the vertical coupling provided by planetary waves.
Synchrony, waves and ripple in spatially coupled Kuramoto oscillators with Mexican hat connectivity.
Heitmann, Stewart; Ermentrout, G Bard
2015-06-01
Spatiotemporal waves of synchronized activity are known to arise in oscillatory neural networks with lateral inhibitory coupling. How such patterns respond to dynamic changes in coupling strength is largely unexplored. The present study uses analysis and simulation to investigate the evolution of wave patterns when the strength of lateral inhibition is varied dynamically. Neural synchronization was modeled by a spatial ring of Kuramoto oscillators with Mexican hat lateral coupling. Broad bands of coexisting stable wave solutions were observed at all levels of inhibition. The stability of these waves was formally analyzed in both the infinite ring and the finite ring. The broad range of multi-stability predicted hysteresis in transitions between neighboring wave solutions when inhibition is slowly varied. Numerical simulation confirmed the predicted transitions when inhibition was ramped down from a high initial value. However, non-wave solutions emerged from the uniform solution when inhibition was ramped upward from zero. These solutions correspond to spatially periodic deviations of phase that we call ripple states. Numerical continuation showed that stable ripple states emerge from synchrony via a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The normal form of this bifurcation was derived analytically, and its predictions compared against the numerical results. Ripple states were also found to bifurcate from wave solutions, but these were locally unstable. Simulation also confirmed the existence of hysteresis and ripple states in two spatial dimensions. Our findings show that spatial synchronization patterns can remain structurally stable despite substantial changes in network connectivity.
Design and Analysis for a Floating Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Y. H.; Li, Y.; Hallett, K.; Hotimsky, C.
2014-03-01
This paper presents a recent study on the design and analysis of an oscillating surge wave energy converter. A successful wave energy conversion design requires the balance between the design performance and cost. The cost of energy is often used as the metric to judge the design of the wave energy conversion system. It is often determined based on the device power performance, the cost for manufacturing, deployment, operation and maintenance, as well as the effort to ensure the environmental compliance. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of a cost driven design strategy and how it can affect a WEC design. Three oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) designs were used as the example. The power generation performance of the design was modeled using a time-domain numerical simulation tool, and the mass properties of the design were determined based on a simple structure analysis. The results of those power performance simulations, the structure analysis and a simple economic assessment were then used to determine the cost-efficiency of selected OSWEC designs. Finally, a discussion on the environmental barrier, integrated design strategy and the key areas that need further investigation is also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dum, C.T.
1990-01-01
The generation of waves with frequencies downshifted from the plasma frequency, as observed in the electron foreshock, is analyzed by particle simulation. Wave excitation differs fundamentally from the familiar excitation of the plasma eigenmodes by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution. Beam modes are destabilized by resonant interaction with bulk electrons, provided the beamvelocity spread is very small. These modes are stabilized, starting with the higher frequencies, as the beam is broadened and slowed down by the interaction with the wave spectrum. Initially, a very cold beam is also capable of exciting frequencies considerably above the plasma frequency, but such oscillations are quickly stabilized. Low-frequency modes persist for a long time, until the bump in the electron distribution is completely ironed out. This diffusion process also is quite different from the familiar case of well-separated beam and bulk electrons. A quantitative analysis of these processes is carried out
Dum, C. T.
1990-01-01
The generation of waves with frequencies downshifted from the plasma frequency, as observed in the electron foreshock, is analyzed by particle simulation. Wave excitation differs fundamentally from the familiar excitation of the plasma eigenmodes by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution. Beam modes are destabilized by resonant interaction with bulk electrons, provided the beam velocity spread is very small. These modes are stabilized, starting with the higher frequencies, as the beam is broadened and slowed down by the interaction with the wave spectrum. Initially a very cold beam is also capable of exciting frequencies considerably above the plasma frequency, but such oscillations are quickly stabilized. Low-frequency modes persist for a long time, until the bump in the electron distribution is completely 'ironed' out. This diffusion process also is quite different from the familiar case of well-separated beam and bulk electrons. A quantitative analysis of these processes is carried out.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Wang, Yue; Qiao, Hailiang; Zhang, Dianhui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Guo, Weijie [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2013-11-15
Optimal design method of high-power microwave source using particle simulation and parallel genetic algorithms is presented in this paper. The output power, simulated by the fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC, of the high-power microwave device is given as the fitness function, and the float-encoding genetic algorithms are used to optimize the high-power microwave devices. Using this method, we encode the heights of non-uniform slow wave structure in the relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWO), and optimize the parameters on massively parallel processors. Simulation results demonstrate that we can obtain the optimal parameters of non-uniform slow wave structure in the RBWO, and the output microwave power enhances 52.6% after the device is optimized.
Analisa Kinerja Pneumatic Wave Energy Converter (WEC Dengan Menggunakan Oscillating Water Column(OWC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rico Ary Sona
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Sistem konversi energi gelombang laut merupakan sistem yang menangkap energi gelombang laut untuk dikonversi menjadi energi lain seperti energi listrik. Salah satu jenis wave energy converter (WEC yang banyak digunakan diantaranya yaitu Oscillating Water Columnatau OWC. Prinsip kerja sistem WEC ini ialah mengubah pergerakan naik turunnya gelombang pada silinder kolom udara untuk menghasilkan udara bertekanan yang selanjutnya digunakan untuk menggerakkan turbin dan generator listrik. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk dapat mengetahui kinerja dari Oscillating Water Column (OWC dalam menangkap energi gelombang laut. Untuk dapat melakukan penelitian ini diperlukan beberapa perlatan yaitu pembuatan konfigurasi peralatan pembuat dan penangkapan gelombang yang terdiri dari pelampung dan silinder Oscillating Water Column (OWC. Percobaan ini dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan panjang dan tinggi gelombang pada flow water channel dengan mengatur bukaan pada pneumatic speed control. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa kinerja paling efektif diperoleh pada panjang gelombang 0.9 m dan tinggi gelombang 0.23m. Pada karakteristik gelombang tersebut diperoleh tekanan, kecepatan dan volume pada silinder Oscillating Water Column (OWC sebesar 1.11 bar, 39.39 m/s dan 0.0057 m3. Dari hasil percobaan juga diperoleh waktu pengisian Pressure Vessel selama 100 menit dengan tekanan 3 Psi.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yue
2015-01-01
This letter optimizes synchronously 18 parameters of a relativistic backward wave oscillator with non-uniform slow wave structure (SWS) and a resonant reflector by using the parallel genetic algorithms and particle-in-cell simulation. The optimization results show that the generation efficiency of microwave from the electron beam has increased 32% compared to that of the original device. After optimization, the electromagnetic mode propagating in the resonant changes from the original TM 020 mode of reflector to higher-order TM 021 mode, which has a high reflection coefficient in a broader frequency range than that of the former. The modulation of current inside the optimized device is much deeper than that in the original one. The product of the electric field and current is defined. Observing this product, it is found that the interaction of the electron beam with the electromagnetic wave in the optimized device is much stronger than that in the original device, and at the rear part of SWS of the optimized device, the electron beam dominantly gives out the energy to the electromagnetic wave, leading to the higher generation efficiency of microwave than that of the original device
Direct measurement of density oscillation induced by a radio-frequency wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, T.; Ejiri, A.; Shimada, Y.; Oosako, T.; Tsujimura, J.; Takase, Y.; Kasahara, H.
2007-01-01
An O-mode reflectometer at a frequency of 25.85 GHz was applied to plasmas heated by the high harmonic fast wave (21 MHz) in the TST-2 spherical tokamak. An oscillation in the phase of the reflected microwave in the rf range was observed directly for the first time. In TST-2, the rf (250 kW) induced density oscillation depends mainly on the poloidal rf electric field, which is estimated to be about 0.2 kV/m rms by the reflectometer measurement. Sideband peaks separated in frequency by ion cyclotron harmonics from 21 MHz, and peaks at ion cyclotron harmonics which are suggested to be quasimodes generated by parametric decay, were detected
Theoretical models for designing a 220-GHz folded waveguide backward wave oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Jin-Chi; Chen Huai-Bi; Hu Lin-Lin; Ma Guo-Wu; Chen Hong-Bin; Jin Xiao
2015-01-01
In this paper, the basic equations of beam-wave interaction for designing the 220 GHz folded waveguide (FW) backward wave oscillator (BWO) are described. On the whole, these equations are mainly classified into small signal model (SSM), large signal model (LSM), and simplified small signal model (SSSM). Using these linear and nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) models, the oscillation characteristics of the FW BWO of a given configuration of slow wave structure (SWS) can be calculated by numerical iteration algorithm, which is more time efficient than three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The SSSM expressed by analytical formulas is innovatively derived for determining the initial values of the FW SWS conveniently. The dispersion characteristics of the FW are obtained by equivalent circuit analysis. The space charge effect, the end reflection effect, the lossy wall effect, and the relativistic effect are all considered in our models to offer more accurate results. The design process of the FW BWO tube with output power of watt scale in a frequency range between 215 GHz and 225 GHz based on these 1D models is demonstrated. The 3D PIC method is adopted to verify the theoretical design results, which shows that they are in good agreement with each other. (paper)
Backward wave oscillators with rippled wall resonators: Analytic theory and numerical simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swegle, J.A.; Poukey, J.W.
1985-01-01
The 3-D analytic theory is based on the approximation that the device is infinitely long. In the absence of an electron beam, the theory is exact and allows us to compute the dispersion characteristics of the cold structure. With the inclusion of a thin electron beam, we can compute the growth rates resulting from the interaction between a waveguide mode of the structure and the slower space charge wave on the beam. In the limit of low beam currents, the full dispersion relation based on an electromagnetic analysis can be placed in correspondence with the circuit theory of Pierce. Numerical simulations permit us to explore the saturated, large amplitude operating regime for TM axisymmetric modes. The scaling of operating frequency, peak power, and operating efficiency with beam and resonator parameters is examined. The analytic theory indicates that growth rates are largest for the TM 01 modes and decrease with both the radial and azimuthal mode numbers. Another interesting trend is that for a fixed cathode voltage and slow wave structure, growth rates peak for a beam current below the space charge limiting value and decrease for both larger and smaller currents. The simulations show waves that grow from noise without any input signal, so that the system functions as an oscillator. The TM 01 mode predominates in all simulations. While a minimum device length is required for the start of oscillations, it appears that if the slow wave structure is too long, output power is decreased by a transfer of wave energy back to the electrons. Comparisons have been made between the analytical and numerical results, as well as with experimental data obtained at Sandia National Laboratories
Kuwahara, Jun; Miyata, Hajime; Konno, Hidetoshi
2017-09-01
Recently, complex dynamics of globally coupled oscillators have been attracting many researcher's attentions. In spite of their numerous studies, their features of nonlinear oscillator systems with global and local couplings in two-dimension (2D) are not understood fully. The paper focuses on 2D states of coherent, clustered and chaotic oscillation especially under the effect of negative global coupling (NGC) in 2D Alief-Panfilov model. It is found that the tuning NGC can cause various new coupling-parameter dependency on the features of oscillations. Then quantitative characterization of various states of oscillations (so called spiral wave turbulence) is examined by using the pragmatic information (PI) which have been utilized in analyzing multimode laser, solar activity and neuronal systems. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of the PI for various oscillations can be characterized successfully by the Hyper-Gamma stochastic process.
Mathematical Modeling of Oscillating Water Columns Wave-Structure Interaction in Ocean Energy Plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aitor J. Garrido
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Oscillating Water Column (OWC-based power take-off systems are one of the potential solutions to the current energy problems arising from the use of nuclear fission and the consumption of fossil fuels. This kind of energy converter turns wave energy into electric power by means of three different stages: firstly wave energy is transformed into pneumatic energy in the OWC chamber, and then a turbine turns it into mechanical energy and finally the turbogenerator module attached to the turbine creates electric power from the rotational mechanical energy. To date, capture chambers have been the least studied part. In this context, this paper presents an analytical model describing the dynamic behavior of the capture chamber, encompassing the wave motion and its interaction with the OWC structure and turbogenerator module. The model is tested for the case of the Mutriku wave power plant by means of experimental results. For this purpose, representative case studies are selected from wave and pressure drop input-output data. The results show an excellent matching rate between the values predicted by the model and the experimental measured data with a small bounded error in all cases, so that the validity of the proposed model is proven.
Theory of the synchronous motion of an array of floating flap gates oscillating wave surge converter
Michele, Simone; Sammarco, Paolo; d'Errico, Michele
2016-08-01
We consider a finite array of floating flap gates oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC) in water of constant depth. The diffraction and radiation potentials are solved in terms of elliptical coordinates and Mathieu functions. Generated power and capture width ratio of a single gate excited by incoming waves are given in terms of the radiated wave amplitude in the far field. Similar to the case of axially symmetric absorbers, the maximum power extracted is shown to be directly proportional to the incident wave characteristics: energy flux, angle of incidence and wavelength. Accordingly, the capture width ratio is directly proportional to the wavelength, thus giving a design estimate of the maximum efficiency of the system. We then compare the array and the single gate in terms of energy production. For regular waves, we show that excitation of the out-of-phase natural modes of the array increases the power output, while in the case of random seas we show that the array and the single gate achieve the same efficiency.
Suppressing RF breakdown of powerful backward wave oscillator by field redistribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Song
2012-03-01
Full Text Available An over mode method for suppressing the RF breakdown on metal surface of resonant reflector cavity in powerful backward wave oscillator is investigated. It is found that the electric field is redistributed and electron emission is restrained with an over longitudinal mode cavity. Compared with the general device, a frequency band of about 5 times wider and a power capacity of at least 1.7 times greater are obtained. The results were verified in an X-band high power microwave generation experiment with the output power near 4 gigawatt.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Michael [South Dakota School of Mines
2017-07-25
This study investigates the effect of design changes on the hydrodynamics of a novel oscillating surge wave energy converter being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The design utilizes controllable geometry features to shed structural loads while maintaining a rated power over a greater number of sea states. The second-generation design will seek to provide a more refined control of performance because the first-generation design demonstrated performance reductions considered too large for smooth power output. Performance is evaluated using frequency domain analysis with consideration of a nonideal power-take-off system, with respect to power absorption, foundation loads, and power-take-off torque.
Reduce the start current of Smith-Purcell backward wave oscillator by sidewall grating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Gao, X.; Yang, Z.; Park, Gun-Sik
2007-01-01
A sidewall grating for the Smith-Purcell device is proposed to enhance the coupling of the optical mode with the electron beam and, consequently, relax the stringent requirements to the electron beam. With the help of three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, it has been shown that, comparing with the general grating, the usage of a sidewall grating improves the growth rate and dramatically shortens the time for the device to reach saturation. It is also found that the sidewall grating holds the potential to reduce the start current for the operation of a Smith-Purcell backward wave oscillator
An overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator with efficient dual-mode operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Renzhen; Li, Jiawei; Bai, Xianchen; Song, Zhimin; Teng, Yan; Ye, Hu; Li, Xiaoze; Sun, Jun; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Xiaowei
2014-01-01
A dual-mode operation mechanism in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator is presented. The electron beam interacts with the −1st space harmonic of TM 01 mode synchronously in the slow wave structure. Then the backward propagating TM 01 mode is converted to the forward propagating TM 02 mode. As the phase velocity of the volume harmonic of TM 02 mode is about twice that of the surface harmonic of TM 01 mode, the TM 02 mode also plays an important role in the high-power microwave generation. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that an efficiency of 48% and a significant improvement of the power capacity have been obtained
Oscillations and waves in a spatially distributed system with a 1/f spectrum
Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.
2018-02-01
A spatially distributed system with a 1/f power spectrum is described by two nonlinear stochastic equations. Conditions for the formation of auto-oscillations have been found using numerical methods. The formation of a 1/f and 1/k spectrum simultaneously with the formation and motion of waves under the action of white noise has been demonstrated. The large extreme fluctuations with 1/f and 1/k spectra correspond to the maximum entropy, which points to the stability of such processes. It is shown that on the background of formation and motion of waves at an external periodic action there appears spatio-temporal stochastic resonance, at which one can observe the expansion of the region of periodic pulsations under the action of white noise.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael
2016-06-01
The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.
Terahertz wave parametric oscillations at polariton resonance using a MgO:LiNbO3 crystal.
Li, Zhongyang; Bing, Pibin; Yuan, Sheng; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan
2015-06-20
Terahertz wave (THz-wave) parametric oscillations with a noncollinear phase-matching scheme at polariton resonance using a MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with a surface-emitted configuration are investigated. We investigate frequency tuning characteristics of a THz-wave via varying the wavelength of the pump wave and phase-matching angle. The effective parametric gain length under the noncollinear phase-matching condition is calculated. Parametric gain and absorption characteristics of a THz-wave in the vicinity of polariton resonances are analyzed.
Investigation of the density wave oscillation in ocean motions with reduced order models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, B.H.; Li, R.
2018-01-01
Highlights: •The parameter about the degree of instability is defined. •The results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results. •The effect of ocean motions on DWO is analyzed quantitatively. •The results are of good universality and generality. -- Abstract: The two phase flow instability is an important phenomenon in nuclear power and thermal systems. In the research and design of small modular reactor, the effect of ocean motions on the two phase flow instability should be evaluated. In this work, the density wave oscillation in a uniformly heated channel in ocean motions is investigated with reduced order model by transforming the partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. This kind of frequency domain method is complementary to the time domain analysis with system codes, not as alternatives. The parameter about the degree of instability is defined for the quantitative analysis of two phase flow instability. The results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results. The effect of ocean motions on density wave oscillation in a uniformly heated channel is analyzed quantitatively. The parametric study is also carried out.
QUASI-BIENNIAL OSCILLATIONS IN THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE CAUSED BY MAGNETIC ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Carbonell, Marc; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis
2010-01-01
Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) are frequently observed in solar activity indices. However, no clear physical mechanism for the observed variations has been suggested so far. Here, we study the stability of magnetic Rossby waves in the solar tachocline using the shallow water magnetohydrodynamic approximation. Our analysis shows that the combination of typical differential rotation and a toroidal magnetic field with a strength of ≥10 5 G triggers the instability of the m = 1 magnetic Rossby wave harmonic with a period of ∼2 years. This harmonic is antisymmetric with respect to the equator and its period (and growth rate) depends on the differential rotation parameters and magnetic field strength. The oscillations may cause a periodic magnetic flux emergence at the solar surface and consequently may lead to the observed QBO in solar activity features. The period of QBOs may change throughout a cycle, and from cycle to cycle, due to variations of the mean magnetic field and differential rotation in the tachocline.
Numerical analysis of regular waves over an onshore oscillating water column
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davyt, D.P.; Teixeira, P.R.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)], E-mail: pauloteixeira@furg.br; Ramalhais, R. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Didier, E. [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: edidier@lnec.pt
2010-07-01
The potential of wave energy along coastal areas is a particularly attractive option in regions of high latitude, such as the coasts of northern Europe, North America, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina where high densities of annual average wave energy are found (typically between 40 and 100 kW/m of wave front). Power estimated in the south of Brazil is 30kW/m, creating a possible alternative of source energy in the region. There are many types and designs of equipment to capture energy from waves under analysis, such as the oscillating water column type (OWC) which has been one of the first to be developed and installed at sea. Despite being one of the most analyzed wave energy converter devices, there are few case studies using numerical simulation. In this context, the numerical analysis of regular waves over an onshore OWC is the main objective of this paper. The numerical models FLUINCO and FLUENT are used for achieving this goal. The FLUINCO model is based on RANS equations which are discretized using the two-step semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin method. An arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation is used to enable the solution of problems involving free surface movements. The FLUENT code (version 6.3.26) is based on the finite volume method to solve RANS equations. Volume of Fluid method (VOF) is used for modeling free surface flows. Time integration is achieved by a second order implicit scheme, momentum equations are discretized using MUSCL scheme and HRIC (High Resolution Interface Capturing) scheme is used for convective term of VOF transport equation. The case study consists of a 10.m deep channel with a 10 m wide chamber at its end. One meter high waves with different periods are simulated. Comparisons between FLUINCO and FLUENT results are presented. Free surface elevation inside the chamber; velocity distribution and streamlines; amplification factor (relation between wave height inside the chamber and incident wave height); phase angle (angular
Numerical Simulation of a Dual-Chamber Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dezhi Ning
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The performance of a dual-chamber Oscillating Water Column (OWC Wave Energy Converter (WEC is considered in the present study. The device has two sub-chambers with a shared orifice. A two-dimensional (2D fully nonlinear numerical wave flume based on the potential-flow theory and the time-domain higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM is applied for the simulation. The incident waves are generated by using the immerged sources and the air-fluid coupling influence is considered with a simplified pneumatic model. In the present study, the variation of the surface elevation and the water column volume in the two sub-chambers are investigated. The effects of the chamber geometry (i.e., the draft and breadth of two chambers on the surface elevation and the air pressure in the chamber are investigated, respectively. It is demonstrated that the surface elevations in the two sub-chambers are strongly dependent on the wave conditions. The larger the wavelength, the more synchronous motion of the two water columns in the two sub-chambers, thus, the lager the variation of the water column volume.
Effect of end reflections on conversion efficiency of coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teng, Yan; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun; Shi, Yanchao; Ye, Hu; Wu, Ping; Li, Shuang; Xiong, Xiaolong [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)
2015-11-07
This paper theoretically investigates the effect of end reflections on the operation of the coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator (CRBWO). It is found that the considerable enhancement of the end reflection at one end increases the conversion efficiency, but excessively large end reflections at both ends weaken the asynchronous wave-beam interaction and thus reduce the conversion efficiency. Perfect reflection at the post end significantly improves the interaction between the electron beam and the asynchronous harmonic so that the conversion efficiency is notably increased. Based on the theoretical research, the diffraction-CRBWO with the generated microwave diffracted and output through the front end of the coaxial slow wave structure cavity is proposed. The post end is conductively closed to provide the perfect reflection. This promotes the amplitude and uniformity of the longitudinal electric field on the beam transmission line and improves the asynchronous wave-beam interaction. In numerical simulations under the diode voltage and current of 450 kV and 5.84 kA, microwave generation with the power of 1.45 GW and the conversion efficiency of 55% are obtained at the frequency of 7.45 GHz.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Zou
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an effective low-speed oscillating wave power generator and its energy storage system have been proposed. A vertical flux-switching permanent magnet (PM machine is designed as the generator while supercapacitors and batteries are used to store the energy. First, the overall power generation system is established and principles of the machine are introduced. Second, three modes are proposed for the energy storage system and sliding mode control (SMC is employed to regulate the voltage of the direct current (DC bus, observe the mechanical input, and feedback the status of the storage system. Finally, experiments with load and sinusoidal mechanical inputs are carried out to validate the effectiveness and stability of power generation for wave energy. The results show that the proposed power generation system can be employed in low-speed environment around 1 m/s to absorb random wave power, achieving over 60% power efficiency. The power generation approach can be used to capture wave energy in the future.
Overmoded subterahertz surface wave oscillator with pure TM01 mode output
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Guangqiang; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Shuang
2016-01-01
Overmoded O-type Cerenkov generators using annular electron beams are facing the problem of multi-modes output due to the inevitable structural discontinuities. A simple but effective method to achieve the pure TM 01 mode output is applied on the 0.14 THz overmoded surface wave oscillator (SWO) in this paper. In spite of still using an overmoded slow wave structure to ensure the easy fabrication, the followed smooth circular waveguide is shrinkingly tapered to the output waveguide with appropriate radius that it cuts off other higher modes except TM 01 mode. Moreover, the modified device here has the same power capacity as the previous one according to the numerical analysis. By optimized lengths of the transition waveguide and tapered waveguide, particle-in-cell simulation results indicate that the subterahertz wave with output power increased 14.2% at the same frequency is obtained from the proposed SWO under the previous input conditions, and importantly, the output power is all carried by TM 01 mode as expected. Further simulation results in the pulse regime confirm the feasibility of the optimized structure in the actual experiments. This simple and viable design is also applicable to overmoded devices in the lower frequency band of subterahertz wave
Influence of voltage rise time on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Ping; Deng, Yuqun; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua
2015-01-01
In relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs), although the slow wave structure (SWS) and electron beam determine the main characteristics of beam-wave interaction, many other factors can also significantly affect the microwave generation process. This paper investigates the influence of voltage rise time on beam-wave interaction in RBWOs. Preliminary analysis and PIC simulations demonstrate if the voltage rise time is moderately long, the microwave frequency will gradually increase during the startup process until the voltage reaches its amplitude, which can be explained by the dispersion relation. However, if the voltage rise time is long enough, the longitudinal resonance of the finitely-long SWS will force the RBWO to work with unwanted longitudinal modes for a while and then gradually hop to the wanted longitudinal mode, and this will lead to an impure microwave frequency spectrum. Besides, a longer voltage rise time will delay the startup process and thus lead to a longer microwave saturation time. And if unwanted longitudinal modes are excited due to long voltage rise time, the microwave saturation time will be further lengthened. Therefore, the voltage rise time of accelerators adopted in high power microwave technology should not be too long in case unwanted longitudinal modes are excited
2005-03-01
picture at 22/00Z.............50 x Figure 24. Case 5 – wave parameters........................51 Figure 25. Evolution of energy density (arrow...equation or energy balance equation: . in nl ds F v F S S S S t ∂ + ∇ = ≡ + + ∂ r (1) where ( , ; , )F f x tθ r is the two dimensional...collected from an offshore directional Seawatch buoy, in the vicinity of Cape Silleiro, Rayo Silleiro 19 (“E1”), (Figure 3), was provided by the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo, C.F.
2009-01-01
By applying the standard analytical techniques of solving partial differential equations, we have obtained the exact solution in terms of the Fourier sine series to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing a quantum one-dimensional harmonic oscillator of time-dependent frequency confined in an infinite square well with the two walls moving along some parametric trajectories. Based upon the orthonormal basis of quasi-stationary wave functions, the exact propagator of the system has also been analytically derived. Special cases like (i) a confined free particle, (ii) a confined time-independent harmonic oscillator, and (iii) an aging oscillator are examined, and the corresponding time-dependent wave functions are explicitly determined. Besides, the approach has been extended to solve the case of a confined generalized time-dependent harmonic oscillator for some parametric moving boundaries as well. (general)
Detection of the fast Kelvin wave teleconnection due to El Niño-Southern Oscillation
Meyers, Steven D.; Melsom, Arne; Mitchum, Gary T.; O'Brien, James J.
1998-11-01
Previous analyses of the ocean state along the western American coast have often indicated unexpectedly slow and limited propagation of coastally trapped Kelvin waves associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. In contrast, theoretical and numerical ocean models demonstrate that these Kelvin waves are a rapid and long-range teleconnection between the low- and high-latitude Pacific Ocean, strongly impacting both the surface coastal currents and nutrient upwelling. Sea level variations along the western coast of North America are reexamined under the assumption that tropically forced Kelvin waves are produced in bursts of several months duration. A cross-correlation analysis, restricted to mid-1982 to mid-1983, is performed between Galapagos Island and stations along western Central and North America. A coastally trapped Kelvin wave is revealed to propagate at a speed of 2-3 m s-1 from the tropical Pacific to the Aleutian Island Chain. The observed phase speed agrees with the estimated speed of a Kelvin wave based on the average density profile of the ocean near the coast. Weaker El Niño events in 1986/1987 and 1991/1992 appear to contain a combination of this remote signal and local wind forcing. The wave propagation speed calculated from the spectral phase is shown to be sensitive to the presence of other (noise) processes in the observations. This is demonstrated through an analysis of a synthetic sea level data set that contains many of the essential features of the real sea level data. A relatively small level of red noise can give a 100% expected error in the estimated propagation speed. This suggests a new explanation for this important inconsistency within dynamical oceanography.
Intracavity Cr3+:LiCAF + PPSLT optical parametric oscillator with self-injection-locked pump wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Capmany, J
2013-01-01
In this letter we present an intracavity pumped continuous wave (CW) doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on Cr 3+ :LiCaAlF 6 (Cr:LiCAF) as the material generating the OPO pump wave and periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (PPSLT) as the nonlinear material. The OPO pump wave is spectrally narrowed and tuned by means of an external cavity, thus allowing self-injection locking of the OPO pump wavelength. When operated near degeneracy, the constructed OPO enables a fast tuning of the parametrically generated wavelengths in response to small perturbations of the phase-matching condition. The Cr:LiCAF emission band is especially well suited to provide dual-wavelength oscillation in the optical communications 1550 nm band as a result of the parametric oscillation in PPSLT. (letter)
Feedback Interactions of Polymerized Actin with the Cell Membrane: Waves, Pulses, and Oscillations
Carlsson, Anders
Polymerized filaments of the protein actin have crucial functions in cell migration, and in bending the cell membrane to drive endocytosis or the formation of protrusions. The nucleation and polymerization of actin filaments are controlled by upstream agents in the cell membrane, including nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) that activate the Arp2/3 complex to form new branches on pre-existing filaments. But polymerized actin (F-actin) also feeds back on the assembly of NPFs. We explore the effects of the resulting feedback loop of F-actin and NPFs on two phenomena: actin pulses that drive endocytosis in yeast, and actin waves traveling along the membrane of several cell types. In our model of endocytosis in yeast, the actin network is grown explicitly in three dimensions, exerts a negative feedback interaction on localized patch of NPFs in the membrane, and bends the membrane by exerting a distribution of forces. This model explains observed actin and NPF pulse dynamics, and the effects of several interventions including i) NPF mutations, ii) inhibition of actin polymerization, and iii) deletion of a protein that allows F-actin to bend the cell membrane. The model predicts that mutation of the active region of an NPF will enhance the accumulation of that NPF, and we confirm this prediction by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. For actin waves, we treat a similar model, with NPFs distributed over a larger region of the cell membrane. This model naturally generates actin waves, and predicts a transition from wave behavior to spatially localized oscillations when NPFs are confined to a small region. We also predict a transition from waves to static polarization as the negative-feedback coupling between F-actin and the NPFs is reduced. Supported by NIGMS Grant R01 GM107667.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, Yat-Long; Chu, M.C.; Xu, Jianyi [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics, Shatin (China); Tsui, Ka Ming [University of Tokyo, RCCN, ICRR, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Wong, Chan Fai [Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)
2016-06-15
We derive the neutrino flavor transition probabilities with the neutrino treated as a wave packet. The decoherence and dispersion effects from the wave-packet treatment show up as damping and phase-shifting of the plane-wave neutrino oscillation patterns. If the energy uncertainty in the initial neutrino wave packet is larger than around 0.01 of the neutrino energy, the decoherence and dispersion effects would degrade the sensitivity of reactor neutrino experiments to mass hierarchy measurement to lower than 3 σ confidence level. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gimara Rajapakse
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Despite the predictability and availability at large scale, wave energy conversion (WEC has still not become a mainstream renewable energy technology. One of the main reasons is the large variations in the extracted power which could lead to instabilities in the power grid. In addition, maintaining the speed of the turbine within optimal range under changing wave conditions is another control challenge, especially in oscillating water column (OWC type WEC systems. As a solution to the first issue, this paper proposes the direct connection of a battery bank into the dc-link of the back-to-back power converter system, thereby smoothening the power delivered to the grid. For the second issue, model predictive controllers (MPCs are developed for the rectifier and the inverter of the back-to-back converter system aiming to maintain the turbine speed within its optimum range. In addition, MPC controllers are designed to control the battery current as well, in both charging and discharging conditions. Operations of the proposed battery direct integration scheme and control solutions are verified through computer simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed integrated energy storage and control solutions are capable of delivering smooth power to the grid while maintaining the turbine speed within its optimum range under varying wave conditions.
Rayleigh-Taylor Gravity Waves and Quasiperiodic Oscillation Phenomenon in X-ray Binaries
Titarchuk, Lev
2002-01-01
Accretion onto compact objects in X-ray binaries (black hole, neutron star (NS), white dwarf) is characterized by non-uniform flow density profiles. Such an effect of heterogeneity in presence of gravitational forces and pressure gradients exhibits Rayleigh-Taylor gravity waves (RTGW). They should be seen as quasiperiodic wave oscillations (QPO) of the accretion flow in the transition (boundary) layer between the Keplerian disk and the central object. In this paper the author shows that the main QPO frequency, which is very close to the Keplerian frequency, is split into separate frequencies (hybrid and low branch) under the influence of the gravitational forces in the rotational frame of reference. The RTGWs must be present and the related QPOs should be detected in any system where the gravity, buoyancy and Coriolis force effects cannot be excluded (even in the Earth and solar environments). The observed low and high QPO frequencies are an intrinsic signature of the RTGW. The author elaborates the conditions for the density profile when the RTGW oscillations are stable. A comparison of the inferred QPO frequencies with QPO observations is presented. The author finds that hectohertz frequencies detected from NS binaries can be identified as the RTGW low branch frequencies. The author also predicts that an observer can see the double NS spin frequency during the NS long (super) burst events when the pressure gradients and buoyant forces are suppressed. The Coriolis force is the only force which acts in the rotational frame of reference and its presence causes perfect coherent pulsations with a frequency twice of the NS spin. The QPO observations of neutron binaries have established that the high QPO frequencies do not go beyond of the certain upper limit. The author explains this observational effect as a result of the density profile inversions. Also the author demonstrates that a particular problem of the gravity waves in the rotational frame of reference in the
Magnetron injection gun for a broadband gyrotron backward-wave oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, C. P.; Chang, T. H.; Chen, N. C.; Yeh, Y. S.
2009-01-01
The magnetron injection gun is capable of generating relativistic electron beam with high velocity ratio and low velocity spread for a gyrotron backward-wave oscillator (gyro-BWO). However, the velocity ratio (α) varies drastically against both the magnetic field and the beam voltage, which significantly limits the tuning bandwidth of a gyro-BWO. This study remedies this drawback by adding a variable trim field to adjust the magnetic compression ratio when changing the operating conditions. Theoretical results obtained by employing a two-dimensional electron gun code (EGUN) demonstrate a constant velocity ratio of 1.5 with a low axial velocity spread of 6% from 3.4-4.8 Tesla. These results are compared with a three-dimensional particle-tracing code (computer simulation technology, CST). The underlying physics for constant α will be discussed in depth.
Magnetron injection gun for a broadband gyrotron backward-wave oscillator
Yuan, C. P.; Chang, T. H.; Chen, N. C.; Yeh, Y. S.
2009-07-01
The magnetron injection gun is capable of generating relativistic electron beam with high velocity ratio and low velocity spread for a gyrotron backward-wave oscillator (gyro-BWO). However, the velocity ratio (α) varies drastically against both the magnetic field and the beam voltage, which significantly limits the tuning bandwidth of a gyro-BWO. This study remedies this drawback by adding a variable trim field to adjust the magnetic compression ratio when changing the operating conditions. Theoretical results obtained by employing a two-dimensional electron gun code (EGUN) demonstrate a constant velocity ratio of 1.5 with a low axial velocity spread of 6% from 3.4-4.8 Tesla. These results are compared with a three-dimensional particle-tracing code (computer simulation technology, CST). The underlying physics for constant α will be discussed in depth.
Hawking, Thomas G; Gerdjikov, Todor V
2013-01-01
Dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is implicated in tactile perception and receives strong projections from somatosensory cortex. However, the sensory representations encoded by striatal projection neurons are not well understood. Here we characterized the contribution of DLS to the encoding of vibrotactile information in rats by assessing striatal responses to precise frequency stimuli delivered to a single vibrissa. We applied stimuli in a frequency range (45-90 Hz) that evokes discriminable percepts and carries most of the power of vibrissa vibration elicited by a range of complex fine textures. Both medium spiny neurons and evoked potentials showed tactile responses that were modulated by slow wave oscillations. Furthermore, medium spiny neuron population responses represented stimulus frequency on par with previously reported behavioral benchmarks. Our results suggest that striatum encodes frequency information of vibrotactile stimuli which is dynamically modulated by ongoing brain state.
Plasma oscillations and sound waves in collision-dominated two-component plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.P.; Sjoegren, L.
1982-01-01
Charge, mass, and electron density fluctuation spectra of strongly correlated, fully ionized two-component plasmas within the framework of the Mori--Zwanzig memory function formalism are analyzed. All dynamical correlation functions are expressed in terms of the memory functions of the ion and electron velocity autocorrelation functions by a generalized effective field approximation which preserves the exact initial values (i.e., static correlations). The theory reduces correctly to the mean field (or collisionless Vlasov) results in the weak coupling limit, and yields charge density fluctuation spectra in good agreement with available computer simulation data, as well as reasonable estimates of the transport coefficients. The collisional damping and frequency shift of the plasma oscillation mode are sizeable, even in the long wavelength limit. The theory also predicts the propagation of well-defined sound waves in dense plasmas in thermal equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stroppe, Heribert; Streitenberger, Peter; Specht, Eckard; Zeitler, Juergen; Langer, Heinz
2017-01-01
The present book is the unification of the proved problem collections for the basic physical training of studyings of especially engineering courses at technical colleges and universities. The book contains - didactically prepared and structured in the style of a textbook as well as with increasing difficulty - a total of 960 exemplary and additional tasks from the fields mechanics, heat, electricity and magnetism, oscillations and waves, as well as atomic and nuclear physics. For the exemplary problems the whole solution path and the complete calculation process with explanation of the relevant physical laws are extensively presented, for the additional problems for the self-control only the solutions and, if necessary, intermediate calculations are given. The examples and problems with mostly practice-oriented content are selected in such a way that they largely cover the matter treated in courses and exercises and make by their didactical preparation an effective repetition and optimal examination-preparation possible.
Frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric oscillator in a ring-cavity configuration.
Minamide, Hiroaki; Ikari, Tomofumi; Ito, Hiromasa
2009-12-01
We demonstrate a frequency-agile terahertz wave parametric oscillator (TPO) in a ring-cavity configuration (ring-TPO). The TPO consists of three mirrors and a MgO:LiNbO(3) crystal under noncollinear phase-matching conditions. A novel, fast frequency-tuning method was realized by controlling a mirror of the three-mirror ring cavity. The wide tuning range between 0.93 and 2.7 THz was accomplished. For first demonstration using the ring-TPO, terahertz spectroscopy was performed as the verification of the frequency-agile performance, measuring the transmission spectrum of the monosaccharide glucose. The spectrum was obtained within about 8 s in good comparison to those of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.
Collisional drag may lead to disappearance of wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2013-01-01
The inhomogeneity in the magnetic field in a cold electron-ion non-dissipative homogeneous plasma leads to the breaking of lower hybrid modes via phase mixing phenomenon [Maity et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 102302 (2012)]. In this work, we show that an inclusion of collisional drag force in fluid equations may lead to the disappearance of the wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations. The nonlinear analysis in Lagrangian variables provides an expression for a critical value of damping rate, above which spikes in the plasma density profile may disappear. The critical damping rate depends on the perturbation and magnetic field inhomogeneity amplitudes as well as the ratio of the magnetic field inhomogeneity and perturbation scale lengths.
Cantilever-detected high-frequency ESR measurement using a backward travelling wave oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Y; Hirano, S; Ohmichi, E; Ohta, H
2012-01-01
Our cantilever-detected electron spin resonance (ESR) technique is motivated for terahertz ESR spectroscopy of a tiny single crystal at low temperature. In this technique, ESR signal is detected as deflection of a sample-mounted cantilever, which is sensitively detected by built-in piezoresistors. So far, ESR detection at 315 GHz was succeeded using Gunn oscillator. In this study, we combine our ESR technique with a backward traveling wave oscillator (BWO), which can cover a wide frequency range 120-1200 GHz, to achieve better spectral resolution. Experiments were carried out at 4.2 K for a single crystal of Co Tutton salt with a newly constructed optical system. We successfully observed two ESR absorption lines in BWO frequencies up to 370 GHz. From multi-frequency measurements, the observed ESR lines shifted linearly with BWO frequency, being consistent with paramagnetic resonance. The estimated g values are g 1 = 3.00 and g 2 = 3.21. The spin sensitivity was estimated to ∼10 12 spins/gauss at 370 GHz.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Deepa
2006-10-01
Full Text Available The altitude profiles of temperature fluctuations in the stratosphere and mesosphere observed with the Rayleigh Lidar at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E on 30 nights during January to March 1999 and 21 nights during February to April 2000 were analysed to bring out the temporal and vertical propagation characteristics of gravity wave perturbations. The gravity wave perturbations showed periodicities in the 0.5–3-h range and attained large amplitudes (4–5 K in the mesosphere. The phase propagation characteristics of gravity waves with different periods showed upward wave propagation with a vertical wavelength of 5–7 km. The mean flow acceleration computed from the divergence of momentum flux of gravity waves is compared with that calculated from monthly values of zonal wind obtained from RH-200 rockets flights. Thus, the contribution of gravity waves towards the generation of Stratospheric Semi Annual Oscillation (SSAO is estimated.
Arslanov, D.D.; Spunei, M.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Cristescu, S.M.; Lindsay, I.D.; Lindsay, I.D.; Boller, Klaus J.; Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.
2011-01-01
A fiber-amplified Distributed Bragg Reflector diode laser is used to pump a continuous wave, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The output radiation covers the 3–4 μm with ability of rapid (100 THz/s) and broad mode-hop-free tuning (5 cm−1). Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stewart Heitmann
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Constant optogenetic stimulation targeting both pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons has recently been shown to elicit propagating waves of gamma-band (40-80 Hz oscillations in the local field potential of non-human primate motor cortex. The oscillations emerge with non-zero frequency and small amplitude-the hallmark of a type II excitable medium-yet they also propagate far beyond the stimulation site in the manner of a type I excitable medium. How can neural tissue exhibit both type I and type II excitability? We investigated the apparent contradiction by modeling the cortex as a Wilson-Cowan neural field in which optogenetic stimulation was represented by an external current source. In the absence of any external current, the model operated as a type I excitable medium that supported propagating waves of gamma oscillations similar to those observed in vivo. Applying an external current to the population of inhibitory neurons transformed the model into a type II excitable medium. The findings suggest that cortical tissue normally operates as a type I excitable medium but it is locally transformed into a type II medium by optogenetic stimulation which predominantly targets inhibitory neurons. The proposed mechanism accounts for the graded emergence of gamma oscillations at the stimulation site while retaining propagating waves of gamma oscillations in the non-stimulated tissue. It also predicts that gamma waves can be emitted on every second cycle of a 100 Hz oscillation. That prediction was subsequently confirmed by re-analysis of the neurophysiological data. The model thus offers a theoretical account of how optogenetic stimulation alters the excitability of cortical neural fields.
Vandecasteele, Marie; Varga, Viktor; Berényi, Antal; Papp, Edit; Barthó, Péter; Venance, Laurent; Freund, Tamás F; Buzsáki, György
2014-09-16
Theta oscillations in the limbic system depend on the integrity of the medial septum. The different populations of medial septal neurons (cholinergic and GABAergic) are assumed to affect different aspects of theta oscillations. Using optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons in ChAT-Cre mice, we investigated their effects on hippocampal local field potentials in both anesthetized and behaving mice. Cholinergic stimulation completely blocked sharp wave ripples and strongly suppressed the power of both slow oscillations (0.5-2 Hz in anesthetized, 0.5-4 Hz in behaving animals) and supratheta (6-10 Hz in anesthetized, 10-25 Hz in behaving animals) bands. The same stimulation robustly increased both the power and coherence of theta oscillations (2-6 Hz) in urethane-anesthetized mice. In behaving mice, cholinergic stimulation was less effective in the theta (4-10 Hz) band yet it also increased the ratio of theta/slow oscillation and theta coherence. The effects on gamma oscillations largely mirrored those of theta. These findings show that medial septal cholinergic activation can both enhance theta rhythm and suppress peri-theta frequency bands, allowing theta oscillations to dominate.
Design of a high efficiency relativistic backward wave oscillator with low guiding magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xiaoze; Song, Wei; Tan, Weibing; Zhang, Ligang; Su, Jiancang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Hu, Xianggang; Shen, Zhiyuan; Liang, Xu; Ning, Qi [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)
2016-07-15
A high efficiency relativistic backward wave oscillator working at a low guiding magnetic field is designed and simulated. A trapezoidal resonant reflector is used to reduce the modulation field in the resonant reflector to avoid overmodulation of the electron beam which will lead to a large momentum spread and then low conversion efficiency. The envelope of the inner radius of the slow wave structure (SWS) increases stepwise to keep conformal to the trajectory of the electron beam which will alleviate the bombardment of the electron on the surface of the SWS. The length of period of the SWS is reduced gradually to make a better match between phase velocity and electron beam, which decelerates continually and improves the RF current distribution. Meanwhile the modulation field is reduced by the introduction of nonuniform SWS also. The particle in cell simulation results reveal that a microwave with a power of 1.8 GW and a frequency of 14.7 GHz is generated with an efficiency of 47% when the diode voltage is 620 kV, the beam current 6.1 kA, and the guiding magnetic field 0.95 T.
On forced oscillations of a simple model for a novel wave energy converter
Orazov, Bayram
2011-05-11
The dynamics of a simple model for an ocean wave energy converter is discussed. The model for the converter is a hybrid system consisting of a pair of harmonically excited mass-spring-dashpot systems and a set of four state-dependent switching rules. Of particular interest is the response of the model to a wide spectrum of harmonic excitations. Partially because of the piecewise-smooth dynamics of the system, the response is far more interesting than the linear components of the model would suggest. As expected with hybrid systems of this type, it is difficult to establish analytical results, and hence, with the assistance of an extensive series of numerical integrations, an atlas of qualitative results on the limit cycles and other forms of bounded oscillations exhibited by the system is presented. In addition, the presence of unstable limit cycles, the stabilization of the unforced system using low-frequency excitation, the peculiar nature of the response of the system to high-frequency excitation, and the implications of these results on the energy harvesting capabilities of the wave energy converter are discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
A standing pressure wave hypothesis of oscillating forces generated during a steam line break
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tinoco, H.
2001-01-01
A rapid glance at the figure depicting the net forces acting on the reactor vessel and internals, as obtained through a CFD simulation of a BWR steam line break, reveals an amazing oscillating regularity of these forces which is in glaring contrast to the chaotic behaviour of the steam pressure field in the steam annulus. Assuming that the decompression process excites and maintains standing pressure waves in the annular cylindrical region constituted by the steam annulus, it is possible to reconstruct the net forces acting on the reactor vessel and internals through the contribution of almost only the first dispersive mode. If a Neumann boundary condition is assumed at the section connecting the steam annulus to the steam dome, the frequency predicted is approximately % 5.9 higher than that of the CFD simulations. However, this connecting section allows wave transmission, and a more appropriate boundary condition should be one of the Robin type. Therefore, this section is modelled as an absorbing wall, and the corresponding normal impedance is calculated using the CFD simulations. Week non-linear effects can also be observed in the calculated forces through the presence of the first subharmonic. By the methodology described above, an estimate of the forces acting on the reactor vessel and internals of unit 3 of Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant has been obtained. (author)
Bliokh, Yu. P.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Shkvarunets, A. G.; Carmel, Y.
2004-10-01
Plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators (pasotrons) operate without external magnetic fields, which makes these devices quite compact and lightweight. Beam focusing in pasotrons is provided by ions, which appear in the device due to the impact ionization of a neutral gas by beam electrons. Typically, the ionization time is on the order of the rise time of the beam current. This means that, during the rise of the current, beam focusing by ions becomes stronger. Correspondingly, a beam of electrons, which was initially diverging radially due to the self-electric field, starts to be focused by ions, and this focus moves towards the gun as the ion density increases. This feature makes the self-excitation of electromagnetic (em) oscillations in pasotrons quite different from practically all other microwave sources where em oscillations are excited by a stationary electron beam. The process of self-excitation of em oscillations has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that in pasotrons, during the beam current rise the amount of current entering the interaction space and the beam coupling to the em field vary. As a result, the self-excitation can proceed faster than in conventional microwave sources with similar operating parameters such as the operating frequency, cavity quality-factor and the beam current and voltage.
Axial motion of collector plasma in a relativistic backward wave oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Renzhen; Chen, Changhua; Deng, Yuqun; Cao, Yibing; Sun, Jun; Li, Jiawei [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)
2016-06-15
In this paper, it is proposed that plasma formed at the collector may drift back to the cathode and cause pulse shortening of the relativistic backward wave oscillator. Theoretical analysis shows that the axial drift velocity of plasma ions can be up to 5 mm/ns due to the presence of space charge potential provided by an intense relativistic electron beam. Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the plasma electrons are initially trapped around the collector surface. With the accumulation of the plasma ions, a large electrostatic field forms and drives the plasma electrons to overcome the space charge potential and enter the beam-wave interaction region along the magnetic field lines. As a result, the beam current modulation is disturbed and the output microwave power falls rapidly. The plasma ions move in the beam-wave interaction region with an average axial velocity of 5–8 mm/ns. After the plasma ions reach the diode region, the emitted current at the cathode rises due to the charge neutralizations by the ions. The impedance collapse leads to further decrease of the microwave power. In experiments, when the diode voltage and beam current were 850 kV and 9.2 kA, and the collector radius was 2.15 cm, the output microwave power was 2.4 GW with a pulse width of less than 20 ns. The ion drift velocity was estimated to be about 5 mm/ns. After an improved collector with 3.35 cm radius was adopted, the pulse width was prolonged to more than 30 ns.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Ryuichi; Ishida, Shin; Wada, Hiroaki; Yamada, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Motoo
1999-01-01
We examine mass spectra and wave functions of the nn-bar, cc-bar and bb-bar meson systems within the framework of the covariant oscillator quark model with the boosted LS-coupling scheme. We solve nonperturbatively an eigenvalue problem for the squared-mass operator, which incorporates the four-dimensional color-Coulomb-type interaction, by taking a set of covariant oscillator wave functions as an expansion basis. We obtain mass spectra of these meson systems, which reproduce quite well their experimental behavior. The resultant manifestly covariant wave functions, which are applicable to analyses of various reaction phenomena, are given. Our results seem to suggest that the present model may be considered effectively as a covariant version of the nonrelativistic linear-plus-Coulomb potential quark model. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Elhanafi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Offshore oscillating water columns (OWC represent one of the most promising forms of wave energy converters. The hydrodynamic performance of such converters heavily depends on their interactions with ocean waves; therefore, understanding these interactions is essential. In this paper, a fully nonlinear 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD model based on RANS equations and VOF surface capturing scheme is implemented to carry out wave energy balance analyses for an offshore OWC. The numerical model is well validated against published physical measurements including; chamber differential air pressure, chamber water level oscillation and vertical velocity, overall wave energy extraction efficiency, reflected and transmitted waves, velocity and vorticity fields (PIV measurements. Following the successful validation work, an extensive campaign of numerical tests is performed to quantify the relevance of three design parameters, namely incoming wavelength, wave height and turbine damping to the device hydrodynamic performance and wave energy conversion process. All of the three investigated parameters show important effects on the wave–pneumatic energy conversion chain. In addition, the flow field around the chamber's front wall indicates areas of energy losses by stronger vortices generation than the rear wall.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuanlie Zhao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An oscillating buoy wave energy converter (WEC integrated to an existing box-type breakwater is introduced in this study. The buoy is installed on the existing breakwater and designed to be much smaller than the breakwater in scale, aiming to reduce the construction cost of the WEC. The oscillating buoy works as a heave-type WEC in front of the breakwater towards the incident waves. A power take-off (PTO system is installed on the topside of the breakwater to harvest the kinetic energy (in heave mode of the floating buoy. The hydrodynamic performance of this system is studied analytically based on linear potential-flow theory. Effects of the geometrical parameters on the reflection and transmission coefficients and the capture width ratio (CWR of the system are investigated. Results show that the maximum efficiency of the energy extraction can reach 80% or even higher. Compared with the isolated box-type breakwater, the reflection coefficient can be effectively decreased by using this oscillating buoy WEC, with unchanged transmission coefficient. Thus, the possibility of capturing the wave energy with the oscillating buoy WEC integrated into breakwaters is shown.
Spin-wave interference patterns created by spin-torque nano-oscillators for memory and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macia, Ferran; Kent, Andrew D; Hoppensteadt, Frank C
2011-01-01
Magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets has attracted broad interest since it was predicted that a dc current flowing through a thin magnetic layer can create spin-wave excitations. These excitations are due to spin momentum transfer, a transfer of spin angular momentum between conduction electrons and the background magnetization, that enables new types of information processing. Here we show how arrays of spin-torque nano-oscillators can create propagating spin-wave interference patterns of use for memory and computation. Memristic transponders distributed on the thin film respond to threshold tunnel magnetoresistance values, thereby allowing spin-wave detection and creating new excitation patterns. We show how groups of transponders create resonant (reverberating) spin-wave interference patterns that may be used for polychronous wave computation and information storage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caetano Neto, E.S.
1976-01-01
A stationary Green function is calculated for the Schroedinger Hamiltonian of the multidimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator and for physical systems, which may, somehow, have their Hamiltonian reduced to one in the form of a harmonic oscillator, for any dimension [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Ley Koo, E.
The exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for the systems and the boundary condition stated in the title is constructed. The familiar cases of the ordinary harmonic oscillator and the half oscillator are immediately identified. The connection with the double oscillator is also established and is helpful to understand the energy spectrum of the latter. Similar connections can be used to study other partial oscillators. (Author) [pt
Sakuraba, A.
2015-12-01
I made a linear analysis of flow-induced oscillations along an underground cylindrical conduit with an elliptical cross section on the basis of the hypothesis that volcanic tremor is a result of magma movement through a conduit. As a first step to understand how the self oscillation occurs because of magma flow, I investigated surface wave propagation and attenuation along an infinitely long fluid-filled elliptic cylinder in an elastic medium. The boundary element method is used to obtain the two-dimensional wave field around the ellipse in the frequency-wavenumber domain. When the major axis is much greater than the minor axis of the ellipse, we obtain the analytic form of the dispersion relation of both the crack-wave mode (Korneev 2008, Lipovsky & Dunham 2015) and the Rayleigh-wave mode with flexural deformation. The crack-wave mode generally has a slower phase speed and a higher attenuation than the Rayleigh-wave mode. In the long-wavelength limit, the crack-wave mode disappears because of fluid viscosity, but the Rayleigh-wave mode exists with a constant Q-value that depends on viscosity. When the aspect ratio of the ellipse is finite, the surface waves can basically be understood as those propagating along a fluid pipe. The flexural mode does exist even when the wavelength is much longer than the major axis, but its phase speed coincides with that of the surrounding S-wave (Randall 1991). As its attenuation is zero in the long-wavelength limit, the flexural mode differs in nature from surface wave. I also obtain a result on linear stability of viscous flow through an elliptic cylinder. In this analysis, I made an assumption that the fluid inertia is so small that the Stokes equation can be used. As suggested by the author's previous study (Sakuraba & Yamauchi 2014), the flexural (Rayleigh-wave) mode is destabilized at a critical flow speed that decreases with the wavelength. However, when the wavelength is much greater than the major axis of the ellipse, the
The mechanism and realization of a band-agile coaxial relativistic backward-wave oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ge, Xingjun; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang; Wang, Haitao [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2014-11-03
The mechanism and realization of a band-agile coaxial relativistic backward-wave oscillator (RBWO) are presented. The operation frequency tuning can be easily achieved by merely altering the inner-conductor length. The key effects of the inner-conductor length contributing to the mechanical frequency tunability are investigated theoretically and experimentally. There is a specific inner-conductor length where the operation frequency can jump from one mode to another mode, which belongs to a different operation band. In addition, the operation frequency is tunable within each operation band. During simulation, the L-band microwave with a frequency of 1.61 GHz is radiated when the inner-conductor length is 39 cm. Meanwhile, the S-band microwave with a frequency of 2.32 GHz is radiated when the inner-conductor length is 5 cm. The frequency adjustment bandwidths of L-band and S-band are about 8.5% and 2%, respectively. Moreover, the online mechanical tunability process is described in detail. In the initial experiment, the generated microwave frequencies remain approximately 1.59 GHz and 2.35 GHz when the inner-conductor lengths are 39 cm and 5 cm. In brief, this technical route of the band-agile coaxial RBWO is feasible and provides a guide to design other types of band-agile high power microwaves sources.
A Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with overmoded slow-wave-structure
Jiang, Tao; He, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-De; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ling, Jun-Pu
2016-12-01
In order to enhance the power capacity, an improved Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with overmoded slow-wave-structure (SWS) is proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The analysis of the dispersion relationship and the resonant curve of the cold test indicate that the device can operate at the near π mode of the TM01 mode, which is useful for mode selection and control. In the particle simulation, the improved Ku-band MILO generates a microwave with a power of 1.5 GW and a frequency of 12.3 GHz under an input voltage of 480 kV and input current of 42 kA. Finally, experimental investigation of the improved Ku-band MILO is carried out. A high-power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 800 MW, a frequency of 12.35 GHz, and pulse width of 35 ns is generated under a diode voltage of 500 kV and beam current of 43 kA. The consistency between the experimental and simulated far-field radiation pattern confirms that the operating mode of the improved Ku-band MILO is well controlled in π mode of the TM01 mode. Project supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61171021).
Numerical study of the air-flow in an oscillating water column wave energy converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paixao Conde, J.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2008-12-15
The paper presents a numerical study of the air-flow in a typical pneumatic chamber geometry of an oscillating water column (OWC)-type wave energy converter (WEC), equipped with two vertical-axis air turbines, asymmetrically placed on the top of the chamber. Outwards and inwards, steady and periodic, air-flow calculations were performed to investigate the flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections, as well as the properties of the air-jet impinging on the water free-surface. The original design of the OWC chamber is likely to be harmful for the operation of the turbines due to the possible air-jet-produced water-spray at the water free-surface subsequently ingested by the turbine. A geometry modification of the air chamber, using a horizontal baffle-plate to deflect the air from the turbines, is proposed and proved to be very effective in reducing the risk of water-spray production from the inwards flow. The flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections for the outwards flow was found to be fairly uniform for the geometries considered, providing good inlet flow conditions for the turbines. Steady flow was found to be an acceptable model to study the air-flow inside the pneumatic chamber of an OWC-WEC. (author)
Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan
2017-12-01
The emission uniformity of explosive emission cathodes is important to the operation of high power microwave generators. Although this concept seems to be widely accepted, the concrete influence of cathode emission uniformity on microwave generation has not been researched in detail and many conclusions on this matter are ambiguous due to the lack of solid evidence. This paper makes an effort to research this issue with particle-in-cell simulations about an X-band relativistic backward wave oscillator. To keep the diode impedance unchanged, an emission model in which each emission cell is artificially assigned a specific current density is adopted. The emission non-uniformity is simulated in three ways: spaced emission, large-area no-emission, and local enhanced emission. The simulation results uncover three phenomena: first, no significant influence is found for the cathode emission uniformity on the microwave starting time as long as no obvious mode competition is excited by emission non-uniformity; second, bad emission uniformity may bring about reduction of microwave power, but this may not happen when the emission non-uniformity is just localized to a few discrete strong emission points; third, under specific circumstances, the emission non-uniformity may lead to the excitation of mode competition, which can significantly delay the starting time and lower the microwave power.
Asynchronous ripple oscillations between left and right hippocampi during slow-wave sleep.
Villalobos, Claudio; Maldonado, Pedro E; Valdés, José L
2017-01-01
Spatial memory, among many other brain processes, shows hemispheric lateralization. Most of the published evidence suggests that the right hippocampus plays a leading role in the manipulation of spatial information. Concurrently in the hippocampus, memory consolidation during sleep periods is one of the key steps in the formation of newly acquired spatial memory traces. One of the most characteristic oscillatory patterns in the hippocampus are sharp-wave ripple (SWR) complexes. Within this complex, fast-field oscillations or ripples have been demonstrated to be instrumental in the memory consolidation process. Since these ripples are relevant for the consolidation of memory traces associated with spatial navigation, and this process appears to be lateralized, we hypothesize that ripple events between both hippocampi would exhibit different temporal dynamics. We tested this idea by using a modified "split-hyperdrive" that allows us to record simultaneous LFPs from both right and left hippocampi of Sprague-Dawley rats during sleep. We detected individual events and found that during sleep periods these ripples exhibited a different occurrence patterns between hemispheres. Most ripple events were synchronous between intra- rather than inter-hemispherical recordings, suggesting that ripples in the hippocampus are independently generated and locally propagated within a specific hemisphere. In this study, we propose the ripples' lack of synchrony between left and right hippocampi as the putative physiological mechanism underlying lateralization of spatial memory.
Frequency hopping due to acousto-electric interaction in ZnO based surface acoustic wave oscillator
Dasgupta, Daipayan; Sreenivas, K.
2011-08-01
A 36 MHz surface acoustic wave delay line based oscillator has been used to study the effect of acousto-electric interaction due to photo generated charge carriers in rf sputtered ZnO film under UV illumination (λ = 365 nm, 20-100 μW/cm2). Design aspects for developing a delay line based SAW oscillator are specified. The observed linear downshift in frequency (2.2 to 19.0 kHz) with varying UV intensity (20-100 μW/cm2) is related to the fractional velocity change due to acousto-electric interaction. UV illumination level of 100 μW/cm2 leads to a characteristic frequency hopping behavior arising due to a change in the oscillation criteria, and is attributed to the complex interplay between the increased attenuation and velocity shift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beshtoev, Kh.M.
2006-01-01
I have considered three-neutrino vacuum transitions and oscillations in the general case and obtained expressions for neutrino wave functions in three cases: with CP violation, without CP violation and in the case when direct ν e - ν τ transitions are absent β(θ 13 ) = 0 (some works indicate this possibility). Then using the existing experimental data some analysis has been fulfilled. This analysis definitely has shown that direct transitions ν e - ν τ cannot be closed for the Solar neutrinos, i. e., β(θ 13 ) ≠ 0. It is also shown that the possibility that β(θ 13 ) = 0 cannot be realized by using the mechanism of resonance enhancement of neutrino oscillations in matter (the Sun). It was found out that the probability of ν e - ν e neutrino transitions is a positive defined value, if in reality neutrino oscillations take place, only if the angle of ν e , ν τ mixing β ≤ 15 - 17 deg
Zhang, Ruiliang; Qu, Yanchen; Zhao, Weijiang; Liu, Chuang; Chen, Zhenlei
2017-06-01
We demonstrate a terahertz-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) with an asymmetrical porro-prism (PP) resonator configuration, consisting of a close PP corner reflector and a distant output mirror relative to the MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. Based on this cavity, frequency tuning of Stokes and the accompanied terahertz (THz) waves is realized just by rotating the plane mirror. Furthermore, THz output with high efficiency and wide tuning range is obtained. Compared with a conventional TPO employing a plane-parallel resonator of the same cavity length and output loss, the low end of the frequency tuning range is extended to 0.96 THz from 1.2 THz. The highest output obtained at 1.28 THz is enhanced by about 25%, and the oscillation threshold pump energy measured at 1.66 THz is reduced by about 4.5%. This resonator configuration also shows some potential to simplify the structure and application for intracavity TPOs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puliafito, V.; Consolo, G.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Azzerboni, B.
2014-01-01
This work tackles theoretical investigations on the synchronization of spin-wave modes generated by spin-transfer-torque in a double nano-contact geometry. The interaction mechanisms between the resulting oscillators are analyzed in the case of propagating modes which are excited via a normal-to-plane magnetic bias field. To characterize the underlying physical mechanisms, a multi-domain analysis is performed. It makes use of an equivalent electrical circuit, to deduce the output electrical power, and of micromagnetic simulations, through which information on the frequency spectra and on the spatial distribution of the wavefront of the emitted spin-waves is extracted. This study provides further and intriguing insights into the physical mechanisms giving rise to synchronization of spin-torque oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y Y; Xu, D G; Jiang, H; Zhong, K; Yao, J Q
2013-01-01
A high-energy, low-threshold THz-wave output has been experimentally demonstrated with an intracavity terahertz-wave parametric oscillator based on a surface-emitted configuration, which was pumped by a diode-side-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Different beam sizes and repetition rates of the pump light have been investigated for high-energy and high-efficiency THz-wave generation. The maximum THz-wave output energy of 283 nJ/pulse was obtained at 1.54 THz under an intracavity 1064 nm pump energy of 59 mJ. The conversion efficiency was 4.8 × 10 −6 , corresponding to a photon conversion efficiency of 0.088%. The pump threshold was 12.9 mJ/pulse. A continuously tunable range from 0.75 to 2.75 THz was realized. (paper)
Study of non-spherical bubble oscillations near a surface in a weak acoustic standing wave field.
Xi, Xiaoyu; Cegla, Frederic; Mettin, Robert; Holsteyns, Frank; Lippert, Alexander
2014-04-01
The interaction of acoustically driven bubbles with a wall is important in many applications of ultrasound and cavitation, as the close boundary can severely alter the bubble dynamics. In this paper, the non-spherical surface oscillations of bubbles near a surface in a weak acoustic standing wave field are investigated experimentally and numerically. The translation, the volume, and surface mode oscillations of bubbles near a flat glass surface were observed by a high speed camera in a standing wave cell at 46.8 kHz. The model approach is based on a modified Keller-Miksis equation coupled to surface mode amplitude equations in the first order, and to the translation equations. Modifications are introduced due to the adjacent wall. It was found that a bubble's oscillation mode can change in the presence of the wall, as compared to the bubble in the bulk liquid. In particular, the wall shifts the instability pressure thresholds to smaller driving frequencies for fixed bubble equilibrium radii, or to smaller equilibrium radii for fixed excitation frequency. This can destabilize otherwise spherical bubbles, or stabilize bubbles undergoing surface oscillations in the bulk. The bubble dynamics observed in experiment demonstrated the same trend as the theoretical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jung-Il; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Geun-Ju; Kim, Jaehong
2011-01-01
A terahertz (THz) Smith-Purcell (SP) backward-wave oscillator with an inverse wet-etched grating based on silicon has been proposed to enhance radiation intensity. This grating strengthens the interactions between an electron beam and the evanescent wave due to the adjacent surface structure between gratings that improves the magnitude of the electric field up to 1.7 times compared to the conventional rectangular gratings. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation shows that the radiated power is increased up to 2.3 times higher at the radiated frequency of 0.66 THz for an electron-beam energy of 30 keV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Zhu, Qi
2015-01-01
A dual-cavity TM 02 –TM 01 mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM 01 mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM 01 mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM 01 mode feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandev, D. Trivche
2010-01-01
The fractional calculus basis, Mittag-Leffler functions, various relaxation-oscillation and diffusion-wave fractional order equation and systems of fractional order equations are considered in this thesis. To solve these fractional order equations analytical methods, such as the Laplace transform method and method of separation of variables are employed. Some applications of the fractional calculus are considered, particularly physical system with anomalous diffusive behavior. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNeill, G.A.
1981-01-01
Present high-speed data acquisition systems in nuclear diagnostics use high-frequency oscillators to provide timing references for signals recorded on fast, traveling-wave oscilloscopes. An oscillator's sinusoidal wave shape is superimposed on the recorded signal with each cycle representing a fixed time increment. During data analysis the sinusoid is stripped from the signal, leaving a clean signal shape with known timing. Since all signal/time relationships are totally dependant upon working oscillators, these critical devices must have remote verification of proper operation. This manual presents the newly-developed oscillator monitor which will provide the required verification
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.; Fernando, V.; Nampoothiri, G.; Sardar, A.; Gracias, D.; Khalap, S.
forcing while the 30-50 day ISO with Madden-Julian Oscillations. The energy spectrum at 280 m shows relatively higher energy than that at 135 m at 10-20 day ISO; while cross-spectra of kinetic energy at these depths reveal high coherence and upward phase...
Impact of Convection on Surface Fluxes Observed During LASP/DYNAMO 2011
2014-12-01
20 Figure 8. FFM maneuver used in the LASP/DYNAMO experiment (from Wang et al. 2013...Atmosphere Response Experiment DYNAMO Dynamics of Madden-Julian Oscillation EM electro-magnetic EO electro-optical FFM flight-level flux mapping FVS...level flux mapping ( FFM ) modules. Convection modules consisted of dropsonde cloud survey or radar convective element maneuver. Dropsonde modules
Up-Wave and Autoregressive Methods for Short-Term Wave Forecasting for an Oscillating Water Column
Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, M.F.P.; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John
2015-01-01
The real-time control of wave energy converters (WECs) requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation up-wave of the WEC. As an application example, this paper focuses on the prediction of the wave elevation inside the chamber of the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Sinha
Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Sinha
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not
Biswas, Subhadip; Chattopadhyay, Rohitashwa; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.
2018-05-01
We consider the dynamics of a particle in a parametric oscillator with a view to exploring any quantum feature of the initial wave packet that shows divergent (in time) behaviour for parameter values where the classical motion dynamics of the mean position is bounded. We use Ehrenfest's theorem to explore the dynamics of nth order moment which reduces exactly to a linear non autonomous differential equation of order n + 1. It is found that while the width and skewness of the packet is unbounded exactly in the zones where the classical motion is unbounded, the kurtosis of an initially non-gaussian wave packet can become infinitely large in certain additional zones. This implies that the shape of the wave packet can change drastically with time in these zones.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, Serafim; Terry, John R.; Breakspear, Michael
2006-01-01
In this Letter, the genesis of spike-wave activity-a hallmark of many generalized epileptic seizures-is investigated in a reduced mean-field model of human neural activity. Drawing upon brain modelling and dynamical systems theory, we demonstrate that the thalamic circuitry of the system is crucial for the generation of these abnormal rhythms, observing that the combination of inhibition from reticular nuclei and excitation from the cortical signal, interplay to generate the spike-wave oscillation. The mechanism revealed provides an explanation of why approaches based on linear stability and Heaviside approximations to the activation function have failed to explain the phenomena of spike-wave behaviour in mean-field models. A mathematical understanding of this transition is a crucial step towards relating spiking network models and mean-field approaches to human brain modelling
Demekhov, A. G.
2017-03-01
By using numerical simulations we generalize certain relationships between the parameters of quasimonochromatic whistler-mode waves generated at the linear and nonlinear stages of the cyclotron instability in the backward-wave oscillator regime. One of these relationships is between the wave amplitude at the nonlinear stage and the linear growth rate of the cyclotron instability. It was obtained analytically by V.Yu.Trakhtengerts (1984) for a uniform medium under the assumption of constant frequency and amplitude of the generated wave. We show that a similar relationship also holds for the signals generated in a nonuniform magnetic field and having a discrete structure in the form of short wave packets (elements) with fast frequency drift inside each element. We also generalize the formula for the linear growth rate of absolute cyclotron instability in a nonuniform medium and analyze the relationship between the frequency drift rate in the discrete elements and the wave amplitude. These relationships are important for analyzing the links between the parameters of chorus emissions in the Earth's and planetary magnetospheres and the characteristics of the energetic charged particles generating these signals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizushima, T.; Machida, K.
2010-01-01
We investigate how the vortex-vortex separation changes Majorana zero modes in the vicinity of the BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) topological phase transition of p-wave resonant Fermi gases. By analytically and numerically solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation for spinless p-wave superfluids with plural vortices, it is demonstrated that the quasiparticle tunneling between neighboring vortices gives rise to the quantum oscillation of the low-lying spectra on the scale of the Fermi wavelength in addition to the exponential splitting. This rapid oscillation, which appears in the weak-coupling regime as a consequence of quantum oscillations of quasiparticle wave functions, disappears in the vicinity of the BCS-BEC topological phase transition. This is understandable from that the wave function of the Majorana zero modes is described by the modified Bessel function in the strong-coupling regime, and thus it becomes spread over the vortex core region. Due to the exponential divergence of the modified Bessel function, the concrete realization of the Majorana zero modes near the topological phase transition requires the neighboring vortices to be separated beyond the length scale defined by the coherence length and the dimensionless coupling constant. All these behaviors are also confirmed by carrying out the full numerical diagonalization of the nonlocal Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation in a two-dimensional geometry. Furthermore, this argument is expanded into the case of three-vortex systems, where a pair of core-bound and edge-bound Majorana states survive at zero-energy state regardless of the vortex separation.
Kumar, N.; Lamba, R. P.; Hossain, A. M.; Pal, U. N.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Prakash, R.
2017-11-01
The experimental study of a tapered, multi-gap, multi-aperture pseudospark-sourced electron gun based X-band plasma assisted slow wave oscillator is presented. The designed electron gun is based on the pseudospark discharge concept and has been used to generate a high current density and high energy electron beam simultaneously. The distribution of apertures has been arranged such that the field penetration potency inside the backspace of the hollow-cathode is different while passing through the tapered gap region. This leads to non-concurrent ignition of the discharge through all the channels which is, in general, quite challenging in the case of multi-aperture plasma cathode electron gun geometries. Multiple and successive hollow cathode phases are reported from this electron gun geometry, which have been confirmed using simulations. This geometry also has led to the achievement of ˜71% fill factor inside the slow wave oscillator for an electron beam of energy of 20 keV and a beam current density in the range of 115-190 A/cm2 at a working argon gas pressure of 18 Pa. The oscillator has generated broadband microwave output in the frequency range of 10-11.7 GHz with a peak power of ˜10 kW for ˜50 ns.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, S.Y.; Poznyak, V.I.; Ploskirev, G.; Kalupin, D.; Wan, Y.X.; Xie, J.K.; Luo, J.R.; Li, J.G.; Gao, X.; Wan, B.N.; Zhang, X.D.; Wang, K.J.; Kuang, G.L.
2001-01-01
Two sets of fast-scanning heterodyne radiometer receiver systems employing backward-wave oscillators (BWOs) in 78-118 and 118-178 GHz were developed and installed for electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements on HT-7 superconducting tokamak. The double sideband (DSB) radiometer in 78-118 GHz measures 16 ECE frequency points with a scanning time period of 0.65 ms. The other radiometer in 118-178 GHz consists of one independent channel of DSB heterodyne receiver with intermediate frequency (IF) of 100-500 MHz and two channels of single sideband (SSB) heterodyne receiver that are sensitive to upper sideband and lower sideband individually; the IF frequency of the SSB channels are 1.5 GHz around the local oscillator frequencies with 1 GHz bandwidth. By employing a novel design, this unique radiometer measures 3 ECE frequency points at each of the 16 local oscillator frequency points in 118-178 GHz, and the full band can be swept in 0.65 ms period, thus the radiometer measures 48 ECE frequency points in 0.65 ms in principle. Each of the local oscillators' frequency points can be preset by program to meet specific physics interests. Horizontal view of ECE was installed to measure electron temperature profiles; vertically viewing optics along a perpendicular chord was also installed to study nonthermal ECE spectra. Preliminary measurement results were presented during ohmic and pellet injection plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Li; Liu Zhenxing; Cao Jinbin
2002-01-01
Two-and-one-half-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the multicomponent plasma sheet with the velocity curl term in the magnetic equation are represented. The simulation results can be summarized as follows: (1) There is an oscillation of the plasma sheet with the period on the order of 400 s (Pc 5 range); (2) the magnetic equator is a node of the magnetic field disturbance; (3) the magnetic energy integral varies antiphase with the internal energy integral; (4) disturbed waves have a propagating speed on the order of 10 km/s earthward; (5) the abundance of oxygen ions influences amplitude, period, and dissipation of the plasma sheet oscillation. It is suggested that the compressional Pc 5 waves, which are observed in the plasma sheet close to the magnetic equator, may be caused by the plasma sheet oscillation, or may be generated from the resonance of the plasma sheet oscillation with some Pc 5 perturbation waves coming from the outer magnetosphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Daehyun; Grant, William E.; Cairns, David M.
2013-01-01
Long-term eustatic sea-level variation has been recognized as a primary factor affecting the hydrological and geomorphic dynamics of salt marshes. However, recent studies suggest that wind waves influenced by atmospheric oscillations also may play an important role in many coastal areas. Although...... this notion has been conceptually introduced for the Wadden Sea, no modeling attempts have been made yet. As a proof of concept, this study developed a simulation model using the commercially available STELLAA (R) software, based on long-term data on water level and sedimentation collected at a back......-barrier marsh on the Skallingen peninsula in Denmark. In the model, the frequency (number year(-1)) of wind-driven extreme high water level (HWL) events (> 130 cm Danish Ordnance Zero) was simulated in terms of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Then, surface accretion (cm year(-1)) and submergence...
Al-Mekhlafi, Zeyad Ghaleb; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad
2017-01-01
Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs.
Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad
2017-01-01
Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs. PMID:28056020
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golubovskii, Yu B; Kozakov, R V; Wilke, C; Behnke, J; Nekutchaev, V O
2004-01-01
Time and space resolved measurements of the plasma potential in axial and radial directions in S- and P-striations in neon are performed. The measurements in different radial positions were carried out with high spatial resolution by means of simultaneous displacement of electrodes relative to the stationary probe. The plasma potential was found to be a superposition of the potentials of ionization wave and plasma oscillations relative to the electrodes. A method of decomposition of the measured spatio-temporal structure of the potential in components associated with the plasma oscillations and ionization wave propagation is proposed. A biorthogonal decomposition of the spatio-temporal structure of the potential is performed. A comparison of the decomposition results obtained by the two methods is made. The experiments revealed a two-dimensional structure of the potential field in an ionization wave. Qualitative discussions of the reasons for the occurrence of this two-dimensional structure are presented based on the analysis of the kinetic equation and the equation for the potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Zhu, Qi [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)
2015-03-16
A dual-cavity TM{sub 02}–TM{sub 01} mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM{sub 01} mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM{sub 01} mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM{sub 01} mode feedback.
Stationary Shock Waves with Oscillating Front in Dislocation Systems of Semiconductors
Gestrin, S. G.; Shchukina, E. V.
2018-05-01
The paper presents a study of weakly nonlinear wave processes in the cylindrical region of a hole gas surrounding a negatively charged dislocation in an n-type semiconductor crystal. It is shown that shock waves propagating along the dislocation are the solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation when the dispersion and dissipation of medium are taken into account. Estimates are obtained for the basic physical parameters characterizing the shock wave and the region inside the Reed cylinder.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Feng; Chen Tingkuan; Luo Yushan; Yin Fei; Liu Weimin
2005-01-01
At p=3-10 MPa, G=300-600 kg/(m 2 ·s), Δt sub =30-90 degree C, and q=0-190 kW/m 2 , the experiments on steam-water two-phase flow instabilities have been performed. The test sections are parallel inclined internally ribbed pipes with an outer diameter of φ38.1 mm, a wall thinkness of 7.5 mm, a obliquity of 19.5 and a length more than 15 m length. Based on the experimental results, the effects of pressure, mass velocity, inlet subcooling and asymmetrical heat flux on steam-water two-phase flow density wave oscillation were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the flow system were more stable as pressure increased. As an increase in mass velocity, critical heat flux increased but critical steam quality decreased. Inlet subcooling had a monotone effect on density wave oscillation, when inlet subcooling decreased, critical heat flux decreased. Under a certain working condition, critical heat flux on asymmetrically heating parallel pipes is higher than that on symmetrically heating parallel pipes, that means the system with symmetrically heating parallel pips was more stable. (authors)
Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio
2013-08-01
Sleepwalkers have been shown to have an unusually high number of arousals from slow wave sleep and lower slow wave activity (SWA) power during the night than controls. Because sleep deprivation increases the frequency of slow wave sleep (SWS) arousals in sleepwalkers, it may also affect the expression of the homeostatic process to a greater extent than shown previously. We thus investigated SWA power as well as slow wave oscillation (SWO) density in 10 sleepwalkers and nine controls at baseline and following 38 h of sleep deprivation. There was a significant increase in SWA during participants' recovery sleep, especially during their second non-rapid eye movement (NREM) period. SWO density was similarly increased during recovery sleep's first two NREM periods. A fronto-central gradient in SWA and SWO was also present on both nights. However, no group differences were noted on any of the 2 nights on SWA or SWO. This unexpected result may be related to the heterogeneity of sleepwalkers as a population, as well as our small sample size. SWA pressure after extended sleep deprivation may also result in a ceiling effect in both sleepwalkers and controls. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Roth, Fabian C; Beyer, Katinka M; Both, Martin; Draguhn, Andreas; Egorov, Alexei V
2016-12-01
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a critical component of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system. Local networks within the MTL express a variety of state-dependent network oscillations that are believed to organize neuronal activity during memory formation. The peculiar pattern of sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) entrains neurons by a very fast oscillation at ∼200 Hz in the hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 and then propagates through the "output loop" into the EC. The precise mechanisms of SPW-R propagation and the resulting cellular input patterns in the mEC are, however, largely unknown. We therefore investigated the activity of layer V (LV) principal neurons of the medial EC (mEC) during SPW-R oscillations in horizontal mouse brain slices. Intracellular recordings in the mEC were combined with extracellular monitoring of propagating network activity. SPW-R in CA1 were regularly followed by negative field potential deflections in the mEC. Propagation of SPW-R activity from CA1 to the mEC was mostly monosynaptic and excitatory, such that synaptic input to mEC LV neurons directly reflected unit activity in CA1. Comparison with propagating network activity from CA3 to CA1 revealed a similar role of excitatory long-range connections for both regions. However, SPW-R-induced activity in CA1 involved strong recruitment of rhythmic synaptic inhibition and corresponding fast field oscillations, in contrast to the mEC. These differences between features of propagating SPW-R emphasize the differential processing of network activity by each local network of the hippocampal output loop. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The submm wave Josephson flux flow oscillator; Linewidth measurements and simple theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V. P.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
2005-01-01
The Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) is a long Josephson junction in which a DC bias current and a DC magnetic field maintain a unidirectional viscous flow of magnetic flux quanta. The theoretical linewidth of the electromagnetic radiation generated at the end boundary is due to internal current...
Fiber Laser Pumped Continuous-wave Singly-resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator
Klein, M.E.; Gross, P.; Walde, T.; Boller, Klaus J.; Auerbach, M.; Wessels, P.; Fallnich, C.; Fejer, Martin M.
2002-01-01
We report on the first fiber-pumped CW LiNbO/sub 3/ optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The OPO is singly resonant (SRO) and generates idler wavelengths in the range of 3.0 /spl mu/m to 3.7 /spl mu/m with a maximum output power of 1.9 watt.
Particle in a standing wave field; beyond the oscillation center approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, G.
1982-01-01
The ponderomotive force arises in plasma physics as a weak field approximation on particle dynamics. Recent advances in stochasticity theory lead to the conclusion that for sufficiently strong fields, the ponderomotive potential well disappears, and significant portions of phase space are filled with stochastic trajectories. This is illustrated by numerically studying the phase space behavior of the oscillation center. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger
2007-01-01
waves sweeping through the cytoplasm when the SR is stimulated to release calcium. A rise in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) leads to the experimentally observed transition from waves to whole-cell calcium oscillations. At the same time membrane potential starts to oscillate and the frequency...... approximately doubles. In this transition, the simulated results point to a key role for a recently discovered cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel. This channel depolarizes the membrane in response to calcium released from the SR. In turn, depolarization causes uniform opening of L-type calcium...... onset of oscillations in membrane potential within the individual cell may underlie sudden intercellular synchronization and the appearance of vasomotion. Key words: Vasomotion, Chloride channel, cGMP, Mathematical model, Calcium waves....
Hoefer, Mark A.
This thesis examines nonlinear wave phenomena, in two physical systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and thin film ferromagnets where the magnetization dynamics are excited by the spin momentum transfer (SMT) effect. In the first system, shock waves generated by steep gradients in the BEC wavefunction are shown to be of the disperse type. Asymptotic and averaging methods are used to determine shock speeds and structure in one spatial dimension. These results are compared with multidimensional numerical simulations and experiment showing good, qualitative agreement. In the second system, a model of magnetization dynamics due to SMT is presented. Using this model, nonlinear oscillating modes---nano-oscillators---are found numerically and analytically using perturbative methods. These results compare well with experiment. A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a quantum fluid that gives rise to interesting shock wave nonlinear dynamics. Experiments depict a BEC that exhibits behavior similar to that of a shock wave in a compressible gas, e.g. traveling fronts with steep gradients. However, the governing Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation that describes the mean field of a BEC admits no dissipation hence classical dissipative shock solutions do not explain the phenomena. Instead, wave dynamics with small dispersion is considered and it is shown that this provides a mechanism for the generation of a dispersive shock wave (DSW). Computations with the GP equation are compared to experiment with excellent agreement. A comparison between a canonical 1D dissipative and dispersive shock problem shows significant differences in shock structure and shock front speed. Numerical results associated with laboratory experiments show that three and two-dimensional approximations are in excellent agreement and one dimensional approximations are in qualitative agreement. The interaction of two DSWs is investigated analytically and numerically. Using one dimensional DSW theory it is argued
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloi Mădălina Mihaela
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A wide range of problems in neutron optics is well described by a theory based on application of the effective potential model. It was assumed that the concept of the effective potential in neutron optics have a limited region of validity and ceases to be correct in the case of the giant acceleration of a matter. To test this hypothesis a new Ultra Cold neutron experiment for the observation neutron interaction with potential structure oscillating in space was proposed. The report is focused on the model calculations of the topography of sample surface that oscillate in space. These calculations are necessary to find an optimal parameters and geometry of the planned experiment.
On the wave forcing of the semi-annual zonal wind oscillation
Nagpal, O. P.; Raghavarao, R.
1991-01-01
Observational evidence of rather large period waves (23-60 d) in the troposphere/stratosphere, particularly during the winter months, is presented. Wind data collected on a regular basis employing high-altitude balloons and meteorological rockets over the past few years are used. Maximum entropy methods applied to the time series of zonal wind data indicate the presence of 23-60-waves more prominently than shorter-period waves. The waves have substantial amplitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, often larger than those noted in the troposphere. The mean zonal wind in the troposphere (5-15 km altitude) during December, January, and February exhibits the presence of strong westerlies at latitudes between 8 and 21 deg N.
Krupp, N.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.
1996-01-01
We report on measurements of energetic particle modulations observed by the HI-SCALE instrument aboard the Ulysses Spacecraft that were associated with the only hydromagnetic wave event measured inside the Jovian magnetosphere by the Ulysses magnetometer investigation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, Christopher K; Henebry, Geoffrey M; De Beurs, Kirsten M
2014-01-01
The Eurasian wheat belt (EWB) spans a region across Eastern Ukraine, Southern Russia, and Northern Kazakhstan; accounting for nearly 15% of global wheat production. We assessed land surface conditions across the EWB during the early growing season (April–May–June; AMJ) leading up to the 2010 Russian heat wave, and over a longer-term period from 2000 to 2010. A substantial reduction in early season values of the normalized difference vegetation index occurred prior to the Russian heat wave, continuing a decadal decline in early season primary production in the region. In 2010, an anomalously cold winter followed by an abrupt shift to a warmer-than-normal early growing season was consistent with a persistently negative phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). Regression analyses showed that early season vegetation productivity in the EWB is a function of both the winter (December–January–February; DJF) and AMJ phases of the NAO. Land surface anomalies preceding the heat wave were thus consistent with highly negative values of both the DJF NAO and AMJ NAO in 2010. (letter)
Marek, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.
2009-03-01
We present two-dimensional (axisymmetric) neutrino-hydrodynamic simulations of the long-time accretion phase of a 15 M_⊙ progenitor star after core bounce and before the launch of a supernova explosion, when non-radial hydrodynamic instabilities like convection occur in different regions of the collapsing stellar core and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) leads to large-amplitude oscillations of the stalled shock with a period of tens of milliseconds. Our simulations were performed with the Prometheus-Vertex code, which includes a multi-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport scheme and employs an effective relativistic gravitational potential. Testing the influence of a stiff and a soft equation of state for hot neutron star matter, we find that the non-radial mass motions in the supernova core impose a time variability on the neutrino and gravitational-wave signals with larger amplitudes, as well as higher frequencies in the case of a more compact nascent neutron star. After the prompt shock-breakout burst of electron neutrinos, a more compact accreting remnant produces higher neutrino luminosities and higher mean neutrino energies. The observable neutrino emission in the SASI sloshing direction exhibits a modulation of several ten percent in the luminosities and around 1 MeV in the mean energies with most power at typical SASI frequencies between roughly 20 and 100 Hz. The modulation is caused by quasi-periodic variations in the mass accretion rate of the neutron star in each hemisphere. At times later than ~50-100 ms after bounce, the gravitational-wave amplitude is dominated by the growing low-frequency (⪉200 Hz) signal associated with anisotropic neutrino emission. A high-frequency wave signal results from nonradial gas flows in the outer layers of the anisotropically accreting neutron star. Right after bounce such nonradial mass motions occur due to prompt post-shock convection in both considered cases and contribute mostly to the early
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2013-09-01
Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Bin; Ding Xin; Sheng Quan; Yin Su-Jia; Shi Chun-Peng; Li Xue; Wen Wu-Qi; Yao Jian-Quan; Yu Xuan-Yi
2012-01-01
We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) tunable intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on the multi-period periodically poled lithium niobate and using a laser diode (LD) end-pumped CW 1064 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser as the pump source. A highly efficiency CW operation is realized through a careful cavity design for mode matching and thermal stability. The signal tuning range is 1401–1500 nm obtained by varying the domain period. The maximum output power of 2.2 W at 1500 nm is obtained with a 17.1 W 808 nm LD power and the corresponding conversion efficiency is 12.9%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Ulvila, Ville; Phillips, C R; Halonen, Lauri; Vainio, Markku
2013-11-01
We report optical frequency comb generation by a continuous-wave pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) without any active modulation. The OPO is configured as singly resonant with an additional nonlinear crystal (periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3) placed inside the OPO for phase mismatched second harmonic generation (SHG) of the resonating signal beam. The phase mismatched SHG causes cascading χ(2) nonlinearities, which can substantially increase the effective χ(3) nonlinearity in MgO:LiNbO3, leading to spectral broadening of the OPO signal beam via self-phase modulation. The OPO generates a stable 4 THz wide (-30 dB) frequency comb centered at 1.56 μm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, Sadhan K.
2004-01-01
Using the axially-symmetric time-dependent mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation we study the Josephson oscillation in a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by a harmonic plus an one-dimensional optical-lattice potential to describe the experiments by Cataliotti et al. [Science 293 (2001) 843, New J. Phys. 5 (2003) 71.1]. After a study of the formation of matter-wave interference upon releasing the condensate from the optical trap, we directly investigate the alternating atomic superfluid Josephson current upon displacing the harmonic trap along the optical axis. The Josephson current is found to be disrupted upon displacing the harmonic trap through a distance greater than a critical distance signaling a superfluid to a classical insulator transition in the condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Englebretson, Steven [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ouyang, Wen [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Tschida, Colin [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Carr, Joseph [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ramanan, V.R. [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Johnson, Matthew [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gardner, Matthew [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Toliyat, Hamid [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Staby, Bill [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Chertok, Allan [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Hazra, Samir [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Bhattacharya, Subhashish [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States)
2017-05-13
This report summarizes the activities conducted under the DOE-EERE funded project DE-EE0006400, where ABB Inc. (ABB), in collaboration with Texas A&M’s Advanced Electric Machines & Power Electronics (EMPE) Lab and Resolute Marine Energy (RME) designed, derisked, developed, and demonstrated a novel magnetically geared electrical generator for direct-drive, low-speed, high torque MHK applications The project objective was to investigate a novel and compact direct-drive electric generator and its system aspects that would enable elimination of hydraulic components in the Power Take-Off (PTO) of a Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) system with an oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC), thereby improving the availability of the MHK system. The scope of this project was limited to the development and dry lab demonstration of a low speed generator to enable future direct drive MHK systems.
Oscillator and system development on the VULCAN glass laser system for the plasma beat-wave program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danson, C.N.
1990-03-01
This thesis describes the oscillator and system development on the VULCAN glass laser undertaken in support of the RAL Plasma Beat-wave experiments. This program seeks to evaluate advanced particle acceleration schemes for a new generation of machines for fundamental research in high energy physics. The experiments required two synchronised high power laser pulses of slightly different wavelength. These pulses were generated using two different laser media; Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF operating at 1.064 and 1.053 microns respectively. The first oscillator system developed operated with both lasing media housed in the same laser cavity. Problems with the stability of the optical output required the development of a second system which housed the two lasing media in separate cavities. The second aspect of the development work, described in this thesis, was the reconfiguration of the VULCAN glass laser system to amplify the two laser pulses to power levels of 0.5 TW per pulse. The first scheduled experiment required the two pulses to be propagated co-linearly. To amplify the pulses to the high output powers required two amplifying media to be used which preferentially amplify the two lasing wavelengths. For the later experiments the two laser pulses were amplified in separate amplifier chains which required the design of an efficient beam combiner. (author)
Analysis of wave-like oscillations in parameters of sporadic E layer and neutral atmosphere
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mošna, Zbyšek; Koucká Knížová, Petra
90-91, SI (2012), s. 172-178 ISSN 1364-6826. [IAGA/ICMA/CAWSES-II TG4 Workshop on Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System /4./. Prague, 14.02.2011-18.02.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420704 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Sporadic E * Planetary waves * Tidal waves * Mid-latitude ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682612001186
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Charyulu, R.J.K.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Rao, L.V.G.
characteristics of the temperature oscillations. The power spectra of temperature fluctuations at 11 depths in the upper thermocline from 80 to 100 m with 2 m interval, were computed for studying the short period internal waves. Power spectra density was higher...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, In Won; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum [Kyungpook Nat' l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heung Kyun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
2014-03-15
In this study, to find the characteristics of the oscillation of a terminating shock wave in a transonic airfoil flow with non-equilibrium condensation, a NACA00-12,14,15 airfoil flow with non-equilibrium condensation is investigated through numerical analysis of TVD scheme. Transonic free stream Mach number of 0.81-0.90 with the variation of stagnation relative humidity and airfoil thickness is tested. For the free stream Mach number 0.87 and attack angle of α=0 .deg., the increase in stagnation relative humidity attenuates the strength of the terminating shock wave and inactivates the oscillation of the terminating shock wave. For the case of M{sub ∞}=0.87 and φ{sub 0}=60%, the decreasing rate in the frequency of the shock oscillation caused by non-equilibrium condensation to that of φ{sub 0}=30% amounts to 5%. Also, as the stagnation relative humidity gets larger, the maximum coefficient of drag and the difference between the maximum and minimum in C{sub D} become smaller. On the other hand, as the thickness of the airfoil gets larger, the supersonic bubble size becomes bigger and the oscillation of the shock wave becomes higher.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, In Won; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum; Jeon, Heung Kyun
2014-01-01
In this study, to find the characteristics of the oscillation of a terminating shock wave in a transonic airfoil flow with non-equilibrium condensation, a NACA00-12,14,15 airfoil flow with non-equilibrium condensation is investigated through numerical analysis of TVD scheme. Transonic free stream Mach number of 0.81-0.90 with the variation of stagnation relative humidity and airfoil thickness is tested. For the free stream Mach number 0.87 and attack angle of α=0 .deg., the increase in stagnation relative humidity attenuates the strength of the terminating shock wave and inactivates the oscillation of the terminating shock wave. For the case of M ∞ =0.87 and φ 0 =60%, the decreasing rate in the frequency of the shock oscillation caused by non-equilibrium condensation to that of φ 0 =30% amounts to 5%. Also, as the stagnation relative humidity gets larger, the maximum coefficient of drag and the difference between the maximum and minimum in C D become smaller. On the other hand, as the thickness of the airfoil gets larger, the supersonic bubble size becomes bigger and the oscillation of the shock wave becomes higher
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Skettrup, Torben; Balle-Petersen, O.
2001-01-01
Summary form only given. CW and pulsed compact tunable laser sources in the infrared have widespread scientific, medical and industrial applications. Such a laser source can be obtained by use of a diode-pumped intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO). We report on a IOPO based on a Yb......:YAG laser incorporating a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal inside the laser cavity to take advantage of the high circulating intracavity field. The Yb:YAG crystal is pumped by a reliable 940 nm fibre-coupled diode laser. The IOPO consists of a Yb:YAG crystal coated for HR at 1030 nm, an intracavity...... lens to generate a beam waist in the PPLN crystal, a dichroic mirror to separate the laser and signal fields and two end mirrors...
Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator placed inside a ring laser
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben
2003-01-01
A cw singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) was built and placed inside the cavity of a ring laser. The system consists of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 ring laser with intracavity periodically poled lithium niobate as the nonlinear gain medium of the SRO. When the laser was operated...... in a unidirectional mode, we obtained more than 520 mW of signal power in one beam. When the laser was operated in a bidirectional mode, we obtained 600 mW of signal power (300 mW in two separate beams). The power and the spectral features of the laser in the unidirectional and bidirectional modes were measured while...... the laser was coupled with the SRO. The results show that it is preferable to couple a SRO with a unidirectional ring laser....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakravarty, Sudip
2011-01-01
High temperature superconductivity in cuprate superconductors remains an unsolved problem in theoretical physics. The same statement can also be made about a number of other superconductors that have been dubbed novel. What makes these superconductors so elusive is an interesting question in itself. This paper focuses on the recent magnetic oscillation experiments and how they fit into the broader picture. Many aspects of these experiments can be explained by Fermi liquid theory; the key issue is the extent to which this is true. If true, the entire paradigm developed over the past three decades must be reexamined. A critical analysis of this issue has necessitated a broader analysis of questions about distinct ground states of matter, which may be useful in understanding other novel superconductors.
A High-Power Continuous-Wave Mid-Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator Module
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yichen Liu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate here a compact optical parametric oscillator module for mid-infrared generation via nonlinear frequency conversion. This module weighs only 2.5 kg and fits within a small volume of 220 × 60 × 55 mm3. The module can be easily aligned to various pump laser sources, and here we use a 50 W ytterbium (Yb-doped fiber laser as an example. With a two-channel MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal (MgO:PPLN, our module covers a tuning range of 2416.17–2932.25 nm and 3142.18–3452.15 nm. The highest output power exceeds 10.4 W at 2.7 μm, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 24%. The measured power stability is 2.13% Root Meat Square (RMS for a 10 h duration under outdoor conditions.
Optimization of power take-off equipment for an oscillating water column wave energy plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gato, L.M.C.; Falcao, Antonio de F.O. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica do IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Paulo Alexandre Justino [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)
2005-07-01
The paper reports the optimization study of the electro-mechanical power take-off equipment for the OWC plant whose structure is a caisson forming the head of the new Douro breakwater. The stochastic approach is employed to model the wave-to-wire energy conversion. The optimization includes rotational speed (for each sea state), turbine geometry and size, and generator rated power. The procedure is implemented into a fully integrated computer code, that yields numerical results for the multi-variable optimization process and for the electrical power output (annual average and for different sea states) with modest computing time (much less than if a time-domain model were used instead). Although focused into a particular real case, the paper is intended to outline a design method that can be applied to a wider class of wave energy converters.
Traveling-wave solutions in continuous chains of unidirectionally coupled oscillators
Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu; Rozov, N. Kh
2017-12-01
Proposed is a mathematical model of a continuous annular chain of unidirectionally coupled generators given by certain nonlinear advection-type hyperbolic boundary value problem. Such problems are constructed by a limit transition from annular chains of unidirectionally coupled ordinary differential equations with an unbounded increase in the number of links. It is shown that any preassigned finite number of stable periodic motions of the traveling-wave type can coexist in the model.
Persistence of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 for four European stations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Laštovička, Jan; Križan, Peter; Šauli, Petra; Novotná, Dagmar
2003-01-01
Roč. 21, - (2003), s. 1543-1552 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103; GA ČR GP205/02/P077; GA MŠk OC 271.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ionosphere ionosphere-atmosphere interaction * mid-latitude ionosphere, ionospheric disturbances) * meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides ) Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2003
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John V. Ringwood
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Combining offshore wind and wave energy converting apparatuses presents a number of potentially advantageous synergies. To facilitate the development of a proposed floating platform combining these two technologies, proof of concept scale model testing on the wave energy converting component of this platform has been conducted. The wave energy component is based on the well-established concept of the oscillating water column. A numerical model of this component has been developed in the frequency domain, and the work presented here concerns the results of this modelling and testing. The results of both are compared to assess the validity and usefulness of the numerical model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2010-01-01
The quantum states of time-dependent coupled oscillator model for charged particles subjected to variable magnetic field are investigated using the invariant operator methods. To do this, we have taken advantage of an alternative method, so-called unitary transformation approach, available in the framework of quantum mechanics, as well as a generalized canonical transformation method in the classical regime. The transformed quantum Hamiltonian is obtained using suitable unitary operators and is represented in terms of two independent harmonic oscillators which have the same frequencies as that of the classically transformed one. Starting from the wave functions in the transformed system, we have derived the full wave functions in the original system with the help of the unitary operators. One can easily take a complete description of how the charged particle behaves under the given Hamiltonian by taking advantage of these analytical wave functions.
Sharp wave/ripple network oscillations and learning-associated hippocampal maps.
Csicsvari, Jozsef; Dupret, David
2014-02-05
Sharp wave/ripple (SWR, 150-250 Hz) hippocampal events have long been postulated to be involved in memory consolidation. However, more recent work has investigated SWRs that occur during active waking behaviour: findings that suggest that SWRs may also play a role in cell assembly strengthening or spatial working memory. Do such theories of SWR function apply to animal learning? This review discusses how general theories linking SWRs to memory-related function may explain circuit mechanisms related to rodent spatial learning and to the associated stabilization of new cognitive maps.
Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.
2016-05-01
The general electromagnetic fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is used to calculate the steady-state wave number spectra and total electromagnetic field strength of low-frequency collective weakly damped eigenmodes with parallel wavevectors in a Maxwellian electron-proton plasma. These result from the equilibrium of spontaneous emission and collisionless damping, and they represent the minimum electromagnetic fluctuations guaranteed in quiet thermal space plasmas, including the interstellar and interplanetary medium. Depending on the plasma beta, the ratio of |δB |/B0 can be as high as 10-12 .
Fast Plane Wave 2-D Vector Flow Imaging Using Transverse Oscillation and Directional Beamforming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo
2017-01-01
load, which is 4.6 times larger than for TO and seven times smaller than for conventional DB. Steered plane wave transmissions are employed for high frame rate imaging, and parabolic flow with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s is simulated in straight vessels at beamto- flow angles from 45 to 90. The TO......-DB method estimates the angle with a bias and standard deviation (SD) less than 2, and the SD of the velocity magnitude is less than 2%. When using only TO, the SD of the angle ranges from 2 to 17 and for the velocity magnitude up to 7%. Bias of the velocity magnitude is within 2% for TO and slightly larger...
Krieg, J; Klemann, A; Gottbehüt, I; Thorwirth, S; Giesen, T F; Schlemmer, S
2011-06-01
We present a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (OPO) capable of high resolution spectroscopy at wavelengths between 4.8 μm and 5.4 μm. It is based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and is singly resonant for the signal radiation around 1.35 μm. Because of the strong absorption of PPLN at wavelengths longer than 4.5 μm, the OPO threshold rises to the scale of several watts, while it produces idler powers of more than 1 mW and offers continuous tuning over 15 GHz. A supersonic jet spectrometer is used in combination with the OPO to perform measurements of the transient linear molecule Si(2)C(3) at 1968.2 cm(-1). Fifty rovibrational transition frequencies of the ν(3) antisymmetric stretching mode have been determined with an accuracy on the order of 10(-4) cm(-1), and molecular parameters for the ground and the v(3) = 1 state have been determined most precisely. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken-Chung Ko Huang-Hsiung Hsu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study used the barotropic kinetic energy conversion to record the active eddy-mean flow interaction between the TC/sub-monthly wave pattern (TSM and the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO in the western North Pacific (WNP. Overall, the TSM extracted (lost kinetic energy from (to the cyclonic (anticyclonic circulation of the ISO, which is located in the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea, during the ISO westerly (easterly phase. The phase change in barotropic energy conversion was due to the opposite background flow set up by the ISO. When the climatological-mean southwesterly was retained as part of the background flow in both ISO westerly and easterly phases as in previous studies, the ISO along with the low-frequency background flow always provided kinetic energy to the TSM regardless of the phase. The stronger (weaker southwesterly in the ISO westerly (easterly phase, the stronger (weaker energy conversion to the TSM. Climatological mean flow exclusion showed an upscale feedback in the TSM to the ISO during the easterly phase. However, this feedback was weaker than the downscale conversion from the ISO to the TSM during the westerly phase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamath, S.G.
1978-01-01
Arguments are presented to show that the new resonance parameters obtained by Alston-Garnjost et al. in a recent analysis of the K-barN system from 365 to 1320 MeV/c provide a prima facie case for the even-wave harmonic-oscillator theory of baryonic states in the framework of SU(6)/sub W/ x O(3). A new quantum classification of the Λ states belonging to the (70,1 - ) is also proposed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Zhu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Recent studies on the equatorial atmosphere–ionosphere coupling system have shown that planetary-wave-type oscillations, as an important seeding mechanism for equatorial spread F (ESF, play an important role in ESF irregularity development and its day-to-day variability in the equatorial latitudes. In this study, ionosonde virtual height and ESF measurements over Sanya (18.4° N, 109.6° E; 12.8° N dip latitude and meteor radar neutral-wind measurements over Fuke (19.5° N, 109.1° E; 14° N dip latitude during 2013 are used to investigate the features of planetary-wave-type oscillations in both the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere and their possible influences on ESF occurrence under the weak solar maximum year. The ∼ 3-day and ∼ 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations have been observed in the neutral zonal winds and the time rate of change in F-layer virtual heights. According to the propagation characteristics, the 3-day and 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations are basically recognized as ultrafast and fast Kelvin waves, respectively. With increasing heights, the 3-day wave oscillations are gradually amplified, while the 7-day wave oscillations are generally constant. By performing a cross-wavelet transform on the onsets of ESF and the vertical drifts of the F layer, we found that there are simultaneously occurring 7-day and 3-day common wave oscillations between them. The 7-day waves are mainly in the inversion phase, while the 3-day waves are mostly in an in-phase state, indicating that the 7-day waves may play a main role in ESF initiation. Approximate delays of 6 days for the 7-day waves and 5 days for the 3-day waves in their propagation upward from the lower atmosphere to the ionosphere are evaluated with wavelet power spectrum analysis. The estimated upward velocities from these time delays provide consistent evidence that the 7-day and 3-day waves propagate vertically upward with typical Kelvin wave
Ananthakrishnan, Palaniswamy
2012-11-01
The problem is of practical relevance in determining the motion response of multi-hull and air-cushion vehicles in high seas and in littoral waters. The linear inviscid problem without surface pressure has been well studied in the past. In the present work, the nonlinear wave-body interaction problem is solved using finite-difference methods based on boundary-fitted coordinates. The inviscid nonlinear problem is tackled using the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation and the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations governing the viscous problem using a fractional-step method. The pressure variation in the air cushion is modeled using the isentropic gas equation pVγ = Constant. Results show that viscosity and free-surface nonlinearity significantly affect the hydrodynamic force and the wave motion at the resonant Helmholtz frequency (at which the primary wave motion is the vertical oscillation of the mean surface in between the bodies). Air compressibility suppresses the Helmholtz oscillation and enhances the wave radiation. Work supported by the ONR under the grant N00014-98-1-0151.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Luqi; Wei, Yanyu; Wang, Bing; Shen, Wenan; Xu, Jin; Gong, Yubin [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Vacuum Electronics, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Park, Gun-Sik [The Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-15
A novel backward wave oscillator (BWO) is presented by utilizing a slotted sine waveguide with a pencil electron beam to produce the high power terahertz wave. The high frequency characteristics including dispersion properties, interaction impedances, and transmission characteristics of the slotted sine waveguide are analyzed in detail. The high frequency system including the output coupler, slow wave structure (SWS), and reflector are designed properly. A 3-D particle-in-cell mode is applied to predict the device performance of the BWO based on the novel SWS. The investigation results demonstrate that this device can generate over 8.05 W output power in the frequency range of 363.4–383.8 GHz by using a 30 mA pencil electron beam and adjusting the beam voltage from 20 kV to 32 kV.
Raghavarao, R.; Suhasini, R.; Sridharan, R.; Krishnamurthy, B. V.; Nagpal, O. P.
1990-01-01
Results are presented of the equatorial wave campaign-II, a meteorological rocket study which was part of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program. The equatorial wave campaign-II was conducted from Shar, India (13.7 deg N, 80.2 deg E) from January 15-February 28, 1986. By means of high altitude balloon and the RH-200 meteorological rocket, winds were measured from ground level up to 60 km altitude once each day during the 45-day period. The oscillation frequencies of the deviations in the east-west component of the winds from their mean at each 1-km height interval are obtained by the maximum entropy method. The phases and amplitudes of these frequencies are determined by use of the least squares method on the wind variation time series. Enhanced wave activity is shown to take place in the troposphere and lower mesosphere. The tropospheric waves observed suggest themselves to be Rossby waves of extratropical origin penetrating to tropical latitudes. The observed stratospheric/mesospheric waves appear to emanate from a source around the stratopause.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antolin, P.; De Moortel, I. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: patrick.antolin@st-andrews.ac.uk [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2016-10-20
In the highly structured solar corona, resonant absorption is an unavoidable mechanism of energy transfer from global transverse MHD waves to local azimuthal Alfvén waves. Due to its localized nature, direct detection of this mechanism is extremely difficult. Yet, it is the leading theory explaining the observed fast damping of the global transverse waves. However, at odds with this theoretical prediction are recent observations that indicate that in the low-amplitude regime such transverse MHD waves can also appear decay-less, a still unsolved phenomenon. Recent numerical work has shown that Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) often accompany transverse MHD waves. In this work, we combine 3D MHD simulations and forward modeling to show that for currently achieved spatial resolution and observed small amplitudes, an apparent decay-less oscillation is obtained. This effect results from the combination of periodic brightenings produced by the KHI and the coherent motion of the KHI vortices amplified by resonant absorption. Such an effect is especially clear in emission lines forming at temperatures that capture the boundary dynamics rather than the core, and reflects the low damping character of the local azimuthal Alfvén waves resonantly coupled to the kink mode. Due to phase mixing, the detected period can vary depending on the emission line, with those sensitive to the boundary having shorter periods than those sensitive to the loop core. This allows us to estimate the density contrast at the boundary.
The homotopic method of travelling wave solution for El Niño tropic sea–air coupled oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mo Jiaqi; Lin Wantao
2008-01-01
The EI Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an interannual phenomenon involved in the tropical Pacific sea–air interactions. In this paper, an asymptotic method of solving nonlinear equations for the ENSO model is proposed. And based on a class of oscillator of the ENSO model and by employing the method of homotopic mapping, the approximate solution of equations for the corresponding ENSO model is studied. It is proved from the results that homotopic method can be used for analysing the sea surface temperature anomaly in the equatorial Pacific of the sea–air oscillator for the ENSO model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger
2007-01-01
approximately doubles. In this transition, the simulated results point to a key role for a recently discovered cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel. This channel depolarizes the membrane in response to calcium released from the SR. In turn, depolarization causes uniform opening of L-type calcium...... channels on the cell surface stimulating synchronized release of SR-calcium and inducing the shift from waves to whole-cell oscillations. The effect of the channel is therefore to couple the processes of the SR with those of the membrane. We hypothesize that the shift in oscillatory mode and the associated...
Efficient Long Wave IR Laser from Ho:YAG 2 {mu}m Pumped ZnGeP{sub 2} Optical Parametric Oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li-Gang,; Bao-Quan, Yao; Xiao-Ming, Duan; Guo-Li, Zhu; Yue-Zhu, Wang; You-Lun, Ju [National Key Laboratory of Tunable Laser Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)
2010-01-15
An efficient high power long wave infrared laser based on ZnGeP{sub 2} optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 2.09 {mu}m Tm:YLF/Ho:YAG laser at 10KHz pulse repetition rate is reported. The pump to idler conversion efficiency is 8% at 15.6 W Ho pump power level and a quantum efficiency of 31 % when the 1'idler wavelength is tuned at 8.08 {mu}m. The wavelength tuning range from 8-9.1 {mu}m is also achieved by rotating the ZGP crystal. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Oscillations in stellar atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A.E.; Fontenla, J.M.
1989-01-01
Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized. 7 refs
Liang, Ping; Lin, Hai
2018-02-01
A useful sub-seasonal forecast is of great societal and economical value in the highly populated East Asian region, especially during boreal summer when frequent extreme events such as heat waves and persistent heavy rainfalls occur. Despite recent interest and development in sub-seasonal prediction, it is still unclear how skillful dynamical forecasting systems are in East Asia beyond 2 weeks. In this study we evaluate the sub-seasonal prediction over East Asia during boreal summer in the operational monthly forecasting system of Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).Results show that the climatological intra-seasonal oscillation (CISO) of East Asian summer monsoonis reasonably well captured. Statistically significant forecast skill of 2-meter air temperature (T2m) is achieved for all lead times up to week 4 (days 26-32) over East China and Northeast Asia, which is consistent with the skill in 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500). Significant forecast skill of precipitation, however, is limited to the week of days 5-11. Possible sources of predictability on the sub-seasonal time scale are analyzed. The weekly mean T2m anomaly over East China is found to be linked to an eastward propagating extratropical Rossby wave from the North Atlantic across Europe to East Asia. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are also likely to influence the forecast skill of T2m at the sub-seasonal timescale over East Asia.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai Xianchen; Zhang Jiande; Yang Jianhua; Jin Zhenxing [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2012-12-15
Theoretical analyses and preliminary experiments on the phase-locking characteristics of an inductively loaded 2-cavity wide-gap klystron amplifier (WKA) with high power injection driven by a GW-class relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) are presented. Electric power of the amplifier and oscillator is supplied by a single accelerator being capable of producing dual electron beams. The well phase-locking effect of the RBWO-WKA system requires the oscillator have good frequency reproducibility and stability from pulse to pulse. Thus, the main switch of the accelerator is externally triggered to stabilize the diode voltage and then the working frequency. In the experiment, frequency of the WKA is linearly locked by the RBWO. With a diode voltage of 530 kV and an input power of {approx}22 MW, an output power of {approx}230 MW with the power gain of {approx}10.2 dB is obtained from the WKA. As the main switch is triggered, the relative phase difference between the RBWO and the WKA is less than {+-}15 Degree-Sign in a single shot, and phase jitter of {+-}11 Degree-Sign is obtained within a series of shots with duration of about 40 ns.
Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Jiande; Yang, Jianhua; Jin, Zhenxing
2012-12-01
Theoretical analyses and preliminary experiments on the phase-locking characteristics of an inductively loaded 2-cavity wide-gap klystron amplifier (WKA) with high power injection driven by a GW-class relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) are presented. Electric power of the amplifier and oscillator is supplied by a single accelerator being capable of producing dual electron beams. The well phase-locking effect of the RBWO-WKA system requires the oscillator have good frequency reproducibility and stability from pulse to pulse. Thus, the main switch of the accelerator is externally triggered to stabilize the diode voltage and then the working frequency. In the experiment, frequency of the WKA is linearly locked by the RBWO. With a diode voltage of 530 kV and an input power of ˜22 MW, an output power of ˜230 MW with the power gain of ˜10.2 dB is obtained from the WKA. As the main switch is triggered, the relative phase difference between the RBWO and the WKA is less than ±15° in a single shot, and phase jitter of ±11° is obtained within a series of shots with duration of about 40 ns.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maikon Passos A. Alves
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO, cold waves and occurrence of frosts in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, during the winter quarter. Research on this topic can assist different spheres of society, such as public health and agriculture, since cold waves can influence and/or aggravate health problems and frosts can inflict economic losses especially in the agricultural sector. For the purpose of this paper, cold wave is considered as the event in which the daily average surface air temperature was at least two standard deviations below the average value of the series on the day and for two consecutive days or more. The data on the average air temperature and frost occurrences are provided by the Company of Agricultural Research and Rural Extension of Santa Catarina/Center for Environmental Information and Hydrometeorology (EPAGRI/CIRAM. The AAO was subjected to statistical analysis using significance tests for the averages (Student’s t-test and variances (F-test with a significance level of α = 5%. The results show that cold waves are unevenly distributed in the agroecological zones of Santa Catarina. It is found that the AAO is associated with the occurrence of frosts (in the agroecological zones represented by the municipalities of Itajaí and São José in the state of Santa Catarina.
Zhang, Ruiliang; Qu, Yanchen; Zhao, Weijiang; Chen, Zhenlei
2017-03-20
A high energy, widely tunable Si-prism-array coupled terahertz-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) has been demonstrated by using a deformed pump. The deformed pump is cut from a beam spot of 2 mm in diameter by a 1-mm-wide slit. In comparison with a small pump spot (1-mm diameter), the THz-wave coupling area for the deformed pump is increased without limitation to the low-frequency end of the tuning range. Besides, the crystal location is specially designed to eliminate the alteration of the output position of the pump during angle tuning, so the initially adjusted nearest pumped region to the THz-wave exit surface is maintained throughout the tuning range. The tuning range is 0.58-2.5 THz for the deformed pump, while its low frequency end is limited at approximately 1.2 THz for the undeformed pump with 2 mm diameter. The highest THz-wave output of 2 μJ, which is 2.25 times as large as that from the pump of 1 mm in diameter, is obtained at 1.15 THz under 38 mJ (300 MW/cm2) pumping. The energy conversion efficiency is 5.3×10-5.
Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reid, Jane A.
2010-01-01
Ocean surface waves are the dominant temporally and spatially variable process influencing sea floor sediment resuspension along most continental shelves. Wave-induced sediment mobility on the continental shelf and upper continental slope off central California for different phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events was modeled using monthly statistics derived from more than 14 years of concurrent hourly oceanographic and meteorologic data as boundary input for the Delft SWAN wave model, gridded sea floor grain-size data from the usSEABED database, and regional bathymetry. Differences as small as 0.5 m in wave height, 1 s in wave period, and 10° in wave direction, in conjunction with the spatially heterogeneous unconsolidated sea-floor sedimentary cover, result in significant changes in the predicted mobility of continental shelf surficial sediment in the study area. El Niño events result in more frequent mobilization on the inner shelf in the summer and winter than during La Niña events and on the outer shelf and upper slope in the winter months, while La Niña events result in more frequent mobilization on the mid-shelf during spring and summer months than during El Niño events. The timing and patterns of seabed mobility are addressed in context of geologic and biologic processes. By understanding the spatial and temporal variability in the disturbance of the sea floor, scientists can better interpret sedimentary patterns and ecosystem structure, while providing managers and planners an understanding of natural impacts when considering the permitting of offshore activities that disturb the sea floor such as trawling, dredging, and the emplacement of sea-floor engineering structures.
Hasan Sagor, Rakibul; Ruhul Amin, Md.
2017-10-01
An X-band backward wave oscillator (BWO) with a circular-edge disk-loaded periodic metallic slow wave structure (CDSWS) is proposed and studied numerically. The structure is the modified version of our previously modeled semi-circularly corrugated slow wave structure (SCCSWS). The CDSWS is energized by an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) which is directed by a strong magnetic field. The electromagnetic (EM) wave of the slow wave structure (SWS) merges with the space charge wave of the beam under the guidance of the strong axial magnetic field. The inner wall contour of CDSWS is modeled by a finite Fourier series and the dispersion characteristics of different TM modes are solved by utilizing the linear Rayleigh-Fourier (R-F) technique, which is verified by a commercial EM solver. To study the temporal growth rate (TGR) for the fundamental TM01 mode, the dispersion equation is solved for the beam current of 0.1-1.0kA and the beam energy of 205-665kV. For the TM01 mode, the TGR that occurs at the unstable region, which provides a qualitative index of the strength of the microwave generation, is compared with those of the BWOs with sinusoidally corrugated SWS (SCSWS), disk-loaded SWS (DLSWS) and triangularly corrugated SWS (TrCSWS) for different beam parameters. The dimension of the CDSWS is determined by comparing the dispersion characteristics of fundamental TM01 mode with DLSWS and SCSWS. For the same set of beam parameters, an average of 3.5%, 7%, 1.5% and more than 50% higher TGR have been obtained with the proposed CDSWS than that of SCSWS, DLSWS, TrCSWS and SCCSWS respectively. Moreover, the presented structure also provides an advantage in the fabrication process and is less prone to RF breakdown since it has no sharp edges in the inner wall where the electric field intensity can be infinitely high.
Herpen, M.M.J.W. van; Bisson, S.E.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Harren, F.J.M.
2004-01-01
A new singly resonant, single-frequency optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has been developed for the 2.6-4.7 mum infrared wavelength region, using a high power (>20 W), widely tunable (1024-1034 nm) Yb:YAG pump source. With the OPO frequency stabilized with an intracavity etalon, the OPO achieved
Sahlem, Gregory L; Badran, Bashar W; Halford, Jonathan J; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L; Uhde, Thomas W; Borckardt, Jeffery J; George, Mark S
2015-01-01
A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current waveform (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517 mA/cm(2), and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75 Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with 1-min inter-block intervals (25 min total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1 ± 3.0 SD more associations) (sham = 3.8 ± 3.1 SD more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6 ± 2.7 SD correctly typed sequences) compared to sham stimulation (2.3 ± 2.2 SD correctly typed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mota, R D; Xicotencatl, M A; Granados, V D
2004-01-01
In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse
Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.
2004-02-01
In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2004-02-20
In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seung Kwan Song
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We present two control strategies for an oscillating water column-wave energy converter (OWC-WEC in the time domain. We consider a fixed OWC-WEC on the open sea with an impulse turbine module. This system mainly consists of a chamber, turbine and electric generator. For the time domain analysis, all of the conversion stages considering mutualities among them should be analyzed based on the Newtonian mechanics. According to the analysis of Newtonian mechanics, the hydrodynamics of wave energy absorption in the chamber and the turbine aerodynamic performance are directly coupled and share the internal air pressure term via the incompressible air assumption. The turbine aerodynamics and the dynamics of the electric generator are connected by torque load through the rotor shaft, which depends on an electric terminal load that acts as a control input. The proposed control strategies are an instant maximum turbine efficiency tracking control and a constant angular velocity of the turbine rotor control methods. Both are derived by Lyapunov stability analysis. Numerical simulations are carried out under irregular waves with various heights and periods in the time domain, and the results with the controllers are analyzed. We then compare these results with simulations carried out in the absence of the control strategy in order to prove the performance of the controllers.
Wang, Yuye; Tang, Longhuang; Xu, Degang; Yan, Chao; He, Yixin; Shi, Jia; Yan, Dexian; Liu, Hongxiang; Nie, Meitong; Feng, Jiachen; Yao, Jianquan
2017-04-17
A widely tunable, high-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator based on 1 mol. % MgO-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal has been demonstrated with 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed laser pumping. The tunable range of 1.16 to 4.64 THz was achieved. The maximum THz wave output energy of 17.49 μJ was obtained at 1.88 THz under the pump energy of 165 mJ/pulse, corresponding to the THz wave conversion efficiency of 1.06 × 10-4 and the photon conversion efficiency of 1.59%, respectively. Moreover, under the same experimental conditions, the THz output energy of TPO with MgO:SLN crystal was about 2.75 times larger than that obtained from the MgO:CLN TPO at 1.60 THz. Based on the theoretical analysis, the THz energy enhancement mechanism in the MgO:SLN TPO was clarified to originate from its larger Raman scattering cross section and smaller absorption coefficient.
Kukushkin, V A
2012-06-01
A tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation based on a semiconductor nanoheterostructure with asymmetric quantum wells is suggested. It utilizes Rabi oscillations at a transition between quantum well subbands excited by external femtosecond pulses of a mid-infrared electromagnetic field. Due to quantum well broken inversion symmetry the subbands possess different average dipole moments, which enables the creation of polarization at the Rabi frequency as the subband populations change. It is shown that if this polarization is excited so that it is periodic in space, then, though being pulsed, it can produce continuous-wave output radiation. Changing the polarization space period and the time intervals between the exciting pulses, one can tune the frequency of this radiation throughout the far-infrared and THz range. In the present work a concrete multiple quantum well heterostructure design and a scheme of its space-periodic polarization are suggested. It is shown that for existing sources of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses the proposed scheme can provide a continuous-wave output power of order the power of far-infrared and THz quantum cascade lasers. Being added to the possibility of its output frequency tuning, this can make the suggested device attractive for fundamental research and various applications.
Impacts of dynamical ocean coupling in MJO experiments using NICAM/NICOCO
Miyakawa, T.
2016-12-01
The cloud-system resolving atmosphereic model NICAM has been successfull in producing Madden-Julian Oscillations(MJOs), having it's prediction skill estimated to be about 4 weeks in a series of hindcast experiments for winter MJO events during 2003-2012 (Miyakawa et al. 2014). A simple mixed-layer ocean model has been applied with nudging towards a prescribed "persistent anomaly SST", which maintains the initial anomaly with a time-varying climatological seasonal cycle. This setup enables the model to interact with an ocean with reasonably realistic SST, and also run in a "forecast mode", without using any observational information after the initial date. A limitation is that under this setup, the model skill drops if the oceanic anomaly rapidly changes after the initial date in the real world. Here we run a recently developed, full 3D-ocean coupled version NICAM-COCO (NICOCO) and explore its impact on MJO simulations. Dynamical ocean models can produce oceanic waves/currents, but will also have a bias and drift away from reality. In a sub-seasonal simulation (an initial problem), it is essential to compare the merit of having better represented oceanic signals and the demerit of bias/drift. A test case simulation series featuring an MJO that triggered the abrupt termination of a major El Nino in 1998 shows that the abrupt termination occurs in all 9 simulation members, highlighting the merit of ocean coupling. However, this is a case where oceanic signals are at its extremes. We carried out an estimation of MJO prediction skill for a preliminary 1-degree mesh ocean version of NICOCO in a similar manner to Miyakawa et al. (2014). The MJO skill was degraded for simulations that was initialized at RMM phases 1 and 2 (corresponding to the Indian Ocean), while those initialized at phase 8 (Africa) was not strongly affected. The tendency of the model ocean to overestimate the Maritime Continent warm pool SST possibly delays the eastward propagation of MJO convective
Oden, Jérémy; Lavrov, Roman; Chembo, Yanne K.; Larger, Laurent
2017-11-01
We propose a chaos communication scheme based on a chaotic optical phase carrier generated with an optoelectronic oscillator with nonlinear time-delay feedback. The system includes a dedicated non-local nonlinearity, which is a customized three-wave imbalanced interferometer. This particular feature increases the complexity of the chaotic waveform and thus the security of the transmitted information, as these interferometers are characterized by four independent parameters which are part of the secret key for the chaos encryption scheme. We first analyze the route to chaos in the system, and evidence a sequence of period doubling bifurcations from the steady-state to fully developed chaos. Then, in the chaotic regime, we study the synchronization between the emitter and the receiver, and achieve chaotic carrier cancellation with a signal-to-noise ratio up to 20 dB. We finally demonstrate error-free chaos communications at a data rate of 3 Gbit/s.
Oden, Jérémy; Lavrov, Roman; Chembo, Yanne K; Larger, Laurent
2017-11-01
We propose a chaos communication scheme based on a chaotic optical phase carrier generated with an optoelectronic oscillator with nonlinear time-delay feedback. The system includes a dedicated non-local nonlinearity, which is a customized three-wave imbalanced interferometer. This particular feature increases the complexity of the chaotic waveform and thus the security of the transmitted information, as these interferometers are characterized by four independent parameters which are part of the secret key for the chaos encryption scheme. We first analyze the route to chaos in the system, and evidence a sequence of period doubling bifurcations from the steady-state to fully developed chaos. Then, in the chaotic regime, we study the synchronization between the emitter and the receiver, and achieve chaotic carrier cancellation with a signal-to-noise ratio up to 20 dB. We finally demonstrate error-free chaos communications at a data rate of 3 Gbit/s.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao-Quan, Yao; Gang, Li; Guo-Li, Zhu; Pei-Bei, Meng; You-Lun, Ju; Wang Yue-Zhu, E-mail: yaobq08@hit.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Tunable Laser Technology Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin 150001 (China)
2012-03-15
Long-wave infrared (IR) generation based on type-II (o{yields}e+o) phase matching ZnGeP{sub 2} (ZGP) and CdSe optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) pumped by a 2.05 {mu}m Tm,Ho:GdVO{sub 4} laser is reported. The comparisons of the bire-fringent walk-off effect and the oscillation threshold between ZGP and CdSe OPOs are performed theoretically and experimentally. For the ZGP OPO, up to 419 mW output at 8.04 {mu}m is obtained at the 8 kHz pump pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a slope efficiency of 7.6%. This ZGP OPO can be continuously tuned from 7.8 to 8.5 {mu}m. For the CdSe OPO, we demonstrate a 64 mW output at 8.9 {mu}m with a single crystal 28 mm in length. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandr ePevzner
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can result in persistent cognitive, behavioral and emotional deficits. However, the vast majority of patients are not chronically hospitalized; rather they have to manage their disabilities once they are discharged to home. Promoting recovery to pre-injury level is important from a patient care as well as a societal perspective. Electrical neuromodulation is one approach that has shown promise in alleviating symptoms associated with neurological disorders such as in Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy. Consistent with this perspective, both animal and clinical studies have revealed that TBI alters physiological oscillatory rhythms. More recently several studies demonstrated that low frequency stimulation improves cognitive outcome in models of TBI. Specifically, stimulation of the septohippocampal circuit in the theta frequency entrained oscillations and improved spatial learning following traumatic brain injury. In order to evaluate the potential of electrical deep brain stimulation for clinical translation we review the basic neurophysiology of oscillations, their role in cognition and how they are changed post-TBI. Furthermore, we highlight several factors for future pre-clinical and clinical studies to consider, with the hope that it will promote a hypothesis driven approach to subsequent experimental designs and ultimately successful translation to improve outcome in patients with TBI.
High-power, continuous-wave, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on MgO:sPPLT.
Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M
2011-07-01
We report a stable, high-power, cw, mid-IR optical parametric oscillator using MgO-doped stoichiometric periodically poled LiTaO₃ (MgO:sPPLT) pumped by a Yb fiber laser at 1064 nm. The singly resonant oscillator (SRO), based on a 30 mm long crystal, is tunable over 430 nm from 3032 to 3462 nm and can generate as much as 5.5 W of mid-IR output power, with >4 W of over 60% of the tuning range and under reduced thermal effects, enabling room temperature operation. Idler power scaling measurements at ~3.3 μm are compared with an MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO₃ cw SRO, confirming that MgO:sPPLT is an attractive material for multiwatt mid-IR generation. The idler output at 3299 nm exhibits a peak-to-peak power stability better than 12.8% over 5 h and frequency stability of ~1 GHz, while operating close to room temperature, and has a linewidth of ~0.2 nm, limited by the resolution of the wavemeter. The corresponding signal linewidth at 1570 nm is ~21 MHz.
Ginzburg, N S; Kaminsky, A K; Peskov, N Yu; Sedykh, S N; Sergeev, A P
2000-01-01
An FEL-oscillator with a new type of Bragg resonator was realized on the basis of linac LIU-3000 (JINR, Dubna) (0.8 MeV/200 A/200 ns). This resonator consists of two corrugated waveguide sections having a step of phase pi between the corrugations at the point of connection. The selective properties of a resonator of this type are significantly improved in comparison with a traditional two-mirror Bragg resonator. The output power was about 50 MW at a frequency of 30.7 GHz with the optimal parameters of the resonator, which corresponds to the efficiency of 35%, which is the highest for millimeter wavelength FEL. Radiation at the fundamental mode and the two side modes with the frequencies coincided to the 'cold' microwave testing was separately observed depending on the magnetic fields of the wiggler and solenoid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taha, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ghazilla, R.A.R.; Yap, H.J.; Ya, T.Y.T.; Passarella, R.; Hasanuddin, I.; Yunus, M. [Malaya Univ. (Malaysia). Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing; Sugiyono [Malaya Univ., (Malaysia). Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing; Gadjah Mada Univ. (Indonesia). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
2009-07-01
The use of renewable energy sources as an alternative to conventional fuels was discussed with particular reference to ocean wave energy and its potential to contribute to the energy requirements of coastal nations. Ocean wave energy has been harnessed and converted into electricity using processes and technologies that are environmentally sound. The oscillating water column (OWC) system is considered to be among the most promising technology for harnessing wave energy. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the pressure drop in an OWC system and the effect of spherical hub-nose position in an annular duct. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used under steady flow conditions for several hub-nose positions to determine the characteristic of pressure drop. The study showed that the hub-nose position influenced the pressure drop in the OWC system. The highest value of the pressure drop in this study occurred when the hub-nose was at the position of 0.0 m relative to the end of the converging cone. The pressure drop decreased when the hub-nose position moved away from the end of converging cone. The lowest value occurred at the position of -0.5 m. It was concluded that despite the numerically small change in pressure drop, this phenomenon should be considered in the design process of the OWC system because of the operational condition of the system at low-pressure pneumatic power. The pressure drop actually reduces the amount of energy that will be converted by the air turbine. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.
Synoptic and Climate Attributions of the December 2015 Extreme Flooding in Missouri, USA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boniface Fosu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Three days of extreme rainfall in late December 2015 in the middle of the Mississippi River led to severe flooding in Missouri. The meteorological context of this event was analyzed through synoptic diagnosis into the atmospheric circulation that contributed to the precipitation event’s severity. The midlatitude synoptic waves that induced the extreme precipitation and ensuing flooding were traced to the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO, which amplified the trans-Pacific Rossby wave train likely associated with the strong El Niño of December 2015. Though the near-historical El Niño contributed to a quasi-stationary trough over the western U.S. that induced the high precipitation event, an interference between the MJO and El Niño teleconnections resulted in a relatively weak atmospheric signature of the El Niño in comparison to that of the MJO. The influence of anthropogenic climate change on the relationship between ENSO and precipitation across several central U.S. states was also investigated using 17 CMIP5 models from the historical single-forcing experiments. A regime change in ENSO-related precipitation anomalies appears to have occurred, from being negatively correlated before 1950 to positive and significantly correlated after 1970, suggesting a likely effect of anthropogenic warming on the December 2015 extreme precipitation event.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashiwagi, T.; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K.; Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Marković, B.; Mirković, J.; Klemm, R. A.
2014-01-01
A computed tomography (CT) imaging system using monochromatic sub-terahertz coherent electromagnetic waves generated from a device constructed from the intrinsic Josephson junctions in a single crystalline mesa structure of the high-T c superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ was developed and tested on three samples: Standing metallic rods supported by styrofoam, a dried plant (heart pea) containing seeds, and a plastic doll inside an egg shell. The images obtained strongly suggest that this CT imaging system may be useful for a variety of practical applications
Pignalberi, A.; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E.
2015-01-01
In this paper different spectral analyses are employed to investigate the tidal and planetary wave periodicities imprinted in the following two main characteristics of the sporadic E (Es) layer: the top frequency (ftEs) and the lowest virtual height (h‧Es). The study is based on ionograms recorded during the summertime of 2013, and precisely in June, July, August and September, by the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (AIS-INGV) ionosondes installed at Rome (41.8°N, 12.5°E) and Gibilmanna (37.9°N, 14.0°E), Italy. It was confirmed that the diurnal and semidiurnal atmospheric tides play a fundamental role in the formation of the mid-latitude Es layers, acting through their vertical wind-shear forcing of the long-living metallic ions in the lower thermosphere, and at the same time it was found that the planetary atmospheric waves might affect the Es layers acting through their horizontal wind-shear forcing with periods close to the normal Rossby modes, that is 2, 5, 10 and 16 days. The wavelet analysis shows also that the ftEs and h‧Es tidal oscillations undergo a strong amplitude modulation with periods of several days and with important differences between the two parameters. This amplitude modulation, characterizing markedly the first thirty days of the ftEs spectrogram, suggests that Es layers are affected indirectly by planetary waves through their nonlinear interaction with the atmospheric tides at lower altitudes. This study wants to be a continuation of the Haldoupis et al. (2004) work in order to verify their results for the foEs characteristic and on the other hand to extend the study also to the h‧Es characteristic not yet shown so far. Anyhow, the study confirms that ionosonde data, especially those registered in summertime, represent a powerful tool for studying tidal and planetary waves properties and their climatology in the mesosphere-low-thermosphere region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chwiej, T; Szafran, B
2013-01-01
We study electron transfer across a two-terminal quantum ring using a time-dependent description of the scattering process. For the considered scattering event the quantum ring is initially charged with one or two electrons, with another electron incident to the ring from the input channel. We study the electron transfer probability (T) as a function of the external magnetic field. We determine the periodicity of T for a varied number of electrons confined within the ring. For that purpose we develop a method to describe the wave packet dynamics for a few electrons participating in the scattering process, taking into full account the electron–electron correlations. We find that electron transfer across the quantum ring initially charged by a single electron acquires a distinct periodicity of half of the magnetic flux quantum (Φ 0 /2), corresponding to the formation of a transient two-electron state inside the ring. In the case of a three-electron scattering problem with two electrons initially occupying the ring, a period of Φ 0 /3 for T is formed in the limit of thin channels. The effect of disorder present in the confinement potential of the ring is also discussed. (paper)
Chwiej, T; Szafran, B
2013-04-17
We study electron transfer across a two-terminal quantum ring using a time-dependent description of the scattering process. For the considered scattering event the quantum ring is initially charged with one or two electrons, with another electron incident to the ring from the input channel. We study the electron transfer probability (T) as a function of the external magnetic field. We determine the periodicity of T for a varied number of electrons confined within the ring. For that purpose we develop a method to describe the wave packet dynamics for a few electrons participating in the scattering process, taking into full account the electron-electron correlations. We find that electron transfer across the quantum ring initially charged by a single electron acquires a distinct periodicity of half of the magnetic flux quantum (Φ0/2), corresponding to the formation of a transient two-electron state inside the ring. In the case of a three-electron scattering problem with two electrons initially occupying the ring, a period of Φ0/3 for T is formed in the limit of thin channels. The effect of disorder present in the confinement potential of the ring is also discussed.
Xu, Kuan-Man
2015-01-01
During inactive phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) observations between July 2006 and June 2010 for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index, which assigns the tropics to one of the eight MJO phases each day. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The criteria for defining these cloud types are overcast footprints and cloud top pressures less than 400 hPa, but DC has higher cloud optical depths (=10) than those of CS (background noises resulting from various types of the tropical waves with different wavenumbers and propagation speeds/directions.
Diagnosing Air-Sea Interactions on Intraseasonal Timescales
DeMott, C. A.
2014-12-01
What is the role of ocean coupling in the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO)? Consensus thinking holds that the essential physics of the MJO involve interactions between convection, atmospheric wave dynamics, and boundary layer and free troposphere moisture. However, many modeling studies demonstrate improved MJO simulation when an atmosphere-only general circulation model (AGCM) is coupled to an ocean model, so feedbacks from the ocean are probably not negligible. Assessing the importance and processes of these feedbacks is challenging for at least two reasons. First, observations of the MJO only sample the fully coupled ocean-atmosphere system; there is no "uncoupled" MJO in nature. Second, the practice of analyzing the MJO in uncoupled and coupled GCMs (CGCMs) involves using imperfect tools to study the problem. Although MJO simulation is improving in many models, shortcomings remain in both AGCMs and CGCMs, making it difficult to determine if changes brought about through coupling reflect critical air-sea interactions or are simply part of the collective idiosyncracies of a given model. For the atmosphere, ocean feedbacks from intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variations are communicated through their effects on surface fluxes of heat and moisture. This presentation suggests a set of analysis tools for diagnosing the impact of an interactive ocean on surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, including their mean, variance, spectral characteristics, and phasing with respect to wind, SST, and MJO convection. The diagnostics are demonstrated with application to several CMIP5 models, and reveal a variety of responses to coupled ocean feedbacks.
The role of SST variability in the simulation of the MJO
Stan, Cristiana
2017-12-01
The sensitivity of the Madden-Julian Oscillation to high-frequency variability (period 1-5 days) of sea surface temperature (SST) is investigated using numerical experiments with the super-parameterized Community Climate System Model. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of air-sea interactions in the simulation of the MJO, and stress the necessity of an accurate representation of ocean variability on short time scales. Eliminating 1-5-day variability of surface boundary forcing reduces the intraseasonal variability (ISV) of the tropics during the boreal winter. The ISV spectrum becomes close to the red noise background spectrum. The variability of atmospheric circulation shifts to longer time scales. In the absence of high-frequency variability of SST the MJO power gets confined to wavenumbers 1-2 and the magnitude of westward power associated with Rossby waves increases. The MJO convective activity propagating eastward from the Indian Ocean does not cross the Maritime Continent, and convection in the western Pacific Ocean is locally generated. In the Indian Ocean convection tends to follow the meridional propagation of SST anomalies. The response of the MJO to 1-5-day variability in the SST is through the charging and discharging mechanisms contributing to the atmospheric column moist static energy before and after peak MJO convection. Horizontal advection and surface fluxes show the largest sensitivity to SST perturbations.
Spectral cumulus parameterization based on cloud-resolving model
Baba, Yuya
2018-02-01
We have developed a spectral cumulus parameterization using a cloud-resolving model. This includes a new parameterization of the entrainment rate which was derived from analysis of the cloud properties obtained from the cloud-resolving model simulation and was valid for both shallow and deep convection. The new scheme was examined in a single-column model experiment and compared with the existing parameterization of Gregory (2001, Q J R Meteorol Soc 127:53-72) (GR scheme). The results showed that the GR scheme simulated more shallow and diluted convection than the new scheme. To further validate the physical performance of the parameterizations, Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) experiments were performed, and the results were compared with reanalysis data. The new scheme performed better than the GR scheme in terms of mean state and variability of atmospheric circulation, i.e., the new scheme improved positive bias of precipitation in western Pacific region, and improved positive bias of outgoing shortwave radiation over the ocean. The new scheme also simulated better features of convectively coupled equatorial waves and Madden-Julian oscillation. These improvements were found to be derived from the modification of parameterization for the entrainment rate, i.e., the proposed parameterization suppressed excessive increase of entrainment, thus suppressing excessive increase of low-level clouds.
Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) Simulated with a Global Mesoscale Model
Shen, Bo-Wen; DeMaria, Mark; Li, J.-L. F.; Cheung, S.
2013-01-01
In this study, we investigate the formation predictability of Hurricane Sandy (2012) with a global mesoscale model. We first present five track and intensity forecasts of Sandy initialized at 00Z 22-26 October 2012, realistically producing its movement with a northwestward turn prior to its landfall. We then show that three experiments initialized at 00Z 16-18 October captured the genesis of Sandy with a lead time of up to 6 days and simulated reasonable evolution of Sandy's track and intensity in the next 2 day period of 18Z 21-23 October. Results suggest that the extended lead time of formation prediction is achieved by realistic simulations of multiscale processes, including (1) the interaction between an easterly wave and a low-level westerly wind belt (WWB) and (2) the appearance of the upper-level trough at 200 hPa to Sandy's northwest. The low-level WWB and upper-level trough are likely associated with a Madden-Julian Oscillation.
Impact of the Indian part of the summer MJO on West Africa using nudged climate simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohino, Elsa [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Janicot, Serge [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, IRD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Douville, Herve [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); Li, Laurent Z.X. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LMD/IPSL, CNRS, Paris (France)
2012-06-15
Observational evidence suggests a link between the summer Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and anomalous convection over West Africa. This link is further studied with the help of the LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model. The approach is based on nudging the model towards the reanalysis in the Asian monsoon region. The simulation successfully captures the convection associated with the summer MJO in the nudging region. Outside this region the model is free to evolve. Over West Africa it simulates convection anomalies that are similar in magnitude, structure, and timing to the observed ones. In accordance with the observations, the simulation shows that 15-20 days after the maximum increase (decrease) of convection in the Indian Ocean there is a significant reduction (increase) in West African convection. The simulation strongly suggests that in addition to the eastward-moving MJO signal, the westward propagation of a convectively coupled equatorial Rossby wave is needed to explain the overall impact of the MJO on convection over West Africa. These results highlight the use of MJO events to potentially predict regional-scale anomalous convection and rainfall spells over West Africa with a time lag of approximately 15-20 days. (orig.)
Impact of the Indian part of the summer MJO on West Africa using nudged climate simulations
Mohino, Elsa; Janicot, Serge; Douville, Hervé; Li, Laurent Z. X.
2012-06-01
Observational evidence suggests a link between the summer Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and anomalous convection over West Africa. This link is further studied with the help of the LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model. The approach is based on nudging the model towards the reanalysis in the Asian monsoon region. The simulation successfully captures the convection associated with the summer MJO in the nudging region. Outside this region the model is free to evolve. Over West Africa it simulates convection anomalies that are similar in magnitude, structure, and timing to the observed ones. In accordance with the observations, the simulation shows that 15-20 days after the maximum increase (decrease) of convection in the Indian Ocean there is a significant reduction (increase) in West African convection. The simulation strongly suggests that in addition to the eastward-moving MJO signal, the westward propagation of a convectively coupled equatorial Rossby wave is needed to explain the overall impact of the MJO on convection over West Africa. These results highlight the use of MJO events to potentially predict regional-scale anomalous convection and rainfall spells over West Africa with a time lag of approximately 15-20 days.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, G.C.
1983-01-01
A state-of-the-art one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic model has been developed to be used for the linear analysis of nuclear-coupled density-wave oscillations in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR). The model accounts for phasic slip, distributed spacers, subcooled boiling, space/time-dependent power distributions and distributed heated wall dynamics. In addition to a parallel channel stability analysis, a detailed model was derived for the BWR loop analysis of both the natural and forced circulation modes of operation. In its final form, this model constitutes a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) linear system, which features a general nodal neutron kinetics model. Kinetics parameters for use in the kinetics model have been obtained by utilizing self-consistent nodal data and power distributions. The stability characteristics of a typical BWR/4 has been investigated with the Nyquist criterion. The computer implementation of this mode, NUFREQ-N, was used for the parametric study of a typical BWR/4 and comparison were made with existing in-core and out-of-core data. Also, NUFREQ-N was used to analyze the expected stability characteristics of a typical BWR/4. The parametric results revealed important factors influencing BWR stability margin. It was found that NUFREQ-N generally agreed well with out-of-core data. This was especially true for the predicted power-to-flow transfer function, which is the most important transfer function in thermal-hydraulic stability analysis
Devi, Kavita; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M
2013-10-21
We report a continuous-wave (cw) source of tunable radiation across 333-345 nm in the ultraviolet (UV) using bismuth triborate, BiB₃O₆ (BIBO) as the nonlinear gain material. The source is based on internal sum-frequency-generation (SFG) in a cw singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped at 532 nm. The compact tunable source employs a 30-mm-long MgO:sPPLT crystal as the OPO gain medium and a 5-mm-long BIBO crystal for intracavity SFG of the signal and pump, providing up to 21.6 mW of UV power at 339.7 nm, with >15 mW over 64% of the SFG tuning range. The cw OPO is also tunable across 1158-1312 nm in the idler, delivering as much as 1.7 W at 1247 nm, with >1W over 65% of the tuning range. The UV output at maximum power exhibits passive power stability better than 3.4% rms and frequency stability of 193 GHz over more than one minute.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haidar, S [Research Institute of Electrical Communication (RIEC), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi 980-8577 (Japan); Miyamoto, K [Research Institute of Electrical Communication (RIEC), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi 980-8577 (Japan); Ito, H [Research Institute of Electrical Communication (RIEC), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi 980-8577 (Japan)
2004-12-07
Signal and idlers waves obtained from a Nd : YAG laser pumped KTP optical parametric oscillator (OPO) are difference frequency mixed in a ZnGeP{sub 2} (ZGP) crystal to generate radiation in the mid-infrared. The KTP OPO is operated in the type-II phase matching mode, and the extraordinary and ordinary waves are tunable from 1.76 {mu}m to 2.36 {mu}m and from 2.61 {mu}m to 1.90 {mu}m, respectively. The orthogonally polarized waves are difference frequency mixed in a ZGP crystal to generate mid-IR radiation tunable from 5 to 12 {mu}m.
Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Electron Plasma Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1977-01-01
Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave.......Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.D.; Morozov, A.Yu.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.
1997-01-01
We develop a theory of the EPR-like effects due to neutrino oscillations in the π→μν decays. Its experimental implications are space-time correlations of the neutrino and muon when they are both detected, while the pion decay point is not fixed. However, the more radical possibility of μ-oscillations in experiments where only muons are detected (as suggested in hep-ph/9509261), is ruled out. We start by discussing decays of monochromatic pions, and point out a few ''paradoxes''. Then we consider pion wave packets, solve the ''paradoxes'', and show that the formulas for μν correlations can be transformed into the usual expressions, describing neutrino oscillations, as soon as the pion decay point is fixed. (orig.)
Effect of various periodic forces on Duffing oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bifurcations and chaos in the ubiquitous Duffing oscillator equation with different external periodic forces are studied numerically. The external periodic forces considered are sine wave, square wave, rectified sine wave, symmetric saw-tooth wave, asymmetric saw-tooth wave, rectangular wave with amplitude-dependent ...
Gamma oscillations: precise temporal coordination without a metronome.
Nikolić, Danko; Fries, Pascal; Singer, Wolf
2013-02-01
Gamma oscillations in the brain should not be conceptualized as a sine wave with constant oscillation frequency. Rather, these oscillations serve to concentrate neuronal discharges to particular phases of the oscillation cycle and thereby provide the substrate for various, functionally relevant synchronization phenomena. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lites, B.W.; Rutten, R.J.; Thomas, J.H.
1995-01-01
We show results from SO/Sacramento Peak data to discuss three issues: (i)--the spatial occurrence of chromospheric 3--min oscillations; (ii)--the validity of Ca II H&K line-center Doppler Shift measurements; (iii)--the signi ?cance of oscillation power and phase at frequencies above 10 mHz.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuce, C [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kilic, A [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Coruh, A [Physics Department, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)
2006-07-15
The inverted harmonic oscillator problem is investigated quantum mechanically. The exact wavefunction for the confined inverted oscillator is obtained and it is shown that the associated energy eigenvalues are discrete, and the energy is given as a linear function of the quantum number n.
Simulating moist convection with a quasi-elastic sigma coordinate model
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bopape, Mary-Jane M
2012-10-01
Full Text Available : Corrected TOGA COARE Sounding Humidity Data: Impact on Diagnosed Properties of Convection and Climate over the Warm Pool. Journal of Climate, 12, 2370-2384. WW, X Wu and MW Moncrieff, 1996: Cloud-Resolving Modeling of Tropical Cloud Systems during Phase... during the suppressed phase of a Madden-Julian Oscillation: Comparing single-column models with cloud resolving models. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 1-22. Sun S and W Sun, 2002: A One-dimensional Time Dependent Cloud Model...
Decadal and long-term sea level variability in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Nidheesh, A.G.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Dayan, H.
(Shankar and Shetye 1999, Unnikrishnan and Shankar 2007) as well as in the basin scale (Lee and McPhaden 2008, Cheng et al. 2008, Han et al. 2010) have been previously investigated, the picture of decadal/multi-decadal variability in the tropical Indo... dynamics along the rim of the northern Indian Ocean (McCreary et al. 1993, McCreary et al. 1996). At intra- seasonal timescales, the Indo-Pacific warm pool region is home to the Madden-Julian Oscillation, an eastward moving energetic fluctuation of deep...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the law of mass-action that every simple reaction approaches ... from thermodynamic equilibrium. Such oscillating systems cor- respond to thermodynamically open systems. .... experimentally observable, and the third is always unstable.
Matsunaga, Maya; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi
2018-03-01
In this paper, we describe a trade-off between spatial resolution and power consumption in an LC oscillator-based CMOS biosensor, which can detect biomolecules by observing the resonance frequency shift due to changes in the complex permittivity of the biomolecules. The optimal operating frequency and improvement in the image resolution of the sensor output require a reduction in the size of the inductor. However, it is necessary to increase the transconductance of the cross-coupling transistor to achieve the oscillation condition, although the power consumption increases. We confirmed the trade-off between the spatial resolution and the power consumption of this sensor using SPICE simulation. A test chip was fabricated using a 65 nm CMOS process, and the transition in the peak frequency and the power consumption were measured. When the outer diameter of the inductor was 46 µm, the power consumption was 31.2 mW, which matched well with the simulation results.
Nayfeh, Ali Hasan
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim
Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.
Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A
2013-08-01
We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.
Discontinuous Spirals of Stable Periodic Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G.; Lindberg, Erik
2013-01-01
We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase...
Phase Multistability in Coupled Oscillator Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, Erik; Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga
2003-01-01
along the orbit of the individual oscillator. Focusing on the mechanisms underlying the appearance of phase multistability, the paper examines a variety of phase-locked patterns. In particular we demonstrate the nested structure of synchronization regions for oscillations with multicrest wave forms...
Taking a peek at Bloch oscillations
Morsch, Oliver
2016-11-01
Bloch oscillations arise when matter waves inside a periodic potential, such as a crystal lattice, are accelerated by a constant force. Keßler et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 102001) have now experimentally tested a method that allows one to observe those oscillations continuously, without a destructive measurement on the matter wave. Their approach could help to make cold atom-based accelerometers and gravimeters more precise.
Takasuka, Daisuke; Satoh, Masaki; Miyakawa, Tomoki; Miura, Hiroaki
2018-04-01
To understand the intrinsic onset mechanism of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), we simulated a set of initiation processes of MJO-like disturbances in 10 year aqua-planet experiments using a global atmospheric model with a 56 km horizontal mesh and an explicit cloud scheme. Under a condition with a zonally nonuniform sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropics, we reproduced MJO-like disturbances over the western warm pool region. The lagged-composite analysis of detected MJO-like disturbances clarifies the time sequence of three-dimensional dynamic and moisture fields prior to the onset. We found that midtropospheric moistening, a condition that is favorable for deep convection, is particularly obvious in the initiation region 5-9 days before onset. The moistening is caused by two-dimensional horizontal advection due to cross-equatorial shallow circulations associated with mixed Rossby-gravity waves, as well as anomalous poleward flows of a negative Rossby response to suppressed convection. When the midtroposphere is sufficiently moistened, lower tropospheric signals of circumnavigating Kelvin waves trigger active convection. The surface latent heat flux (LHF) feedback contributes to the initial stages of convective organization, while the cloud-radiation feedback contributes to later stages. Sensitivity experiments suggest that circumnavigating Kelvin waves regulate the period of MJO-like disturbances because of efficient convective triggering and that the LHF feedback contributes to rapid convective organization. However, the experiments also reveal that both conditions are not necessary for the existence of MJO-like disturbances. Implications for the relevance of these mechanisms for MJO onset are also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stroppe, Heribert; Streitenberger, Peter; Specht, Eckard; Zeitler, Juergen; Langer, Heinz
2017-07-01
The present book is the unification of the proved problem collections for the basic physical training of studyings of especially engineering courses at technical colleges and universities. The book contains - didactically prepared and structured in the style of a textbook as well as with increasing difficulty - a total of 960 exemplary and additional tasks from the fields mechanics, heat, electricity and magnetism, oscillations and waves, as well as atomic and nuclear physics. For the exemplary problems the whole solution path and the complete calculation process with explanation of the relevant physical laws are extensively presented, for the additional problems for the self-control only the solutions and, if necessary, intermediate calculations are given. The examples and problems with mostly practice-oriented content are selected in such a way that they largely cover the matter treated in courses and exercises and make by their didactical preparation an effective repetition and optimal examination-preparation possible.
Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shur, Michael
2003-01-01
Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...
DeMott, C. A.; Klingaman, N. P.
2017-12-01
Skillful prediction of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) passage across the Maritime Continent (MC) has important implications for global forecasts of high-impact weather events, such as atmospheric rivers and heat waves. The North American teleconnection response to the MJO is strongest when MJO convection is located in the western Pacific Ocean, but many climate and forecast models are deficient in their simulation of MC-crossing MJO events. Compared to atmosphere-only general circulation models (AGCMs), MJO simulation skill generally improves with the addition of ocean feedbacks in coupled GCMs (CGCMs). Using observations, previous studies have noted that the degree of ocean coupling may vary considerably from one MJO event to the next. The coupling mechanisms may be linked to the presence of ocean Equatorial Rossby waves, the sign and amplitude of Equatorial surface currents, and the upper ocean temperature and salinity profiles. In this study, we assess the role of ocean feedbacks to MJO prediction skill using a subset of CGCMs participating in the Subseasonal-to-Seasonal (S2S) Project database. Oceanic observational and reanalysis datasets are used to characterize the upper ocean background state for observed MJO events that do and do not propagate beyond the MC. The ability of forecast models to capture the oceanic influence on the MJO is first assessed by quantifying SST forecast skill. Next, a set of previously developed air-sea interaction diagnostics is applied to model output to measure the role of SST perturbations on the forecast MJO. The "SST effect" in forecast MJO events is compared to that obtained from reanalysis data. Leveraging all ensemble members of a given forecast helps disentangle oceanic model biases from atmospheric model biases, both of which can influence the expression of ocean feedbacks in coupled forecast systems. Results of this study will help identify areas of needed model improvement for improved MJO forecasts.
A skeleton model for the MJO with refined vertical structure
Thual, Sulian; Majda, Andrew J.
2016-05-01
The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales and planetary spatial scales. The skeleton model is a minimal dynamical model that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (I) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 {ms}^{-1}, (II) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω /dk ≈ 0, and (III) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model depicts the MJO as a neutrally-stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. Here we propose and analyse an extended version of the skeleton model with additional variables accounting for the refined vertical structure of the MJO in nature. The present model reproduces qualitatively the front-to-rear vertical structure of the MJO found in nature, with MJO events marked by a planetary envelope of convective activity transitioning from the congestus to the deep to the stratiform type, in addition to a front-to-rear structure of moisture, winds and temperature. Despite its increased complexity the present model retains several interesting features of the original skeleton model such as a conserved energy and similar linear solutions. We further analyze a model version with a simple stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity. The stochastic model solutions show intermittent initiation, propagation and shut down of MJO wave trains, as in previous studies, in addition to MJO events with a front-to-rear vertical structure of varying intensity and characteristics from one event to another.
Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.
2012-03-01
The present study explores the mechanisms responsible for the strong intraseasonal cooling events in the Thermocline Ridge region of the southwestern Indian Ocean. Air sea interface and oceanic processes associated with Madden Julian Oscillation are studied using an Ocean General Circulation Model and satellite observations. Sensitivity experiments are designed to understand the ocean response to intraseasonal forcing with a special emphasis on 2002 cooling events, which recorded the strongest intraseasonal perturbations during the last well-observed decade. This event is characterized by anomalous Walker circulation over the tropical Indian Ocean and persistent intraseasonal heat flux anomaly for a longer duration than is typical for similar events (but without any favorable preconditioning of ocean basic state at the interannual timescale). The model heat budget analysis during 1996 to 2007 revealed an in-phase relationship between atmospheric fluxes associated with Madden Julian Oscillation and the subsurface oceanic processes during the intense cooling events of 2002. The strong convection, reduced shortwave radiation and increased evaporation have contributed to the upper ocean heat loss in addition to the slower propagation of active phase of convection, which supported the integration of longer duration of forcing. The sensitivity experiments revealed that dynamic response of ocean through entrainment at the intraseasonal timescale primarily controls the biological response during the event, with oceanic interannual variability playing a secondary role. This study further speculates the role of oceanic intraseasonal variability in the 2002 droughts over Indian subcontinent.
Conventional and anomalous quantum Rabi oscillations in graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Enamullah; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Upendra; Setlur, Girish S.
2014-01-01
We study the non linear response of graphene in presence of quantum field in two different regimes. Far from resonance, using our new technique asymptotic rotating wave approximation (ARWA), we obtained that the matter field interaction leads to the slow oscillations like conventional Rabi oscillations observed in conventional semiconductors using well known rotating wave approximation (RWA). The Rabi frequency obtained in both the regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badalov, S.A.; Filippov, G.F.
1986-01-01
The receipts to calculate the generating matrix elements of the algebraic version of resonating group method (RGM) are given for two- and three-cluster nucleon systems, the center of mass motion being separeted exactly. For the Hamiltonian with Gaussian nucleon-nucleon potential dependence the generating matrix elements of the RGM algebraic version can be written down explictly if matrix elements of the corresponding system on wave functions of the Brink cluster model are known
Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The other waves may be the upward propagating gravity waves or waves resulting from the interaction of inter-mode tidal oscillations, interaction of tidal waves with planetary waves and gravity waves. Some times, the second harmonic wave has higher vertical velocity than the corresponding fundamental wave. Application ...
Graf, Rudolf F
1996-01-01
This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing
Reducing pressure oscillations in discrete fluid power systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen
2016-01-01
Discrete fluid power systems featuring transmission lines inherently include pressure oscillations. Experimental verification of a discrete fluid power power take off system for wave energy converters has shown the cylinder pressure to oscillate as force shifts are performed. This article investi...... investigates how cylinder pressure oscillations may be reduced by shaping the valve opening trajectory without the need for closed loop pressure feedback. Furthermore the energy costs of reducing pressure oscillations are investigated....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kashiwagi, T., E-mail: kashiwagi@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Division of Materials Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Marković, B. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, George Washington Str., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Mirković, J. [Faculty of Science, University of Montenegro, and CETI, Put Radomira Ivanovica, 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Klemm, R. A. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816-2385 (United States)
2014-02-24
A computed tomography (CT) imaging system using monochromatic sub-terahertz coherent electromagnetic waves generated from a device constructed from the intrinsic Josephson junctions in a single crystalline mesa structure of the high-T{sub c} superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} was developed and tested on three samples: Standing metallic rods supported by styrofoam, a dried plant (heart pea) containing seeds, and a plastic doll inside an egg shell. The images obtained strongly suggest that this CT imaging system may be useful for a variety of practical applications.
One dimension harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.
1977-01-01
The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr
Scale interactions on diurnal toseasonal timescales and their relevanceto model systematic errors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Yang
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Examples of current research into systematic errors in climate models are used to demonstrate the importance of scale interactions on diurnal,intraseasonal and seasonal timescales for the mean and variability of the tropical climate system. It has enabled some conclusions to be drawn about possible processes that may need to be represented, and some recommendations to be made regarding model improvements. It has been shown that the Maritime Continent heat source is a major driver of the global circulation but yet is poorly represented in GCMs. A new climatology of the diurnal cycle has been used to provide compelling evidence of important land-sea breeze and gravity wave effects, which may play a crucial role in the heat and moisture budget of this key region for the tropical and global circulation. The role of the diurnal cycle has also been emphasized for intraseasonal variability associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO. It is suggested that the diurnal cycle in Sea Surface Temperature (SST during the suppressed phase of the MJO leads to a triggering of cumulus congestus clouds, which serve to moisten the free troposphere and hence precondition the atmosphere for the next active phase. It has been further shown that coupling between the ocean and atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales leads to a more realistic simulation of the MJO. These results stress the need for models to be able to simulate firstly, the observed tri-modal distribution of convection, and secondly, the coupling between the ocean and atmosphere on diurnal to intraseasonal timescales. It is argued, however, that the current representation of the ocean mixed layer in coupled models is not adequate to represent the complex structure of the observed mixed layer, in particular the formation of salinity barrier layers which can potentially provide much stronger local coupling between the atmosphere and ocean on diurnal to intraseasonal timescales.
Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator
Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.
1987-05-19
A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.
Power oscillation damping controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhiezer, A.I.; Davydov, L.N.; Spol'nik, Z.A.
1976-01-01
Oscillations of a nonideal crystal are studied, in which macroscopic defects (pores) form a hyperlattice. It is shown that alongside with acoustic and optical phonons (relative to the hyperlattice), in such a crystal oscillations of the third type are possible which are a hydridization of sound oscillations of atoms and surface oscillations of a pore. Oscillation spectra of all three types were obtained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong Soo; Bui, Ngoc Hung; Jung, Hyun Seok; Lee, Wook Hyun
2003-01-01
In the present study, the characteristics of pressure oscillation and heat transfer performance in an oscillating capillary tube heat pipe were experimentally investigated with respect to the heat flux, the charging ratio of working fluid, and the inclination angle to the horizontal orientation. The experimental results showed that the frequency of pressure oscillation was between 0.1 Hz and 1.5 Hz at the charging ratio of 40 vol.%. The saturation pressure of working fluid in the oscillating capillary tube heat pipe increased as the heat flux was increased. Also, as the charging ratio of working fluid was increased, the amplitude of pressure oscillation increased. When the pressure waves were symmetric sinusoidal waves at the charging ratios of 40 vol.% and 60 vol.%, the heat transfer performance was improved. At the charging ratios of 20 vol.% and 80 vol.%, the waveforms of pressure oscillation were more complicated, and the heat transfer performance reduced. At the charging ratio of 40 vol.%, the heat transfer performance of the OCHP was at the best when the inclination angle was 90 .deg., the pressure wave was a sinusoidal waveform, the pressure difference was at the least, the oscillation amplitude was at the least, and the frequency of pressure oscillation was the highest
From kaons to neutrinos: quantum mechanics of particle oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zralek, M.
1998-01-01
The problem of particle oscillation is considered in a pedagogical and comprehensive way. Examples from K, B and neutrino physics are given. Conceptual difficulties of the traditional approach to particle oscillation are discussed. It is shown how the probability current density and the wave packet treatments of particle oscillations resolve some problems. It is also shown that only full field theoretical approach is free from conceptual difficulties. The possibility of oscillation of particles produced together with kaons or neutrinos is considered in full wave packet quantum mechanics language. Precise definition of the oscillation of particles which recoil against mixed states is given. The general amplitude which describes the oscillation of two particles in the final states is found. Using this EPR-type amplitude the problem of oscillation of particles recoiling against kaons or neutrinos is resolved. The relativistic EPR correlations on distances of the order of coherence lengths are considered. (author)
Oscillators - a simple introduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2013-01-01
Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?......Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
1997-01-01
In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear wit...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos....
Electron plasma oscillations in the Venus foreshock
Crawford, G. K.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.
1990-01-01
Plasma waves are observed in the solar wind upstream of the Venus bow shock by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. These wave signatures occur during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field through the spacecraft position intersects the bow shock, thereby placing the spacecraft in the foreshock region. The electron foreshock boundary is clearly evident in the data as a sharp onset in wave activity and a peak in intensity. Wave intensity is seen to drop rapidly with increasing penetration into the foreshock. The peak wave electric field strength at the electron foreshock boundary is found to be similar to terrestrial observations. A normalized wave spectrum was constructed using measurements of the electron plasma frequency and the spectrum was found to be centered about this value. These results, along with polarization studies showing the wave electric field to be field aligned, are consistent with the interpretation of the waves as electron plasma oscillations.
Electron plasma oscillations in the Venus foreshock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, G.K.; Strangeway, R.J.; Russell, C.T.
1990-01-01
Plasma waves are observed in the solar wind upstream of the Venus bow shock by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. These wave signatures occur during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field through the spacecraft position intersects the bow shock, thereby placing the spacecraft in the foreshock region. The electron foreshock boundary is clearly evident in the data as a sharp onset in wave activity and a peak in intensity. Wave intensity is seen to drop rapidly with increasing penetration into the foreshock. The peak wave electric field strength at the electron foreshock boundary is found to be similar to terrestrial observations. A normalized wave spectrum was constructed using measurements of the electron plasma frequency and the spectrum was found to be centered about this value. These results, along with polarization studies showing the wave electric field to be field aligned, are consistent with the interpretation of the waves as electron plasma oscillations
On the theory of nuclear quadrupole oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrosimov, V.I.; Strutinskij, V.M.
1978-01-01
Presented is a deduction and a convinient writing form of the secular equation for nuclear quadrupole oscillations. The deduction is consistent with usual random phase approximation. It is regarded that the oscillations of the nuclear average potential are adiabatic with respect to formation of the Cooper pairs and the collective motion arises as a result of the coherent distortion of the quasiparticle wave functions. The energy gap changes are also taken into account
Neutrino oscillations and a new Faraday effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anwar Mughal, M.; Ahmed, K.
1992-07-01
By analogy with the classical Faraday effect for the electromagnetic waves, a Faraday effect for massive neutrinos is found to be a somewhat generic description of neutrino oscillations when the neutrinos traverse a dense medium with or without a magnetic field. We further plot the Faraday angle for the solar neutrino problem as an illustration of the fact that the Faraday effect may yield a conceptually convenient parametrization of various neutrino oscillation scenarios. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs
Chaos in generically coupled phase oscillator networks with nonpairwise interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bick, Christian; Ashwin, Peter; Rodrigues, Ana [Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control and Department of Mathematics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)
2016-09-15
The Kuramoto–Sakaguchi system of coupled phase oscillators, where interaction between oscillators is determined by a single harmonic of phase differences of pairs of oscillators, has very simple emergent dynamics in the case of identical oscillators that are globally coupled: there is a variational structure that means the only attractors are full synchrony (in-phase) or splay phase (rotating wave/full asynchrony) oscillations and the bifurcation between these states is highly degenerate. Here we show that nonpairwise coupling—including three and four-way interactions of the oscillator phases—that appears generically at the next order in normal-form based calculations can give rise to complex emergent dynamics in symmetric phase oscillator networks. In particular, we show that chaos can appear in the smallest possible dimension of four coupled phase oscillators for a range of parameter values.
Chaos in generically coupled phase oscillator networks with nonpairwise interactions.
Bick, Christian; Ashwin, Peter; Rodrigues, Ana
2016-09-01
The Kuramoto-Sakaguchi system of coupled phase oscillators, where interaction between oscillators is determined by a single harmonic of phase differences of pairs of oscillators, has very simple emergent dynamics in the case of identical oscillators that are globally coupled: there is a variational structure that means the only attractors are full synchrony (in-phase) or splay phase (rotating wave/full asynchrony) oscillations and the bifurcation between these states is highly degenerate. Here we show that nonpairwise coupling-including three and four-way interactions of the oscillator phases-that appears generically at the next order in normal-form based calculations can give rise to complex emergent dynamics in symmetric phase oscillator networks. In particular, we show that chaos can appear in the smallest possible dimension of four coupled phase oscillators for a range of parameter values.
Ng, Chiu-king
2010-01-01
When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…
Slow oscillations orchestrating fast oscillations and memory consolidation.
Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan
2011-01-01
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical memory. The slow oscillations temporally group neuronal activity into up-states of strongly enhanced neuronal activity and down-states of neuronal silence. In a feed-forward efferent action, this grouping is induced not only in the neocortex but also in other structures relevant to consolidation, namely the thalamus generating 10-15Hz spindles, and the hippocampus generating sharp wave-ripples, with the latter well known to accompany a replay of newly encoded memories taking place in hippocampal circuitries. The feed-forward synchronizing effect of the slow oscillation enables the formation of spindle-ripple events where ripples and accompanying reactivated hippocampal memory information become nested into the single troughs of spindles. Spindle-ripple events thus enable reactivated memory-related hippocampal information to be fed back to neocortical networks in the excitable slow oscillation up-state where they can induce enduring plastic synaptic changes underlying the effective formation of long-term memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Umbral oscillations as a probe of sunspot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdelatif, T.E.H.
1985-01-01
The interaction of the solar five-minute oscillations with a sunspot is thoroughly explored, both on observational and theoretical grounds. Simple theoretical models are developed in order to understand the observations of umbral oscillations. Observations made at the National Solar Observatory detected both the three-minute and five-minute umbral oscillations at photospheric heights. The three-minute oscillations were found to have a kinetic energy density six times higher in the photosphere than in the chromosphere and to be concentrated in the central part of the umbra, supporting the photospheric resonance theory for the three-minute umbral oscillations. The five-minute oscillations are attenuated in the umbra, which appears to act as a filter in selecting some of the peaks in the power spectrum of five-minute oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The k-omega power spectrum of the umbral oscillations shows a shift of power to longer wavelengths. Theoretical models of the transmission of acoustic waves into a magnetic region explain both observed effects
High Power Room Temperature Terahertz Local Oscillator, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a high-power, room temperature compact continuous wave terahertz local oscillator for driving heterodyne receivers in the 1-5 THz frequency...
Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.
2009-01-01
The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.
Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berins J.
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.
Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation
Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.
2017-08-01
The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.
Oscillator as a hidden non-Abelian monopole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mardoyan, L.G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Ter-Antonyan, V.M.
1996-01-01
A non-Abelian SU(2) model is constructed for a five-dimensional bound system 'charge-dyon' on the basis of the Hurwitz-transformed eight-dimensional isotropic quantum oscillator. The principle of dyon-oscillator duality is formulated; the energy spectrum and wave functions of the system 'charge-dyon' are calculated. 20 refs
Spectral inverse problem for q-deformed harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The supersymmetric quantization condition is used to study the wave functions of SWKB equivalent -deformed harmonic oscillator which are obtained by using only the knowledge of bound-state spectra of -deformed harmonic oscillator. We have also studied the nonuniqueness of the obtained interactions by this ...
Oscillator circuits frontiers in design, analysis and applications
2016-01-01
This book surveys recent developments in the design, analysis and applications of oscillator circuit design. It highlights developments in the analysis of synchronization and wave phenomena, new analytical and design methods and their application, and novel engineering applications of oscillator circuits.
Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo SP (Brazil); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2014-09-15
We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.
Oscillation and chaos in physiological control systems.
Mackey, M C; Glass, L
1977-07-15
First-order nonlinear differential-delay equations describing physiological control systems are studied. The equations display a broad diversity of dynamical behavior including limit cycle oscillations, with a variety of wave forms, and apparently aperiodic or "chaotic" solutions. These results are discussed in relation to dynamical respiratory and hematopoietic diseases.
Phase multistability of self-modulated oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sosnovtseva, Olga; Postnov, D.E.; Nekrasov, A.M.
2002-01-01
The paper examines the type of multistability that one can observe in the synchronization of two oscillators when the systems individually display self-modulation or other types of multicrest wave forms. The investigation is based on a phase reduction method and on the calculation of phase maps...... nonlinearity and a biologically motivated model of nephron autoregulation are presented....
Bursts of electron waves modulated by oblique ion waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boswell, R.W.
1984-01-01
Experimental evidence is presented which shows small packets of electron plasma waves modulated by large amplitude obliquely propagating non-linear ion plasma waves. Very often the whole system is modulated by an oscillation near the ion gyro frequency or its harmonics. The ion waves seem to be similar to those measured in the current carrying auroral plasma. These results suggest that the generation of ion and electron waves in the auroral plasma may be correlated
Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1997-04-01
Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.
Wave Climate and Wave Response, 2025 Plan, Kahului Harbor, Maui, Hawaii
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Thompson, Edward
2002-01-01
... (wind waves and swell) and long waves (harbor oscillations), was used to evaluate the technical feasibility of three alternative modifications to the harbor, including the Kahului Commercial Harbor 2025 Master Plan...
Ma, Hongbin
2015-01-01
This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation, theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer, neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes. The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whittaker, T.J.T. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK)); White, P.R.S. (Lanchester Polytechnic, Coventry (UK)); Baker, A.C.J. (Binnie and Partners, London (UK))
1988-10-01
An informal discussion on various wave energy converters is reported. These included a prototype oscillating water column (OWC) device being built on the Isle of Islay in Scotland; the SEA Clam; a tapering channel device (Tapchan) raising incoming waves into a lagoon on a Norwegian island and an OWC device on the same island. The Norwegian devices are delivering electricity at about 5.5p/KWh and 4p/KWh respectively with possibilities for reduction to 2.5-3p/KWh and 3p/KWh under favourable circumstances. The discussion ranged over comparisons with progress in wind power, engineering aspects, differences between inshore and offshore devices, tidal range and energy storage. (UK).
Lominadze, D G
2013-01-01
Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f
1981-03-01
Final Report: February 1978 ZAUTOMATIC OSCILLATING TURRET SYSTEM September 1980 * 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER .J7. AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...o....e.... *24 APPENDIX P-4 OSCILLATING BUMPER TURRET ...................... 25 A. DESCRIPTION 1. Turret Controls ...Other criteria requirements were: 1. Turret controls inside cab. 2. Automatic oscillation with fixed elevation to range from 20* below the horizontal to
Neutrino oscillations in matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikheyev, S.P.; Smirnov, A.Yu.
1986-01-01
In this paper we describe united formalism of ν-oscillations for different regimes, which is immediate generalization of vacuum oscillations theory. Adequate graphical representation of this formalism is given. We summarize main properties of ν-oscillations for different density distributions. (orig./BBOE)
The colpitts oscillator family
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.
A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...
Quantum oscillations in vortex-liquids
Banerjee, Sumilan; Zhang, Shizhong; Randeria, Mohit
2012-02-01
Motivated by observations of quantum oscillations in underdoped cuprates [1], we examine the electronic density of states (DOS) in a vortex-liquid state, where long-range phase coherence is destroyed by an external magnetic field H but the local pairing amplitude survives. We note that this regime is distinct from that studied in most of the recent theories, which have focused on either a Fermi liquid with a competing order parameter or on a d-wave vortex lattice. The cuprate experiments are very likely in a resistive vortex-liquid state. We generalize the s-wave analysis of Maki and Stephen [2] to d-wave pairing and examine various regimes of the chemical potential, gap and field. We find that the (1/H) oscillations of the DOS at the chemical potential in a d-wave vortex-liquid are much more robust, i.e., have a reduced damping, compared to the s-wave case. We critically investigate the conventional wisdom relating the observed frequency to the area of an underlying Fermi surface. We also show that the oscillations in the DOS cross over to a √H behavior in the low field limit, in agreement with the recent specific heat measurements. [1] L. Taillefer, J. Phys. Cond. Mat. 21, 164212 (2009). [2] M. J. Stephen, Phys. Rev. B 45, 5481 (1992).
Gravitational wave detector on the basis of light diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segizboev, T.I.; Uzhinskij, V.V.
1985-01-01
A method for detection of gravitational waves by means of light diffraction at the first maximum on oscillations in optically transparent matter under effect of gravitational waves is considered. Intensity of light flux scattering on oscillations of elastic rod is calculated. A possibility of using the diffraction method for detection of gravitational waves is disclosed
The rhythms of steady posture: Motor commands as spatially organized oscillation patterns
Heitmann, S.; Boonstra, T.W.; Gong, P.; Breakspear, M.; Ermentrout, B.
2015-01-01
Beta-band (15-30. Hz) oscillations in motor cortex have been implicated in voluntary movement and postural control. Yet the mechanisms linking those oscillations to function remains elusive. Recently, spatial waves of synchronized beta oscillations have been observed in primary and pre-motor cortex
Rainfall Patterns Analysis over Ampangan Muda, Kedah from 2007 - 2016
Chooi Tan, Kok
2018-04-01
The scientific knowledge about climate change and climate variability over Malaysia pertaining to the extreme water-related disaster such as drought and flood. A deficit or increment in precipitation occurred over the past century becomes a useful tool to understand the climate change in Malaysia. The purpose of this work is to examine the rainfall patterns over Ampangan Muda, Kedah. Daily rainfall data is acquired from Malaysian Meteorological Department to analyse the temporal and trends of the monthly and annual rainfall over the study area from 2007 to 2016. The obtained results show that the temporal and patterns of the rainfall over Ampangan Muda, Kedah is largely affected by the regional phenomena such as monsoon, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Madden-Julian Oscillation. In addition, backward trajectories analysis is also used to identify the patterns for long-range of synoptic circulation over the region.
Photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator with tunable resonance direction and amplitude
Wu, Qingjun; Li, Fanghao; Wang, Bo; Yi, Futing; Jiang, J. Z.; Zhang, Dongxian
2018-01-01
We successfully design one photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator actuated by nanosecond laser, which exhibits tunable resonance direction and amplitude. The mechanism of laser induced oscillation is systematically analyzed. Both simulation and experimental results reveal that the laser induced acoustic wave propagates in a multi-reflected mode, resulting in resonance in the oscillator. This newly-fabricated micrometer-sized beam-oscillator has an excellent actuation function, i.e., by tuning the laser frequency, the direction and amplitude of actuation can be efficiently altered, which will have potential industrial applications.
Nature's Autonomous Oscillators
Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.
2012-01-01
Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.
NREM sleep oscillations and brain plasticity in aging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stuart eFogel
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The human electroencephalogram (EEG during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM is characterized mainly by high-amplitude (> 75 µV, slow-frequency (< 4 Hz waves (slow waves; SW and sleep spindles (~11-15 Hz; > 0.25 s. These NREM oscillations play a crucial role in brain plasticity, and importantly, NREM sleep oscillations change considerably with aging. This review discusses the association between NREM sleep oscillations and cerebral plasticity as well as the functional impact of age-related changes on NREM sleep oscillations. We propose that age-related reduction in sleep-dependent memory consolidation may be due in part to changes in NREM sleep oscillations.
Solar neutrinos and nonradial solar oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zatsepin, G.T.; Gavryuseva, E.A.; Kopysov, Yu.S.
1980-01-01
The problem of origin of surface solar oscillations is considered. It is assumed that generation of oscillations is performed by the solar nucleus. The necessary excitation condition for gravitational oscillations of the solar nucleus is a sharp decrease of the oscillation amplitude outside the nucleus, where the nuclear reaction rates are small and only radiation losses are considerable. It is shown that the specific singularities of gravitational wave propagation in solar entrails permit to attain a significant reduction of the oscillation amplitude. The solar entrails can serve as an effective trap for gravitational waves, if the substance of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. In order that the g 1 quadrupole mode of the solar nucleus has a period of 2h 40 min and sharply decreases in the solar mantle, it is enough that only the external part of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. Closeness of the solar nucleus to the state of convectional equilibrium is an argument in favour of its periodic mixing. Periodic mixing of the solar nucleus can serve as a cause of a low counting rate of solar neutrinos in R.Davis chlorous detector
Three-dimensional analysis of nonlinear plasma oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miano, G.
1990-01-01
In an underdense plasma a large-amplitude plasma oscillation may be produced by the beating of two external and colinear electromagnetic waves with a frequency difference approximately equal to the plasma frequency - plasma beat wave (PBW) resonant mechanism. The plasma oscillations are driven by the ponderomotive force arising from the beating of the two imposed electromagnetic waves. In this paper two pump electromagnetic waves with arbitrary transverse profiles have been considered. The plasma is described by using the three dimensinal weakly relativistic fluid equations. The nonlinear plasma oscillation dynamics is studied by using the eulerian description, the averaging and the multiple time scale methods. Unlike the linear theory a strong cross field coupling between longitudinal ans transverse electric field components of the plasma oscillation comes out, resulting in a nonlinear phase change and energy transfer between the two components. Unlike the one-dimensional nonlinear theory, the nonlinear frequency shift is caused by relativistic effects as well as by convective effects and electromagnetic field generated from the three dimensional plasma oscillation. The large amplitude plasma oscillation dynamics produced by a bunched relativistic electron beam with arbitrary transverse profile - plasma wave field (PWF) - or by a high power single frequency short electromagnetic pulse with arbitrary transverse profile - electromagnetic plasma wake field (EPWF) - may be described by means of the present theory. (orig.)
Reid, Jeffrey S.; Xian, Peng; Holben, Brent N.; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Salinas, Santo V.; Zhang, Jianglong; Campbell, James R.; Chew, Boon Ning; Holz, Robert E.;
2016-01-01
The largest 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operation period within the Maritime Continent (MC) occurred in the August-September 2012 biomass burning season. Included was an enhanced deployment of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometers, multiple lidars, and field measurements to observe transported smoke and pollution as it left the MC and entered the southwest monsoon trough. Here we describe the nature of the overall 2012 southwest monsoon (SWM) and biomass burning season to give context to the 2012 deployment. The MC in 2012 was in a slightly warm El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and with spatially typical burning activity. However, overall fire counts for 2012 were 10 lower than the Reid et al. (2012) baseline, with regions of significant departures from this norm, ranging from southern Sumatra (+30) to southern Kalimantan (42). Fire activity and monsoonal flows for the dominant burning regions were modulated by a series of intraseasonal oscillation events (e.g., Madden-Julian Oscillation, or MJO, and boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation, or BSISO). As is typical, fire activity systematically progressed eastward over time, starting with central Sumatran fire activity in June related to a moderately strong MJO event which brought drier air from the Indian Ocean aloft and enhanced monsoonal flow. Further burning in Sumatra and Kalimantan Borneo occurred in a series of significant events from early August to a peak in the first week of October, ending when the monsoon started to migrate back to its wintertime northeastern flow conditions in mid-October. Significant monsoonal enhancements and flow reversals collinear with tropical cyclone (TC) activity and easterly waves were also observed. Islands of the eastern MC, including Sulawesi, Java, and Timor, showed less sensitivity to monsoonal variation, with slowly increasing fire activity that also peaked in early October but lingered into November. Interestingly, even though fire counts were
Power oscillations in BWR reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa P, G.
2002-01-01
One of the main problems in the operation of BWR type reactors is the instability in power that these could present. One type of oscillations and that is the objective of this work is the named density wave, which is attributed to the thermohydraulic processes that take place in the reactor core. From the beginnings of the development of BWR reactors, the stability of these has been an important aspect in their design, due to its possible consequences on the fuel integrity. The reactor core operates in two phase flow conditions and it is observed that under certain power and flow conditions, power instabilities appear. Studying this type of phenomena is complex, due to that a reactor core is constituted approximately by 27,000 fuel bars with different distributions of power and flow. The phenomena that cause the instability in BWR reactors continue being matter of scientific study. In the literature mainly in nuclear subject, it can be observed that exist different methods and approximations for studying this type of phenomena, nevertheless, their results are focused to establish safety limits in the reactor operation, instead of studying in depth of the knowledge about. Also in this line sense of the reactor data analysis, the oscillations characteristic frequencies are obtained for trying to establish if the power is growing or decreasing. In addition to that before mentioned in this paper it is presented a rigorous study applying the volumetric average method, for obtaining the vacuum waves propagation velocities and its possible connection with the power oscillations. (Author)
A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
2012-10-06
This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.
A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.
2012-01-01
This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.
WATER HAMMER OSCILLATIONS IN THE IRRIGATION FACILITIES
Kurata, Kouichi; Sasaki, Katsuhito; Makihata, Toshiaki
In case a gate installed at the end of discharge conduit is vibrating during discharge, or an air valve is vibrating during water-filling operation into the conduit pipe between main gate and auxiliary gate, and vibration period tv is larger than tc (water hammer propagation time) that is equivalent to the phenomenon of slow closure, there is a possibility that water hammer oscillation in the discharge conduit could be induced. In this paper, by using two case examples, vibration phenomena transmitted to each part are analyzed, on the basis of water pressure fluctuation and pressure wave propagation due to occurrence of water hammer oscillation.
A two-center-oscillator-basis as an alternative set for heavy ion processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, V.; Reinhard, P.G.; Drechsel, D.
1977-01-01
The two-center-oscillator-basis, which is constructed from harmonic oscillator wave functions developing about two different centers, suffers from numerical problems at small center separations due to the overcompleteness of the set. In order to overcome these problems we admix higer oscillator wave functions before the orthogonalization, or antisymmetrization resp. This yields a numerically stable basis set at each center separation. The results obtained for the potential energy suface are comparable with the results of more elaborate models. (orig.) [de
Spin waves theory and applications
Stancil, Daniel D
2009-01-01
Magnetic materials can support propagating waves of magnetization; since these are oscillations in the magneto static properties of the material, they are called magneto static waves (sometimes 'magnons' or 'magnetic polarons'). This book discusses magnetic properties of materials, and magnetic moments of atoms and ions
Kato, Shoji
2016-01-01
This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...
Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration
Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis
2005-09-01
This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.
On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kibler, M [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Mardoyan, L G; Pogosyan, G S [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics
1997-12-31
This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,.
On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibler, M.; Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.
1996-01-01
This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,
The Oscillator Principle of Nature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2012-01-01
Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...
Solar Dynamo Driven by Periodic Flow Oscillation
Mayr, Hans G.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have proposed that the periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle is determined by wave mean flow interactions analogous to those driving the Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the Earth's atmosphere. Upward propagating gravity waves would produce oscillating flows near the top of the radiation zone that in turn would drive a kinematic dynamo to generate the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The dynamo we propose is built on a given time independent magnetic field B, which allows us to estimate the time dependent, oscillating components of the magnetic field, (Delta)B. The toroidal magnetic field (Delta)B(sub phi) is directly driven by zonal flow and is relatively large in the source region, (Delta)(sub phi)/B(sub Theta) much greater than 1. Consistent with observations, this field peaks at low latitudes and has opposite polarities in both hemispheres. The oscillating poloidal magnetic field component, (Delta)B(sub Theta), is driven by the meridional circulation, which is difficult to assess without a numerical model that properly accounts for the solar atmosphere dynamics. Scale-analysis suggests that (Delta)B(sub Theta) is small compared to B(sub Theta) in the dynamo region. Relative to B(sub Theta), however, the oscillating magnetic field perturbations are expected to be transported more rapidly upwards in the convection zone to the solar surface. As a result, (Delta)B(sub Theta) (and (Delta)B(sub phi)) should grow relative to B(sub Theta), so that the magnetic fields reverse at the surface as observed. Since the meridional and zonai flow oscillations are out of phase, the poloidal magnetic field peaks during times when the toroidal field reverses direction, which is observed. With the proposed wave driven flow oscillation, the magnitude of the oscillating poloidal magnetic field increases with the mean rotation rate of the fluid. This is consistent with the Bode-Blackett empirical scaling law, which reveals that in massive astrophysical bodies the magnetic moment tends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.
2017-01-01
Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)
2017-03-18
Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.
Stochastic generation of continuous wave spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trulsen, J.; Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans
1983-01-01
Wave packets of electromagnetic or Langmuir waves trapped in a well between oscillating reflectors are considered. An equation for the temporal evolution of the probability distribution for the carrier wave number is derived, and solved analytically in terms of moments in the limits of long...
Nonlinear pattern formation of Faraday waves
Binks, D.J.; Water, van de W.
1997-01-01
A cascade of surface wave patterns with increasing rotational symmetry ranging from simple square to tenfold quasiperiodic is observed for Faraday waves. The experiment concerns the excitation of subharmonic standing surface waves by oscillating vertical acceleration. Our observation agrees with the
Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu
2003-01-01
A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima
2007-01-01
In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
2008-01-01
We discuss nonlinear mechanical systems containing several oscillators whose frequecies are all much higher than frequencies associated with the remaining degrees of freedom. In this situation a near constant of the motion, an adiabatic invariant, exists which is the sum of all the oscillator...... actions. The phenomenon is illustrated, and calculations of the small change of the adiabatic invariant is outlined....
Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.
1997-01-01
Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...... oscillators are investigated demonstrating synchronization by means of only one properly selected variable....
Electrogravitational stability of oscillating streaming fluid cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasan, Alfaisal A.
2011-01-01
The electrogravitational instability of on oscillating streaming fluid cylinder under the action of the selfgravitating, capillary and electrodynamic forces has been discussed. The model is governed by the Mathieu second order integro-differential equation. Some limiting cases are recovering from the present general one. The capillary force is destabilizing in a small axisymmetric domain 0< x<1 and stabilizing otherwise. In the absence of electric fields, we found that the model is unstable in a small domain while it is selfgravitating stable in all other domains. The presence of the electric field led to the presence of a great number of stable waves. The electric field has a strong stabilizing influence on the selfgravitating instability of the model. The capillary force has a strong destabilizing influence on the selfgravitating instability of the model. Generally, the uniform stream supports the unstable waves, while the oscillating streaming has stability tendency.
Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling Processes Affecting Predictability in the Climate System
Miller, A. J.; Subramanian, A. C.; Seo, H.; Eliashiv, J. D.
2017-12-01
Predictions of the ocean and atmosphere are often sensitive to coupling at the air-sea interface in ways that depend on the temporal and spatial scales of the target fields. We will discuss several aspects of these types of coupled interactions including oceanic and atmospheric forecast applications. For oceanic mesoscale eddies, the coupling can influence the energetics of the oceanic flow itself. For Madden-Julian Oscillation onset, the coupling timestep should resolve the diurnal cycle to properly raise time-mean SST and latent heat flux prior to deep convection. For Atmospheric River events, the evolving SST field can alter the trajectory and intensity of precipitation anomalies along the California coast. Improvements in predictions will also rely on identifying and alleviating sources of biases in the climate states of the coupled system. Surprisingly, forecast skill can also be improved by enhancing stochastic variability in the atmospheric component of coupled models as found in a multiscale ensemble modeling approach.
Garfinkel, C I; Schwartz, C
2017-10-16
The effect of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the Northern Hemisphere wintertime stratospheric polar vortex in the period preceding stratospheric sudden warmings is evaluated in operational subseasonal forecasting models. Reforecasts which simulate stronger MJO-related convection in the Tropical West Pacific also simulate enhanced heat flux in the lowermost stratosphere and a more realistic vortex evolution. The time scale on which vortex predictability is enhanced lies between 2 and 4 weeks for nearly all cases. Those stratospheric sudden warmings that were preceded by a strong MJO event are more predictable at ∼20 day leads than stratospheric sudden warmings not preceded by a MJO event. Hence, knowledge of the MJO can contribute to enhanced predictability, at least in a probabilistic sense, of the Northern Hemisphere polar stratosphere.
Study of Pressure Oscillations in Supersonic Parachute
Dahal, Nimesh; Fukiba, Katsuyoshi; Mizuta, Kazuki; Maru, Yusuke
2018-04-01
Supersonic parachutes are a critical element of planetary mission whose simple structure, light-weight characteristics together with high ratio of aerodynamic drag makes them the most suitable aerodynamic decelerators. The use of parachute in supersonic flow produces complex shock/shock and wake/shock interaction giving rise to dynamic pressure oscillations. The study of supersonic parachute is difficult, because parachute has very flexible structure which makes obtaining experimental pressure data difficult. In this study, a supersonic wind tunnel test using two rigid bodies is done. The wind tunnel test was done at Mach number 3 by varying the distance between the front and rear objects, and the distance of a bundle point which divides suspension lines and a riser. The analysis of Schlieren movies revealed shock wave oscillation which was repetitive and had large pressure variation. The pressure variation differed in each case of change in distance between the front and rear objects, and the change in distance between riser and the rear object. The causes of pressure oscillation are: interaction of wake caused by front object with the shock wave, fundamental harmonic vibration of suspension lines, interference between shock waves, and the boundary layer of suspension lines.
Photoelectric observations of propagating sunspot oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lites, B.W.; White, O.R.; Packman, D.
1982-01-01
The Sacramento Park Observatory Vacuum Tower Telescope and diode array were used to make repeated intensity and velocity images of a large, isolated sunspot in both a chromospheric (lambda8542 Ca II) and a photospheric (lambda5576 Fe I) line. The movie of the digital data for the chromospheric line shows clearly a relationship between the propagating umbral disturbances and the running penumbral waves. The velocities for transverse propagating of the umbral and penumbral disturbances are 60--70 km s -1 and 20--35 km s -1 , respectively. Power spectra of the oscillations show a sharp peak at a period of about 170 s in both the velocity and intensity signals. The rms velocity fluctuation of this power peak is 0.26 km s -1 . The oscillations at any given point in the sunspot are very regular, and the phase relationship between the velocity and intensity of the chromospheric oscillations is radically different than that for the quiet Sun. Our preliminary interpretation of the phase relationship involves acoustic waves with wave vector directed downwards along the magnetic field lines; however, this interpretation relies on assumptions involved in the data reduction scheme. The mechanical energy flux carried by the observed umbral disturbances does not appear to be a significant contributor to the overall energy budget of the sunspot or the surrounding active region
SIMULATION OF SYNCHRONIZATION OF NONLINEAR OSCILLATORS BY THE EXTERNAL FIELD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Kuklin
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the self-consistent model was considered, consisting of a system of oscillators, the coupling between them was assumed to be integral (due to the fields formed as a result of their co-radiation. With the help of this model, the features of synchronization by waves of finite amplitude of a system of oscillators were refined, the initial phase values of which are random. The effect of nonlinearity, in particular, due to the change in the mass of the oscillator due to relativistic effects, was taken into account. It was shown that the nonlinearity does not violate the nature of the energy exchange between the wave and the oscillator system, leading only to a slight decrease in the efficiency of such an exchange.
Chaotic synchronization of two complex nonlinear oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Mahmoud, Emad E.; Farghaly, Ahmed A.; Aly, Shaban A.
2009-01-01
Synchronization is an important phenomenon commonly observed in nature. It is also often artificially induced because it is desirable for a variety of applications in physics, applied sciences and engineering. In a recent paper [Mahmoud GM, Mohamed AA, Aly SA. Strange attractors and chaos control in periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators. Physica A 2001;292:193-206], a system of periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators was introduced and shown to display chaotic behavior and possess strange attractors. Such complex oscillators appear in many problems of physics and engineering, as, for example, nonlinear optics, deep-water wave theory, plasma physics and bimolecular dynamics. Their connection to solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation has also been pointed out. In this paper, we study the remarkable phenomenon of chaotic synchronization on these oscillator systems, using active control and global synchronization techniques. We derive analytical expressions for control functions and show that the dynamics of error evolution is globally stable, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. This means that, for a relatively large set initial conditions, the differences between the drive and response systems vanish exponentially and synchronization is achieved. Numerical results are obtained to test the validity of the analytical expressions and illustrate the efficiency of these techniques for inducing chaos synchronization in our nonlinear oscillators.
Guided waves in magnetospheric tubes of enhanced density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maltsev, Yu.P.; Lyatsky, W.B.
1981-01-01
Properties of a guided MHD-wave propagating in a magnetic field tube with the plasma density differing from the ambient density are studied. Like the Alven wave this wave propagates along the magnetic field and is connected with the field-aligned currents flowing at the periphery of the oscillating tube. The guided wave is accompanied by the magnetic field compression, nevertheless the wave moves without attenuation. The guided wave velocity is between the Alven velocities inside and outside the oscillating tube. In a tube of elliptical cross-section the propagation velocity depends on the polarization of the wave. (author)
Microphysical Analysis using Airborne 2-D Cloud and Precipitation Imaging Probe Data
Guy, N.; Jorgensen, D.; Witte, M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Black, R. A.
2013-12-01
The NOAA P-3 instrumented aircraft provided in-situ cloud and precipitation microphysical observations during the DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) field experiment. The Particle Measuring System 2D cloud (2D-C) and precipitation (2D-P) probes collected data for particles between 12.5 μm - 1.55 mm (25 μm resolution) and 100 μm - 6.2 mm (100 μm resolution), respectively. Spectra from each instrument were combined to provide a broad distribution of precipitation particle sizes. The 'method of moments' technique was used to analyze drop size distribution (DSD) spectra, which were modeled by fitting a three-parameter (slope, shape, and intercept) gamma distribution to the spectra. The characteristic shape of the mean spectrum compares to previous maritime measurements. DSD variability will be presented with respect to the temporal evolution of cloud populations during a Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) event, as well as in-situ aircraft vertical wind velocity measurements. Using the third and sixth moments, rainfall rate (R) and equivalent radar reflectivity factor (Z), respectively, were computed for each DSD. Linear regression was applied to establish a Z-R relationship for the data for the estimation of precipitation. The study indicated unique characteristics of microphysical processes for this region. These results are important to continue to define the cloud population characteristics in the climatological MJO region. Improved representation of the cloud characteristics on the microphysical scale will serve as a check to model parameterizations, helping to improve numerical simulations.
Oscillating water column structural model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-09-01
An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lominadse, D.G.
1975-01-01
The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results
Herpen, M.M.J.W. van; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Bisson, S.E.; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Woltering, E.J.; Harren, F.J.M.
2006-01-01
A continuous wave, single frequency and continuously tunable optical parametric oscillator is used in combination with photoacoustic spectroscopy to detect trace emissions of CO2 from insects under atmospheric conditions. The optical parametric oscillator (OPO) contains a periodically poled lithium
Herpen, van M.M.J.W.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Bisson, S.E.; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Woltering, E.J.; Harren, F.J.M.
2006-01-01
A continuous wave, single frequency and continuously tunable optical parametric oscillator is used in combination with photoacoustic spectroscopy to detect trace emissions of CO2 from insects under atmospheric conditions. The optical parametric oscillator (OPO) contains a periodically poled lithium
Observation of Quasichanneling Oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wistisen, T. N.; Mikkelsen, R. E.; Uggerhoj, University I.; Wienands, University; Markiewicz, T. W.
2017-01-01
Here, we report on the first experimental observations of quasichanneling oscillations, recently seen in simulations and described theoretically. Although above-barrier particles penetrating a single crystal are generally seen as behaving almost as in an amorphous substance, distinct oscillation peaks nevertheless appear for particles in that category. The quasichanneling oscillations were observed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory by aiming 20.35 GeV positrons and electrons at a thin silicon crystal bent to a radius of R = 0.15 m, exploiting the quasimosaic effect. For electrons, two relatively faint quasichanneling peaks were observed, while for positrons, seven quasichanneling peaks were clearly identified.
LSND neutrino oscillation results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louis, W.C.
1996-01-01
In the past several years, a number of experiments have searched for neutrino oscillations, where a neutrino of one type (say bar ν μ ) spontaneously transforms into a neutrino of another type (say bar ν e ). For this phenomenon to occur, neutrinos must be massive and the apparent conservation law of lepton families must be violated. In 1995 the LSND experiment published data showing candidate events that are consistent with bar ν μ oscillations. Additional data are reported here which provide stronger evidence for neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayser, Boris
2014-01-01
To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kayser, Boris [Fermilab (United States)
2014-07-01
To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agaisse, R.; Leguen, R.; Ombredane, D.
1960-01-01
The authors present a mechanical device and an electronic control circuit which have been designed to sinusoidally modulate the reactivity of the Proserpine atomic pile. The mechanical device comprises an oscillator and a mechanism assembly. The oscillator is made of cadmium blades which generate the reactivity oscillation. The mechanism assembly comprises a pulse generator for cycle splitting, a gearbox and an engine. The electronic device comprises or performs pulse detection, an on-off device, cycle pulse shaping, phase separation, a dephasing amplifier, electronic switches, counting scales, and control devices. All these elements are briefly presented
The chimera state in colloidal phase oscillators with hydrodynamic interaction
Hamilton, Evelyn; Bruot, Nicolas; Cicuta, Pietro
2017-12-01
The chimera state is the incongruous situation where coherent and incoherent populations coexist in sets of identical oscillators. Using driven non-linear oscillators interacting purely through hydrodynamic forces at low Reynolds number, previously studied as a simple model of motile cilia supporting waves, we find concurrent incoherent and synchronised subsets in small arrays. The chimeras seen in simulation display a "breathing" aspect, reminiscent of uniformly interacting phase oscillators. In contrast to other systems where chimera has been observed, this system has a well-defined interaction metric, and we know that the emergent dynamics inherit the symmetry of the underlying Oseen tensor eigenmodes. The chimera state can thus be connected to a superposition of eigenstates, whilst considering the mean interaction strength within and across subsystems allows us to make a connection to more generic (and abstract) chimeras in populations of Kuramoto phase oscillators. From this work, we expect the chimera state to emerge in experimental observations of oscillators coupled through hydrodynamic forces.
Neutrino oscillations in discrete-time quantum walk framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallick, Arindam; Mandal, Sanjoy; Chandrashekar, C.M. [C. I. T. Campus, The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Mumbai (India)
2017-02-15
Here we present neutrino oscillation in the framework of quantum walks. Starting from a one spatial dimensional discrete-time quantum walk we present a scheme of evolutions that will simulate neutrino oscillation. The set of quantum walk parameters which is required to reproduce the oscillation probability profile obtained in both, long range and short range neutrino experiment is explicitly presented. Our scheme to simulate three-generation neutrino oscillation from quantum walk evolution operators can be physically realized in any low energy experimental set-up with access to control a single six-level system, a multiparticle three-qubit or a qubit-qutrit system. We also present the entanglement between spins and position space, during neutrino propagation that will quantify the wave function delocalization around instantaneous average position of the neutrino. This work will contribute towards understanding neutrino oscillation in the framework of the quantum information perspective. (orig.)
Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission.
Longhi, Stefano
2016-04-15
Optical parametric amplification and oscillation provide powerful tools for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency down-conversion process and, thus, it cannot be realized for signal waves at a frequency ω3 higher than the frequency of the pump wave ω1. In this Letter, we suggest a route toward the realization of upconversion optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e., amplification of the signal wave by a coherent pump wave of lower frequency, assisted by stimulated emission of the auxiliary idler wave. When the signal field is resonated in an optical cavity, parametric oscillation is obtained. Design parameters for the observation of upconversion optical parametric oscillation at λ3=465 nm are given for a periodically poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) crystal doped with Nd(3+) ions.
Exact solutions and ladder operators for a new anharmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Shihai; Sun Guohua; Lozada-Cassou, M.
2005-01-01
In this Letter, we propose a new anharmonic oscillator and present the exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation with this oscillator. The ladder operators are established directly from the normalized radial wave functions and used to evaluate the closed expressions of matrix elements for some related functions. Some comments are made on the general calculation formula and recurrence relation for off-diagonal matrix elements. Finally, we show that this anharmonic oscillator possesses a hidden symmetry between E(r) and E(ir) by substituting r->ir
Temperature oscillating regimes in Tore Supra diagnosed by MHD activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maget, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Giruzzi, G.; Udintsev, V.S.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Segui, J.-L.; Goniche, M.; Moreau, Ph.; Sabot, R.; Garbet, X.
2006-01-01
This paper describes what we can learn on the regimes of spontaneous electron temperature oscillations discovered in Tore Supra from the analysis of MHD activity. Since the first observations of this oscillating behaviour of plasma equilibrium, and its interpretation as a predator-prey system involving lower hybrid waves power deposition and electron confinement, analysis of MHD modes has confirmed the reality of safety factor profile oscillations. This points towards the importance of rational values of the safety factor in the transition to transport barriers in reversed magnetic shear plasmas
Dynamics of the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge
Bulusu, S.
2016-02-01
The southwest tropical Indian Ocean (SWTIO) features a unique, seasonal upwelling of the thermocline also known as the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR). More recently, this ridge or "dome"-like feature in the thermocline depth at (55°E-65°E, 5°S-12°S) in the SWTIO has been linked to interannual variability in the semi-annual Indian Ocean monsoon seasons as well as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The SCTR is a region where the MJO is associated with strong SST variability. Normally more cyclones are found generated in this SCTR region when the thermocline is deeper, which has a positive relation to the arrival of a downwelling Rossby wave from the southeast tropical Indian Ocean. Previous studies have focused their efforts solely on sea surface temperature (SST) because they determined salinity variability to be low, but with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and Aquarius salinity missions new insight can be shed on the effects that the seasonal upwelling of the thermocline has on Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Seasonal SSS anomalies these missions will reveal the magnitude of seasonal SSS variability, while Argo depth profiles will show the link between changes in subsurface salinity and temperature structure. A seasonal increase in SST and a decrease in SSS associated with the downwelling of the thermocline have also been shown to occasionally generate MJO events, an extremely important part of climate variability in the Indian ocean. Satellite derives salinity and Argo data can help link changes in surface and subsurface salinity structure to the generation of the important MJO events. This study uses satellite derived salinity from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and Aquarius to see if these satellites can yield new information on seasonal and interannual surface variability. In this study barrier layer thickness (BLT) estimates will be derived from satellite measurements using a
Lim, Young-Kwon
This study investigates the space-time evolution of the dominant modes that constitute the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), and, as an ultimate goal, the climate prediction of the ASM rainfall. Precipitation and other synoptic variables during the prominent life cycle of the ASM (May 21 to September 17) are used to show the detailed features of dominant modes, which are identified as the seasonal cycle, the ISO defined by the 40--50 day intraseasonal oscillation including the Madden-Julian oscillation, and the El Nino mode. The present study reveals that the ISO is the second largest component of the ASM rainfall variation. Correlation analysis indicates that ISO explains a larger fraction of the variance of the observed precipitation (without climatology) than the ENSO mode. The dominant ISO signal faithfully explains the northward propagation of the ISO toward the Asian continent causing intraseasonal active/break periods. The interannual variation of the ISO strength suggests that the ENSO exerts some influence on the ISO. The composite convective ISO anomaly and Kelvin-Rossby wave response over the Indian Ocean shows that the ISO tends to be stronger during the early stage of the ASM than normal in El Nino (La Nina) years, indicating greater (smaller) possibility of ISO-related extreme rainfall over India, Bangladesh, and the Bay of Bengal. The ENSO mode reveals that the following factors affect the evolution of the ASM system in El Nino (La Nina) years. (1) The anomalous sea surface temperature and sea level pressure over the Indian Ocean during the early stage of the ASM weaken (enhance) the meridional pressure gradient. (2) As a result, the westerly jet and the ensuing moisture transport toward India and the Bay of Bengal become weak (strong) and delayed (expedited), providing a less (more) favorable condition for regional monsoon onsets. (3) The Walker circulation anomaly results in an enhanced subsidence (ascent) and drought (flood) over the Maritime continent
OSCILLATING FILAMENTS. I. OSCILLATION AND GEOMETRICAL FRAGMENTATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: gritschm@usm.uni-muenchen.de [University Observatory Munich, LMU Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)
2017-01-10
We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.
A first course in vibrations and waves
Samiullah, Mohammad
2015-01-01
This book builds on introductory physics and emphasizes understanding of vibratory motion and waves based on first principles. The book is divided into three parts. Part I contains a preliminary chapter that serves as a review of relevant ideas of mechanics and complex numbers. Part II is devoted to a detailed discussion of vibrations of mechanical systems. This part covers a simple harmonic oscillator, coupled oscillators, normal coordinates, beaded string, continuous string, standing waves, and Fourier series. Part II ends with a presentation of stationary solutions of driven finite systems. Part III is concerned with waves. Here, the emphasis is on the discussion of common aspects of all types of waves. The applications to sound, electromagnetic, and matter waves are illustrated. The book also includes examples from water waves and electromagnetic waves on a transmission line. The emphasis of the book is to bring out the similarities among various types of waves. The book includes treatment of reflection a...
Again on neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.
1976-01-01
The general case is treated of a weak interaction theory in which a term violating lepton charges is present. In such a scheme the particles with definite masses are Majorana neutrinos (2N if in the weak interaction participate N four-component neutrinos). Neutrino oscillations are discussed and it is shown that the minimum average intensity at the earth of solar neutrinos is 1/2N of the intensity expected when oscillations are absent
Oscillators and operational amplifiers
Lindberg, Erik
2005-01-01
A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation of the general circuit is derived. The dynamic nonlinear transfer characteristic of the amplifier is investigated. Examples of negative resistance oscillators are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blacher, S; Perdang, J [Institut d' Astrophysique, B-4200 Cointe-Ougree (Belgium)
1981-09-01
A numerical experiment on Hamiltonian oscillations demonstrates the existence of chaotic motions which satisfy the property of phase coherence. It is observed that the low-frequency end of the power spectrum of such motions is remarkably similar in structure to the low-frequency SCLERA spectra. Since the smallness of the observed solar amplitudes is not a sufficient mathematical ground for inefficiency of non-linear effects the possibility of chaos among solar oscillations cannot be discarded a priori.
General characteristics of long waves around the South African Coast
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Rossouw, M
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Long-period waves are almost invisible waves due to the long wave-lengths of several hundreds of metres and heights of only decimetres. The effect of these long waves can, however, be devastating in the form of harbour basin oscillations...
Using qubits to reveal quantum signatures of an oscillator
Agarwal, Shantanu
In this thesis, we seek to study the qubit-oscillator system with the aim to identify and quantify inherent quantum features of the oscillator. We show that the quantum signatures of the oscillator get imprinted on the dynamics of the joint system. The two key features which we explore are the quantized energy spectrum of the oscillator and the non-classicality of the oscillator's wave function. To investigate the consequences of the oscillator's discrete energy spectrum, we consider the qubit to be coupled to the oscillator through the Rabi Hamiltonian. Recent developments in fabrication technology have opened up the possibility to explore parameter regimes which were conventionally inaccessible. Motivated by these advancements, we investigate in this thesis a parameter space where the qubit frequency is much smaller than the oscillator frequency and the Rabi frequency is allowed to be an appreciable fraction of the bare frequency of the oscillator. We use the adiabatic approximation to understand the dynamics in this quasi-degenerate qubit regime. By deriving a dressed master equation, we systematically investigate the effects of the environment on the system dynamics. We develop a spectroscopic technique, using which one can probe the steady state response of the driven and damped system. The spectroscopic signal clearly reveals the quantized nature of the oscillator's energy spectrum. We extend the adiabatic approximation, earlier developed only for the single qubit case, to a scenario where multiple qubits interact with the oscillator. Using the extended adiabatic approximation, we study the collapse and revival of multi-qubit observables. We develop analytic expressions for the revival signals which are in good agreement with the numerically evaluated results. Within the quantum restriction imposed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the uncertainty in the position and momentum of an oscillator is minimum and shared equally when the oscillator is prepared
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodin, E.P.; Zharov, A.A.
2003-01-01
The effect of the strong high-frequency electromagnetic field on the lateral semiconductor superlattice is considered on the basis of the quasi-classical theory on the electron transport in the self-consistent wave arrangement. It is theoretically identified, that the lateral superlattice in the strong feed-up wave field may emit the terahertz radiation wave trains, which are associated with the periodical excitation of the Bloch oscillations in the superlattice. The conditions, required for the Bloch oscillators radiation observation, are determined. The spectral composition of the radiation, passing through the superlattice, and energy efficiency of multiplying the frequency, related to the Bloch oscillator excitation, are calculated [ru
Case for neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1982-01-01
The building of a machine capable of producing an intense, well-calibrated beam of muon neutrinos is regarded by particle physicists with keen interest because of its ability of studying neutrino oscillations. The possibility of neutrino oscillations has long been recognized, but it was not made necessary on theoretical or experimental grounds; one knew that oscillations could be avoided if neutrinos were massless, and this was easily done by the conservation of lepton number. The idea of grand unification has led physicists to question the existence (at higher energies) of global conservation laws. The prime examples are baryon-number conservation, which prevents proton decay, and lepton-number conservation, which keeps neutrinos massless, and therefore free of oscillations. The detection of proton decay and neutrino oscillations would therefore be an indirect indication of the idea of Grand Unification, and therefore of paramount importance. Neutrino oscillations occur when neutrinos acquire mass in such a way that the neutrino mass eigenstates do not match the (neutrino) eigenstates produced by the weak interactions. We shall study the ways in which neutrinos can get mass, first at the level of the standard SU 2 x U 1 model, then at the level of its Grand Unification Generalizations
On the emission spectrum of oscillator trapped in a potential well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirichok, A.V.; Kuklin, V.M.; Zagorodny, A.G.
2013-01-01
We study the spectrum of electromagnetic waves emitted by oscillator, trapped in an external potential well. It is assumed that the natural frequency of the oscillator is much greater than the frequency of oscillations in the potential well. We consider the quantum model of emission with taking into account the recoil effect. The highest intensity of the absorption and emission lines is observed on the eigenfrequency of the oscillator when the recoil energy is equal to energy of the quantum of low-frequency oscillations in the potential well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sparks, W.M.; Kutter, G.S.
1980-01-01
The rapid coherent oscillation during a dwarf nova outburst is attributed to an accretion-driven wave going around the white dwarf component of the binary system. The increase and decrease in the period of this oscillation is due to the change in the velocity of the wave as it is first being driven and then damped. Qualitatively, a large number of observations can be explained with such a model. The beginnings of a mathematical representation of this model are developed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akopyan, A A; Oganesyan, D L
1998-01-01
It is shown that the wave equation can be solved by the method of unidirectional waves for a pulse with a duration of several oscillation periods in a medium with a quadratic nonlinearity, such as a group-3m crystal. The wave equation reduces to a system of two equations for waves with different polarisations. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hillier, A. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Morton, R. J. [Mathematics and Information Science, Northumbria University, Pandon Building, Camden Street, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Erdélyi, R., E-mail: andrew@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)
2013-12-20
The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s{sup –1}. The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency.
A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillier, A.; Morton, R. J.; Erdélyi, R.
2013-01-01
The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s –1 . The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency
Connecting Observations and Reanalysis of the MJO with Theory
Powell, S. W.
2017-12-01
Over the past few years, refined theories have been advanced the explain the onset and/or propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation over the tropical warm pool. For example, Adames and Kim (2016) built on Sobel and Maloney (2012, 2013) to describe the MJO as a dispersive moisture wave whose instability mechanism is a radiative-convective instability supported by anvils of large mesoscale systems. Wang and Chen (2016) describe a similar frictionally coupled moisture mode that captures many basic features of the canonically observed MJO. Arnold and Randall (2015) hypothesize that the MJO might be described as self-aggregation of convection over the Indian Ocean. Fuchs and Raymond (2017) describe the MJO as a first baroclinic dispersive mode in a simplified model with a linear WISHE instability that shows decreased propagation speeds for lower wavelengths. Not all of these theories can be correct, and quite possibly none of them are fully. Intelligent use of observations and reanalysis of past MJO events can help guide development of MJO theory. For example, Powell (2017) shows that in MERRA-2 reanalysis, the MJO propagates as a convectively coupled Kelvin wave over the Western Hemisphere then transitions abruptly into a slower moving mode over the Indian Ocean. A complete MJO theory must account for both forms as, and when, the MJO circumnavigates. Observations (like TRMM and GPM data) and reanalysis can reveal the relative roles of cloud-scale processes and large-scale free tropospheric horizontal advection in "pre-moistening" the troposphere in the location of MJO initiation where subsequent propagation of an existing MJO occurs. This can, for example, help validate or refute aspects of moisture mode theory that require large-scale dynamics to moisten an area ahead of an active envelope of MJO-related convection before the MJO can propagate eastward. Radar and satellite observations might yield some insight into whether convective self-aggregation is a real
Zarzycki, C.; Jablonowski, C.
2013-12-01
effect of local refinement on features such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation, Kelvin waves, and African easterly waves. We discuss the performance of the CAM5 physical parameterization package in variable-resolution simulations and whether or not the addition of increased resolution patches adds bias to key climate metrics such as rainfall and cloud fraction at the regional level. Lastly, we highlight the potential computational advantages of using scalable variable-resolution setups in either short-term process or long-term climate studies.
Planetary circulations in the presence of transient and self-induced heating
Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.
1993-01-01
The research program focuses on large-scale circulations and their interaction with the global convective pattern. An 11-year record of global cloud imagery and contemporaneous fields of motion and temperature have been used to investigate organized convection and coherent variability of the tropical circulation operating on intraseasonal time scales. This study provides a detailed portrait of tropical variability associated with the so-called Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). It reveals the nature, geographical distribution, and seasonality of discrete convective signal, which is a measure of feedback between the circulation and the convective pattern. That discrete spectral behavior has been evaluated in light of natural variability of the ITCZ associated with climatological convection. A composite signature of the MJO, based on cross-covariance statistics of cloud cover, motion, and temperature, has been constructed to characterize the lifecycle of the disturbance in terms of these properties. The composite behavior has also been used to investigate the influence the MJO exerts on the zonal-mean circulation and the involvement of the MJO in transfers of momentum between the atmosphere and the solid Earth. The aforementioned observational studies have led to the production of two animations. One reveals the convective signal in band-pass filtered OLR and compares it to climatological convection. The other is a 3-dimensional visualization of the composite lifecycle of the MJO. With a clear picture of the MJO in hand, feedback between the circulation and the convective pattern can be diagnosed meaningfully in numerical simulations. This process is being explored in calculations with the linearized primitive equations on the sphere in the presence of realistic stability and shear. The numerical framework represents climatological convection as a space-time stochastic process and wave-induced convection in terms of the vertically-integrated moisture flux convergence
Nonlinear Waves in Complex Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2007-01-01
The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations, it is the ......The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations...
Experiments on the WavePiston, Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Angelelli, E.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2011-01-01
This paper analyses the performance of a new Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the Oscillating Water Column type (OWC), named WavePiston. This near-shore floating device is composed of plates (i.e. energy collectors) sliding around a cylinder, that is placed perpendicular to the shore. Tests...... in the wave basin at Aalborg University allowed to investigate power production in the North Sea typical wave climate, with varying design parameters such as plate dimensions and their mutual distance. The power produced per meter by each collector is about the 5% of the available wave power. Experimental...... results and survivability considerations suggest that the WavePiston would be particularly suited for installations in milder seas. An example application is therefore presented in the Mediterranean Sea, off-shore the island of Sicily. In this case, each collector harvests the 10% of the available wave...
Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X.-W.; Fawley, William M.; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K.-J.; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander
2010-01-01
A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.
Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X-W; Fawley, William M; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K-J; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander
2010-09-17
A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.
Rayleigh oscillations localized near free surface of a fcc crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosevich, A.M.; Matsokin, D.V.; Savotchenko, S.E.
1997-01-01
The waves, which are localized near the free (001) surface of a fcc crystal and propagate in the [110] direction, are described using the model of central interaction of the nearest neighbors. The frequencies of these waves come into the gaps within the frequency spectrum of bulk harmonic oscillations with a fixed wave vector k component along the surface. The long-wave limit and the case of wave vectors close to the Brillouin band boundary are studied analytically. These limit dependences are in agreement with other authors results which were obtained by numerical methods. Analytical calculations in the limit intervals of k are supplemented by numerical calculations for any values of the wave vector. It is essential that these waves have a displacement component which is perpendicular to the crystal surface and can, therefore, be studied by methods of He atoms inelastic scattering
Endogenous Cortical Oscillations Constrain Neuromodulation by Weak Electric Fields
Schmidt, Stephen L.; Iyengar, Apoorva K.; Foulser, A. Alban; Boyle, Michael R.; Fröhlich, Flavio
2014-01-01
Background Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that may modulate cognition by enhancing endogenous neocortical oscillations with the application of sine-wave electric fields. Yet, the role of endogenous network activity in enabling and shaping the effects of tACS has remained unclear. Objective We combined optogenetic stimulation and multichannel slice electrophysiology to elucidate how the effect of weak sine-wave electric field depends on the ongoing cortical oscillatory activity. We hypothesized that the structure of the response to stimulation depended on matching the stimulation frequency to the endogenous cortical oscillation. Methods We studied the effect of weak sine-wave electric fields on oscillatory activity in mouse neocortical slices. Optogenetic control of the network activity enabled the generation of in vivo like cortical oscillations for studying the temporal relationship between network activity and sine-wave electric field stimulation. Results Weak electric fields enhanced endogenous oscillations but failed to induce a frequency shift of the ongoing oscillation for stimulation frequencies that were not matched to the endogenous oscillation. This constraint on the effect of electric field stimulation imposed by endogenous network dynamics was limited to the case of weak electric fields targeting in vivo-like network dynamics. Together, these results suggest that the key mechanism of tACS may be enhancing but not overriding of intrinsic network dynamics. Conclusion Our results contribute to understanding the inconsistent tACS results from human studies and propose that stimulation precisely adjusted in frequency to the endogenous oscillations is key to rational design of non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms. PMID:25129402
Automated Detection of Oscillating Regions in the Solar Atmosphere
Ireland, J.; Marsh, M. S.; Kucera, T. A.; Young, C. A.
2010-01-01
Recently observed oscillations in the solar atmosphere have been interpreted and modeled as magnetohydrodynamic wave modes. This has allowed for the estimation of parameters that are otherwise hard to derive, such as the coronal magnetic-field strength. This work crucially relies on the initial detection of the oscillations, which is commonly done manually. The volume of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) data will make manual detection inefficient for detecting all of the oscillating regions. An algorithm is presented that automates the detection of areas of the solar atmosphere that support spatially extended oscillations. The algorithm identifies areas in the solar atmosphere whose oscillation content is described by a single, dominant oscillation within a user-defined frequency range. The method is based on Bayesian spectral analysis of time series and image filtering. A Bayesian approach sidesteps the need for an a-priori noise estimate to calculate rejection criteria for the observed signal, and it also provides estimates of oscillation frequency, amplitude, and noise, and the error in all of these quantities, in a self-consistent way. The algorithm also introduces the notion of quality measures to those regions for which a positive detection is claimed, allowing for simple post-detection discrimination by the user. The algorithm is demonstrated on two Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) datasets, and comments regarding its suitability for oscillation detection in SDO are made.
Photospheric Origin of Three-minute Oscillations in a Sunspot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chae, Jongchul; Lee, Jeongwoo; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Song, Donguk [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyungsuk; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-02-10
The origin of the three-minute oscillations of intensity and velocity observed in the chromosphere of sunspot umbrae is still unclear. We investigated the spatio-spectral properties of the 3 minute oscillations of velocity in the photosphere of a sunspot umbra as well as those in the low chromosphere using the spectral data of the Ni i λ 5436, Fe i λ 5435, and Na i D{sub 2} λ 5890 lines taken by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. As a result, we found a local enhancement of the 3 minute oscillation power in the vicinities of a light bridge (LB) and numerous umbral dots (UDs) in the photosphere. These 3 minute oscillations occurred independently of the 5 minute oscillations. Through wavelet analysis, we determined the amplitudes and phases of the 3 minute oscillations at the formation heights of the spectral lines, and they were found to be consistent with the upwardly propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves in the photosphere with energy flux large enough to explain the chromospheric oscillations. Our results suggest that the 3 minute chromospheric oscillations in this sunspot may have been generated by magnetoconvection occurring in the LB and UDs.
Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-Time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting
Haller, M. C.; Simpson, A. J.; Walker, D. T.; Lynett, P. J.; Pittman, R.; Honegger, D.
2016-02-01
It has been shown in various studies that a controls system can dramatically improve Wave Energy Converter (WEC) power production by tuning the device's oscillations to the incoming wave field, as well as protect WEC devices by decoupling them in extreme wave conditions. A requirement of the most efficient controls systems is a phase-resolved, "deterministic" surface elevation profile, alerting the device to what it will experience in the near future. The current study aims to demonstrate a deterministic method of wave forecasting through the pairing of an X-Band marine radar with a predictive Mild Slope Equation (MSE) wave model. Using the radar as a remote sensing technique, the wave field up to 1-4 km surrounding a WEC device can be resolved. Individual waves within the radar scan are imaged through the contrast between high intensity wave faces and low intensity wave troughs. Using a recently developed method, radar images are inverted into the radial component of surface slope, shown in the figure provided using radar data from Newport, Oregon. Then, resolved radial slope images are assimilated into the MSE wave model. This leads to a best-fit model hindcast of the waves within the domain. The hindcast is utilized as an initial condition for wave-by-wave forecasting with a target forecast horizon of 3-5 minutes (tens of wave periods). The methodology is currently being tested with synthetic data and comparisons with field data are imminent.
Mechanics, Waves and Thermodynamics
Ranjan Jain, Sudhir
2016-05-01
Figures; Preface; Acknowledgement; 1. Energy, mass, momentum; 2. Kinematics, Newton's laws of motion; 3. Circular motion; 4. The principle of least action; 5. Work and energy; 6. Mechanics of a system of particles; 7. Friction; 8. Impulse and collisions; 9. Central forces; 10. Dimensional analysis; 11. Oscillations; 12. Waves; 13. Sound of music; 14. Fluid mechanics; 15. Water waves; 16. The kinetic theory of gases; 17. Concepts and laws of thermodynamics; 18. Some applications of thermodynamics; 19. Basic ideas of statistical mechanics; Bibliography; Index.
Dynamical Friedel oscillations of a Fermi sea
Zhang, J. M.; Liu, Y.
2018-02-01
We study the scenario of quenching an interaction-free Fermi sea on a one-dimensional lattice ring by suddenly changing the potential of a site. From the point-of-view of the conventional Friedel oscillation, which is a static or equilibrium problem, it is of interest what temporal and spatial oscillations the local sudden quench will induce. Numerically, the primary observation is that for a generic site, the local particle density switches between two plateaus periodically in time. Making use of the proximity of the realistic model to an exactly solvable model and employing the Abel regularization to assign a definite value to a divergent series, we obtain an analytical formula for the heights of the plateaus, which turns out to be very accurate for sites not too close to the quench site. The unexpect relevance and the incredible accuracy of the Abel regularization are yet to be understood. Eventually, when the contribution of the defect mode is also taken into account, the plateaus for those sites close to or on the quench site can also be accurately predicted. We have also studied the infinite lattice case. In this case, ensuing the quench, the out-going wave fronts leave behind a stable density oscillation pattern. Because of some interesting single-particle property, this dynamically generated Friedel oscillation differs from its conventional static counterpart only by the defect mode.
Solvable model of spiral wave chimeras.
Martens, Erik A; Laing, Carlo R; Strogatz, Steven H
2010-01-29
Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core.
Solvable Model of Spiral Wave Chimeras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Erik Andreas; Laing, Carlo R.; Strogatz, Steven H.
2010-01-01
Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral...... can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core....
Electromagnetic oscillations of the Earth's upper atmosphere (review)
A. G. Khantadze; G. V. Jandieri; G. V. Jandieri; A. Ishimaru; T. D. Kaladze; Zh. M. Diasamidze
2010-01-01
A complete theory of low-frequency MHD oscillations of the Earth's weakly ionized ionosphere is formulated. Peculiarities of excitation and propagation of electromagnetic acoustic-gravity, MHD and planetary waves are considered in the Earth's ionosphere. The general dispersion equation is derived for the magneto-acoustic, magneto-gravity and electromagnetic planetary waves in the ionospheric E- and F-regions. The action of the geomagnetic field on the propagation of acous...
True many-particle scattering theory in oscillator representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, Yu.F.; Shirokov, A.M.
1988-01-01
The scattering theory in oscillator representation in case of true multiparticle scattering (TMS) is generalized. All necessary expressions to construct a wave function of several particles system in a discrete or continuous spectra at TMS approximation are obtained. Essential advantage of the method suggested lies in the fact that the most difficult part: construction and diagonolization of the Hamiltonian cutted matrix is to be carried out only once, and then the wave function can be calculated at any designed energy. 23 refs
Oscillatory Energy Exchange Between Waves Coupled by a Dynamic Artificial Crystal
Karenowska, Alexy D.; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Chumak, Andrii V.; Serga, Alexander A.; Gregg, John F.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Hillebrands, Burkard
2011-01-01
We describe a general mechanism of controllable energy exchange between waves propagating in a dynamic artificial crystal. We show that if a spatial periodicity is temporarily imposed on the transmission properties of a wave-carrying medium whilst a wave is inside, this wave is coupled to a secondary counter-propagating wave and energy oscillates between the two. The oscillation frequency is determined by the width of the spectral band gap created by the periodicity and the frequency differen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine
1999-01-01
We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l → 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II l+1 from II l and II l-1 to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n c , while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine
1999-07-01
We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)
Electronic oscillations in a hot plasma due the non-Maxwellian velocity distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, L.A.V.; Nakamura, Y.
1977-01-01
In a completely ionized hot plasma, with a non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution, it is shown that, depending on the electron temperature, oscillations may occur at the elctron plasma and gyro frequencies. For three different electron velocity distributions, it is shown the oscillations dependency on the temperature. This situation occurs in the ionospheric plasma when artificially heated by HF radio waves. If the distribution is Maxwellian, the oscillation only occur near the electron plasma frequency [pt
Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces
Bass, F G; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a
Oscillating acoustic streaming jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul
2014-01-01
The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-03-07
In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.
Brownian parametric oscillators
Zerbe, Christine; Jung, Peter; Hänggi, Peter
1994-05-01
We discuss the stochastic dynamics of dissipative, white-noise-driven Floquet oscillators, characterized by a time-periodic stiffness. Thus far, little attention has been paid to these exactly solvable nonstationary systems, although they carry a rich potential for several experimental applications. Here, we calculate and discuss the mean values and variances, as well as the correlation functions and the Floquet spectrum. As one main result, we find for certain parameter values that the fluctuations of the position coordinate are suppressed as compared to the equilibrium value of a harmonic oscillator (parametric squeezing).