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Sample records for oscillating nadh oxidase

  1. Gravity Responsive NADH Oxidase of the Plasma Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing gravity using an NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane which has been found to respond to unit gravity and low centrifugal g forces. The oxidation rate of NADH supplied to the NADH oxidase is measured and translated to represent the relative gravitational force exerted on the protein. The NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane may be obtained from plant or animal sources or may be produced recombinantly.

  2. Gene cloning and characterization of NADH oxidase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... potent inhibitors of NADH oxidases, silver nitrate and potassium cyanide did not show any significant ... anaerobes, a class of organisms that have not been ... DNA and amino acid sequence analyses were performed using.

  3. NADH oxidase activity (NOX) and enlargement of HeLa cells oscillate with two different temperature-compensated period lengths of 22 and 24 minutes corresponding to different NOX forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    NOX proteins are cell surface-associated and growth-related hydroquinone (NADH) oxidases with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity. A defining characteristic of NOX proteins is that the two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. HeLa cells exhibit at least two forms of NOX. One is tumor-associated (tNOX) and is inhibited by putative quinone site inhibitors (e.g., capsaicin or the antitumor sulfonylurea, LY181984). Another is constitutive (CNOX) and refractory to inhibition. The periodic alternation of activities and drug sensitivity of the NADH oxidase activity observed with intact HeLa cells was retained in isolated plasma membranes and with the solubilized and partially purified enzyme. At least two activities were present. One had a period length of 24 min and the other had a period length of 22 min. The lengths of both the 22 and the 24 min periods were temperature compensated (approximately the same when measured at 17, 27 or 37 degrees C) whereas the rate of NADH oxidation approximately doubled with each 10 degrees C rise in temperature. The rate of increase in cell area of HeLa cells when measured by video-enhanced light microscopy also exhibited a complex period of oscillations reflective of both 22 and 24 min period lengths. The findings demonstrate the presence of a novel oscillating NOX activity at the surface of cancer cells with a period length of 22 min in addition to the constitutive NOX of non-cancer cells and tissues with a period length of 24 min.

  4. Gene cloning and characterization of NADH oxidase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genome search of Thermococcus kodakarensis revealed three open reading frames, Tk0304, Tk1299 and Tk1392 annotated as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidases. This study deals with cloning, and characterization of Tk0304. The gene, composed of 1320 nucleotides, encodes a protein of 439 ...

  5. Involvement of NADH Oxidase in Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchun Ge

    Full Text Available Biofilms play important roles in microbial communities and are related to infectious diseases. Here, we report direct evidence that a bacterial nox gene encoding NADH oxidase is involved in biofilm formation. A dramatic reduction in biofilm formation was observed in a Streptococcus sanguinis nox mutant under anaerobic conditions without any decrease in growth. The membrane fluidity of the mutant bacterial cells was found to be decreased and the fatty acid composition altered, with increased palmitic acid and decreased stearic acid and vaccenic acid. Extracellular DNA of the mutant was reduced in abundance and bacterial competence was suppressed. Gene expression analysis in the mutant identified two genes with altered expression, gtfP and Idh, which were found to be related to biofilm formation through examination of their deletion mutants. NADH oxidase-related metabolic pathways were analyzed, further clarifying the function of this enzyme in biofilm formation.

  6. Auxin-activated NADH oxidase activity of soybean plasma membranes is distinct from the constitutive plasma membrane NADH oxidase and exhibits prion-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.; Ternes, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    The hormone-stimulated and growth-related cell surface hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activity of etiolated hypocotyls of soybeans oscillates with a period of about 24 min or 60 times per 24-h day. Plasma membranes of soybean hypocotyls contain two such NADH oxidase activities that have been resolved by purification on concanavalin A columns. One in the apparent molecular weight range of 14-17 kDa is stimulated by the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The other is larger and unaffected by 2,4-D. The 2,4-D-stimulated activity absolutely requires 2,4-D for activity and exhibits a period length of about 24 min. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of 2,4-D or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D or IAA addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges at the expense of the constitutive activity. A recruitment process analogous to that exhibited by prions is postulated to explain this behavior.

  7. Putting together a plasma membrane NADH oxidase: a tale of three laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Hans; Crane, Frederick L; Morré, D James

    2012-11-01

    The observation that high cellular concentrations of NADH were associated with low adenylate cyclase activity led to a search for the mechanism of the effect. Since cyclase is in the plasma membrane, we considered the membrane might have a site for NADH action, and that NADH might be oxidized at that site. A test for NADH oxidase showed very low activity, which could be increased by adding growth factors. The plasma membrane oxidase was not inhibited by inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH oxidase such as cyanide, rotenone or antimycin. Stimulation of the plasma membrane oxidase by iso-proterenol or triiodothyronine was different from lack of stimulation in endoplasmic reticulum. After 25 years of research, three components of a trans membrane NADH oxidase have been discovered. Flavoprotein NADH coenzyme Q reductases (NADH cytochrome b reductase) on the inside, coenzyme Q in the middle, and a coenzyme Q oxidase on the outside as a terminal oxidase. The external oxidase segment is a copper protein with unique properties in timekeeping, protein disulfide isomerase and endogenous NADH oxidase activity, which affords a mechanism for control of cell growth by the overall NADH oxidase and the remarkable inhibition of oxidase activity and growth of cancer cells by a wide range of anti-tumor drugs. A second trans plasma membrane electron transport system has been found in voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC), which has NADH ferricyanide reductase activity. This activity must be considered in relation to ferricyanide stimulation of growth and increased VDAC antibodies in patients with autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma membrane NADH oxidase of maize roots responds to gravity and imposed centrifugal forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E.; Morre, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    NADH oxidase activities measured with excised roots of dark-grown maize (Zea mays) seedlings and with isolated plasma membrane vesicles from roots of dark-grown maize oscillated with a regular period length of 24 min and were inhibited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic [correction of dichorophenoxyacetic] acid. The activities also responded to orientation with respect to gravity and to imposed centrifugal forces. Turning the roots upside down resulted in stimulation of the activity with a lag of about 10 min. Returning the sections to the normal upright position resulted in a return to initial rates. The activity was stimulated reversibly to a maximum of about 2-fold with isolated plasma membrane vesicles, when subjected to centrifugal forces of 25 to 250 x g for 1 to 4 min duration. These findings are the first report of a gravity-responsive enzymatic activity of plant roots inhibited by auxin and potentially related to the gravity-induced growth response. c2001 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  9. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase of spinach leaves responds to blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Penel, Claude; Greppin, Hubert; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (NOX) of spinach leaf disks is characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of ca. 24 min. Within a single population of plants exposed to light at the same time, NOX activities of all plants function synchronously. Exposure of plants transferred from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromoles m-2 s-1) resulted in a complex response pattern but with a new maximum in the rate of NOX activity 36 (24+12) min after illumination and then with maxima in the rate of NOX activity every 24 min thereafter. Transient maxima in NOX activity were observed as well after 9.3 + /- 1.4 and 20.7 +/- 2.1 min. The blue light response differed from the response to red (650 nm, 10 min, 50 micromoles m-2 s-1) or white light where activity maxima were initiated 12 min after the light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Green or yellow light was ineffective. The light response was independent of the time in the 24-min NOX cycle when the light was given. The net effects of blue and red light were ultimately the same with a new maximum in the rate of NOX activity at 12+24=36 min (and every 24 min thereafter), but the mechanisms appear to be distinct.

  10. Redox-flexible NADH oxidase biosensor: A platform for various dehydrogenase bioassays and biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serban, Simona; El Murr, Nabil

    2006-01-01

    A generic amperometric bioassay based on the enzymatic oxidation catalysed by the stable NADH oxidase (NAox) from Thermus thermophilus has been developed for NADH measurements. The NAox uses O 2 as its natural electron acceptor and produces H 2 O 2 in a two-electron process. Electrochemical and spectrophotometric experiments showed that the NAox used in this work, presents a very good activity towards its substrate and, in contrary to previously mentioned NADH oxidases, does not require the addition of any exogenous flavin cofactor neither to promote nor to maintain its activity. In addition, the NAox used also works with artificial electron acceptors like ferrocene derivatives. O 2 was successfully replaced by redox mediators such as hydroxymethyl ferrocene (FcCH 2 OH) for the regeneration of the active enzyme. Combining the NAox with the mediator and the horseradish peroxidase we developed an original, high sensitive 'redox-flexible' NADH amperometric bioassay working in a large window of applied potentials in both oxidation and reduction modes. The biosensor has a continuous and complementary linearity range permitting to measure NADH concentrations starting from 5 x 10 -6 M in reduction until 2 x 10 3 M in oxidation. This redox-flexibility allows choosing the applied potential in order to avoid electrochemical interferences. The association of the 'redox-flexible' concept with NADH dependent enzymes opens a novel strategy for dehydrogenases based bioassays and biosensors. The great number of dehydrogenases available makes the concept applicable for numerous substrates to analyse. Moreover it allows the development of a wide range of biosensors on the basis of a generic platform. This gives several advantages over the previous manufacturing techniques and offers a general and flexible scheme for the fabrication of biosensors presenting high sensitivities, wide calibration ranges and less affected by electrochemical interferences

  11. Involvement of NADH Oxidase in Competition and Endocarditis Virulence in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiuchun; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Chen, Lei; Chen, Weihua; Elrami, Fadi; Kong, Fanxiang; Kitten, Todd; Xu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report for the first time that the Streptococcus sanguinis nox gene encoding NADH oxidase is involved in both competition with Streptococcus mutans and virulence for infective endocarditis. An S. sanguinis nox mutant was found to fail to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans under microaerobic conditions. In the presence of oxygen, the recombinant Nox protein of S. sanguinis could reduce oxygen to water and oxidize NADH to NAD(+) The oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) was diminished in the nox mutant. The nox mutant exhibited decreased levels of extracellular H2O2; however, the intracellular level of H2O2 in the mutant was increased. Furthermore, the virulence of the nox mutant was attenuated in a rabbit endocarditis model. The nox mutant also was shown to be more sensitive to blood killing, oxidative and acid stresses, and reduced growth in serum. Thus, NADH oxidase contributes to multiple phenotypes related to competitiveness in the oral cavity and systemic virulence. Copyright © 2016 Ge et al.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a flavoprotein NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzu, Mutlu; Niefind, Karsten; Hummel, Werner; Schomburg, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    The water-forming flavoenzyme NADH oxidase was crystallized successfully for the first time. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 4.0 Å resolution. NADH oxidase (NOX) from Lactobacillus brevis is a homotetrameric flavoenzyme composed of 450 amino acids per subunit. The molecular weight of each monomer is 48.8 kDa. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of two equivalents of NADH and reduces one equivalent of oxygen to yield two equivalents of water, without releasing hydrogen peroxide after the reduction of the first equivalent of NADH. Crystals of this protein were grown in the presence of 34% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 2000, 0.1 M sodium acetate and 0.2 M ammonium sulfate at pH 5.4. They belong to the tetragonal space group P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.8, b = 95.7, c = 116.9 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 103.8°. The current diffraction limit is 4.0 Å. The self-rotation function of the native data set is consistent with a NOX tetramer in the asymmetric unit

  13. Improvement of exopolysaccharide production in Lactobacillus casei LC2W by overexpression of NADH oxidase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Yuanlong; Zhu, Ping; Liu, Zhenmin; Guo, Benheng; Ren, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Lactobacillus casei LC2W is an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain with probiotic effects. To investigate the regulation mechanism of EPS biosynthesis and to improve EPS production through cofactor engineering, a H₂O-forming NADH oxidase gene was cloned from Streptococcus mutans and overexpressed in L. casei LC2W under the control of constitutive promoter P₂₃. The recombinant strain LC-nox exhibited 0.854 U/mL of NADH oxidase activity, which was elevated by almost 20-fold in comparison with that of wild-type strain. As a result, overexpression of NADH oxidase resulted in a reduction in growth rate. In addition, lactate production was decreased by 22% in recombinant strain. It was proposed that more carbon source was saved and used for the biosynthesis of EPS, the production of which was reached at 219.4 mg/L, increased by 46% compared to that of wild-type strain. This work provided a novel and convenient genetic approach to manipulate metabolic flux and to increase EPS production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which correlates cofactor engineering with EPS production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (ECTO-NOX) of mouse skin responds to blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2003-01-01

    NADH oxidases of the external plasma membrane surface (ECTO-NOX proteins) are characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of 24 min. Explants of mouse skin exhibit the oscillatory activity as estimated from the decrease in A(340) suggesting that individual ECTO-NOX molecules must somehow be induced to function synchronously. Transfer of explants of mouse skin from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromol m(-1) s(-1)) resulted in initiation of a new activity maximum (entrainment) with a midpoint 36 min after light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Addition of melatonin resulted in a new maximum 24 min after melatonin addition. The findings suggest that the ECTO-NOX proteins play a central role in the entrainment of the biological clock both by light and by melatonin.

  15. Characterization of water-forming NADH oxidases for co-factor regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Gustav; Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; J. Charnock, Simon

    an environmentaland economic perspective [1]. Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) offer one such alternative. However, the reaction requires the oxidized nicotinamide co-factor (NAD+) that must be recycled due to its high cost contribution. One regeneration method that offers certain advantages is the oxidation of NADH......Traditional chemical methods for alcohol oxidation are often associated with issues such as high consumption of expensive oxidizing agents, generation of metal waste and the use of environmentally undesirable organic solvents. Developing green, selective catalysts is therefore important from...... using water forming NADH oxidases (NOX-2). The implementation of the ADH/NOX system for alcohol oxidation, however, requires consideration of several different issues. Enzyme activity and stability at relevant pH and temperature conditions, but also the tolerance to the substrates and products present...

  16. Effect of different NADH oxidase levels on glucose metabolism by Lactococus lactis : kinetics of intracellular metabolite pools determined by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, A.R.; Ramos, A.; Costa, H.; Swam, van I.I.; Hugenholtz, J.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.; Santos, H.

    2002-01-01

    Three isogenic strains of Lactococcus lactis with different levels of H2O-forming NADH oxidase activity were used to study the effect of oxygen on glucose metabolism: the parent strain L. lactis MG1363, a NOX- strain harboring a deletion of the gene coding for H2O-forming NADH oxidase, and a NOX

  17. Increased Production of Hydrogen Peroxide by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus upon Aeration: Involvement of an NADH Oxidase in Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Teysset, C.; de la Torre, F.; Garel, J.-R.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) on lactose was altered upon aerating the cultures by agitation. Aeration caused the bacteria to enter early into stationary phase, thus reducing markedly the biomass production but without modifying the maximum growth rate. The early entry into stationary phase of aerated cultures was probably related to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the medium. Indeed, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in aerated cultures was two to three times higher than in unaerated ones. Also, a similar shift from exponential to stationary phase could be induced in unaerated cultures by adding increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. A significant fraction of the hydrogen peroxide produced by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus originated from the reduction of molecular oxygen by NADH catalyzed by an NADH:H2O2 oxidase. The specific activity of this NADH oxidase was the same in aerated and unaerated cultures, suggesting that the amount of this enzyme was not directly regulated by oxygen. Aeration did not change the homolactic character of lactose fermentation by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and most of the NADH was reoxidized by lactate dehydrogenase with pyruvate. This indicated that NADH oxidase had no (or a very small) energetic role and could be involved in eliminating oxygen. PMID:10618234

  18. Preferential inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase (NOX) activity by diphenyleneiodonium chloride with NADPH as donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    The cell-surface NADH oxidase (NOX) protein of plant and animal cells will utilize both NADH and NADPH as reduced electron donors for activity. The two activities are distinguished by a differential inhibition by the redox inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Using both plasma membranes and cells, activity with NADPH as donor was markedly inhibited by DPI at submicromolar concentrations, whereas with NADH as donor, DPI was much less effective or had no effect on the activity. The possibility of the inhibition being the result of two different enzymes was eliminated by the use of a recombinant NOX protein. The findings support the concept that NOX proteins serve as terminal oxidases for plasma membrane electron transport involving cytosolic reduced pyridine nucleotides as the natural electron donors and with molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor.

  19. Overexpression of a water-forming NADH oxidase improves the metabolism and stress tolerance of Saccharmyces cerevisiae in aerobic fermenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinchi Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Redox homeostasis is fundamental to the maintenance of metabolism. Redox imbalance can cause oxidative stress, which affects metabolism and growth. Water-forming NADH oxidase regulates the redox balance by oxidizing cytosolic NADH to NAD+, which relieves cytosolic NADH accumulation through rapid glucose consumption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thus decreasing the production of the byproduct glycerol in industrial ethanol production. Here, we studied the effects of overexpression of a water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactococcus lactis on the stress response of S. cerevisiae in aerobic batch fermentation, and we constructed an interaction network of transcriptional regulation and metabolic networks to study the effects of and mechanisms underlying NADH oxidase regulation. The oxidase-overexpressing strain (NOX showed increased glucose consumption, growth, and ethanol production, while glycerol production was remarkably lower. Glucose was exhausted by NOX at 26 h, while 18.92 ± 0.94 g/L residual glucose was left in the fermentation broth of the control strain (CON at this time point. At 29.5 h, the ethanol concentration for NOX peaked at 35.25 ± 1.76 g/L, which was 14.37 % higher than that for CON (30.82 ± 1.54 g/L. Gene expression involved in the synthesis of thiamine, which is associated with stress responses in various organisms, was increased in NOX. The transcription factor HAP4 was significantly upregulated in NOX at the late-exponential phase, indicating a diauxic shift in response to starvation. The apoptosis-inducing factor Nuc1 was downregulated while the transcription factor Sok2, which regulates the production of the small signaling molecule ammonia, was upregulated at the late-exponential phase, benefiting young cells on the rim. Reactive oxygen species production was decreased by 10% in NOX, supporting a decrease in apoptosis. The HOG pathway was not activated, although the osmotic stress was truly higher, indicating improved

  20. Contribution of the NADH-oxidase (Nox) to the aerobic life of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, André; Freiding, Simone; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the key bacterium in traditional sourdough fermentation. The molecular background of its oxygen tolerance was investigated by comparison of wild type and NADH-oxidase (Nox) knock out mutants. The nox gene of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) coding for a NADH-oxidase (Nox) was inactivated by single crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451Δnox. By inactivation of the native NADH-oxidase gene, it was ensured that besides fructose, O(2) can react as an electron acceptor. In aerated cultures the mutant strain was only able to grow in MRS media supplemented with fructose as electron acceptor, whereas the wild type strain showed a fructose independent growth response. The use of oxygen as an external electron acceptor enables L. sanfranciscensis to shift from acetyl-phosphate into the acetate branch and gain an additionally ATP, while the reduced cofactors were regenerated by Nox-activity. In aerated cultures the wild type strain formed a fermentation ratio of lactate to acetate of 1.09 in MRS supplemented with fructose after 24 h of fermentation, while the mutant strain formed a fermentation ratio of 3.05. Additionally, L. sanfranciscensis showed manganese-dependent growth response in aerated cultures, the final OD and growth velocity was increased in media supplemented with manganese. The expression of two predicted Mn(2+)/Fe(2+) transporters MntH1 and MntH2 in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) was verified by amplification of a 318 bp fragment of MntH1 and a 239 bp fragment of MntH2 from cDNA library obtained from aerobically, exponentially growing cells of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) in MRS. Moreover, the mutant strain DSM20451Δnox was more sensitive to the superoxide generating agent paraquat and showed inhibition of growth on diamide-treated MRS-plates without fructose supplementation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New biotechnological perspectives of a NADH oxidase variant from Thermus thermophilus HB27 as NAD+-recycling enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Martín Javier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of biotransformations that use nicotinamide recycling systems is exponentially growing. For this reason one of the current challenges in biocatalysis is to develop and optimize more simple and efficient cofactor recycling systems. One promising approach to regenerate NAD+ pools is the use of NADH-oxidases that reduce oxygen to hydrogen peroxide while oxidizing NADH to NAD+. This class of enzymes may be applied to asymmetric reduction of prochiral substrates in order to obtain enantiopure compounds. Results The NADH-oxidase (NOX presented here is a flavoenzyme which needs exogenous FAD or FMN to reach its maximum velocity. Interestingly, this enzyme is 6-fold hyperactivated by incubation at high temperatures (80°C under limiting concentrations of flavin cofactor, a change that remains stable even at low temperatures (37°C. The hyperactivated form presented a high specific activity (37.5 U/mg at low temperatures despite isolation from a thermophile source. Immobilization of NOX onto agarose activated with glyoxyl groups yielded the most stable enzyme preparation (6-fold more stable than the hyperactivated soluble enzyme. The immobilized derivative was able to be reactivated under physiological conditions after inactivation by high solvent concentrations. The inactivation/reactivation cycle could be repeated at least three times, recovering full NOX activity in all cases after the reactivation step. This immobilized catalyst is presented as a recycling partner for a thermophile alcohol dehydrogenase in order to perform the kinetic resolution secondary alcohols. Conclusion We have designed, developed and characterized a heterogeneous and robust biocatalyst which has been used as recycling partner in the kinetic resolution of rac-1-phenylethanol. The high stability along with its capability to be reactivated makes this biocatalyst highly re-useable for cofactor recycling in redox biotransformations.

  2. Purification and characterization of an H2O-forming NADH oxidase from Clostridium aminovalericum: existence of an oxygen-detoxifying enzyme in an obligate anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shinji; Ishikura, Jun; Chiba, Daisuke; Nishino, Tomoko; Niimura, Youichi

    2004-04-01

    Clostridium aminovalericum, an obligate anaerobe, is unable to form colonies on PYD agar plates in the presence of 1% O(2). When grown anaerobically in PYD liquid medium, the strain can continue normal growth after the shift from anoxic (sparged with O(2)-free N(2) carrier-gas) to microoxic (sparged with 3% O(2)/97% N(2) mixed carrier-gas) growth conditions in the mid exponential phase (OD(660)=1.0). When the strain grew under 3% O(2)/97% N(2), the medium remains anoxic. Thirty minutes after beginning aeration with 3% O(2), the activity of NADH oxidase in cell-free extracts increased more than five-fold from the level before aeration. We purified NADH oxidase to determine the characteristics of this enzyme in an obligate anaerobe. The purified NADH oxidase dominated the NADH oxidase activity detected in cell-free extracts. The enzyme is a homotetramer composed of a subunit with a molecular mass of 45 kDa. The enzyme shows a spectrum typical of a flavoprotein, and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) was identified as a cofactor. The final product of NADH oxidation was H(2)O, and the estimated K(m) for oxygen was 61.9 microM. These data demonstrate that an O(2)-response enzyme that is capable of detoxifying oxygen to water exists in C. aminovalericum.

  3. Streptococcus mutans NADH oxidase lies at the intersection of overlapping regulons controlled by oxygen and NAD+ levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J L; Derr, A M; Karuppaiah, K; MacGilvray, M E; Kajfasz, J K; Faustoferri, R C; Rivera-Ramos, I; Bitoun, J P; Lemos, J A; Wen, Z T; Quivey, R G

    2014-06-01

    NADH oxidase (Nox, encoded by nox) is a flavin-containing enzyme used by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to reduce diatomic oxygen to water while oxidizing NADH to NAD(+). The critical nature of Nox is 2-fold: it serves to regenerate NAD(+), a carbon cycle metabolite, and to reduce intracellular oxygen, preventing formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). As oxygen and NAD(+) have been shown to modulate the activity of the global transcription factors Spx and Rex, respectively, Nox is potentially poised at a critical junction of two stress regulons. In this study, microarray data showed that either addition of oxygen or loss of nox resulted in altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and transport and the upregulation of genes encoding ROS-metabolizing enzymes. Loss of nox also resulted in upregulation of several genes encoding transcription factors and signaling molecules, including the redox-sensing regulator gene rex. Characterization of the nox promoter revealed that nox was regulated by oxygen, through SpxA, and by Rex. These data suggest a regulatory loop in which the roles of nox in reduction of oxygen and regeneration of NAD(+) affect the activity levels of Spx and Rex, respectively, and their regulons, which control several genes, including nox, crucial to growth of S. mutans under conditions of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. A water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus pentosus and its potential application in the regeneration of synthetic biomimetic cofactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eNowak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cell-free biocatalytic production of fine chemicals by oxidoreductases has continuously grown over the past years. Since especially dehydrogenases depend on the stoichiometric use of nicotinamide pyridine cofactors, an integrated efficient recycling system is crucial to allow process operation under economic conditions. Lately, the variety of cofactors for biocatalysis was broadened by the utilization of totally synthetic and cheap biomimetics. Though, to date the regeneration has been limited to chemical or electrochemical methods. Here, we report an enzymatic recycling by the flavoprotein NADH-oxidase from Lactobacillus pentosus (LpNox. Since this enzyme has not been described before, we first characterized it in regard to its optimal reaction parameters. We found that the heterologously overexpressed enzyme only contained 13 % FAD. In vitro loading of the enzyme with FAD, resulted in a higher specific activity towards its natural cofactor NADH as well as different nicotinamide derived biomimetics. Apart from the enzymatic recycling, which gives water as a by-product by transferring four electrons onto oxygen, unbound FAD can also catalyse the oxidation of biomimetic cofactors. Here a two electron process takes place yielding H2O2 instead. The enzymatic and chemical recycling was compared in regard to reaction kinetics for the natural and biomimetic cofactors. With LpNox and FAD, two recycling strategies for biomimetic cofactors are described with either water or hydrogen peroxide as a by-product.

  5. NADH Oxidase of Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 is Required for the Effective Yogurt Fermentation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yasuko; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Hiroko; Mukai, Takao; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that dissolved oxygen (DO) suppresses yogurt fermentation with an industrial starter culture composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, and also found that reducing the DO in the medium prior to fermentation (deoxygenated fermentation) shortens the fermentation time. In this study, we found that deoxygenated fermentation primarily increased the cell number of S. thermophilus 1131 rather than that of L. bulgaricus 2038, resulting in earlier l-lactate and formate accumulation. Measurement of the DO concentration and hydrogen peroxide generation in the milk medium suggested that DO is mainly removed by S. thermophilus 1131. The results using an H2O-forming NADH oxidase (Nox)-defective mutant of S. thermophilus 1131 revealed that Nox is the major oxygen-consuming enzyme of the bacterium. Yogurt fermentation with the S. thermophilus Δnox mutant and L. bulgaricus 2038 was significantly slower than with S. thermophilus 1131 and L. bulgaricus 2038, and the DO concentrations of the mixed culture did not decrease to less than 2 mg/kg within 3 hr. These observations suggest that Nox of S. thermophilus 1131 contributes greatly to yogurt fermentation, presumably by removing the DO in milk.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tumor-associated, growth-related, and time-keeping hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase (tNOX) of the HeLa cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Pin-Ju; Kim, Chinpal; Cho, NaMi; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    NOX proteins are growth-related cell surface proteins that catalyze both hydroquinone or NADH oxidation and protein disulfide interchange and exhibit prion-like properties. The two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. Here we report the expression, cloning, and characterization of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX). The cDNA sequence of 1830 bp is located on gene Xq25-26 with an open reading frame encoding 610 amino acids. The activities of the bacterially expressed tNOX oscillate with a period length of 22 min as is characteristic of tNOX activities in situ. The activities are inhibited completely by capsaicin, which represents a defining characteristic of tNOX activity. Functional motifs identified by site-directed mutagenesis within the C-terminal portion of the tNOX protein corresponding to the processed plasma membrane-associated form include quinone (capsaicin), copper and adenine nucleotide binding domains, and two cysteines essential for catalytic activity. Four of the six cysteine to alanine replacements retained enzymatic activity, but the period lengths of the oscillations were increased. A single protein with two alternating enzymatic activities indicative of a time-keeping function is unprecedented in the biochemical literature.

  7. NADH oxidase functions as an adhesin in Streptococcus pneumoniae and elicits a protective immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Muchnik

    Full Text Available The initial event in disease caused by S. pneumoniae is adhesion of the bacterium to respiratory epithelial cells, mediated by surface expressed molecules including cell-wall proteins. NADH oxidase (NOX, which reduces free oxygen to water in the cytoplasm, was identified in a non-lectin enriched pneumococcal cell-wall fraction. Recombinant NOX (rNOX was screened with sera obtained longitudinally from children and demonstrated age-dependent immunogenicity. NOX ablation in S. pneumoniae significantly reduced bacterial adhesion to A549 epithelial cells in vitro and their virulence in the intranasal or intraperitoneal challenge models in mice, compared to the parental strain. Supplementation of Δnox WU2 with the nox gene restored its virulence. Saturation of A549 target cells with rNOX or neutralization of cell-wall residing NOX using anti-rNOX antiserum decreased adhesion to A549 cells. rNOX-binding phages inhibited bacterial adhesion. Moreover, peptides derived from the human proteins contactin 4, chondroitin 4 sulfotraferase and laminin5, homologous to the insert peptides in the neutralizing phages, inhibited bacterial adhesion to the A549 cells. Furthermore, rNOX immunization of mice elicited a protective immune response to intranasal or intraperitoneal S. pneumoniae challenge, whereas pneumococcal virulence was neutralized by anti-rNOX antiserum prior to intraperitoneal challenge. Our results suggest that in addition to its enzymatic activity, NOX contributes to S. pneumoniae virulence as a putative adhesin and thus peptides derived from its target molecules may be considered for the treatment of pneumococcal infections. Finally, rNOX elicited a protective immune response in both aerobic and anaerobic environments, which renders NOX a candidate for future pneumococcal vaccine.

  8. Capsaicin Inhibits Multiple Bladder Cancer Cell Phenotypes by Inhibiting Tumor-Associated NADH Oxidase (tNOX and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among males, and its poor survival rate reflects problems with aggressiveness and chemo-resistance. Recent interest has focused on the use of chemopreventatives (nontoxic natural agents that may suppress cancer progression to induce targeted apoptosis for cancer therapy. Capsaicin, which has anti-cancer properties, is one such agent. It is known to preferentially inhibit a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX that is preferentially expressed in cancer/transformed cells. Here, we set out to elucidate the correlation between tNOX expression and the inhibitory effects of capsaicin in human bladder cancer cells. We showed that capsaicin downregulates tNOX expression and decreases bladder cancer cell growth by enhancing apoptosis. Moreover, capsaicin was found to reduce the expression levels of several proteins involved in cell cycle progression, in association with increases in the cell doubling time and enhanced cell cycle arrest. Capsaicin was also shown to inhibit the activation of ERK, thereby reducing the phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK, which leads to decreased cell migration. Finally, our results indicate that RNA interference-mediated tNOX depletion enhances spontaneous apoptosis, prolongs cell cycle progression, and reduces cell migration and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We also observed a downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 in these tNOX-knockdown cells, a deacetylase that is important in multiple cellular functions. Taken together, our results indicate that capsaicin inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells by inhibiting tNOX and SIRT1 and thereby reducing proliferation, attenuating migration, and prolonging cell cycle progression.

  9. Mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems (alternative oxidase, uncoupling proteins, and external NADH dehydrogenase) are involved in development of frost-resistance of winter wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabelnych, O I; Borovik, O A; Tauson, E L; Pobezhimova, T P; Katyshev, A I; Pavlovskaya, N S; Koroleva, N A; Lyubushkina, I V; Bashmakov, V Yu; Popov, V N; Borovskii, G B; Voinikov, V K

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression, protein synthesis, and activities of alternative oxidase (AOX), uncoupling proteins (UCP), adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), and non-coupled NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDex, NDPex, and NDin) were studied in shoots of etiolated winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings after exposure to hardening low positive (2°C for 7 days) and freezing (-2°C for 2 days) temperatures. The cold hardening efficiently increased frost-resistance of the seedlings and decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during further cold shock. Functioning of mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems can represent a mechanism responsible for the decrease in ROS under these conditions. These systems are different in their response to the action of the hardening low positive and freezing temperatures. The functioning of the first system causes induction of AOX and UCP synthesis associated with an increase in electron transfer via AOX in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and also with an increase in the sensitivity of mitochondrial non-phosphorylating respiration to linoleic and palmitic acids. The increase in electron transfer via AOX upon exposure of seedlings to hardening freezing temperature is associated with retention of a high activity of NDex. It seems that NDex but not the NDPex and NDin can play an important role in maintaining the functional state of mitochondria in heterotrophic tissues of plants under the influence of freezing temperatures. The involvement of the mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems and their possible physiological role in the adaptation of winter crops to cold and frost are discussed.

  10. Influence of oxygen on NADH recycling and oxidative stress resistance systems in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-01-31

    Lactobacillus panis strain PM1 is an obligatory heterofermentative and aerotolerant microorganism that also produces 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. This study investigated the metabolic responses of L. panis PM1 to oxidative stress under aerobic conditions. Growth under aerobic culture triggered an early entrance of L. panis PM1 into the stationary phase along with marked changes in end-product profiles. A ten-fold higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide was accumulated during aerobic culture compared to microaerobic culture. This H2O2 level was sufficient for the complete inhibition of L. panis PM1 cell growth, along with a significant reduction in end-products typically found during anaerobic growth. In silico analysis revealed that L. panis possessed two genes for NADH oxidase and NADH peroxidase, but their expression levels were not significantly affected by the presence of oxygen. Specific activities for these two enzymes were observed in crude extracts from L. panis PM1. Enzyme assays demonstrated that the majority of the H2O2 in the culture media was the product of NADH: H2O2 oxidase which was constitutively-active under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions; whereas, NADH peroxidase was positively-activated by the presence of oxygen and had a long induction time in contrast to NADH oxidase. These observations indicated that a coupled NADH oxidase - NADH peroxidase system was the main oxidative stress resistance mechanism in L. panis PM1, and was regulated by oxygen availability. Under aerobic conditions, NADH is mainly reoxidized by the NADH oxidase - peroxidase system rather than through the production of ethanol (or 1,3-propanediol or succinic acid production if glycerol or citric acid is available). This system helped L. panis PM1 directly use oxygen in its energy metabolism by producing extra ATP in contrast to homofermentative lactobacilli.

  11. Characterization of vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity and isolation of yeast DNA which complements a class 1 vanadate resistance mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasi, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity has been characterized in plasma membranes from the yeast S cerevisiae. NADH oxidation activity was maximally stimulated at pH 5.0 in phosphate buffer. NADH oxidation was not dependent on the concentration of plasma membranes. The vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity was abolished under anaerobic conditions and the concomitant uptake of oxygen occurred during NADH oxidation. The activity was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and stimulated by the presence of paraquat. These results indicate that the vanadate stimulation of NADH oxidation in yeast plasma membranes occurs as a result of the vanadate-dependent oxidation of NADH by superoxide, generated by a plasma membrane NADH oxidase. 51 V-NMR results indicated that a phosphate-vanadate anhydride was the stimulatory species in pH 5.0 and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. Yeast DNA has been isolated which complements a class 1 vanadate resistance mutation

  12. Cofactor engineering to regulate NAD+/NADH ratio with its application to phytosterols biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liqiu; Shen, Yanbing; Zhang, Wenkai; Gao, Tian; Shang, Zhihua; Wang, Min

    2017-10-30

    Cofactor engineering is involved in the modification of enzymes related to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NADH and NAD + ) metabolism, which results in a significantly altered spectrum of metabolic products. Cofactor engineering plays an important role in metabolic engineering but is rarely reported in the sterols biotransformation process owing to its use of multi-catabolic enzymes, which promote multiple consecutive reactions. Androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione (AD) and androst-1, 4-diene-3, 17-dione (ADD) are important steroid medicine intermediates that are obtained via the nucleus oxidation and the side chain degradation of phytosterols by Mycobacterium. Given that the biotransformation from phytosterols to AD (D) is supposed to be a NAD + -dependent process, this work utilized cofactor engineering in Mycobacterium neoaurum and investigated the effect on cofactor and phytosterols metabolism. Through the addition of the coenzyme precursor of nicotinic acid in the phytosterols fermentation system, the intracellular NAD + /NADH ratio and the AD (D) production of M. neoaurum TCCC 11978 (MNR M3) were higher than in the control. Moreover, the NADH: flavin oxidoreductase was identified and was supposed to exert a positive effect on cofactor regulation and phytosterols metabolism pathways via comparative proteomic profiling of MNR cultured with and without phytosterols. In addition, the NADH: flavin oxidoreductase and a water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis, were successfully overexpressed and heterologously expressed in MNR M3 to improve the intracellular ratio of NAD + /NADH. After 96 h of cultivation, the expression of these two enzymes in MNR M3 resulted in the decrease in intracellular NADH level (by 51 and 67%, respectively) and the increase in NAD + /NADH ratio (by 113 and 192%, respectively). Phytosterols bioconversion revealed that the conversion ratio of engineered stains was ultimately improved by 58 and 147%, respectively. The highest AD (D

  13. Cold stress decreases the capacity for respiratory NADH oxidation in potato leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Å.S.; Johansson, F.I.; Møller, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    is 10% of the original level. This decrease is accompanied by specific decreases of immunodetected NDA protein and internal rotenone-insensitive NADH oxidation in mitochondria isolated from cold-treated plants. The alternative oxidase is not cold-induced neither at the protein nor at the activity level......Cold stress effects on the expression of genes for respiratory chain enzymes were investigated in potato (Solarium tuberosum L., cv. Desiree) leaves. The nda1 and ndb1 genes, homologues to genes encoding the non-proton-pumping respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli and yeast......, were compared to genes encoding catalytic subunits of the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase (complex I). Using a real-time PCR system, we demonstrate a specific and gradual decrease of the NDA1 transcript after exposing the plants to 5 C. After 6 days of cold treatment the NDA1 transcript abundance...

  14. Probing glycolytic and membrane potential oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Allan K.; Andersen, Ann Zahle; Brasen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    , while mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent dye DiOC(2)(3). The results show that, as opposed to NADH and other intermediates in glycolysis, intracellular glucose is not oscillating. Furthermore, oscillations in NADH and membrane potential are inhibited by the ATP...

  15. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vemuri, Goutham; Eiteman, M.A; McEwen, J.E

    2007-01-01

    effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation...... Crabtree effect.’’ The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely...... respiratory to mixed respiratory and fermentative. It is well known that glucose repression of respiratory pathways occurs at high glycolytic fluxes, resulting in a decrease in respiratory capacity. Despite many years of detailed studies on this subject, it is not known whether the onset of the Crabtree...

  16. Superoxide production and expression of NAD(P)H oxidases by transformed and primary human colonic epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Pedersen, G

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)) generation through the activity of reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) or reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases has been demonstrated in a variety of cell types, but not in human colonic epithelial cells....

  17. Complementation of mitochondrial electron transport chain by manipulation of the NAD+/NADH ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Denis V; Cracan, Valentin; Goodman, Russell P; Peng, Jun; Grabarek, Zenon; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2016-04-08

    A decline in electron transport chain (ETC) activity is associated with many human diseases. Although diminished mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production is recognized as a source of pathology, the contribution of the associated reduction in the ratio of the amount of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to that of its reduced form (NADH) is less clear. We used a water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX) as a genetic tool for inducing a compartment-specific increase of the NAD(+)/NADH ratio in human cells. We used LbNOX to demonstrate the dependence of key metabolic fluxes, gluconeogenesis, and signaling on the cytosolic or mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADH ratios. Expression of LbNOX in the cytosol or mitochondria ameliorated proliferative and metabolic defects caused by an impaired ETC. The results underscore the role of reductive stress in mitochondrial pathogenesis and demonstrate the utility of targeted LbNOX for direct, compartment-specific manipulation of redox state. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of ca. 24 min

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum period of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min periodicity observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges. The length of the 24-min period is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.

  19. Apoptosis-inducing Factor (AIF) and Its Family Member Protein, AMID, Are Rotenone-sensitive NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductases (NDH-2)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elguindy, Mahmoud M.; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and AMID (AIF-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death) are flavoproteins. Although AIF was originally discovered as a caspase-independent cell death effector, bioenergetic roles of AIF, particularly relating to complex I functions, have since emerged. However, the role of AIF in mitochondrial respiration and redox metabolism has remained unknown. Here, we investigated the redox properties of human AIF and AMID by comparing them with yeast Ndi1, a type 2 NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) regarded as alternative complex I. Isolated AIF and AMID containing naturally incorporated FAD displayed no NADH oxidase activities. However, after reconstituting isolated AIF or AMID into bacterial or mitochondrial membranes, N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID displayed substantial NADH:O2 activities and supported NADH-linked proton pumping activities in the host membranes almost as efficiently as Ndi1. NADH:ubiquinone-1 activities in the reconstituted membranes were highly sensitive to 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (IC50 = ∼1 μm), a quinone-binding inhibitor. Overexpressing N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID enhanced the growth of a double knock-out Escherichia coli strain lacking complex I and NDH-2. In contrast, C-terminally tagged AIF and NADH-binding site mutants of N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID failed to show both NADH:O2 activity and the growth-enhancing effect. The disease mutant AIFΔR201 showed decreased NADH:O2 activity and growth-enhancing effect. Furthermore, we surprisingly found that the redox activities of N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID were sensitive to rotenone, a well known complex I inhibitor. We propose that AIF and AMID are previously unidentified mammalian NDH-2 enzymes, whose bioenergetic function could be supplemental NADH oxidation in cells. PMID:26063804

  20. Apoptosis-inducing Factor (AIF) and Its Family Member Protein, AMID, Are Rotenone-sensitive NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductases (NDH-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elguindy, Mahmoud M; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko

    2015-08-21

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and AMID (AIF-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death) are flavoproteins. Although AIF was originally discovered as a caspase-independent cell death effector, bioenergetic roles of AIF, particularly relating to complex I functions, have since emerged. However, the role of AIF in mitochondrial respiration and redox metabolism has remained unknown. Here, we investigated the redox properties of human AIF and AMID by comparing them with yeast Ndi1, a type 2 NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) regarded as alternative complex I. Isolated AIF and AMID containing naturally incorporated FAD displayed no NADH oxidase activities. However, after reconstituting isolated AIF or AMID into bacterial or mitochondrial membranes, N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID displayed substantial NADH:O₂ activities and supported NADH-linked proton pumping activities in the host membranes almost as efficiently as Ndi1. NADH:ubiquinone-1 activities in the reconstituted membranes were highly sensitive to 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (IC₅₀ = ∼1 μm), a quinone-binding inhibitor. Overexpressing N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID enhanced the growth of a double knock-out Escherichia coli strain lacking complex I and NDH-2. In contrast, C-terminally tagged AIF and NADH-binding site mutants of N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID failed to show both NADH:O₂ activity and the growth-enhancing effect. The disease mutant AIFΔR201 showed decreased NADH:O₂ activity and growth-enhancing effect. Furthermore, we surprisingly found that the redox activities of N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID were sensitive to rotenone, a well known complex I inhibitor. We propose that AIF and AMID are previously unidentified mammalian NDH-2 enzymes, whose bioenergetic function could be supplemental NADH oxidation in cells. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anna Marta; Terne, Cindy; Jankowski, Vera; Cohen, Gerald; Schaefer, Mandy; Boehringer, Falko; Tepel, Martin; Kunkel, Desiree; Zidek, Walter; Jankowski, Joachim

    2014-08-01

    Uraemia and cardiovascular disease appear to be associated with an increased oxidative burden. One of the key players in the genesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Based on initial experiments demonstrating a decreased inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity in the presence of plasma from patients with CKD-5D after dialysis compared with before dialysis, we investigated the effect of 48 known and commercially available uraemic retention solutes on the enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase. Mononuclear leucocytes isolated from buffy coats of healthy volunteers were isolated, lysed and incubated with NADH in the presence of plasma from healthy controls and patients with CKD-5D. Furthermore, the leucocytes were lysed and incubated in the presence of uraemic retention solute of interest and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. The effect on enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase was quantified within an incubation time of 120 min. Thirty-nine of the 48 uraemic retention solutes tested had a significant decreasing effect on NADPH oxidase activity. Oxalate has been characterized as the strongest inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (90% of DPI inhibition). Surprisingly, none of the uraemic retention solutes we investigated was found to increase NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, plasma from patients with CKD-5D before dialysis caused significantly higher inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity compared with plasma from healthy subjects. However, this effect was significantly decreased in plasma from patients with CKD-5D after dialysis. The results of this study show that uraemic retention solutes modulated the activity of the NADPH oxidase. The results of this study might be the basis for the development of inhibitors applicable as drug in the situation of increased oxidative stress. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  2. Pulse photolysis of NADH in the presence of cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    In the UV irradiation of NADH under anaerobic conditions, cysteine, which often acts as a radioprotective substance, has a sensitizing effect. With the aid of pulse photolysis, it was studied which reaction mechanisms in the presence or absence of cysteine are responsible for the damage to NADH in aqueous solution. In the absence of cysteine, the characteristic NADH absorption at 340 nm is reduced immediately after UV quanta have been absorbed by the adenine fraction of the molecules; in the presence of cysteine, a secondary reaction causes additional damage. The spectra of the intermediate products of NADH and cysteine have been recorded for different cysteine concentrations, and the reaction constants have been determined. These values suggest that the sensitizing effect is due to a reaction of NADH with radical anions produced by photolysis. (orig.) [de

  3. Kinetic mechanism and nucleotide specificity of NADH peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, V.S.; Blanchard, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    NADH peroxidase is a flavoprotein isolated from Streptococcus faecalis which catalyzes the pyridine nucleotide-dependent reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water. Initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies have been performed at pH 7.5 and support a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. In the absence of hydrogen peroxide, both transhydrogenation between NADH and thioNAD, and isotope exchange between [ 14 C]NADH and NAD, have been demonstrated, although in both these experiments, the maximal velocity of nucleotide exchange was less than 1.5% the maximal velocity of the peroxidatic reaction. We propose that NADH binds tightly to both oxidized and two-electron reduced enzyme. NADH oxidation proceeds stereospecifically with the transfer of the 4S hydrogen to enzyme, and then, via exchange, to water. No primary tritium kinetic isotope effect was observed, and no statistically significant primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on V/K were determined, although primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on V were observed in the presence and absence of sodium acetate. NADH peroxidase thus shares with other flavoprotein reductases striking kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical similarities. On this basis, we propose a chemical mechanism for the peroxide cleaving reaction catalyzed by NADH peroxidase which involves the obligate formation of a flavinperoxide, and peroxo bond cleavage by nucleophilic attack by enzymatic dithiols

  4. NAD+/NADH and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amanda T.

    2012-01-01

    The pyridine nucleotides, NAD+ and NADH, are coenzymes that provide oxidoreductive power for the generation of ATP by mitochondria. In skeletal muscle, exercise perturbs the levels of NAD+, NADH, and consequently, the NAD+/NADH ratio, and initial research in this area focused on the contribution of redox control to ATP production. More recently, numerous signaling pathways that are sensitive to perturbations in NAD+(H) have come to the fore, as has an appreciation for the potential importance of compartmentation of NAD+(H) metabolism and its subsequent effects on various signaling pathways. These pathways, which include the sirtuin (SIRT) proteins SIRT1 and SIRT3, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins PARP1 and PARP2, and COOH-terminal binding protein (CtBP), are of particular interest because they potentially link changes in cellular redox state to both immediate, metabolic-related changes and transcriptional adaptations to exercise. In this review, we discuss what is known, and not known, about the contribution of NAD+(H) metabolism and these aforementioned proteins to mitochondrial adaptations to acute and chronic endurance exercise. PMID:22436696

  5. Lambda Red-mediated mutagenesis and efficient large scale affinity purification of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Thomas; Uhlmann, Mareike; Kaufenstein, Miriam; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2007-09-18

    The proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the respiratory complex I, couples the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. The Escherichia coli complex I consists of 13 different subunits named NuoA-N (from NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), that are coded by the genes of the nuo-operon. Genetic manipulation of the operon is difficult due to its enormous size. The enzymatic activity of variants is obscured by an alternative NADH dehydrogenase, and purification of the variants is hampered by their instability. To overcome these problems the entire E. coli nuo-operon was cloned and placed under control of the l-arabinose inducible promoter ParaBAD. The exposed N-terminus of subunit NuoF was chosen for engineering the complex with a hexahistidine-tag by lambda-Red-mediated recombineering. Overproduction of the complex from this construct in a strain which is devoid of any membrane-bound NADH dehydrogenase led to the assembly of a catalytically active complex causing the entire NADH oxidase activity of the cytoplasmic membranes. After solubilization with dodecyl maltoside the engineered complex binds to a Ni2+-iminodiacetic acid matrix allowing the purification of approximately 11 mg of complex I from 25 g of cells. The preparation is pure and monodisperse and comprises all known subunits and cofactors. It contains more lipids than earlier preparations due to the gentle and fast purification procedure. After reconstitution in proteoliposomes it couples the electron transfer with proton translocation in an inhibitor sensitive manner, thus meeting all prerequisites for structural and functional studies.

  6. Primordial oscillations in life: Direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in individual HeLa cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Takashi; Shibata, Kenichi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Kiminori; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2017-10-01

    We report the first direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in HeLa cervical cancer cells, which we regard as primordial oscillations preserved in living cells. HeLa cells starved of glucose or both glucose and serum exhibited glycolytic oscillations in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), exhibiting asynchronous intercellular behaviors. Also found were spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous intracellular NADH oscillations in the individual cells. Our results demonstrate that starved HeLa cells may be induced to exhibit glycolytic oscillations by either high-uptake of glucose or the enhancement of a glycolytic pathway (Crabtree effect or the Warburg effect), or both. Their asynchronous collective behaviors in the oscillations were probably due to a weak intercellular coupling. Elucidation of the relationship between the mechanism of glycolytic dynamics in cancer cells and their pathophysiological characteristics remains a challenge in future.

  7. Identification of NADH kinase activity in filamentous fungi and structural modelling of the novel enzyme from Fusarium oxysporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Papadakis, Emmanouil; Topakas, E.

    2008-01-01

    ATP-NADH kinase phosphorylates NADH to produce NADPH at the expense of ATP. The present study describes Fusarium oxysporum NADH kinase (ATP:NADH 2'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.86), a novel fungal enzyme capable of synthesizing NADPH using NADH as the preferred diphosphonicotinamide...

  8. Genetically encoded probes for NAD+/NADH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Dmitry S; Belousov, Vsevolod V

    2016-11-01

    NAD + and NADH participate in many metabolic reactions. The NAD + /NADH ratio is an important parameter reflecting the general metabolic and redox state of different types of cells. For a long time, in situ and in vivo NAD + /NADH monitoring has been hampered by the lack of suitable tools. The recent development of genetically encoded indicators based on fluorescent proteins linked to specific nucleotide-binding domains has already helped to address this monitoring problem. In this review, we will focus on four available indicators: Peredox, Frex family probes, RexYFP and SoNar. Each indicator has advantages and limitations. We will also discuss the most important points that should be considered when selecting a suitable indicator for certain experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystallization of the NADH-oxidizing domain of the Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Minli; Türk, Karin; Diez, Joachim; Grütter, Markus G.; Fritz, Günter; Steuber, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The FAD domain of the NqrF subunit from the Na + -translocating NADH dehydrogenase from V. cholerae has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded at 3.1 Å. The Na + -translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na + -NQR) from pathogenic and marine bacteria is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by quinone to the transport of Na + across the membrane. The NqrF subunit oxidizes NADH and transfers the electrons to other redox cofactors in the enzyme. The FAD-containing domain of NqrF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified NqrF FAD domain exhibited high rates of NADH oxidation and contained stoichiometric amounts of the FAD cofactor. Initial crystallization of the flavin domain was achieved by the sitting-drop technique using a Cartesian MicroSys4000 robot. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded yellow hexagonal crystals with dimensions of 30 × 30 × 70 µm. The protein mainly crystallizes in long hexagonal needles with a diameter of up to 30 µm. Crystals diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.3, c = 90.2 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°

  10. Stabilized NADH as a Countermeasure for Jet Lag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gary G.; Viirre, Erik; Clark, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Current remedies for jet lag (phototherapy, melatonin, stimulant, and sedative medications) are limited in efficacy and practicality. The efficacy of a stabilized, sublingual form of reduced nicotin amide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, ENADAlert, Menuco Corp.) as a countermeasure for jet lag was examined. Because NADH increases cellular production of ATP and facilitates dopamine synthesis, it may counteract the effects of jet lag on cognitive functioning and sleepiness. Thirty-five healthy, employed subjects participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Training and baseline testing were conducted on the West Coast before subjects flew overnight to the East Coast, where they would experience a 3-hour time difference. Upon arrival, individuals were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg of sublingual stabilized ADH (n=18) or identical placebo tablets (n=17). All participants completed computer-administered tests (including CogScreen7) to assess changes in cognitive functioning, mood, and sleepiness in the morning and afternoon. Jet lag resulted in increased sleepiness for over half the participants and deterioration of cognitive functioning for approximately one third. The morning following the flight, subjects experienced lapses of attention in addition to disruptions in working memory, divided attention, and visual perceptual speed. Individuals who received NADH performed significantly better on 5 of 8 cognitive and psychomotor test measures (P less than or equal to 0.5) and showed a trend for better performance on the other three measures (P less than or equal to .l0). Subjects also reported less sleepiness compared with those who received placebo. No adverse effects were observed with NADH treatment. Stabilized NADH significantly reduced jet lag-induced disruptions of cognitive functioning, was easily administered, and was found to have no adverse side effects.

  11. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health-medications/index.shtml. Accessed May 16, 2016. Hirsch M, et al. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for ... www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 16, 2016. Hirsch M, et al. Discontinuing antidepressant medications in adults. ...

  12. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

    1996-12-01

    Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.

  13. Metabolic control by sirtuins and other enzymes that sense NAD(+), NADH, or their ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kristin A; Madsen, Andreas S; Olsen, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    NAD(+) is a dinucleotide cofactor with the potential to accept electrons in a variety of cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. In its reduced form, NADH is a ubiquitous cellular electron donor. NAD(+), NADH, and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio have long been known to control the activity of several...... oxidoreductase enzymes. More recently, enzymes outside those participating directly in redox control have been identified that sense these dinucleotides, including the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacylases. In this review, we highlight examples of non-redox enzymes that are controlled by NAD......(+), NADH, or NAD(+)/NADH. In particular, we focus on the sirtuin family and assess the current evidence that the sirtuin enzymes sense these dinucleotides and discuss the biological conditions under which this might occur; we conclude that sirtuins sense NAD(+), but neither NADH nor the ratio. Finally, we...

  14. Deep sequencing of the mitochondrial genome reveals common heteroplasmic sites in NADH dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyu; Fetterman, Jessica L; Liu, Poching; Luo, Yan; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Zhu, Jun; Levy, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and age-related conditions. But little is known about the molecular basis for this connection. A possible cause may be mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are often heteroplasmic-the joint presence of different alleles at a single locus in the same individual. However, the involvement of mtDNA heteroplasmy in aging and age-related conditions has not been investigated thoroughly. We deep-sequenced the complete mtDNA genomes of 356 Framingham Heart Study participants (52% women, mean age 43, mean coverage 4570-fold), identified 2880 unique mutations and comprehensively annotated them by MITOMAP and PolyPhen-2. We discovered 11 heteroplasmic "hot" spots [NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunit 1, 4, 5 and 6 genes, n = 7; cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), n = 2; 16S rRNA, n = 1; D-loop, n = 1] for which the alternative-to-reference allele ratios significantly increased with advancing age (Bonferroni correction p < 0.001). Four of these heteroplasmic mutations in ND and COI genes were predicted to be deleterious nonsynonymous mutations which may have direct impact on ATP production. We confirmed previous findings that healthy individuals carry many low-frequency heteroplasmy mutations with potentially deleterious effects. We hypothesize that the effect of a single deleterious heteroplasmy may be minimal due to a low mutant-to-wildtype allele ratio, whereas the aggregate effects of many deleterious mutations may cause changes in mitochondrial function and contribute to age-related diseases. The identification of age-related mtDNA mutations is an important step to understand the genetic architecture of age-related diseases and may uncover novel therapeutic targets for such diseases.

  15. The free NADH concentration is kept constant in plant mitochondria under different metabolic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasimova, M.R.; Grigiene, J.; Krab, K.

    2006-01-01

    with fluorescence spectroscopy. The NADH content of actively respiring mitochondria (from potato tubers [Solanum tuberosum cv Bintje]) in different metabolic states was then measured by spectral decomposition analysis of fluorescence emission spectra. Most of the mitochondrial NADH is bound to proteins...... metabolism. These findings have far-reaching consequences for the interpretation of cellular metabolism....

  16. Cloning and mRNA Expression of NADH Dehydrogenase during Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus Development and Pesticide Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    NADH dehydrogenase, the largest of the respiratory complexes, is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have cloned and sequenced cDNA of NADH dehydrogenase gene from Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) adult (GeneBank Accession number: FJ458415). The ...

  17. Oscillator monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Present high-speed data acquisition systems in nuclear diagnostics use high-frequency oscillators to provide timing references for signals recorded on fast, traveling-wave oscilloscopes. An oscillator's sinusoidal wave shape is superimposed on the recorded signal with each cycle representing a fixed time increment. During data analysis the sinusoid is stripped from the signal, leaving a clean signal shape with known timing. Since all signal/time relationships are totally dependant upon working oscillators, these critical devices must have remote verification of proper operation. This manual presents the newly-developed oscillator monitor which will provide the required verification

  18. Impact of overexpressing NADH kinase on glucose and xylose metabolism in recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Vemuri, G. N.; Bao, X. M.

    2009-01-01

    of overexpressing the native NADH kinase (encoded by the POS5 gene) in xylose-consuming recombinant S. cerevisiae directed either into the cytosol or to the mitochondria was evaluated. The physiology of the NADH kinase containing strains was also evaluated during growth on glucose. Overexpressing NADH kinase...

  19. Oxidase-based biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Hemalata; Woodley, John; Krühne, Ulrich

    interestingbiocatalystsbecause they use a mild oxidant (oxygen) as a substrateas opposed to their chemical counterparts which use strong oxidants such as permanganates. A class of oxidases calledmonoamine oxidases has been used as the central case study for the thesis. The rationale for choosing thissystemis that it has been...

  20. NADH Oxidase of Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 is Required for the Effective Yogurt Fermentation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038

    OpenAIRE

    SASAKI, Yasuko; HORIUCHI, Hiroshi; KAWASHIMA, Hiroko; MUKAI, Takao; YAMAMOTO, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that dissolved oxygen (DO) suppresses yogurt fermentation with an industrial starter culture composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, and also found that reducing the DO in the medium prior to fermentation (deoxygenated fermentation) shortens the fermentation time. In this study, we found that deoxygenated fermentation primarily increased the cell number of S. thermophilus 1131 rather than that of ...

  1. A high effective NADH-ferricyanide dehydrogenase coupled with laccase for NAD(+) regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhong; Yang, Chengli; Chen, Xing; Bao, Bingxin; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Dali; Du, Xingfan; Shi, Ruofu; Yang, Junfang; Zhu, Ronghui

    2016-08-01

    To find an efficient and cheap system for NAD(+) regeneration A NADH-ferricyanide dehydrogenase was obtained from an isolate of Escherichia coli. Optimal activity of the NADH dehydrogenase was at 45 °C and pH 7.5, with a K m value for NADH of 10 μM. By combining the NADH dehydrogenase, potassium ferricyanide and laccase, a bi-enzyme system for NAD(+) regeneration was established. The system is attractive in that the O2 consumed by laccase is from air and the sole byproduct of the reaction is water. During the reaction process, 10 mM NAD(+) was transformed from NADH in less than 2 h under the condition of 0.5 U NADH dehydrogenase, 0.5 U laccase, 0.1 mM potassium ferricyanide at pH 5.6, 30 °C CONCLUSION: The bi-enzyme system employed the NADH-ferricyanide dehydrogenase and laccase as catalysts, and potassium ferricyanide as redox mediator, is a promising alternative for NAD(+) regeneration.

  2. Metabolic control by sirtuins and other enzymes that sense NAD+, NADH, or their ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin A; Madsen, Andreas S; Olsen, Christian A; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-12-01

    NAD + is a dinucleotide cofactor with the potential to accept electrons in a variety of cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. In its reduced form, NADH is a ubiquitous cellular electron donor. NAD + , NADH, and the NAD + /NADH ratio have long been known to control the activity of several oxidoreductase enzymes. More recently, enzymes outside those participating directly in redox control have been identified that sense these dinucleotides, including the sirtuin family of NAD + -dependent protein deacylases. In this review, we highlight examples of non-redox enzymes that are controlled by NAD + , NADH, or NAD + /NADH. In particular, we focus on the sirtuin family and assess the current evidence that the sirtuin enzymes sense these dinucleotides and discuss the biological conditions under which this might occur; we conclude that sirtuins sense NAD + , but neither NADH nor the ratio. Finally, we identify future studies that might be informative to further interrogate physiological and pathophysiological changes in NAD + and NADH, as well as enzymes like sirtuins that sense and respond to redox changes in the cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. One-electron transfer reactions of the couple NAD./NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodkowski, J.; Neta, P.; Carlson, B.W.; Miller, L.

    1983-01-01

    One-electron transfer reactions involving nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized and reducd forms (NAD./NADH) were studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. One-electron oxidation of NADH by various phenoxyl radicals and phenothiazine cation radicals was found to take place with rate constants in the range of 10 5 to 10 8 M -1 s -1 , depending on the redox potential of the oxidizing species. In all cases, NAD. is formed quantitatively with no indication for the existence of the protonated form (NADH + .). The spectrum of NAD., as well as the rates of oxidation of NADH by phenoxyl and by (chlorpromazine) + . were independent of pH between pH 4.5 and 13.5. Reaction of deuterated NADH indicated only a small kinetic isotope effect. All these findings point to an electron transfer mechanism. On the other hand, attempts to observe the reverse electron transfer, i.e., one-electron reduction of NAD. to NADH by radicals such as semiquinones, showed that k was less than 10 4 to 10 5 M -1 s -1 , so that it was unobservable. Consequently, it was not possible to achieve equilibrium conditions which would have permitted the direct measurement of the redox potential for NAD./NADH. One-electron reduction of NAD. appears to be an unlikely process. 1 table

  4. Chromospheric oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lites, B.W.; Rutten, R.J.; Thomas, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    We show results from SO/Sacramento Peak data to discuss three issues: (i)--the spatial occurrence of chromospheric 3--min oscillations; (ii)--the validity of Ca II H&K line-center Doppler Shift measurements; (iii)--the signi ?cance of oscillation power and phase at frequencies above 10 mHz.

  5. Inverted oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuce, C [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kilic, A [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Coruh, A [Physics Department, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    The inverted harmonic oscillator problem is investigated quantum mechanically. The exact wavefunction for the confined inverted oscillator is obtained and it is shown that the associated energy eigenvalues are discrete, and the energy is given as a linear function of the quantum number n.

  6. On-line measurements of oscillating mitochondrial membrane potential in glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Poulsen, Allan K.; Brasen, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    We employed the fluorescent cyanine dye DiOC(2)(3) to measure membrane potential in semi-anaerobic yeast cells under conditions where glycolysis was oscillating. Oscillations in glycolysis were studied by means of the naturally abundant nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). We found...... studies showed that glycolytic oscillations perturb the mitochondrial membrane potential and that the mitochondria do not have any controlling effect on the dynamics of glycolysis under these conditions. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane by addition of FCCP quenched mitochondrial membrane...... potential oscillations and delocalized DiOC(2)(3), while glycolysis continued to oscillate unaffected....

  7. Overexpression of a novel endogenous NADH kinase in Aspergillus nidulans enhances growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Grotkjær, Thomas; Hofmann, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    .7.1.86) has been identified. The enzyme has a predicted molecular weight of 49 kDa. We characterised the role of this NADH kinase by genomic integration of the putative gene AN8837.2 under a strong constitutive promoter. The physiological effects of overexpressed NADH kinase in combination with different...... yield on glucose and the maximum specific growth rate increased from 0.47 g/g and 0.22 h(-1) (wild type) to 0.54 g/g and 0.26 h(-1) (NADH kinase overexpressed), respectively. The results suggest that overexpression of NADH kinase improves the growth efficiency of the cell by increasing the access...

  8. Intracellular NAD(H) levels control motility and invasion of glioma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horssen, R. van; Willemse, M.P.; Haeger, A.; Attanasio, F.; Guneri, T.; Schwab, A.; Stock, C.M.; Buccione, R.; Fransen, J.A.M.; Wieringa, B.

    2013-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation involves reprogramming of cell metabolism, whereby steady-state levels of intracellular NAD(+) and NADH can undergo dramatic changes while ATP concentration is generally well maintained. Altered expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting

  9. A radiometric method for the determination of NADH in subpicomole amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.; Rosenthal, W.; Oberdisse, E.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method has been devised for the determination of small quantities of NADH formed in preceding dehydrogenase reactions. In a coupled enzymatic reaction, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) catalyzes the transfer of [/sup 32/P]orthophosphate from [gamma-/sup 32/P]ATP to 3-phosphoglycerate; the intermediate, 1,3-[1-/sup 32/P]diphosphoglycerate, is dephosphorylated by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP-DH). [/sup 32/P]Orthophosphate is released proportionally to NADH and can be measured after adsorption of [gamma-/sup 32/P]ATP to activated charcoal. With this method, 0.2 pmol of NADH are detectable in the presence of a 10/sup 4/-fold excess of NAD over NADH

  10. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  11. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the law of mass-action that every simple reaction approaches ... from thermodynamic equilibrium. Such oscillating systems cor- respond to thermodynamically open systems. .... experimentally observable, and the third is always unstable.

  12. Two-photon NADH imaging exposes boundaries of oxygen diffusion in cortical vascular supply regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kasischke, Karl A; Lambert, Elton M; Panepento, Ben; Sun, Anita; Gelbard, Harris A; Burgess, Robert W; Foster, Thomas H; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen transport imposes a possible constraint on the brain's ability to sustain variable metabolic demands, but oxygen diffusion in the cerebral cortex has not yet been observed directly. We show that concurrent two-photon fluorescence imaging of endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the cortical microcirculation exposes well-defined boundaries of tissue oxygen diffusion in the mouse cortex. The NADH fluorescence increases rapidly over a narrow, very low pO2 range with a p ...

  13. Oxidases as Breast Cancer Oncogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeldandi, Anjana

    2000-01-01

    ...) in a non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line to ascertain whether oxidase overexpressing cells undergo transformation when exposed to substrate xanthine for XOX and uric acid for UOX...

  14. Glucose oxidase variants with improved properities

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Rainer; Ostafe, Raluca; Prodanovic, Radivoje

    2014-01-01

    Source: WO14173822A3 [EN] The technology provided herein relates to novel variants of microbial glucose oxidase with improved properties, more specifically to polypeptides having glucose oxidase activity as their major enzymatic activity; to nucleic acid molecules encoding said glucose oxidases; vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acids and methods for producing the glucose oxidase; compositions comprising said glucose oxidase; methods for the preparation and production of such enzy...

  15. Regulation of hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes by external NADH and NAD{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chong; Ma, Kun; Xing, Xin-Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Experiments involving the addition of external nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (NADH) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) have been designed to examine how the hydrogen in Enterobacter aerogenes is liberated by NADH or NAD{sup +}. The addition of external NADH or NAD{sup +} was found to regulate hydrogen production by E. aerogenes in resting cells, batch cultures, and chemostat cultures. Particularly in chemostat cultivation, with the external addition of NADH, hydrogen production via the NADH pathway was decreased, while that via the formate pathway was increased; in the end, the overall hydrogen p was decreased. The addition of NAD{sup +}, on the other hand, gave the opposite results. The membrane-bound hydrogenase was found to play a central role in regulating hydrogen production. The occurrence of NADH oxidation (NAD{sup +} reduction) on the cell membrane resulted in an electron flow across the membrane; this changed the oxidation state and metabolic pattern of the cells, which eventually affected the hydrogen evolution. (author)

  16. NADH oxidation on screen-printed electrode modified with a new phenothiazine diazonium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumeche, Bastien; Blum, Loic J. [GEMBAS, Genie Enzymatique, Membranes Biomimetiques et Assemblages Supramoleculaires, ICBMS UMR 5246, Universite Lyon 1, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-10-15

    NADH oxidation catalysts are extremely important in the field of electrochemical biosensors and enzymatic biofuel cells. Based on the growing diazonium chemistry, we synthesized the diazonium salt of the well-known NADH mediator toluidine blue O. The electrochemical reduction of the diazonium moiety by cyclic voltammetry onto a screen-printed electrode leads to an electrocatalyst suitable for the oxidation of NADH. The amperometric response for its oxidation shows a maximal current of 1.2 {mu}A ([NADH] = 100 {mu}M). Based on electrochemical measurements, the surface coverage is found to be 3.78 x 10{sup -11} mol cm{sup -2} and the heterogeneous standard rate constant k{sub h} is 1.21 {+-} 0.16 s{sup -1}. The sensitive layer for the oxidation of NADH is improved by electrografting the diazonium salt with a potentiostatic method. Both the surface coverage and the heterogeneous standard rate constant k{sub h} are improved and found to be 6.08 {+-} 0.63 x 10{sup -11} mol cm{sup -2} and {proportional_to} 5.02 s{sup -} {sup 1}, respectively. The amperometric response is also improved by an 8 fold factor, reaching 9.87 {mu}A ([NADH] = 120 {mu}M). These remarkably high values for screen-printed electrodes are comparable to glassy carbon electrodes making this method suitable for low-cost bioelectronical devices. (author)

  17. NADPH Oxidases: Progress and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    San Martin, Alejandra; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2014-01-01

    From the initial discovery in 1999 that NADPH oxidases comprise a family of enzymes to our current focus on drug development to treat multiple pathologies related to this enzyme family, progress has been swift and impressive. We have expanded our understanding of the extent of the family, the basic enzymatic biochemistry, the multiple cellular functions controlled by NADPH oxidases, and their varied roles in physiology and diseases. We have developed numerous cell culture tools, animal models...

  18. Evaluation of functioning of mitochondrial electron transport chain with NADH and FAD autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylovych, H V

    2016-01-01

    We prove the feasibility of evaluation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in isolated mitochondria of smooth muscle cells of rats from uterus using fluorescence of NADH and FAD coenzymes. We found the inversely directed changes in FAD and NADH fluorescence intensity under normal functioning of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The targeted effect of inhibitors of complex I, III and IV changed fluorescence of adenine nucleotides. Rotenone (5 μM) induced rapid increase in NADH fluorescence due to inhibition of complex I, without changing in dynamics of FAD fluorescence increase. Antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor, in concentration of 1 μg/ml caused sharp increase in NADH fluorescence and moderate increase in FAD fluorescence in comparison to control. NaN3 (5 mM), a complex IV inhibitor, and CCCP (10 μM), a protonophore, caused decrease in NADH and FAD fluorescence. Moreover, all the inhibitors caused mitochondria swelling. NO donors, e.g. 0.1 mM sodium nitroprusside and sodium nitrite similarly to the effects of sodium azide. Energy-dependent Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondrial matrix (in presence of oxidation substrates and Mg-ATP2- complex) is associated with pronounced drop in NADH and FAD fluorescence followed by increased fluorescence of adenine nucleotides, which may be primarily due to Ca2+- dependent activation of dehydrogenases of citric acid cycle. Therefore, the fluorescent signal of FAD and NADH indicates changes in oxidation state of these nucleotides in isolated mitochondria, which may be used to assay the potential of effectors of electron transport chain.

  19. Single sample extraction and HPLC processing for quantification of NAD and NADH levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporty, J; Kabir, M M; Turteltaub, K; Ognibene, T; Lin, S; Bench, G

    2008-01-10

    A robust redox extraction protocol for quantitative and reproducible metabolite isolation and recovery has been developed for simultaneous measurement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form, NADH, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following culture in liquid media, approximately 10{sup 8} yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation and then lysed under non-oxidizing conditions by bead blasting in ice-cold, nitrogen-saturated 50-mM ammonium acetate. To enable protein denaturation, ice cold nitrogen-saturated CH{sub 3}CN + 50-mM ammonium acetate (3:1; v:v) was added to the cell lysates. After sample centrifugation to pellet precipitated proteins, organic solvent removal was performed on supernatants by chloroform extraction. The remaining aqueous phase was dried and resuspended in 50-mM ammonium acetate. NAD and NADH were separated by HPLC and quantified using UV-VIS absorbance detection. Applicability of this procedure for quantifying NAD and NADH levels was evaluated by culturing yeast under normal (2% glucose) and calorie restricted (0.5% glucose) conditions. NAD and NADH contents are similar to previously reported levels in yeast obtained using enzymatic assays performed separately on acid (for NAD) and alkali (for NADH) extracts. Results demonstrate that it is possible to perform a single preparation to reliably and robustly quantitate both NAD and NADH contents in the same sample. Robustness of the protocol suggests it will be (1) applicable to quantification of these metabolites in mammalian and bacterial cell cultures; and (2) amenable to isotope labeling strategies to determine the relative contribution of specific metabolic pathways to total NAD and NADH levels in cell cultures.

  20. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  1. Investigation of the NADH/NAD+ ratio in Ralstonia eutropha using the fluorescence reporter protein Peredox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejwani, Vijay; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Wilkening, Svea; Zebger, Ingo; Horch, Marius; Lenz, Oliver; Friedrich, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha is a hydrogen-oxidizing ("Knallgas") bacterium that can easily switch between heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolism to thrive in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Its versatile metabolism makes R. eutropha an attractive host for biotechnological applications, including H 2 -driven production of biodegradable polymers and hydrocarbons. H 2 oxidation by R. eutropha takes place in the presence of O 2 and is mediated by four hydrogenases, which represent ideal model systems for both biohydrogen production and H 2 utilization. The so-called soluble hydrogenase (SH) couples reversibly H 2 oxidation with the reduction of NAD + to NADH and has already been applied successfully in vitro and in vivo for cofactor regeneration. Thus, the interaction of the SH with the cellular NADH/NAD + pool is of major interest. In this work, we applied the fluorescent biosensor Peredox to measure the [NADH]:[NAD + ] ratio in R. eutropha cells under different metabolic conditions. The results suggest that the sensor operates close to saturation level, indicating a rather high [NADH]:[NAD + ] ratio in aerobically grown R. eutropha cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that multicomponent analysis of spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime data of the Peredox sensor response to different [NADH]:[NAD + ] ratios represents a novel and sensitive tool to determine the redox state of cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determining the Extremes of the Cellular NAD(H) Level by Using an Escherichia coli NAD+-Auxotrophic Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yongjin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Fan; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang; Zhao, Zongbao K.

    2011-01-01

    NAD (NAD+) and its reduced form (NADH) are omnipresent cofactors in biological systems. However, it is difficult to determine the extremes of the cellular NAD(H) level in live cells because the NAD+ level is tightly controlled by a biosynthesis regulation mechanism. Here, we developed a strategy to determine the extreme NAD(H) levels in Escherichia coli cells that were genetically engineered to be NAD+ auxotrophic. First, we expressed the ntt4 gene encoding the NAD(H) transporter in the E. co...

  3. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...... to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has...... advancements in the field of colorectal cancer....

  4. Time-resolved spectroscopic imaging reveals the fundamentals of cellular NADH fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zheng, Wei; Qu, Jianan Y

    2008-10-15

    A time-resolved spectroscopic imaging system is built to study the fluorescence characteristics of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), an important metabolic coenzyme and endogenous fluorophore in cells. The system provides a unique approach to measure fluorescence signals in different cellular organelles and cytoplasm. The ratios of free over protein-bound NADH signals in cytosol and nucleus are slightly higher than those in mitochondria. The mitochondrial fluorescence contributes about 70% of overall cellular fluorescence and is not a completely dominant signal. Furthermore, NADH signals in mitochondria, cytosol, and the nucleus respond to the changes of cellular activity differently, suggesting that cytosolic and nuclear fluorescence may complicate the well-known relationship between mitochondrial fluorescence and cellular metabolism.

  5. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we...

  6. Rotational barriers of 1,3-substitute pyridines and benzenes as models for the NAD+/NADH coenzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhommerig, S.A.M.; Meier, R.J.; Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.; Meijer, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The NAD+/NADH coenzyme is involved in many enzyme-catalysed oxidation-reduction reactions. In order to obtain better insight in the catalytic mechanism of NAD+/NADH dependent dehydrogenases, conformational studies of 1,3-substituted pyridines and benzenes were carried out, using ab initio,

  7. Nikkaji Dictionary: デアミノNADH [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term デアミノNADH 名詞 一般 * * * * デアミノNADH ... Nikkaji J707.348H 200906099845094600 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 デアミノ N AD H

  8. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  9. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH distinguishes alterations in cerebral metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Weicheng; Fu, Buyin; Uhlirova, Hana; Devor, Anna; Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava

    2017-05-01

    Evaluating cerebral energy metabolism at microscopic resolution is important for comprehensively understanding healthy brain function and its pathological alterations. Here, we resolve specific alterations in cerebral metabolism in vivo in Sprague Dawley rats utilizing minimally-invasive 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) measurements of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence. Time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements enable distinction of different components contributing to NADH autofluorescence. Ostensibly, these components indicate different enzyme-bound formulations of NADH. We observed distinct variations in the relative proportions of these components before and after pharmacological-induced impairments to several reactions involved in glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. Classification models were developed with the experimental data and used to predict the metabolic impairments induced during separate experiments involving bicuculline-induced seizures. The models consistently predicted that prolonged focal seizure activity results in impaired activity in the electron transport chain, likely the consequence of inadequate oxygen supply. 2P-FLIM observations of cerebral NADH will help advance our understanding of cerebral energetics at a microscopic scale. Such knowledge will aid in our evaluation of healthy and diseased cerebral physiology and guide diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that target cerebral energetics.

  10. Two-photon NADH imaging exposes boundaries of oxygen diffusion in cortical vascular supply regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Karl A; Lambert, Elton M; Panepento, Ben; Sun, Anita; Gelbard, Harris A; Burgess, Robert W; Foster, Thomas H; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transport imposes a possible constraint on the brain's ability to sustain variable metabolic demands, but oxygen diffusion in the cerebral cortex has not yet been observed directly. We show that concurrent two-photon fluorescence imaging of endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the cortical microcirculation exposes well-defined boundaries of tissue oxygen diffusion in the mouse cortex. The NADH fluorescence increases rapidly over a narrow, very low pO(2) range with a p(50) of 3.4 ± 0.6 mm Hg, thereby establishing a nearly binary reporter of significant, metabolically limiting hypoxia. The transient cortical tissue boundaries of NADH fluorescence exhibit remarkably delineated geometrical patterns, which define the limits of tissue oxygen diffusion from the cortical microcirculation and bear a striking resemblance to the ideal Krogh tissue cylinder. The visualization of microvessels and their regional contribution to oxygen delivery establishes penetrating arterioles as major oxygen sources in addition to the capillary network and confirms the existence of cortical oxygen fields with steep microregional oxygen gradients. Thus, two-photon NADH imaging can be applied to expose vascular supply regions and to localize functionally relevant microregional cortical hypoxia with micrometer spatial resolution.

  11. Determining the Extremes of the Cellular NAD(H) Level by Using an Escherichia coli NAD+-Auxotrophic Mutant ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Fan; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang; Zhao, Zongbao K.

    2011-01-01

    NAD (NAD+) and its reduced form (NADH) are omnipresent cofactors in biological systems. However, it is difficult to determine the extremes of the cellular NAD(H) level in live cells because the NAD+ level is tightly controlled by a biosynthesis regulation mechanism. Here, we developed a strategy to determine the extreme NAD(H) levels in Escherichia coli cells that were genetically engineered to be NAD+ auxotrophic. First, we expressed the ntt4 gene encoding the NAD(H) transporter in the E. coli mutant YJE001, which had a deletion of the nadC gene responsible for NAD+ de novo biosynthesis, and we showed NTT4 conferred on the mutant strain better growth in the presence of exogenous NAD+. We then constructed the NAD+-auxotrophic mutant YJE003 by disrupting the essential gene nadE, which is responsible for the last step of NAD+ biosynthesis in cells harboring the ntt4 gene. The minimal NAD+ level was determined in M9 medium in proliferating YJE003 cells that were preloaded with NAD+, while the maximal NAD(H) level was determined by exposing the cells to high concentrations of exogenous NAD(H). Compared with supplementation of NADH, cells grew faster and had a higher intracellular NAD(H) level when NAD+ was fed. The intracellular NAD(H) level increased with the increase of exogenous NAD+ concentration, until it reached a plateau. Thus, a minimal NAD(H) level of 0.039 mM and a maximum of 8.49 mM were determined, which were 0.044× and 9.6× those of wild-type cells, respectively. Finally, the potential application of this strategy in biotechnology is briefly discussed. PMID:21742902

  12. Stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage by rifamycin SV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukiełka, E; Cederbaum, A I

    1995-04-15

    Rifamycin SV is an antibiotic anti-bacterial agent used in the treatment of tuberculosis. This drug can autoxidize, especially in the presence of metals, and generate reactive oxygen species. A previous study indicated that rifamycin SV can increase NADH-dependent microsomal production of reactive oxygen species. The current study evaluated the ability of rifamycin SV to interact with iron and increase microsomal production of hydroxyl radical, as detected by conversion of supercoiled plasmid DNA into the relaxed open circular state. The plasmid used was pBluescript II KS(-), and the forms of DNA were separated by agarose-gel electrophoresis. Incubation of rat liver microsomes with plasmid plus NADH plus ferric-ATP caused DNA strand cleavage. The addition of rifamycin SV produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in DNA-strand cleavage. No stimulation by rifamycin SV occurred in the absence of microsomes, NADH or ferric-ATP. Stimulation occurred with other ferric complexes besides ferric-ATP, e.g. ferric-histidine, ferric-citrate, ferric-EDTA, and ferric-(NH4)2SO4. Rifamycin SV did not significantly increase the high rates of DNA strand cleavage found with NADPH as the microsomal reductant. The stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage was completely blocked by catalase, superoxide dismutase, GSH and a variety of hydroxyl-radical-scavenging agents, but not by anti-oxidants that prevent microsomal lipid peroxidation. Redox cycling agents, such as menadione and paraquat, in contrast with rifamycin SV, stimulated the NADPH-dependent reaction; menadione and rifamycin SV were superior to paraquat in stimulating the NADH-dependent reaction. These results indicate that rifamycin SV can, in the presence of an iron catalyst, increase microsomal production of reactive oxygen species which can cause DNA-strand cleavage. In contrast with other redox cycling agents, the stimulation by rifamycin SV is more pronounced with NADH than with NADPH as the

  13. Live cell imaging of cytosolic NADH/NAD+ ratio in hepatocytes and liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, Ricard; McCarty, William J; Lahmann, Carolina; Luther, Jay; Chung, Raymond T; Yarmush, Martin L; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-01

    Fatty liver disease (FLD), the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, may be caused by alcohol or the metabolic syndrome. Alcohol is oxidized in the cytosol of hepatocytes by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which generates NADH and increases cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio. The increased ratio may be important for development of FLD, but our ability to examine this question is hindered by methodological limitations. To address this, we used the genetically encoded fluorescent sensor Peredox to obtain dynamic, real-time measurements of cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in living hepatocytes. Peredox was expressed in dissociated rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells by transfection, and in mouse liver slices by tail-vein injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-encoded sensor. Under control conditions, hepatocytes and liver slices exhibit a relatively low (oxidized) cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio as reported by Peredox. The ratio responds rapidly and reversibly to substrates of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). Ethanol causes a robust dose-dependent increase in cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio, and this increase is mitigated by the presence of NAD + -generating substrates of LDH or SDH. In contrast to hepatocytes and slices, HepG2 cells exhibit a relatively high (reduced) ratio and show minimal responses to substrates of ADH and SDH. In slices, we show that comparable results are obtained with epifluorescence imaging and two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2p-FLIM). Live cell imaging with Peredox is a promising new approach to investigate cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in hepatocytes. Imaging in liver slices is particularly attractive because it allows preservation of liver microanatomy and metabolic zonation of hepatocytes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe and validate a new approach for measuring free cytosolic NADH/NAD + ratio in hepatocytes and liver slices: live cell imaging with the fluorescent biosensor Peredox. This approach yields dynamic, real

  14. Differences in activity of cytochrome C oxidase in brain between sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, Elena V; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Zhang, Lin; Cater, Jacqueline R; Galante, Raymond J; Ward, Stephen E; Avadhani, Narayan G; Pack, Allan I

    2005-01-01

    Increased mRNA level of subunit 1 cytochrome c oxidase (COXI) during wakefulness and after short-term sleep deprivation has been described in brain. We hypothesized that this might contribute to increased activity of cytochrome oxidase (COX) enzyme during wakefulness, as part of the mechanisms to provide sufficient amounts of adenosine triphosphate to meet increased neuronal energy demands. COX activity was measured in isolated mitochondria from different brain regions in groups of rats with 3 hours of spontaneous sleep, 3 hours of spontaneous wake, and 3 hours of sleep deprivation. The group with 3 hours of spontaneous wake was added to delineate the circadian component of changes in the enzyme activity. Northern blot analysis was performed to examine the mRNA levels of 2 subunits of the enzyme COXI and COXIV, encoded by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, respectively. Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Animal Biology, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania. 2-month-old male Fischer rats (N = 21) implanted for polygraphic recording. For COX activity, there was a main effect by analysis of variance of experimental group (P sleep-deprived groups as compared to the sleep group. A main effect of brain region was also significant (P sleep. There is an increase in COX activity after both 3 hours of spontaneous wake and 3 hours of sleep deprivation as compared with 3 hours of spontaneous sleep in diverse brain regions, which could be, in part, explained by the increased levels of bigenomic transcripts of the enzyme. This likely contributes to increased adenosine triphosphate production during wakefulness. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; COXI, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mRNA; COX, cytochrome c oxidase (protein); CREB, cyclic AMP response element binding protein; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; EEG, electroencephalography; EMG, electromyography; GABP, GA binding

  15. NAD(H) and NADP(H) Redox Couples and Cellular Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wusheng; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2018-01-20

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )/reduced NAD + (NADH) and NADP + /reduced NADP + (NADPH) redox couples are essential for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and for modulating numerous biological events, including cellular metabolism. Deficiency or imbalance of these two redox couples has been associated with many pathological disorders. Recent Advances: Newly identified biosynthetic enzymes and newly developed genetically encoded biosensors enable us to understand better how cells maintain compartmentalized NAD(H) and NADP(H) pools. The concept of redox stress (oxidative and reductive stress) reflected by changes in NAD(H)/NADP(H) has increasingly gained attention. The emerging roles of NAD + -consuming proteins in regulating cellular redox and metabolic homeostasis are active research topics. The biosynthesis and distribution of cellular NAD(H) and NADP(H) are highly compartmentalized. It is critical to understand how cells maintain the steady levels of these redox couple pools to ensure their normal functions and simultaneously avoid inducing redox stress. In addition, it is essential to understand how NAD(H)- and NADP(H)-utilizing enzymes interact with other signaling pathways, such as those regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor, to maintain cellular redox homeostasis and energy metabolism. Additional studies are needed to investigate the inter-relationships among compartmentalized NAD(H)/NADP(H) pools and how these two dinucleotide redox couples collaboratively regulate cellular redox states and cellular metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, recent studies suggest the utility of using pharmacological interventions or nutrient-based bioactive NAD + precursors as therapeutic interventions for metabolic diseases. Thus, a better understanding of the cellular functions of NAD(H) and NADP(H) may facilitate efforts to address a host of pathological disorders effectively. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 251-272.

  16. Sources and implications of NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance in diabetes and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jinzi Wu,1Zhen Jin,1Hong Zheng,1,2Liang-Jun Yan1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 2Department of Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Basic Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: NAD+ is a fundamental molecule in metabolism and redox signaling. In diabetes and its complications, the balance between NADH and NAD+ can be severely perturbed. On one hand, NADH is overproduced due to influx of hyperglycemia to the glycolytic and Krebs cycle pathways and activation of the polyol pathway. On the other hand, NAD+ can be diminished or depleted by overactivation of poly ADP ribose polymerase that uses NAD+ as its substrate. Moreover, sirtuins, another class of enzymes that also use NAD+ as their substrate for catalyzing protein deacetylation reactions, can also affect cellular content of NAD+. Impairment of NAD+ regeneration enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and complex I in mitochondria can also contribute to NADH accumulation and NAD+ deficiency. The consequence of NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance is initially reductive stress that eventually leads to oxidative stress and oxidative damage to macromolecules, including DNA, lipids, and proteins. Accordingly, redox imbalance-triggered oxidative damage has been thought to be a major factor contributing to the development of diabetes and its complications. Future studies on restoring NADH/NAD+ redox balance could provide further insights into design of novel antidiabetic strategies. Keywords: mitochondria, complex I, reactive oxygen species, polyol pathway, poly ADP ribosylation, sirtuins, oxidative stress, oxidative damage

  17. One dimension harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr

  18. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...

  19. Oscillations of void lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiezer, A.I.; Davydov, L.N.; Spol'nik, Z.A.

    1976-01-01

    Oscillations of a nonideal crystal are studied, in which macroscopic defects (pores) form a hyperlattice. It is shown that alongside with acoustic and optical phonons (relative to the hyperlattice), in such a crystal oscillations of the third type are possible which are a hydridization of sound oscillations of atoms and surface oscillations of a pore. Oscillation spectra of all three types were obtained

  20. Imaging the NADH:NAD+ Homeostasis for Understanding the Metabolic Response of Mycobacterium to Physiologically Relevant Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shabir A; Iqbal, Iram K; Kumar, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    The NADH:NAD + ratio is the primary indicator of the metabolic state of bacteria. NAD(H) homeostasis is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival and is thus considered an important drug target, but the spatio-temporal measurements of NAD(H) remain a challenge. Genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors of the NADH:NAD + ratios were recently described, paving the way for investigations of the metabolic state of pathogens during infection. Here we have adapted the genetically encoded biosensor Peredox for measurement of the metabolic state of Mtb in vitro and during infection of macrophage cells. Using Peredox, here we show that inhibition of the electron transport chain, disruption of the membrane potential and proton gradient, exposure to reactive oxygen species and treatment with antimycobacterial drugs led to the accumulation of NADH in mycobacterial cells. We have further demonstrated that Mtb residing in macrophages displays higher NADH:NAD + ratios, that may indicate a metabolic stress faced by the intracellular Mtb. We also demonstrate that the Mtb residing in macrophages display a metabolic heterogeneity, which may perhaps explain the tolerance displayed by intracellular Mtb. Next we studied the effect of immunological modulation by interferon gamma on metabolism of intracellular Mtb, since macrophage activation is known to restrict mycobacterial growth. We observed that activation of resting macrophages with interferon-gamma results in higher NADH:NAD + levels in resident Mtb cells. We have further demonstrated that exposure of Isoniazid, Bedaquiline, Rifampicin, and O-floxacin results in higher NADH:NAD + ratios in the Mtb residing in macrophages. However, intracellular Mtb displays lower NADH:NAD + ratio upon exposure to clofazimine. In summary, we have generated reporter strains capable of measuring the metabolic state of Mtb cells in vitro and in vivo with spatio-temporal resolution. We believe that this tool will facilitate further

  1. Oscillators - a simple introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?......Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?...

  2. Oscillators and Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    1997-01-01

    In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear wit...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos....

  3. A potential mechanism of energy-metabolism oscillation in an aerobic chemostat culture of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaojun; Tsurugi, Kunio

    2006-04-01

    The energy-metabolism oscillation in aerobic chemostat cultures of yeast is a periodic change of the respiro-fermentative and respiratory phase. In the respiro-fermentative phase, the NADH level was kept high and respiration was suppressed, and glucose was anabolized into trehalose and glycogen at a rate comparable to that of catabolism. On the transition to the respiratory phase, cAMP levels increased triggering the breakdown of storage carbohydrates and the increased influx of glucose into the glycolytic pathway activated production of glycerol and ethanol consuming NADH. The resulting increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio stimulated respiration in combination with a decrease in the level of ATP, which was consumed mainly in the formation of biomass accompanying budding, and the accumulated ethanol and glycerol were gradually degraded by respiration via NAD(+)-dependent oxidation to acetate and the respiratory phase ceased after the recovery of NADH and ATP levels. However, the mRNA levels of both synthetic and degradative enzymes of storage carbohydrates were increased around the early respiro-fermentative phase, when storage carbohydrates are being synthesized, suggesting that the synthetic enzymes were expressed directly as active forms while the degradative enzymes were activated late by cAMP. In summary, the energy-metabolism oscillation is basically regulated by a feedback loop of oxido-reductive reactions of energy metabolism mediated by metabolites like NADH and ATP, and is modulated by metabolism of storage carbohydrates in combination of post-translational and transcriptional regulation of the related enzymes. A potential mechanism of energy-metabolism oscillation is proposed.

  4. Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Edward A.; Yano, Takahiro; Li, Lin-Sheng; Avarbock, David; Avarbock, Andrew; Helm, Douglas; McColm, Andrew A.; Duncan, Ken; Lonsdale, John T.; Rubin, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an obligate aerobe that is capable of long-term persistence under conditions of low oxygen tension. Analysis of the Mtb genome predicts the existence of a branched aerobic respiratory chain terminating in a cytochrome bd system and a cytochrome aa3 system. Both chains can be initiated with type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase. We present a detailed biochemical characterization of the aerobic respiratory chains from Mtb and show that phenothiazine analogs specifically inhibit NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase activity. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mtb has prompted a search for antimycobacterial agents. Several phenothiazines analogs are highly tuberculocidal in vitro, suppress Mtb growth in a mouse model of acute infection, and represent lead compounds that may give rise to a class of selective antibiotics. PMID:15767566

  5. Investigating the Sensitivity of NAD+-dependent Sirtuin Deacylation Activities to NADH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Andersen, Christian; Daoud, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Protein lysine posttranslational modification by an increasing number of different acyl groups is becoming appreciated as a regulatory mechanism in cellular biology. Sirtuins are class III histone deacylases that use NAD+ as a co-substrate during amide bond hydrolysis. Several studies have...... described the sirtuins as sensors of the NAD+/NADH ratio, but it has not been formally tested for all the mammalian sirtuins in vitro. To address this problem, we first synthesized a wide variety of peptide-based probes, which were used to identify the range of hydrolytic activities of human sirtuins...... to be prone to hydrolytic cleavage by SIRT1-3 and SIRT6, supporting recent findings. We then tested the ability of NADH, ADP-ribose, and nicotinamide to inhibit these NAD+-dependent deacylase activities of the sirtuins. In the commonly used 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-coupled fluorescence-based assay...

  6. Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Edward A.; Yano, Takahiro; Li, Lin-Sheng; Avarbock, David; Avarbock, Andrew; Helm, Douglas; McColm, Andrew A.; Duncan, Ken; Lonsdale, John T.; Rubin, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an obligate aerobe that is capable of long-term persistence under conditions of low oxygen tension. Analysis of the Mtb genome predicts the existence of a branched aerobic respiratory chain terminating in a cytochrome bd system and a cytochrome aa3 system. Both chains can be initiated with type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase. We present a detailed biochemical characterization of the aerobic respiratory chains from Mtb and show that phenothiazine analogs...

  7. Stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage by rifamycin SV.

    OpenAIRE

    Kukiełka, E; Cederbaum, A I

    1995-01-01

    Rifamycin SV is an antibiotic anti-bacterial agent used in the treatment of tuberculosis. This drug can autoxidize, especially in the presence of metals, and generate reactive oxygen species. A previous study indicated that rifamycin SV can increase NADH-dependent microsomal production of reactive oxygen species. The current study evaluated the ability of rifamycin SV to interact with iron and increase microsomal production of hydroxyl radical, as detected by conversion of supercoiled plasmid...

  8. Investigation of the Ionization Mechanism of NAD+/NADH-Modified Gold Electrodes in ToF-SIMS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xin; Zhao, Li-Jun; Long, Yi-Tao

    2018-06-04

    Analysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + /NADH)-modified electrodes is important for in vitro monitoring of key biological processes. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to analyze NAD + /NADH-modified gold electrodes. Interestingly, no obvious characteristic peaks of nicotinamide fragment could be observed in the mass spectra of NAD + /NADH in their neutral sodium pyrophosphate form. However, after acidification, the characteristic peaks for both NAD + and NADH were detected. This was due to the suppression effect of inner pyrophosphoric salts in both neutral molecules. Besides, it was proved that the suppression by inner salt was intramolecular. No obvious suppression was found between neighboring molecules. These results demonstrated the suppression effect of inner salts in ToF-SIMS analysis, providing useful evidence for the study of ToF-SIMS ionization mechanism of organic molecule-modified electrodes. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, Thomas S., E-mail: t.blacker@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology (CoMPLEX), University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Marsh, Richard J., E-mail: richard.marsh@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Duchen, Michael R., E-mail: m.duchen@ucl.ac.uk [Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Bain, Angus J., E-mail: a.bain@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology (CoMPLEX), University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► NADH and NADPH have a high rate of non-radiative excited state decay. ► Conformational relaxation is shown to be a significant non-radiative pathway. ► The Kramers equation describes the barrier crossing dynamics of the relaxation. ► Conformational restriction upon enzyme binding will alter NAD(P)H lifetimes. - Abstract: In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water–glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers–Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

  10. Dual utilization of NADPH and NADH cofactors enhances xylitol production in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Sun-Young; Lee, Hyeun-Soo; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Xylitol, a natural sweetener, can be produced by hydrogenation of xylose in hemicelluloses. In microbial processes, utilization of only NADPH cofactor limited commercialization of xylitol biosynthesis. To overcome this drawback, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 was engineered to express two types of xylose reductase (XR) with either NADPH-dependence or NADH-preference. Engineered S. cerevisiae DWM expressing both the XRs exhibited higher xylitol productivity than the yeast strain expressing NADPH-dependent XR only (DWW) in both batch and glucose-limited fed-batch cultures. Furthermore, the coexpression of S. cerevisiae ZWF1 and ACS1 genes in the DWM strain increased intracellular concentrations of NADPH and NADH and improved maximum xylitol productivity by 17%, relative to that for the DWM strain. Finally, the optimized fed-batch fermentation of S. cerevisiae DWM-ZWF1-ACS1 resulted in 196.2 g/L xylitol concentration, 4.27 g/L h productivity and almost the theoretical yield. Expression of the two types of XR utilizing both NADPH and NADH is a promising strategy to meet the industrial demands for microbial xylitol production. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Alterations of sirtuins in mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Björn Potthast

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent deacetylases, which regulate mitochondrial energy metabolism as well as cellular response to stress. The NAD/NADH-system plays a crucial role in oxidative phosphorylation linking sirtuins and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Furthermore, sirtuins are able to directly deacetylate and activate different complexes of the respiratory chain. This prompted us to analyse sirtuin levels in skin fibroblasts from patients with cytochrome c-oxidase (COX deficiency and to test the impact of different pharmaceutical activators of sirtuins (SRT1720, paeonol to modulate sirtuins and possibly respiratory chain enzymes in patient cells in vitro.We assayed intracellular levels of sirtuin 1 and the mitochondrial sirtuins SIRT3 and SIRT4 in human fibroblasts from patients with COX- deficiency. Furthermore, sirtuins were measured after inhibiting complex IV in healthy control fibroblasts by cyanide and after incubation with activators SRT1720 and paeonol. To determine the effect of sirtuin inhibition at the cellular level we measured total cellular acetylation (control and patient cells, with and without treatment by Western blot.We observed a significant decrease in cellular levels of all three sirtuins at the activity, protein and transcriptional level (by 15% to 50% in COX-deficient cells. Additionally, the intracellular concentration of NAD+ was reduced in patient cells. We mimicked the biochemical phenotype of COX- deficiency by incubating healthy fibroblasts with cyanide and observed reduced sirtuin levels. A pharmacological activation of sirtuins resulted in normalized sirtuin levels in patient cells. Hyper acetylation was also reversible after treatment with sirtuin activators. Pharmacological modulation of sirtuins resulted in altered respiratory chain complex activities.We found inhibition of situins 1, 3 and 4 at activity, protein and transcriptional levels in fibroblasts from patient with COX-deficiency. Pharmacological

  12. Bioelectrocatalytic NAD+/NADH inter-conversion: transformation of an enzymatic fuel cell into an enzymatic redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Timothy; Milton, Ross D; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-07-25

    Diaphorase and a benzylpropylviologen redox polymer were combined to create a bioelectrode that can both oxidize NADH and reduce NAD + . We demonstrate how bioelectrocatalytic NAD + /NADH inter-conversion can transform a glucose/O 2 enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) with an open circuit potential (OCP) of 1.1 V into an enzymatic redox flow battery (ERFB), which can be rapidly recharged by operation as an EFC.

  13. Alterations in cerebral metabolism observed in living rodents using fluorescence lifetime microscopy of intrinsic NADH (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Sakadžić, Sava; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Weicheng; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring cerebral energy metabolism at a cellular level is essential to improve our understanding of healthy brain function and its pathological alterations. In this study, we resolve specific alterations in cerebral metabolism utilizing minimally-invasive 2-Photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) measurements of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence, collected in vivo from anesthetized rats and mice. Time-resolved lifetime measurements enables distinction of different components contributing to NADH autofluorescence. These components reportedly represent different enzyme-bound formulations of NADH. Our observations from this study confirm the hypothesis that NADH FLIM can identify specific alterations in cerebral metabolism. Using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) equipment and a custom-built multimodal imaging system, 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) was performed in cerebral tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. Multi-exponential fits for NADH fluorescence lifetimes indicate 4 distinct components, or 'species.' We observed distinct variations in the relative proportions of these components before and after pharmacological-induced impairments to several reactions involved in anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidative metabolism. Classification models developed with experimental data correctly predict the metabolic impairments associated with bicuculline-induced focal seizures in separate experiments. Compared to traditional intensity-based NADH measurements, lifetime imaging of NADH is less susceptible to the adverse effects of overlying blood vessels. Evaluating NADH measurements will ultimately lead to a deeper understanding of cerebral energetics and its pathology-related alterations. Such knowledge will likely aid development of therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke.

  14. Exploring flavin-containing carbohydrate oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Alessandro Renato

    2017-01-01

    Oxidases are enzymes capable of removing one or more electrons from their substrate and transfer them to molecular oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide. Due to their high regio- and enantioselectivity, their use is preferred over traditional organic chemistry methods. Among the oxidases, flavoprotein

  15. The terminal oxidases of Paracoccus denitrificans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, J.-W.; Lübben, M; Reijnders, W N; Tipker, C A; Slotboom, D.J.; van Spanning, R J; Stouthamer, A.H.; van der Oost, J.

    Three distinct types of terminal oxidases participate in the aerobic respiratory pathways of Paracoccus denitrificans. Two alternative genes encoding subunit I of the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase have been isolated before, namely ctaDI and ctaDII. Each of these genes can be expressed separately to

  16. Preparation and electrochemical application of rutin biosensor for differential pulse voltammetric determination of NADH in the presence of acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMID R. ZARE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic behavior of reduced nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide (NADH was studied at the surface of a rutin biosensor, using various electrochemical methods. According to the results, the rutin biosensor had a strongly electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of NADH with the overpotential being decreased by about 450 mV as compared to the process at a bare glassy carbon electrode, GCE. This value is significantly greater than the value of 220 mV that was reported for rutin embedded in a lipid-cast film. The kinetic parameters of the electron transfer coefficient, a, and the heterogeneous charge transfer rate constant, kh, for the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at the rutin biosensor were estimated. Furthermore, the linear dynamic range; sensitivity and limit of detection for NADH were evaluated using the differential pulse voltammetry method. The advantages of this biosensor for the determination of NADH are excellent catalytic activity and reproducibility, good detection limit and high exchange current density. The rutin biosensor could separate the oxidation peak potentials of NADH and acetaminophen present in the same solution while at a bare GCE, the peak potentials were indistinguishable.

  17. Identification of mitochondrial electron transport chain-mediated NADH radical formation by EPR spin-trapping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Kotake, Yashige; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2011-12-20

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is a major source of free radical production. However, due to the highly reactive nature of radical species and their short lifetimes, accurate detection and identification of these molecules in biological systems is challenging. The aim of this investigation was to determine the free radical species produced from the mitochondrial ETC by utilizing EPR spin-trapping techniques and the recently commercialized spin-trap, 5-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propoxycyclophosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (CYPMPO). We demonstrate that this spin-trap has the preferential quality of having minimal mitochondrial toxicity at concentrations required for radical detection. In rat heart mitochondria and submitochondrial particles supplied with NADH, the major species detected under physiological pH was a carbon-centered radical adduct, indicated by markedly large hyperfine coupling constant with hydrogen (a(H) > 2.0 mT). In the presence of the ETC inhibitors, the carbon-centered radical formation was increased and exhibited NADH concentration dependency. The same carbon-centered radical could also be produced with the NAD biosynthesis precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, in the presence of a catalytic amount of NADH. The results support the conclusion that the observed species is a complex I derived NADH radical. The formation of the NADH radical could be blocked by hydroxyl radical scavengers but not SOD. In vitro experiments confirmed that an NADH-radical is readily formed by hydroxyl radical but not superoxide anion, further implicating hydroxyl radical as an upstream mediator of NADH radical production. These findings demonstrate the identification of a novel mitochondrial radical species with potential physiological significance and highlight the diverse mechanisms and sites of production within the ETC.

  18. Immobilization of oxidases and their analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasinzai, M.

    2007-01-01

    Immobilized enzymes are replacing their soluble counter-parts in nearly every field of application. These enzyme modifications have evolved from a research curiosity into an entire branch of Biotechnology. An immobilization method for flavin containing oxidases and their use in flow injection system is described. An electrochemical detector for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is assembled which is used effectively for the determination of glucose using more common glucose oxidase and the simultaneous determination of sugars. The combination of oxidases with hydrolases have been used for the determination of maltose and starch. (author)

  19. In vivo imaging of cerebral energy metabolism with two-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Sakadžić, Sava; Wu, Weicheng; Becker, Wolfgang; Kasischke, Karl A; Boas, David A

    2013-02-01

    Minimally invasive, specific measurement of cellular energy metabolism is crucial for understanding cerebral pathophysiology. Here, we present high-resolution, in vivo observations of autofluorescence lifetime as a biomarker of cerebral energy metabolism in exposed rat cortices. We describe a customized two-photon imaging system with time correlated single photon counting detection and specialized software for modeling multiple-component fits of fluorescence decay and monitoring their transient behaviors. In vivo cerebral NADH fluorescence suggests the presence of four distinct components, which respond differently to brief periods of anoxia and likely indicate different enzymatic formulations. Individual components show potential as indicators of specific molecular pathways involved in oxidative metabolism.

  20. The steady-state kinetics of the NADH-dependent nitrite reductase from Escherichia coli K 12. Nitrite and hydroxylamine reduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R H; Cole, J A; Cornish-Bowden, A

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of both NO2- and hydroxylamine by the NADH-dependent nitrite reductase of Escherichia coli K 12 (EC 1.6.6.4) appears to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics over a wide range of NADH concentrations. Substrate inhibition can, however, be detected at low concentrations of the product NAD+. In addition, NAD+ displays mixed product inhibition with respect to NADH and mixed or uncompetitive inhibition with respect to hydroxylamine. These inhibition characteristics are consistent with a m...

  1. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  2. The antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, ..... on the inhibition of the catabolism of serotonin, .... Structure of human monoamine oxidase B, a drug target for.

  3. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, a tasteful biocatalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Fraaije, M.W.; Mattevi, A.; Laane, C.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The covalent flavoenzyme vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO) is a versatile biocatalyst. It converts a wide range of phenolic compounds by catalysing oxidation, deamination, demethylation, dehydrogenation and hydroxylation reactions. The production of natural vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, coniferyl

  4. Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme and Inactivation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Yılmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase enzyme is found in vegetables and fruits, as well as in some animal organs and microorganisms. Polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatic browning is a group of copper proteins that catalyses the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones, which produce brown pigments, commonly found in fruits and vegetables. During the industrial preparation of fruits and vegetables, results of catalytic effect of polyphenol oxidase causes enzymatic browning. Enzymatic browning impairs the appearance of products containing phenolic compounds along with undesirable colour, odor and taste formation and significant loss of nutritional value of the products. This affects the acceptability of the products by the consumers and causes economic losses. In this review, some characteristics of polyphenol oxidase enzyme in different fruits and vegetables have been reviewed and information about chemical antibrowning agents, thermal applications, irradiation applications and alternative methods such as high pressure processing, pulse electric field, supercritical carbon dioxide and ultrasound applications to inactivate this enzyme has been presented.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Management Resources (1 link) GeneReview: Isolated Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and ...

  6. Automatic Oscillating Turret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Final Report: February 1978 ZAUTOMATIC OSCILLATING TURRET SYSTEM September 1980 * 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER .J7. AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...o....e.... *24 APPENDIX P-4 OSCILLATING BUMPER TURRET ...................... 25 A. DESCRIPTION 1. Turret Controls ...Other criteria requirements were: 1. Turret controls inside cab. 2. Automatic oscillation with fixed elevation to range from 20* below the horizontal to

  7. Neutrino oscillations in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheyev, S.P.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we describe united formalism of ν-oscillations for different regimes, which is immediate generalization of vacuum oscillations theory. Adequate graphical representation of this formalism is given. We summarize main properties of ν-oscillations for different density distributions. (orig./BBOE)

  8. The colpitts oscillator family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...

  9. Identification of a subunit of NADH-dehydrogenase as a p49/STRAP-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Ying

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p49/STRAP (or SRFBP1 protein was recently identified in our laboratory as a cofactor of serum response factor that contributes to the regulation of SRF target genes in the heart. Results In the present study, we report that NDUFAB1, a nuclear encoded subunit of NADH dehydrogenase, represented the majority of the cDNA clones that interacted with p49/STRAP in multiple screenings using the yeast two-hybrid system. The p49/STRAP and NDUFAB1 proteins interacted and co-localized with each other in the cell. The p49/STRAP protein contains four classic nuclear localization sequence motifs, and it was observed to be present predominantly in the nucleus. Overexpression of p49/STRAP altered the intracellular level of NAD, and reduced the NAD/NADH ratio. Overexpression of p49/STRAP also induced the deacetylation of serum response factor. Conclusion These data suggest that p49/STRAP plays a role in the regulation of intracellular processes such as cardiac cellular metabolism, gene expression, and possibly aging.

  10. Highly stable and reusable immobilized formate dehydrogenases: Promising biocatalysts for in situ regeneration of NADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Binay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to prepare robust immobilized formate dehydrogenase (FDH preparations which can be used as effective biocatalysts along with functional oxidoreductases, in which in situ regeneration of NADH is required. For this purpose, Candida methylica FDH was covalently immobilized onto Immobead 150 support (FDHI150, Immobead 150 support modified with ethylenediamine and then activated with glutaraldehyde (FDHIGLU, and Immobead 150 support functionalized with aldehyde groups (FDHIALD. The highest immobilization yield and activity yield were obtained as 90% and 132%, respectively when Immobead 150 functionalized with aldehyde groups was used as support. The half-life times (t1/2 of free FDH, FDHI150, FDHIGLU and FDHIALD were calculated as 10.6, 28.9, 22.4 and 38.5 h, respectively at 35 °C. FDHI150, FDHIGLU and FDHIALD retained 69, 38 and 51% of their initial activities, respectively after 10 reuses. The results show that the FDHI150, FDHIGLU and FDHIALD offer feasible potentials for in situ regeneration of NADH.

  11. Acrolein inhibits NADH-linked mitochondrial enzyme activity: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocernich, Chava B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain increased lipid peroxidation and decreased energy utilization are found. Mitochondria membranes contain a significant amount of arachidonic and linoleic acids, precursors of lipid peroxidation products, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 2-propen-1-al (acrolein), that are extremely reactive. Both alkenals are increased in AD brain. In this study, we examined the effects of nanomolar levels of acrolein on the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-linked mitochondrial enzymes. Acrolein decreased PDH and KGDH activities significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), acrolein was found to bind lipoic acid, a component in both the PDH and KGDH complexes, most likely explaining the loss of enzyme activity. Acrolein also interacted with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in such a way as to decrease the production of NADH. Acrolein, which is increased in AD brain, may be partially responsible for the dysfunction of mitochondria and loss of energy found in AD brain by inhibition of PDH and KGDH activities, potentially contributing to the neurodegeneration in this disorder.

  12. Detection of NADH via electrocatalytic oxidation at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with Variamine blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoi, A.; Compagnone, D.; Valcarcel, M.A.; Placidi, P.; Materazzi, S.; Moscone, D.; Palleschi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with Variamine blue (VB), covalently attached to the oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH), were developed and used as chemical sensors for the detection of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The Variamine blue redox mediator was covalently linked to the SWCNTs-COOH by the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. Infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of the amide bands situated at 1623 cm -1 (I band), 1577 cm -1 (II band) and 1437 cm -1 (III band) demonstrating the covalent linkage of Variamine blue to SWCNTs-COOH. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate, k obs. , was 13,850 M -1 s -1 , and the k s and α were 0.8 s -1 and 0.56, respectively. The pH dependence was also investigated. SPEs modified with Variamine blue by using the DCC/NHS conjugation method, showed a variation of -36 mV per pH unit. A successful application was the development of a lactate biosensor obtained by the immobilization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase on the NADH sensor

  13. Unassigned MURF1 of kinetoplastids codes for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Gertraud

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we conducted a large-scale similarity-free function prediction of mitochondrion-encoded hypothetical proteins, by which the hypothetical gene murf1 (maxicircle unidentified reading frame 1 was assigned as nad2, encoding subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I of the respiratory chain. This hypothetical gene occurs in the mitochondrial genome of kinetoplastids, a group of unicellular eukaryotes including the causative agents of African sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis. In the present study, we test this assignment by using bioinformatics methods that are highly sensitive in identifying remote homologs and confront the prediction with available biological knowledge. Results Comparison of MURF1 profile Hidden Markov Model (HMM against function-known profile HMMs in Pfam, Panther and TIGR shows that MURF1 is a Complex I protein, but without specifying the exact subunit. Therefore, we constructed profile HMMs for each individual subunit, using all available sequences clustered at various identity thresholds. HMM-HMM comparison of these individual NADH subunits against MURF1 clearly identifies this hypothetical protein as NAD2. Further, we collected the relevant experimental information about kinetoplastids, which provides additional evidence in support of this prediction. Conclusion Our in silico analyses provide convincing evidence for MURF1 being a highly divergent member of NAD2.

  14. Mechanism of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde electropolymerization at carbon paste electrodes : catalytic detection of NADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbem Maria Flávia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry was used to study 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3,4-DHB electropolymerization processes on carbon paste electrodes. The characteristics of the electropolymerized films were highly dependent on pH, anodic switching potential, scan rate, 3,4-DHB concentrations and number of cycles. Film stability was determined in citrate/phosphate buffer solutions at the same pH used during the electropolymerization process. The best conditions to prepare carbon paste modified electrodes were pH 7.8; 0.0 <= Eapl <= 0.25 V; 10 mV s-1; 0.25 mmol L-1 3,4-DHB and 10 scans. These carbon paste modified electrodes were used for NADH catalytic detection at 0.23 V in the range 0.015 <= [NADH] <= 0.21 mmol L-1. Experimental data were used to propose a mechanism for the 3,4--DHB electropolymerization processes, which involves initial phenoxyl radical formation.

  15. Immobilisation and characterisation of biocatalytic co-factor recycling enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase, on aldehyde functional ReSynTM polymer microspheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twala, BV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of enzymes in industrial applications is limited by their instability, cost and difficulty in their recovery and re-use. Immobilisation is a technique which has been shown to alleviate these limitations in biocatalysis. Here we describe...

  16. Improving methyl ketone production in Escherichia coli by heterologous expression of NADH-dependent FabG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goh, Ee Been; Chen, Yan; Petzold, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    balance, as fatty acid-derived pathways face the systematic metabolic challenge of net NADPH consumption (in large part, resulting from the key fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme FabG [β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase]) and net NADH production. In this study, we attempted to mitigate cofactor imbalance...... by heterologously expressing NADH-dependent, rather than NADPH-dependent, versions of FabG identified in previous studies. Of the four NADH-dependent versions of FabG tested in our previously best-reported methyl ketone-producing strain (EGS1895), the version from Acholeplasma laidlawii (Al_FabG) showed...... for the base strain (EGS1895) under fermentation conditions optimized in this study. Shotgun proteomic data for strains EGS2920 and EGS1895 during fed-batch fermentation were consistent with the goal of alleviating NADPH limitation through expression of Al_FabG. For example, relative to strain EGS1895, strain...

  17. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  18. Characterization of Frex as an NADH sensor for in vivo applications in the presence of NAD+ and at various pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Svea; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Horch, Marius; Zebger, Ingo; Lenz, Oliver; Friedrich, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The fluorescent biosensor Frex, recently introduced as a sensitive tool to quantify the NADH concentration in living cells, was characterized by time-integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy regarding its applicability for in vivo measurements. Based on the purified sensor protein, it is shown that the NADH dependence of Frex fluorescence can be described by a Hill function with a concentration of half-maximal sensor response of K D  ≈ 4 µM and a Hill coefficient of n ≈ 2. Increasing concentrations of NADH have moderate effects on the fluorescence lifetime of Frex, which changes by a factor of two from about 500 ps in the absence of NADH to 1 ns under fluorescence-saturating NADH concentrations. Therefore, the observed sevenfold rise of the fluorescence intensity is primarily ascribed to amplitude changes. Notably, the dynamic range of Frex sensitivity towards NADH highly depends on the NAD + concentration, while the apparent K D for NADH is only slightly affected. We found that NAD + has a strong inhibitory effect on the fluorescence response of Frex during NADH sensing, with an apparent NAD + dissociation constant of K I  ≈ 400 µM. This finding was supported by fluorescence lifetime measurements, which showed that the addition of NAD + hardly affects the fluorescence lifetime, but rather reduces the number of Frex molecules that are able to bind NADH. Furthermore, the fluorescence responses of Frex to NADH and NAD + depend critically on pH and temperature. Thus, for in vivo applications of Frex, temperature and pH need to be strictly controlled or considered during data acquisition and analysis. If all these constraints are properly met, Frex fluorescence intensity measurements can be employed to estimate the minimum NADH concentration present within the cell at sufficiently low NAD + concentrations below 100 µM.

  19. Development of an Electrochemical Sensor for NADH Determination Based on a Caffeic Acid Redox Mediator Supported on Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zanardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Screen-printed electrode (SPE modified with carbon black nanoparticles (CB has been tested as a new platform for the stable deposition of caffeic acid (CFA on the electrode surface. The electrochemical performance from varying the amount of CFA/CB composite has been tested with respect to NADH determination. The electrocatalytic activity of CFA/CB has also been compared with that of SPEs modified by a single component of the coating, i.e., either CFA or CB. Finally, glycerol dehydrogenase, a typical NADH-dependent enzyme, was deposited on the CFA/CB coating in order to test the applicability of the sensor in glycerol determination.

  20. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-10-06

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  1. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  2. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  3. H2O2 recycling during oxidation of the arylglycerol beta-aryl ether lignin structure by lignin peroxidase and glyoxal oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, K E; Mozuch, M D; Jensen, K A; Kersten, P J

    1994-11-15

    Oxidative C alpha-C beta cleavage of the arylglycerol beta-aryl ether lignin model 1-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-2-phenoxypropane-1,3-diol (I) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase in the presence of limiting H2O2 was enhanced 4-5-fold by glyoxal oxidase from the same fungus. Further investigation showed that each C alpha-C beta cleavage reaction released 0.8-0.9 equiv of glycolaldehyde, a glyoxal oxidase substrate. The identification of glycolaldehyde was based on 13C NMR spectrometry of reaction product obtained from beta-, gamma-, and beta,gamma-13C-substituted I, and quantitation was based on an enzymatic NADH-linked assay. The oxidation of glycolaldehyde by glyoxal oxidase yielded 0.9 oxalate and 2.8 H2O2 per reaction, as shown by quantitation of oxalate as 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline after derivatization with 1,2-diaminobenzene and by quantitation of H2O2 in coupled spectrophotometric assays with veratryl alcohol and lignin peroxidase. These results suggest that the C alpha-C beta cleavage of I by lignin peroxidase in the presence of glyoxal oxidase should regenerate as many as 3 H2O2. Calculations based on the observed enhancement of LiP-catalyzed C alpha-C beta cleavage by glyoxal oxidase showed that approximately 2 H2O2 were actually regenerated per cleavage of I when both enzymes were present. The cleavage of arylglycerol beta-aryl ether structures by ligninolytic enzymes thus recycles H2O2 to support subsequent cleavage reactions.

  4. Preparation of N-Graphdiyne Nanosheets at Liquid/Liquid Interface for Photocatalytic NADH Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingyan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Yingjie; Chen, Siqi; Xue, Bo; Kan, Xiaonan; Huang, Xiaowen; Liu, Jian; Li, Zhibo

    2018-04-16

    Two-dimensional (2D) N-graphdiyne (N-GDY) nanosheets containing different number of N were synthesized by polymerization of triazine, pyrazine, and pyridine-based monomers at liquid/liquid interface. The configurations and nanostructures of N-GDY were well-characterized. The wettability changed to more hydrophilic as the N contents increased. The collected N-GDY was further employed as metal-free photocatalyst for NADH regeneration. The catalytic performance was related with the N content in the graphdiyne. The N3-GDY demonstrated the best activity. This strategy provided a new promising platform of designing unique 2D N-GDY with tunable performance in biorelated catalysis.

  5. Ca2+ dependence of gluconeogenesis stimulation by glucagon at different cytosolic NAD+-NADH redox potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-da-Silva A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Ca2+ on hepatic gluconeogenesis was measured in the isolated perfused rat liver at different cytosolic NAD+-NADH potentials. Lactate and pyruvate were the gluconeogenic substrates and the cytosolic NAD+-NADH potentials were changed by varying the lactate to pyruvate ratios from 0.01 to 100. The following results were obtained: a gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate was not affected by Ca2+-free perfusion (no Ca2+ in the perfusion fluid combined with previous depletion of the intracellular pools; gluconeogenesis was also poorly dependent on the lactate to pyruvate ratios in the range of 0.1 to 100; only for a ratio equal to 0.01 was a significantly smaller gluconeogenic activity observed in comparison to the other ratios. b In the presence of Ca2+, the increase in oxygen uptake caused by the infusion of lactate plus pyruvate at a ratio equal to 10 was the most pronounced one; in Ca2+-free perfusion the increase in oxygen uptake caused by lactate plus pyruvate infusion tended to be higher for all lactate to pyruvate ratios; the most pronounced difference was observed for a lactate/pyruvate ratio equal to 1. c In the presence of Ca2+ the effects of glucagon on gluconeogenesis showed a positive correlation with the lactate to pyruvate ratios; for a ratio equal to 0.01 no stimulation occurred, but in the 0.1 to 100 range stimulation increased progressively, producing a clear parabolic dependence between the effects of glucagon and the lactate to pyruvate ratio. d In the absence of Ca2+ the relationship between the changes caused by glucagon in gluconeogenesis and the lactate to pyruvate ratio was substantially changed; the dependence curve was no longer parabolic but sigmoidal in shape with a plateau beginning at a lactate/pyruvate ratio equal to 1; there was inhibition at the lactate to pyruvate ratios of 0.01 and 0.1 and a constant stimulation starting with a ratio equal to 1; for the lactate to pyruvate ratios of 10 and 100

  6. Dual emission fluorescent silver nanoclusters for sensitive detection of the biological coenzyme NAD+/NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yufeng; Huang, Kehan; Chang, Mengfang; Qin, Cuifang; Zhang, Sanjun; Pan, Haifeng; Chen, Yan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs) displaying dual-excitation and dual-emission properties have been developed for the specific detection of NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form). With the increase of NAD(+) concentrations, the longer wavelength emission (with the peak at 550 nm) was gradually quenched due to the strong interactions between the NAD(+) and Ag NCs, whereas the shorter wavelength emission (peaking at 395 nm) was linearly enhanced. More important, the dual-emission intensity ratio (I395/I550), fitting by a single-exponential decay function, can efficiently detect various NAD(+) levels from 100 to 4000 μM, as well as label NAD(+)/NADH (reduced form of NAD) ratios in the range of 1-50. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A.E.; Fontenla, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized. 7 refs

  8. A novel strategy involved in [corrected] anti-oxidative defense: the conversion of NADH into NADPH by a metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranji Singh

    Full Text Available The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well-studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, a pro-oxidant into NADPH has been uncovered in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to oxidative stress. Enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase (PC, malic enzyme (ME, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, malate synthase (MS, and isocitrate lyase (ICL that are involved in disparate metabolic modules, converged to create a metabolic network aimed at the transformation of NADH into NADPH. The downregulation of phosphoenol carboxykinase (PEPCK and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase (PK ensured that this metabolic cycle fixed NADH into NADPH to combat the oxidative stress triggered by the menadione insult. This is the first demonstration of a metabolic network invoked to generate NADPH from NADH, a process that may be very effective in combating oxidative stress as the increase of an anti-oxidant is coupled to the decrease of a pro-oxidant.

  9. Carbon nanofiber vs. carbon microparticles as modifiers of glassy carbon and gold electrodes applied in electrochemical sensing of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Briza; Del Valle, Manel; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoçi, Arben

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials (CMs), such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon microparticles (CMPs) are used as doping materials for electrochemical sensors. The efficiency of these materials (either before or after acidic treatments) while being used as electrocatalysts in electrochemical sensors is discussed for beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensitivity of the electrodes (glassy carbon (GC) and gold (Au)) modified with both treated and untreated materials have been deeply studied. The response efficiencies of the GC and Au electrodes modified with CNF and CMP, using dimethylformamide (DMF) as dispersing agent are significantly different due to the peculiar physical and chemical characteristics of each doping material. Several differences between the electrocatalytic activities of CMs modified electrodes upon NADH oxidation have been observed. The CNF film promotes better the electron transfer of NADH minimizing the oxidation potential at +0.352 V. Moreover higher currents for the NADH oxidation peak have been observed for these electrodes. The shown differences in the electrochemical reactivities of CNF and CMP modified electrodes should be with interest for future applications in biosensors.

  10. Intracellular Redox State Revealed by In Vivo 31P MRS Measurement of NAD+ and NADH Contents in Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), in oxidized (NAD+) or reduced (NADH) form, plays key roles in cellular metabolism. Intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio represents the cellular redox state; however, it is difficult to measure in vivo. We report here a novel in vivo 31P MRS method for noninvasive measurement of intracellular NAD concentrations and NAD+/NADH ratio in the brain. Methods It uses a theoretical model to describe the NAD spectral patterns at a given field for quantification. Standard NAD solutions and independent cat brain measurements at 9.4 T and 16.4 T were used to evaluate this method. We also measured T1 values of brain NAD. Results Model simulation and studies of solutions and brains indicate that the proposed method can quantify submillimolar NAD concentrations with reasonable accuracy if adequate 31P MRS signal-to-noise ratio and linewidth were obtained. The NAD concentrations and NAD+/NADH ratio of cat brains measured at 16.4 T and 9.4 T were consistent despite the significantly different T1 values and NAD spectra patterns at two fields. Conclusion This newly established 31P MRS method makes it possible for the first time to noninvasively study the intracellular redox state and its roles in brain functions and diseases, and it can potentially be applied to other organs. PMID:23843330

  11. A fiber-optic sorbitol biosensor based on NADH fluorescence detection toward rapid diagnosis of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessei, Tomoko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-09-21

    Accumulation of sorbitol in the tissue is known to cause microvascular diabetic complications. In this paper, a fiber-optic biosensor for sorbitol which is used as a biomarker of diabetic complications was developed and tested. The biosensor used a sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas with high substrate specificity and detected the fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by the enzymatic reaction. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED) was used as the excitation light source of NADH. The fluorescence of NADH was detected using a spectrometer or a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The UV-LED and the photodetector were coupled using a Y-shaped optical fiber. In the experiment, an optical fiber probe with a sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized membrane was placed in a cuvette filled with a phosphate buffer containing the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The changes in NADH fluorescence intensity were measured after adding a standard sorbitol solution. According to the experimental assessment, the calibration range of the sorbitol biosensor systems using a spectrometer and a PMT was 5.0-1000 μmol L(-1) and 1.0-1000 μmol L(-1), respectively. The sorbitol biosensor system using the sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas has high selectivity and sensitivity compared with that from sheep liver. The sorbitol biosensor allows for point-of-care testing applications or daily health care tests for diabetes patients.

  12. Increased availability of NADH in metabolically engineered baker's yeast improves transaminase-oxidoreductase coupled asymmetric whole-cell bioconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Hägglöf, Cecilia; Weber, Nora

    2016-01-01

    yeast for transamination-reduction coupled asymmetric one-pot conversion was investigated. RESULTS: A series of active whole-cell biocatalysts were constructed by over-expressing the (S)-selective ω-transaminase (VAMT) from Capsicum chinense together with the NADH-dependent (S)-selective alcohol...

  13. Characterization of the type 2 NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductases from Staphylococcus aureus and the bactericidal action of phenothiazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurig-Briccio, Lici A; Yano, Takahiro; Rubin, Harvey; Gennis, Robert B

    2014-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently one of the principal multiple drug resistant bacterial pathogens causing serious infections, many of which are life-threatening. Consequently, new therapeutic targets are required to combat such infections. In the current work, we explore the type 2 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH) dehydrogenases (NDH-2s) as possible drug targets and look at the effects of phenothiazines, known to inhibit NDH-2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NDH-2s are monotopic membrane proteins that catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADH via flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) to the quinone pool. They are required for maintaining the NADH/Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) redox balance and contribute indirectly to the generation of proton motive force. NDH-2s are not present in mammals, but are the only form of respiratory NADH dehydrogenase in several pathogens, including S. aureus. In this work, the two putative ndh genes present in the S. aureus genome were identified, cloned and expressed, and the proteins were purified and characterized. Phenothiazines were shown to inhibit both of the S. aureus NDH-2s with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values as low as 8μM. However, evaluating the effects of phenothiazines on whole cells of S. aureus was complicated by the fact that they are also acting as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Oscillator Principle of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...

  15. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hatanaka

    Full Text Available The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  16. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  17. NDUFA4 Mutations Underlie Dysfunction of a Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit Linked to Human Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D.S. Pitceathly

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV deficiency remains genetically undetermined in many cases. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous pedigree with isolated COX deficiency linked to a Leigh syndrome neurological phenotype. Unexpectedly, affected individuals harbored homozygous splice donor site mutations in NDUFA4, a gene previously assigned to encode a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit. Western blot analysis of denaturing gels and immunocytochemistry revealed undetectable steady-state NDUFA4 protein levels, indicating that the mutation causes a loss-of-function effect in the homozygous state. Analysis of one- and two-dimensional blue-native polyacrylamide gels confirmed an interaction between NDUFA4 and the COX enzyme complex in control muscle, whereas the COX enzyme complex without NDUFA4 was detectable with no abnormal subassemblies in patient muscle. These observations support recent work in cell lines suggesting that NDUFA4 is an additional COX subunit and demonstrate that NDUFA4 mutations cause human disease. Our findings support reassignment of the NDUFA4 protein to complex IV and suggest that patients with unexplained COX deficiency should be screened for NDUFA4 mutations.

  18. On the Dirac oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)

  19. A Conspiracy of Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss nonlinear mechanical systems containing several oscillators whose frequecies are all much higher than frequencies associated with the remaining degrees of freedom. In this situation a near constant of the motion, an adiabatic invariant, exists which is the sum of all the oscillator...... actions. The phenomenon is illustrated, and calculations of the small change of the adiabatic invariant is outlined....

  20. Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...... oscillators are investigated demonstrating synchronization by means of only one properly selected variable....

  1. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Fuglsang, C. C.; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2009), s. 638-640 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbohydrate oxidase * crystallization * data processing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  2. Investigation of antihemolytic, xanthine oxidase inhibition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abbreviations: SVEs: Salvia Verbenaca L. aerial part Extracts; CrE: Crud Extract; ChE: Chloroform Extract ; EAE: Ethyl Acetate Extract; AqE : Aqueous Extract ; ROS: Reactive Oxygen Spices; AAPH : 2,2, -Azobis (2-AmidinoPropane) Dihydrochloride ; DPPH: DiPhenyl- Picryl-Hydrazyl; XO: Xanthine Oxidase; Gen: Gentamicin ...

  3. Genetic defects of cytochrome c oxidase assembly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecina, Petr; Houšťková, H.; Hansíková, H.; Zeman, J.; Houštěk, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl. 1 (2004), s. S213-S223 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/03/0749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cytochrome c oxidase * mitochondrial disorders Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  4. The antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarchonanthus camphoratus (camphor bush) has been widely used for numerous medicinal purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase inhibition activities of the crude dichloromethane leaf extract of T. camphoratus. The antioxidant activities were ...

  5. Coupled Ferredoxin and Crotonyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Reduction with NADH Catalyzed by the Butyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/Etf Complex from Clostridium kluyveri▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuli; Hinderberger, Julia; Seedorf, Henning; Zhang, Jin; Buckel, Wolfgang; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    2008-01-01

    Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferredoxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex and that the acetyl-CoA dependence previously observed is due to the fact that the cell extracts catalyze the reduction of acetyl-CoA with NADH via crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. The cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex was purified and is shown to couple the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin (E0′ = −410 mV) with NADH (E0′ = −320 mV) to the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA (E0′ = −10 mV) with NADH. The stoichiometry of the fully coupled reaction is extrapolated to be as follows: 2 NADH + 1 oxidized ferredoxin + 1 crotonyl-CoA = 2 NAD+ + 1 ferredoxin reduced by two electrons + 1 butyryl-CoA. The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper. PMID:17993531

  6. Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuli; Hinderberger, Julia; Seedorf, Henning; Zhang, Jin; Buckel, Wolfgang; Thauer, Rudolf K

    2008-02-01

    Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferredoxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex and that the acetyl-CoA dependence previously observed is due to the fact that the cell extracts catalyze the reduction of acetyl-CoA with NADH via crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. The cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex was purified and is shown to couple the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin (E0' = -410 mV) with NADH (E0' = -320 mV) to the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA (E0' = -10 mV) with NADH. The stoichiometry of the fully coupled reaction is extrapolated to be as follows: 2 NADH + 1 oxidized ferredoxin + 1 crotonyl-CoA = 2 NAD+ + 1 ferredoxin reduced by two electrons + 1 butyryl-CoA. The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper.

  7. The increase of NADH fluorescence lifetime is associated with the metabolic change during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Han Wen; Yu, Jia Sin; Hsu, Shu Han; Wei, Yau Huei; Lee, Oscar K.; Wang, Hsing Wen

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence lifetime of NADH had been used as an optical marker for monitoring cellular metabolism. In our pervious studies, we have demonstrated that NADH lifetime of hMSCs increase gradually with time of osteogenic differentiation. In this study, we measured NADH lifetime of hMSCs from a different donor as well as the corresponding metabolic indices such as ATP level, oxygen consumption and lactate release. We also measure the quantity of Complex I, III, IV and V. The results show that during differentiation more oxygen consumed, higher ATP level expressed and less lactate released, and the increase of NADH lifetime was associated with ATP level. Higher expression of the total Complex protein was observed at 3 and 4 weeks after differentiation than controls. However, Complex I expression did not show significant correlation with the increase of NADH fluorescence lifetime. In summary, we demonstrated that the change of NADH lifetime was associated with the metabolic change during osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The increase of NADH lifetime was in part due to the increased Complex protein interaction in mitochondria after differentiation.

  8. Determination of NAD+ and NADH level in a Single Cell Under H2O2 Stress by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wenjun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method is developed to determine both NAD+ and NADH levels in a single cell, based on an enzymatic cycling reaction. The detection limit can reach down to 0.2 amol NAD+ and 1 amol NADH on a home-made CE-LIF setup. The method showed good reproducibility and specificity. After an intact cell was injected into the inlet of a capillary and lysed using a Tesla coil, intracellular NAD+ and NADH were separated, incubated with the cycling buffer, and quantified by the amount of fluorescent product generated. NADH and NAD+ levels of single cells of three cell lines and primary astrocyte culture were determined using this method. Comparing cellular NAD+ and NADH levels with and without exposure to oxidative stress induced by H2O2, it was found that H9c2 cells respond to the stress by reducing both cellular NAD+ and NADH levels, while astrocytes respond by increasing cellular NADH/NAD+ ratio.

  9. A role for NADPH oxidase in antigen presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail J Gardiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase expressed in phagocytes is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that generates superoxide (O2.-. This radical is an important precursor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS needed for microbicidal activity during innate immune responses. Inherited defects in NADPH oxidase give rise to chronic granulomatous disease (CGD, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and granulomatous inflammation. Interestingly, CGD, CGD carrier status, and oxidase gene polymorphisms have all been associated with autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, suggesting a potential role for NADPH oxidase in regulating adaptive immune responses. Here, NADPH oxidase function in antigen processing and presentation is reviewed. NADPH oxidase influences dendritic cell (DC crosspresentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I through regulation of the phagosomal microenvironment, while in B lymphocytes, NADPH oxidase alters epitope selection by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC-II.

  10. Observation of Quasichanneling Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Mikkelsen, R. E.; Uggerhoj, University I.; Wienands, University; Markiewicz, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on the first experimental observations of quasichanneling oscillations, recently seen in simulations and described theoretically. Although above-barrier particles penetrating a single crystal are generally seen as behaving almost as in an amorphous substance, distinct oscillation peaks nevertheless appear for particles in that category. The quasichanneling oscillations were observed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory by aiming 20.35 GeV positrons and electrons at a thin silicon crystal bent to a radius of R = 0.15 m, exploiting the quasimosaic effect. For electrons, two relatively faint quasichanneling peaks were observed, while for positrons, seven quasichanneling peaks were clearly identified.

  11. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the past several years, a number of experiments have searched for neutrino oscillations, where a neutrino of one type (say bar ν μ ) spontaneously transforms into a neutrino of another type (say bar ν e ). For this phenomenon to occur, neutrinos must be massive and the apparent conservation law of lepton families must be violated. In 1995 the LSND experiment published data showing candidate events that are consistent with bar ν μ oscillations. Additional data are reported here which provide stronger evidence for neutrino oscillations

  12. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, Boris

    2014-01-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures

  13. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, Boris [Fermilab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures.

  14. Oscillator, neutron modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaisse, R.; Leguen, R.; Ombredane, D.

    1960-01-01

    The authors present a mechanical device and an electronic control circuit which have been designed to sinusoidally modulate the reactivity of the Proserpine atomic pile. The mechanical device comprises an oscillator and a mechanism assembly. The oscillator is made of cadmium blades which generate the reactivity oscillation. The mechanism assembly comprises a pulse generator for cycle splitting, a gearbox and an engine. The electronic device comprises or performs pulse detection, an on-off device, cycle pulse shaping, phase separation, a dephasing amplifier, electronic switches, counting scales, and control devices. All these elements are briefly presented

  15. Silver nanoparticles embedded in amine-functionalized silicate sol–gel network assembly for sensing cysteine, adenosine and NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Ramaraj, Ramasamy

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles embedded in amine-functionalized silicate sol–gel network were synthesized and used for sensing biomolecules such as cysteine, adenosine, and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The sensing of these biomolecules by the assembly of silver nanoparticles was triggered by the optical response of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. The optical sensor exhibited the lowest detection limit (LOD) of 5, 20, and 5 μM for cysteine, adenosine, and NADH, respectively. The sensing of biomolecules in the micromolar range by using the amine-functionalized silicate sol–gel embedded silver nanoparticles was studied in the presence of interference molecules like uridine, glycine, guanine, and guanosine. Thus, the present approach might open up a new avenue for the development of silver nanoparticles-based optical sensor devices for biomolecules.

  16. Cytochrome b5 and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase: genotype-phenotype correlations for hydroxylamine reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, James C; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2010-01-01

    NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (b5) catalyze the reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA), which can contribute to sulfonamide hypersensitivity, to the parent drug sulfamethoxazole. Variability in hydroxylamine reduction could thus play a role in adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to characterize variability in SMX-HA reduction in 111 human livers, and investigate its association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in b5 and b5R cDNA. Liver microsomes were assayed for SMX-HA reduction activity, and b5 and b5R expression was semiquantified by immunoblotting. The coding regions of the b5 (CYB5A) and b5R (CYB5R3) genes were resequenced. Hepatic SMX-HA reduction displayed a 19-fold range of individual variability (0.06-1.11 nmol/min/mg protein), and a 17-fold range in efficiency (Vmax/Km) among outliers. SMX-HA reduction was positively correlated with b5 and b5R protein content (Phydroxylamine reduction activities, these low-frequency cSNPs seem to only minimally impact overall observed phenotypic variability. Work is underway to characterize polymorphisms in other regions of these genes to further account for individual variability in hydroxylamine reduction.

  17. An azoreductase, aerobic NADH-dependent flavoprotein discovered from Bacillus sp.: functional expression and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Toshihiko; Shibata, Takeshi; Sato, Reiko; Ohno, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shinichi; Thuoc, Tran Linh; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2007-05-01

    The gene coding for an azoreductase, designated as an azrA, was cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification from the genomic DNA of Bacillus sp. strain B29 isolated from soil. The azrA encoded a protein of 208 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 22,766 Da. The enzyme was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli with a strong band of 23 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified recombinant AzrA was a homodimer with a native molecular mass of 48 kDa containing two molecules of flavin mononucleotide (FMN; oxidized). This activity was oxygen insensitive and was nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form; NADH) dependent. Recombinant AzrA exhibited a broad pH stability between 6 and 10 with a temperature optimum of 60-80 degrees C. The enzyme cleaved the model azo compound of methyl red [MR, 4'-(dimethylamino)-azobenzene-2-carboxylic acid] into 2-aminobenzoic acid and N, N'-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine by ping-pong mechanism. The enzyme was not only able to decolorize MR but also able to decolorize sulfonated azo dyes such as Orange I and Acid Red 88.

  18. Size controlled synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their activity in the oxidation of NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Parvathy R; Sandhyarani, N; Naseer, M; Udupa, N

    2012-01-01

    Size and shape controlled synthesis remains a major bottleneck in the research on nanoparticles even after the development of different methods for their preparation. By tuning the size and shape of a nanoparticle, the intrinsic properties of the nanoparticle can be controlled leading tremendous potential applications in different fields of science and technology. We describe a facile route for the one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water using monosodium glutamate as the reducing and stabilizing agent in the absence of seed particles. The particle diameter can be easily controlled by varying the pH of the reaction medium. Nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and dynamic light scattering. Zeta potential measurements were made to compare the stability of the different nanoparticles. The results suggest that lower pH favours a nucleation rate giving rise to smaller particles and higher pH favours a growth rate leading to the formation of larger particles. The synthesized nanoparticles are found to be stable and biocompatible. The nanoparticles synthesized at high pH exhibited a good electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH).

  19. OSCILLATING FILAMENTS. I. OSCILLATION AND GEOMETRICAL FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: gritschm@usm.uni-muenchen.de [University Observatory Munich, LMU Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-10

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.

  20. Again on neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.

    1976-01-01

    The general case is treated of a weak interaction theory in which a term violating lepton charges is present. In such a scheme the particles with definite masses are Majorana neutrinos (2N if in the weak interaction participate N four-component neutrinos). Neutrino oscillations are discussed and it is shown that the minimum average intensity at the earth of solar neutrinos is 1/2N of the intensity expected when oscillations are absent

  1. Density-wave oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.

    1979-01-01

    Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)

  2. Oscillators and operational amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation of the general circuit is derived. The dynamic nonlinear transfer characteristic of the amplifier is investigated. Examples of negative resistance oscillators are discussed.

  3. Chaotic solar oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacher, S; Perdang, J [Institut d' Astrophysique, B-4200 Cointe-Ougree (Belgium)

    1981-09-01

    A numerical experiment on Hamiltonian oscillations demonstrates the existence of chaotic motions which satisfy the property of phase coherence. It is observed that the low-frequency end of the power spectrum of such motions is remarkably similar in structure to the low-frequency SCLERA spectra. Since the smallness of the observed solar amplitudes is not a sufficient mathematical ground for inefficiency of non-linear effects the possibility of chaos among solar oscillations cannot be discarded a priori.

  4. Role of pH in oxidase variability of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, L K; Overman, T L; Otero, R B

    1981-01-01

    Some strains of Aeromonas hydrophila may be oxidase negative or only weakly oxidase positive by the Kovacs method taken from the surface of a differential medium, such as MacConkey agar. Six strains of A. hydrophila, two oxidase variable, one oxidase constant, and three weakly oxidase positive on MacConkey agar, were studied to determine the cause of oxidase variability. The bacteriostatic dyes in MacConkey agar were considered possible inhibitors of the oxidase reaction. The concentration of...

  5. Photochemical Properties and Reactivity of a Ru Compound Containing an NAD/NADH-Functionalized 1,10-Phenanthroline Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuaki; Ohtsu, Hideki; Nozaki, Koichi; Kitagawa, Susumu; Tanaka, Koji

    2016-03-07

    An NAD/NADH-functionalized ligand, benzo[b]pyrido[3,2-f][1,7]-phenanthroline (bpp), was newly synthesized. A Ru compound containing the bpp ligand, [Ru(bpp)(bpy)2](2+), underwent 2e(-) and 2H(+) reduction, generating the NADH form of the compound, [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+), in response to visible light irradiation in CH3CN/TEA/H2O (8/1/1). The UV-vis and fluorescent spectra of both [Ru(bpp)(bpy)2](2+) and [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+) resembled the spectra of [Ru(bpy)3](2+). Both complexes exhibited strong emission, with quantum yields of 0.086 and 0.031, respectively; values that are much higher than those obtained from the NAD/NADH-functionalized complexes [Ru(pbn)(bpy)2](2+) and [Ru(pbnHH)(bpy)2](2+) (pbn = (2-(2-pyridyl)benzo[b]-1.5-naphthyridine, pbnHH = hydrogenated form of pbn). The reduction potential of the bpp ligand in [Ru(bpp)(bpy)2](2+) (-1.28 V vs SCE) is much more negative than that of the pbn ligand in [Ru(pbn)(bpy)2](2+) (-0.74 V), although the oxidation potentials of bppHH and pbnHH are essentially equal (0.95 V). These results indicate that the electrochemical oxidation of the dihydropyridine moiety in the NADH-type ligand was independent of the π system, including the Ru polypyridyl framework. [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+) allowed the photoreduction of oxygen, generating H2O2 in 92% yield based on [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+). H2O2 production took place via singlet oxygen generated by the energy transfer from excited [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+) to triplet oxygen.

  6. Over-expression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase (fucO) for increasing furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elliot N.; Zhang, Xueli; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Wang, Xuan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2015-10-13

    The subject invention pertains to the discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural. This allows for a new approach to improve furfural tolerance in bacterial and/or yeast cells used to produce desired products. Thus, novel biocatalysts (bacterial, fungal or yeast cells) exhibiting increased tolerance to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are provided as are methods of making and using such biocatalysts for the production of a desired product.

  7. Ethanol production from xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing protein-engineered NADH-preferring xylose reductase from Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiya; Abu Saleh, Ahmed; Pack, Seung Pil; Annaluru, Narayana; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke

    2007-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis (PsXR and PsXDH, respectively) has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavourable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to intercellular redox imbalance caused by the different coenzyme specificity between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD(+)-dependent XDH. In this study, we focused on the effect(s) of mutated NADH-preferring PsXR in fermentation. The R276H and K270R/N272D mutants were improved 52- and 146-fold, respectively, in the ratio of NADH/NADPH in catalytic efficiency [(k(cat)/K(m) with NADH)/(k(cat)/K(m) with NADPH)] compared with the wild-type (WT), which was due to decrease of k(cat) with NADPH in the R276H mutant and increase of K(m) with NADPH in the K270R/N272D mutant. Furthermore, R276H mutation led to significant thermostabilization in PsXR. The most positive effect on xylose fermentation to ethanol was found by using the Y-R276H strain, expressing PsXR R276H mutant and PsXDH WT: 20 % increase of ethanol production and 52 % decrease of xylitol excretion, compared with the Y-WT strain expressing PsXR WT and PsXDH WT. Measurement of intracellular coenzyme concentrations suggested that maintenance of the of NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios is important for efficient ethanol fermentation from xylose by recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  8. Case for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1982-01-01

    The building of a machine capable of producing an intense, well-calibrated beam of muon neutrinos is regarded by particle physicists with keen interest because of its ability of studying neutrino oscillations. The possibility of neutrino oscillations has long been recognized, but it was not made necessary on theoretical or experimental grounds; one knew that oscillations could be avoided if neutrinos were massless, and this was easily done by the conservation of lepton number. The idea of grand unification has led physicists to question the existence (at higher energies) of global conservation laws. The prime examples are baryon-number conservation, which prevents proton decay, and lepton-number conservation, which keeps neutrinos massless, and therefore free of oscillations. The detection of proton decay and neutrino oscillations would therefore be an indirect indication of the idea of Grand Unification, and therefore of paramount importance. Neutrino oscillations occur when neutrinos acquire mass in such a way that the neutrino mass eigenstates do not match the (neutrino) eigenstates produced by the weak interactions. We shall study the ways in which neutrinos can get mass, first at the level of the standard SU 2 x U 1 model, then at the level of its Grand Unification Generalizations

  9. Plasma diamine oxidase activity in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichiro Toyoshima

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine plays an important role in the development of asthmatic symptoms. Diamine oxidase (DAO histaminase, which inactivates histamine, is located in the intestine and kidney and is released into plasma. Plasma DAO activity in asthmatic children was measured by a recently developed high performance liquid chromatographic method using histamine as the DAO substrate. Diamine oxidase activity was higher in severely asthmatic children than in those with mild asthma. A time course study during the acute exacerbation phase revealed that DAO activity rose during acute asthmatic attacks and then decreased gradually over several days. Although the mechanisms of plasma DAO activity increase during acute asthmatic attacks could not be explained, data showed that plasma DAO activity is an important index of histamine metabolism in asthmatics and may relate to some mechanisms of acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Consequently, fluctuations in plasma DAO can be used as one of various indices of instability in management of asthma.

  10. Lysyl Oxidase and the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hong Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lysyl oxidase (LOX family of oxidases contains a group of extracellular copper-dependent enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking of collagen and elastin by oxidation, thus maintaining the rigidity and structural stability of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Aberrant expression or activation of LOX alters the cellular microenvironment, leading to many diseases, including atherosclerosis, tissue fibrosis, and cancer. Recently, a number of studies have shown that LOX is overexpressed in most cancers and that it is involved in the regulation of tumor progression and metastasis. In contrast, a few reports have also indicated the tumor-suppressing role of LOX. In this short review, we discuss recent research on the correlations between LOX and cancer. Further, the role of LOX in tumor microenvironment remodeling, tumorigenesis, and metastasis and the underlying mechanisms have also been elucidated.

  11. Renewable Molecular Flasks with NADH Models: Combination of Light-Driven Proton Reduction and Biomimetic Hydrogenation of Benzoxazinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Wei, Jianwei; Lu, Junhua; He, Cheng; Duan, Chunying

    2017-07-17

    Using small molecules with defined pockets to catalyze chemical transformations resulted in attractive catalytic syntheses that echo the remarkable properties of enzymes. By modulating the active site of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) model in a redox-active molecular flask, we combined biomimetic hydrogenation with in situ regeneration of the active site in a one-pot transformation using light as a clean energy source. This molecular flask facilitates the encapsulation of benzoxazinones for biomimetic hydrogenation of the substrates within the inner space of the flask using the active sites of the NADH models. The redox-active metal centers provide an active hydrogen source by light-driven proton reduction outside the pocket, allowing the in situ regeneration of the NADH models under irradiation. This new synthetic platform, which offers control over the location of the redox events, provides a regenerating system that exhibits high selectivity and efficiency and is extendable to benzoxazinone and quinoxalinone systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Bioinspired Design of Alcohol Dehydrogenase@nano TiO2 Microreactors for Sustainable Cycling of NAD+/NADH Coenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioinspired design and construction of enzyme@capsule microreactors with specific cell-like functionality has generated tremendous interest in recent years. Inspired by their fascinating complexity, scientists have endeavored to understand the essential aspects of a natural cell and create biomimicking microreactors so as to immobilize enzymes within the hierarchical structure of a microcapsule. In this study, simultaneous encapsulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH was achieved during the preparation of microcapsules by the Pickering emulsion method using amphiphilic modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs as building blocks for assembling the photocatalytic microcapsule membrane. The ADH@TiO2 NP microreactors exhibited dual catalytic functions, i.e., spatially confined enzymatic catalysis and the membrane-associated photocatalytic oxidation under visible light. The sustainable cycling of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD coenzyme between NADH and NAD+ was realized by enzymatic regeneration of NADH from NAD+ reduction, and was provided in a form that enabled further photocatalytic oxidation to NAD+ under visible light. This bioinspired ADH@TiO2 NP microreactor allowed the linking of a semiconductor mineral-based inorganic photosystem to enzymatic reactions. This is a first step toward the realization of sustainable biological cycling of NAD+/NADH coenzyme in synthetic functional microsystems operating under visible light irradiation.

  13. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Kabbash, Amal; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2004-08-01

    Three monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were isolated from Gentiana lutea. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-3''linked-(2'-hydroxy-4-O-isoprenylchalcone)-(2'''-hydroxy-4''-O-isoprenyldihydrochalcone) (1), 2-methoxy-3-(1,1'-dimethylallyl)-6a,10a-dihydrobenzo(1,2-c)chroman-6-one and 5-hydroxyflavanone. These compounds, and the hydrolysis product of 1, displayed competitive inhibitory properties against MAO-B which was more effective than MAO-A.

  14. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  15. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets

  16. Identification of aldehyde oxidase 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 as dioxin-inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Steven P.; Choi, Hyun Ho; Chapman, Brett; Whitekus, Michael J.; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Hankinson, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases are a family of highly related molybdo-flavoenzymes acting upon a variety of compounds of industrial and medical importance. We have identified aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) inducible gene in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1. AOX1 mRNA levels were not increased by dioxin in mutant derivatives of the Hepa-1 cell line lacking either functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) proteins, thus demonstrating that transcriptional induction of AOX1 in response to dioxin occurs through the AHR pathway. Dioxin induction of AOX1 mRNA was also observed in mouse liver. In addition, levels of AOX1 protein as well as those of aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 (AOH1), a recently identified homolog of AOX1, were elevated in mouse liver in response to dioxin. Employing an aldehyde oxidase specific substrate, AOX1/AOH1 activity was shown to be induced by dioxin in mouse liver. This activity was inhibited by a known inhibitor of aldehyde oxidases, and eliminated by including tungstate in the mouse diet, which is known to lead to inactivation of molybdoflavoenzymes, thus confirming that the enzymatic activity was attributable to AOX1/AOH1. Our observations thus identify two additional xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes induced by dioxin

  17. Direct electrocatalytic reduction of coenzyme NAD{sup +} to enzymatically-active 1,4-NADH employing an iridium/ruthenium-oxide electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Nehar, E-mail: nehar.ullah@mail.mcgill.ca; Ali, Irshad; Omanovic, Sasha

    2015-01-15

    A thermally prepared iridium/ruthenium-oxide coating (Ir{sub 0.8}Ru{sub 0.2}-oxide) formed on a titanium substrate was investigated as a possible electrode for direct electrochemical regeneration of enzymatically-active 1,4-NADH from its oxidized form NAD{sup +}, at various electrode potentials, in a batch electrochemical reactor. The coating surface was characterized by ‘cracked mud’ morphology, yielding a high surface roughness. The NADH regeneration results showed that the percentage of enzymatically-active 1,4-NADH present in the product mixture (i.e. recovery) is strongly dependent on the electrode potential, reaching a maximum (88%) at −1.70 V vs. MSE. The relatively high recovery was explained on the basis of availability of adsorbed ‘active’ hydrogen (H{sub ads}) on the Ir/Ru-oxide surface, i.e. on the basis of electrochemical hydrogenation. - Highlights: • Ir{sub 0.8}Ru{sub 0.2}-oxide coating was formed thermally on a Ti substrate. • Electrochemical regeneration of enzymatically-active 1,4-NADH was investigated. • The 1,4-NADH recovery percentage is strongly dependent on the electrode potential. • A highest recovery, 88%, was obtained at −1.70 V vs. MSE. • The NADH regeneration process involved electrochemical hydrogenation.

  18. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Anna Marta; Terne, Cindy; Jankowski, Vera

    2014-01-01

    chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. The effect on enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase was quantified within an incubation time of 120 min. RESULTS: Thirty-nine of the 48 uraemic retention solutes tested had a significant decreasing effect on NADPH oxidase activity. Oxalate has been characterized......BACKGROUND: Uraemia and cardiovascular disease appear to be associated with an increased oxidative burden. One of the key players in the genesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Based on initial experiments demonstrating a decreased...... inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity in the presence of plasma from patients with CKD-5D after dialysis compared with before dialysis, we investigated the effect of 48 known and commercially available uraemic retention solutes on the enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase. METHODS: Mononuclear leucocytes...

  19. The yeast complex I equivalent NADH dehydrogenase rescues pink1 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vilain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC; however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I-associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling.

  20. Chemoenzymatic combination of glucose oxidase with titanium silicalite -1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, Peter Nicolai Ravnborg; Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus H.

    2010-01-01

    Zeozymes: A proof-of-concept is presented for the chemoenzymatic combination of titanium silicalite-1 zeolite with glucose oxidase. In this combination, glucose is oxidized to gluconic acid and the H2O2 byproduct formed in situ is used for the simultaneous oxidation of chemical substrates. Both...... a soluble glucose oxidase and a truly integrated heterogeneous combination whereby the oxidase enzyme is anchored onto the zeolite surface are reported....

  1. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-02-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less gave little useful information.

  2. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-01-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less ga...

  3. Do muons oscillate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Morozov, A.Yu.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    We develop a theory of the EPR-like effects due to neutrino oscillations in the π→μν decays. Its experimental implications are space-time correlations of the neutrino and muon when they are both detected, while the pion decay point is not fixed. However, the more radical possibility of μ-oscillations in experiments where only muons are detected (as suggested in hep-ph/9509261), is ruled out. We start by discussing decays of monochromatic pions, and point out a few ''paradoxes''. Then we consider pion wave packets, solve the ''paradoxes'', and show that the formulas for μν correlations can be transformed into the usual expressions, describing neutrino oscillations, as soon as the pion decay point is fixed. (orig.)

  4. Oscillations in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-01-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l → 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II l+1 from II l and II l-1 to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n c , while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  5. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  6. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  7. Oscillating Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.

  8. Brownian parametric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Christine; Jung, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

    1994-05-01

    We discuss the stochastic dynamics of dissipative, white-noise-driven Floquet oscillators, characterized by a time-periodic stiffness. Thus far, little attention has been paid to these exactly solvable nonstationary systems, although they carry a rich potential for several experimental applications. Here, we calculate and discuss the mean values and variances, as well as the correlation functions and the Floquet spectrum. As one main result, we find for certain parameter values that the fluctuations of the position coordinate are suppressed as compared to the equilibrium value of a harmonic oscillator (parametric squeezing).

  9. Friedel oscillations in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, J. A.; Power, S. R.; Ferreira, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry breaking perturbations in an electronically conducting medium are known to produce Friedel oscillations in various physical quantities of an otherwise pristine material. Here we show in a mathematically transparent fashion that Friedel oscillations in graphene have a strong sublattice...... asymmetry. As a result, the presence of impurities and/or defects may impact the distinct graphene sublattices very differently. Furthermore, such an asymmetry can be used to explain the recent observations that nitrogen atoms and dimers are not randomly distributed in graphene but prefer to occupy one...

  10. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  11. Oscillating Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.

  12. Oscillators from nonlinear realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N.; Krivonos, S.

    2018-02-01

    We construct the systems of the harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators, which are invariant with respect to arbitrary noncompact Lie algebras. The equations of motion of these systems can be obtained with the help of the formalism of nonlinear realizations. We prove that it is always possible to choose time and the fields within this formalism in such a way that the equations of motion become linear and, therefore, reduce to ones of ordinary harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators. The first-order actions, that produce these equations, can also be provided. As particular examples of this construction, we discuss the so(2, 3) and G 2(2) algebras.

  13. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  14. NADPH oxidase: an enzyme for multicellularity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Multicellularity has evolved several times during the evolution of eukaryotes. One evolutionary pressure that permits multicellularity relates to the division of work, where one group of cells functions as nutrient providers and the other in specialized roles such as defence or reproduction. This requires signalling systems to ensure harmonious development of multicellular structures. Here, we show that NADPH oxidases are specifically present in organisms that differentiate multicellular structures during their life cycle and are absent from unicellular life forms. The biochemical properties of these enzymes make them ideal candidates for a role in intercellular signalling.

  15. From excitability to oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A. Y.; Jacobsen, J. C. B.

    2013-01-01

    One consequence of cell-to-cell communication is the appearance of synchronized behavior, where many cells cooperate to generate new dynamical patterns. We present a simple functional model of vasomotion based on the concept of a two-mode oscillator with dual interactions: via relatively slow dif...

  16. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments (ν μ →ν e and ν μ →ν τ ) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  17. A simple violin oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.

  18. Nonlinearity in oscillating bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gazzola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We first recall several historical oscillating bridges that, in some cases, led to collapses. Some of them are quite recent and show that, nowadays, oscillations in suspension bridges are not yet well understood. Next, we survey some attempts to model bridges with differential equations. Although these equations arise from quite different scientific communities, they display some common features. One of them, which we believe to be incorrect, is the acceptance of the linear Hooke law in elasticity. This law should be used only in presence of small deviations from equilibrium, a situation which does not occur in widely oscillating bridges. Then we discuss a couple of recent models whose solutions exhibit self-excited oscillations, the phenomenon visible in real bridges. This suggests a different point of view in modeling equations and gives a strong hint how to modify the existing models in order to obtain a reliable theory. The purpose of this paper is precisely to highlight the necessity of revisiting the classical models, to introduce reliable models, and to indicate the steps we believe necessary to reach this target.

  19. Integrated optoelectronic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Hao, Tengfei; Li, Wei; Domenech, David; Baños, Rocio; Muñoz, Pascual; Zhu, Ninghua; Capmany, José; Li, Ming

    2018-04-30

    With the rapid development of the modern communication systems, radar and wireless services, microwave signal with high-frequency, high-spectral-purity and frequency tunability as well as microwave generator with light weight, compact size, power-efficient and low cost are increasingly demanded. Integrated microwave photonics (IMWP) is regarded as a prospective way to meet these demands by hybridizing the microwave circuits and the photonics circuits on chip. In this article, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an integrated optoelectronic oscillator (IOEO). All of the devices needed in the optoelectronic oscillation loop circuit are monolithically integrated on chip within size of 5×6cm 2 . By tuning the injection current to 44 mA, the output frequency of the proposed IOEO is located at 7.30 GHz with phase noise value of -91 dBc/Hz@1MHz. When the injection current is increased to 65 mA, the output frequency can be changed to 8.87 GHz with phase noise value of -92 dBc/Hz@1MHz. Both of the oscillation frequency can be slightly tuned within 20 MHz around the center oscillation frequency by tuning the injection current. The method about improving the performance of IOEO is carefully discussed at the end of in this article.

  20. The variational spiked oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Ullah, N.

    1992-08-01

    A variational analysis of the spiked harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian -d 2 / d x 2 + x 2 + δ/ x 5/2 , δ > 0, is reported in this work. A trial function satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is suggested. The results are excellent for a large range of values of the coupling parameter. (author)

  1. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments ({nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  2. Photo-excitation of electrons in cytochrome c oxidase as a theory of the mechanism of the increase of ATP production in mitochondria by laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Andrzej

    2014-02-01

    The hypothesis explains the molecular basis for restoring mitochondrial function by laser therapy. It also explains how laser therapy reverses both excessive oxidation (lack of NADH/FADH2) and excessive reduction (lack of O2) states of cytochrome c oxidase complex. It is proposed that photons interact with heme molecules of cytochrome c oxidase. A molecule of heme contains a porphyrin ring and an atom of iron in the center. The iron atom (Fe) can switch oxidation states back and forth between ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) by accepting or releasing an electron. The porphyrin ring is a complex aromatic molecule that has 26 pi electrons which are "delocalized", spinning in the carbon rings creating a resonating electromagnetic cloud. Photons with similar wavelengths are absorbed by the cloud increasing its energy. The energy is then passed on to the centrally located atom of iron existing in a reduced state (Fe2+). The electrons on the orbits of the iron atom accept this electromagnetic energy, and change orbitals to a higher energetic level. If the energy is sufficient, electrons leave the atom entirely. If this occurs, Fe2+ become oxidized to Fe3+ releasing electrons, thus restoring electron flow and the production of ATP. At the same time, electrons freed from complex IV may have sufficient energy to be picked by NAD+/FADH and re-enter the chain at the complex I or II amplifying the flow of electrons.

  3. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Østergaard, Lars Henrik; Fuglsang, Claus Crone; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Industrially used carbohydrate oxidase was successfully crystallized in several forms, diffraction data suitable for structural analysis were collected. Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was produced by heterologous recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, purified and crystallized. The enzyme crystallizes with varying crystal morphologies depending on the crystallization conditions. Several different crystal forms were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, two of which were used for diffraction measurements. Hexagon-shaped crystals (form I) diffracted to 2.66 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.7, c = 610.4 Å and apparent space group P6 2 22. Analysis of the data quality showed almost perfect twinning of the crystals. Attempts to solve the structure by molecular replacement did not give satisfactory results. Recently, clusters of rod-shaped crystals (form II) were grown in a solution containing PEG MME 550. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic system C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.9, b = 56.6, c = 86.5 Å, β = 95.7°. Data sets were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method. Model refinement is currently in progress

  4. Cytochemical Localization of Glucose Oxidase in Peroxisomes of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, Marten; Dijken, Johannes Pieter van

    1980-01-01

    The subcellular localization of glucose oxidase (E.C. 1.1.3.4) in mycelia of Aspergillus niger has been investigated using cytochemical staining techniques. Mycelia from fermenter cultures, which produced gluconic acid from glucose, contained elevated levels of glucose oxidase and catalase. Both

  5. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik; Orthenblad, N.

    1997-01-01

    the increase in xanthine oxidase in the muscle there were no detectable changes in the levels of muscle malondialdehyde or in plasma antioxidant capacity up to 4 days post-exercise. 5. It is concluded that eccentric exercise leads to an increased level of xanthine oxidase in human muscle and that the increase...

  6. Laboratory-evolved vanillyl-alcohol oxidase produces natural vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Rovida, S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The flavoenzyme vanillyl-alcohol oxidase was subjected to random mutagenesis to generate mutants with enhanced reactivity to creosol (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol). The vanillyl-alcohol oxidase-mediated conversion of creosol proceeds via a two-step process in which the initially formed vanillyl alcohol

  7. Optimization of glucose oxidase production by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... manganese, cobalt, thioglycolic acid, and gluconic acid according to (Liu et al., .... In this experiment duplicate media of glucose 10% were adjusted at different ... Glucose oxidase as a pharmaceutical anti oxidant Drug. Devt. ... Plush KS, Hellmuth K, Rinas U (1996). kinetics of glucose oxidase excretion by ...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420... screening test for gonorrhea. (a) Identification. An oxidase screening test for gonorrhea is an in vitro... of gonorrhea. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval) (transitional device). (c) Date PMA...

  9. Anharmonic oscillator and Bogoliubov transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnayak, G.C.; Torasia, S.; Rath, B.

    1990-01-01

    The anharmonic oscillator occupies a cornerstone in many problems in physics. It was observed that none of the authors have tested Bogoliubov transformation to study anharmonic oscillator. The groundstate energy of the anharmonic oscillator is studied using Bogoliubov transformation and the results presented. (author)

  10. Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular ...

  11. Malate-aspartate shuttle and exogenous NADH/cytochrome c electron transport pathway as two independent cytosolic reducing equivalent transfer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, Daniela Isabel; La Piana, Gianluigi; Lofrumento, Nicola Elio

    2012-02-15

    In mammalian cells aerobic oxidation of glucose requires reducing equivalents produced in glycolytic phase to be channelled into the phosphorylating respiratory chain for the reduction of molecular oxygen. Data never presented before show that the oxidation rate of exogenous NADH supported by the malate-aspartate shuttle system (reconstituted in vitro with isolated liver mitochondria) is comparable to the rate obtained on activation of the cytosolic NADH/cytochrome c electron transport pathway. The activities of these two reducing equivalent transport systems are independent of each other and additive. NADH oxidation induced by the malate-aspartate shuttle is inhibited by aminooxyacetate and by rotenone and/or antimycin A, two inhibitors of the respiratory chain, while the NADH/cytochrome c system remains insensitive to all of them. The two systems may simultaneously or mutually operate in the transfer of reducing equivalents from the cytosol to inside the mitochondria. In previous reports we suggested that the NADH/cytochrome c system is expected to be functioning in apoptotic cells characterized by the presence of cytochrome c in the cytosol. As additional new finding the activity of reconstituted shuttle system is linked to the amount of α-ketoglutarate generated inside the mitochondria by glutamate dehydrogenase rather than by aspartate aminotransferase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Observation and analysis of oscillations in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following on oscillation in linear accelerators: Betatron Oscillations; Betatron Oscillations at High Currents; Transverse Profile Oscillations; Transverse Profile Oscillations at High Currents.; Oscillation and Profile Transient Jitter; and Feedback on Transverse Oscillations

  13. Identifying the Oscillatory Mechanism of the Glucose Oxidase-Catalase Coupled Enzyme System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzika, František; Jurašek, Radovan; Schreiberová, Lenka; Radojković, Vuk; Schreiber, Igor

    2017-10-12

    We provide experimental evidence of periodic and aperiodic oscillations in an enzymatic system of glucose oxidase-catalase in a continuous-flow stirred reactor coupled by a membrane with a continuous-flow reservoir supplied with hydrogen peroxide. To describe such dynamics, we formulate a detailed mechanism based on partial results in the literature. Finally, we introduce a novel method for estimation of unknown kinetic parameters. The method is based on matching experimental data at an oscillatory instability with stoichiometric constraints of the mechanism formulated by applying the stability theory of reaction networks. This approach has been used to estimate rate coefficients in the catalase part of the mechanism. Remarkably, model simulations show good agreement with the observed oscillatory dynamics, including apparently chaotic intermittent behavior. Our method can be applied to any reaction system with an experimentally observable dynamical instability.

  14. Reactor oscillator - Proposal of the organisation for oscillator operation; Reaktorski oscilator - Predlog organizacije rada na oscilatoru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolic, B; Loloc, B [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za fiziku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    The organizational structure for operating the reactor with the reactor oscillator describes the duties of the reactor operators; staff responsible for operating the oscillator who are responsible for measurements, preparation of the samples and further treatment of the obtained results.

  15. Quenching oscillating behaviors in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongkui; Xiao, Rui; Yang, Xiaoli; Xu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Oscillation quenching has been widely studied during the past several decades in fields ranging from natural sciences to engineering, but investigations have so far been restricted to oscillators with an integer-order derivative. Here, we report the first study of amplitude death (AD) in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with partial and/or complete conjugate couplings to explore oscillation quenching patterns and dynamics. It has been found that the fractional-order derivative impacts the AD state crucially. The area of the AD state increases along with the decrease of the fractional-order derivative. Furthermore, by introducing and adjusting a limiting feedback factor in coupling links, the AD state can be well tamed in fractional coupled oscillators. Hence, it provides one an effective approach to analyze and control the oscillating behaviors in fractional coupled oscillators.

  16. Pattern formation in arrays of chemical oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical oscillators; phase flip; oscillation death. PACS No. 05.45 .... array oscillate (with varying amplitudes and frequencies), while the others experience oscillation death .... Barring the boundary cells, one observes near phase flip and near ...

  17. Anti-xanthine oxidase antibodies in sera and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other joint inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrar, L.; Hanachi, N.; Rouba, K.; Charef, N.; Khennouf, S.; Baghiani, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to study anti-bovine milk xanthine oxidoreductase XOPR antibody levels in synovial fluid as well as in serum of patients suffering from rheumatoid affections to assess a possible correlation between antibody titres and severity of disease. Sera and synovial fluids were collected from volunteer donors at Setif University Hospital, Setif, Algeria from 2001-2007 with the consent of patients. Human IgG and IgM levels of free and bound anti-bovine milk XOR antibodies were determined using bovine XOR as antigen, with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. Serum IgG anti-bovine milk XOR titres in 30 healthy normal subjects 2.74+-2.31 microgram/mL are in agreement with that reported in the literature. Immunoglobulin G and IgM anti-bovine milk XOR antibody titres were found to be significantly higher in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis RA and latex positives subjects. Synovial IgM antibody titres to bovine XOR were found to be significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to patients with other joint inflammations. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, high concentrations of antibodies against XOR were noticed. These antibodies may play a major role in RA by inhibiting both xanthine and NADH oxidase activities of XOR. They may also play a key role in eliminating XOR from serum and synovial fluid positive role but unfortunately, immune complex formation could also activate complement and participate in self maintenance of inflammation. (author)

  18. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  19. Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Razmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.

  20. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Blasone, M.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  1. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  2. Discrete repulsive oscillator wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Carlos A; Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    For the study of infinite discrete systems on phase space, the three-dimensional Lorentz algebra and group, so(2,1) and SO(2,1), provide a discrete model of the repulsive oscillator. Its eigenfunctions are found in the principal irreducible representation series, where the compact generator-that we identify with the position operator-has the infinite discrete spectrum of the integers Z, while the spectrum of energies is a double continuum. The right- and left-moving wavefunctions are given by hypergeometric functions that form a Dirac basis for l 2 (Z). Under contraction, the discrete system limits to the well-known quantum repulsive oscillator. Numerical computations of finite approximations raise further questions on the use of Dirac bases for infinite discrete systems.

  3. Molecular cloning of cDNAs of human liver and placenta NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubisui, T.; Naitoh, Y.; Zenno, S.; Tamura, M.; Takeshita, M.; Sakaki, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA coding for human liver NADH-cytochrome b 5 reductase was cloned from a human liver cDNA library constructed in phage λgt11. The library was screened by using an affinity-purified rabbit antibody against NADH-cytochrome b 5 reductase of human erythrocytes. A cDNA about 1.3 kilobase pairs long was isolated. By using the cDNA as a probe, another cDNA (pb 5 R141) of 1817 base pairs was isolated that hybridized with a synthetic oligonucleotide encoding Pro-Asp-Ile-Lys-Tyr-Pro, derived from the amino acid sequence at the amino-terminal region of the enzyme from human erythrocytes. Furthermore, by using the pb 5 R141 as a probe, cDNA clones having more 5' sequence were isolated from a human placenta cDNA library. The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of these cDNA clones overlapped each other and consisted of a sequence that completely coincides with that of human erythrocytes and a sequence of 19 amino acid residues extended at the amino-terminal side. The latter sequence closely resembles that of the membrane-binding domain of steer liver microsomal enzyme

  4. Catalytic properties of nickel ferrites for oxidation of glucose, β-nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, R. [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guanajuato, Cerro de la Venada s/n, Pueblito de Rocha, C.P. 36040 Guanajuato, Gto (Mexico); Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco s/n, C.P. 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gutiérrez, S. [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guanajuato, Cerro de la Venada s/n, Pueblito de Rocha, C.P. 36040 Guanajuato, Gto (Mexico); Menéndez, N. [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco s/n, C.P. 28049 Madrid (Spain); Herrasti, P., E-mail: pilar.herrasti@uam.es [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco s/n, C.P. 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles obtained by electrochemical method are effective catalyst. ► A partially inverse spinel was obtained with 57% Fe{sup 3+} in tetrahedral position. ► A non-enzymatic electrode using NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles has been manufactured. -- Abstract: Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized by electrochemical method and used as catalyst for direct oxidation of glucose, NADH and methanol. Characterization of these nanoparticles was carried out by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and colloidal properties such as hydrodynamic radius and Zeta potential. To evaluate the catalytic properties of these nanoparticles against the oxidation process, paste graphite electrodes mixing nickel ferrites and different conductive materials (graphite, carbon nanotubes) and binders agents (mineral oil, 1-octylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate (nOPPF6)) were used. The results prove good catalytic properties of these materials, with an oxidation potential around 0.75, 0.5 and 0.8 V for glucose, NADH, and methanol, respectively.

  5. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.

  6. Oscillations in quasineutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the limit, as the vacuum electric permittivity goes to zero, of a plasma physics system, deduced from the Vlasov-Poisson system for special initial data (distribution functions which are analytic in the space variable, with compact support in velocity), a limit also called open-quotes quasineutral regimeclose quotes of the plasma, and the related oscillations of the electric field, with high frequency in time. 20 refs

  7. Density oscillations within hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Barshay, S.

    1976-01-01

    In models of extended hadrons, in which small bits of matter carrying charge and effective mass exist confined within a medium, oscillations in the matter density may occur. A way of investigating this possibility experimentally in high-energy hadron-hadron elastic diffraction scattering is suggested, and the effect is illustrated by examining some existing data which might be relevant to the question [fr

  8. Neutrino Oscillations Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli, Gianluigi

    2005-06-01

    We review the status of the neutrino oscillations physics, with a particular emphasis on the present knowledge of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters. We consider first the νμ → ντ flavor transitions of atmospheric neutrinos. It is found that standard oscillations provide the best description of the SK+K2K data, and that the associated mass-mixing parameters are determined at ±1σ (and NDF = 1) as: Δm2 = (2.6 ± 0.4) × 10-3 eV2 and sin 2 2θ = 1.00{ - 0.05}{ + 0.00} . Such indications, presently dominated by SK, could be strengthened by further K2K data. Then we point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, in particular the KamLAND data, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects. Finally, we perform an updated analysis of two-family active oscillations of solar and reactor neutrinos in the standard MSW case.

  9. Non-invasive in-cell determination of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios using hyperpolarized glucose show large variations in metabolic phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Caspar Elo; Karlsson, Magnus; Winther, Jakob R.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the pyridine nucleotide NAD has far wider biological functions than its classical role in energy metabolism. NAD is used by hundreds of enzymes that catalyse substrate oxidation and as such it plays a key role in various biological processes such as aging, cell...... death and oxidative stress. It has been suggested that changes in the ratio of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] reflects metabolic alterations leading to, or correlating with, pathological states. We have designed an isotopically labelled metabolic bioprobe of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] by combining...... a magnetic enhancement technique (hyperpolarization) with cellular glycolytic activity. The bioprobe reports free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios based on dynamically measured in-cell [pyruvate]/ [lactate] ratios. We demonstrate its utility in breast and prostate cancer cells. The free cytosolic [NAD...

  10. In Situ Enzymatically Generated Photoswitchable Oxidase Mimetics and Their Application for Colorimetric Detection of Glucose Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gen-Xia; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun; Wang, Guang-Li

    2016-07-09

    In this study, a simple and amplified colorimetric assay is developed for the detection of the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on in situ formation of a photoswitchable oxidase mimetic of PO₄(3-)-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). GOx catalyzes the oxidation of 1-thio-β-d-glucose to give 1-thio-β-d-gluconic acid which spontaneously hydrolyzes to β-d-gluconic acid and H₂S; the generated H₂S instantly reacts with Cd(2+) in the presence of Na₃PO₄ to give PO₄(3-)-stabilized CdS QDs in situ. Under visible-light (λ ≥ 400 nm) stimulation, the PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs are a new style of oxidase mimic derived by producing some active species, such as h⁺, (•)OH, O₂(•-) and a little H₂O₂, which can oxidize the typical substrate (3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzydine (TMB)) with a color change. Based on the GOx-triggered growth of the oxidase mimetics of PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs in situ, we developed a simple and amplified colorimetric assay to probe the enzymatic activity of GOx. The proposed method allowed the detection of the enzymatic activity of GOx over the range from 25 μg/L to 50 mg/L with a low detection limit of 6.6 μg/L. We believe the PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs generated in situ with photo-stimulated enzyme-mimicking activity may find wide potential applications in biosensors.

  11. Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

    1996-12-31

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

  12. An ultrafiltration assay for lysyl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackleton, D.R.; Hulmes, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A modification of the original microdistillation assay for lysyl oxidase is described in which Amicon C-10 microconcentrators are used to separate, by ultrafiltration, the 3H-labeled products released from a [4,5-3H]-lysine-labeled elastin substrate. Enzyme activity is determined by scintillation counting of the ultrafiltrate, after subtraction of radioactivity released in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Conditions are described which optimize both the sensitivity and the efficient use of substrate. The assay shows linear inhibition of activity in up to 1 M urea; hence, as the enzyme is normally diluted in the assay, samples in 6 M urea can be assayed directly, without prior dialysis, and corrected for partial inhibition. Comparable results are obtained when enzyme activity is assayed by ultrafiltration or microdistillation. The assay is simple and convenient and, by using disposable containers throughout, it eliminates the need for time-consuming decontamination of radioactive glassware

  13. The steady-state kinetics of the NADH-dependent nitrite reductase from Escherichia coli K 12. Nitrite and hydroxylamine reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R H; Cole, J A; Cornish-Bowden, A

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of both NO2- and hydroxylamine by the NADH-dependent nitrite reductase of Escherichia coli K 12 (EC 1.6.6.4) appears to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics over a wide range of NADH concentrations. Substrate inhibition can, however, be detected at low concentrations of the product NAD+. In addition, NAD+ displays mixed product inhibition with respect to NADH and mixed or uncompetitive inhibition with respect to hydroxylamine. These inhibition characteristics are consistent with a mechanism in which hydroxylamine binds during catalysis to a different enzyme form from that generated when NAD+ is released. The apparent maximum velocity with NADH as varied substrate increases as the NAD+ concentration increases from 0.05 to 0.7 mM with 1 mM-NO2- or 100 mM-hydroxylamine as oxidized substrate. This increase is more marked for hydroxylamine reduction than for NO2- reduction. Models incorporating only one binding site for NAD can account for the variation in the Michaelis-Menten parameters for both NADH and hydroxylamine with [NAD+] for hydroxylamine reduction. According to these models, activation of the reaction occurs by reversal of an over-reduction of the enzyme by NADH. If the observed activation of the enzyme by NAD+ derives both from activation of the generation of the enzyme-hydroxylamine complex from the enzyme-NO2- complex during NO2- reduction and from activation of the reduction of the enzyme-hydroxylamine complex to form NH4+, then the variation of Vapp. for NO2- or hydroxylamine with [NAD+] is consistent with the occurrence of the same enzyme-hydroxylamine complex as an intermediate in both reactions. PMID:6279095

  14. Evaluation of oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassland, Pierre; Sjöde, Anders; Winestrand, Sandra; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2010-05-01

    Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from chemical pulping were selected for the evaluation. Oxalate decarboxylase degraded oxalic acid faster than oxalate oxidase in eight of the filtrates, while oxalate oxidase performed better in one filtrate. One of the filtrates inhibited both enzymes. The potential inhibitory effect of selected compounds on the enzymatic activity was tested. Oxalate decarboxylase was more sensitive than oxalate oxidase to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate decarboxylase was not as sensitive to chlorate and chlorite as oxalate oxidase. Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the filtrates suggests that high concentrations of chlorate present in some of the filtrates were responsible for the higher sensitivity of oxalate oxidase in these filtrates. Oxalate decarboxylase was thus a better choice than oxalate oxidase for treatment of filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching.

  15. Quantitation of immunoadsorbed flavoprotein oxidases by luminol-mediated chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkkanen, A; Maly, F E; Decker, K

    1983-04-01

    The detection of the flavoenzymes 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase at the sub-femtomol level was achieved by coupling the reaction of the immunoadsorbed proteins to the peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of luminol. The H2O2-producing oxidases retained their full activity when bound to the respective immobilized antibodies. This fact allowed the concentration of the enzymes from very dilute solutions and the quantitative assay of their activities in the microU range. Due to strict stereoselectivity and the absence of immunological cross-reactivity, the two flavoproteins could be determined in the same solution. This method was used to measure the 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase activities in Escherichia coli RR1 and different Arthrobacter strains cultured under non-inducing conditions. The same activity ratio of 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase/6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase as in D L-nicotine-induced cells of A. oxidans was observed in non-induced wild type and in riboflavin-requiring (rf-) mutant cells of this aerob.

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: NADH,NADPHオキシドレダクターゼ [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term NADH,NADPHオキシドレダクターゼ 名詞 一般 * * * ...* NAD(P)Hオキシドレダクターゼ NAD(P)Hオキシドレダクターゼ エヌエイディー(ピー)エイチオキシドレダクターゼ Thesaurus2015 200906027745899279 C LS38 UNKNOWN_2 NADH , NADPH オキシドレダクターゼ

  17. Platelet monoamine oxidase: specific activity and turnover number in headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, K.M.; Brown, G.K.; Craig, I.W.; Peatfield, R.; Rose, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase turnover numbers (molecules of substrate converted to product per minute per active site) have been calculated for the human platelet enzyme using [ 3 H]pargyline. Headache patients with high and low monoamine oxidase specific activities relative to controls were found to have turnover numbers very close to those for controls. This finding suggests that their specific activities vary because of differences in the concentration of active monoamine oxidase molecules, rather than differences in the ability of those enzyme molecules to catalyse the deamination reaction. (Auth.)

  18. Quasioptical Josephson oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengler, M.J.; Pance, A.; Liu, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the authors' work with large 2-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions for submillimeter power generation. The basic design of the Quasioptical Josephson Oscillator (QJO) is presented. The reasons for each design decision are discussed. Superconducting devices have not yet been fabricated, but scale models and computer simulations have been done. A method for characterizing array rf coupling structures is described, and initial results with this method are presented. Microwave scale models of the radiation structure are built and a series of measurements are made with a network analyzer

  19. Modeling microtubule oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jobs, E.; Wolf, D.E.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization of molecular reactions in a macroscopic volume may cause the volume's physical properties to change dynamically and thus reveal much about the reactions. As an example, experimental time series for so-called microtubule oscillations are analyzed in terms of a minimal model...... for this complex polymerization-depolymerization cycle. The model reproduces well the qualitatively different time series that result from different experimental conditions, and illuminates the role and importance of individual processes in the cycle. Simple experiments are suggested that can further test...... and define the model and the polymer's reaction cycle....

  20. Oscillations in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hale, Jack K

    2015-01-01

    By focusing on ordinary differential equations that contain a small parameter, this concise graduate-level introduction to the theory of nonlinear oscillations provides a unified approach to obtaining periodic solutions to nonautonomous and autonomous differential equations. It also indicates key relationships with other related procedures and probes the consequences of the methods of averaging and integral manifolds.Part I of the text features introductory material, including discussions of matrices, linear systems of differential equations, and stability of solutions of nonlinear systems. Pa

  1. Neutrino oscillations at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, R.; Choi, C.; Donohue, J.

    1985-01-01

    Work at Argonne continues on the construction of the neutrino oscillation experiment (E645). Construction of detector supports and active shield components were completed at the Provo plant of the principal contractor for the project (the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Corporation). Erection of the major experimental components was completed at the LAMPF experimental site in mid-March 1985. Work continues on the tunnel which will house the detector. Construction of detector components (scintillators and proportional drift tubes) is proceeding at Ohio State University and Louisiana State University. Consolidation of these components into the 20-ton neutrino detector is beginning at LAMPF

  2. Theory of oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich; Vitt, Aleksandr Adolfovich

    1966-01-01

    Theory of Oscillators presents the applications and exposition of the qualitative theory of differential equations. This book discusses the idea of a discontinuous transition in a dynamic process. Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the simplest type of oscillatory system in which the motion is described by a linear differential equation. This text then examines the character of the motion of the representative point along the hyperbola. Other chapters consider examples of two basic types of non-linear non-conservative systems, namely, dissipative systems and self-

  3. Solar and stellar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossat, E.

    1981-01-01

    We try to explain in simple words what a stellar oscillation is, what kind of restoring forces and excitation mechanisms can be responsible for its occurence, what kind of questions the theoretician asks to the observer and what kind of tools the latter is using to look for the answers. A selected review of the most striking results obtained in the last few years in solar seismology and the present status of their consequences on solar models is presented. A brief discussion on the expected extension towards stellar seismology will end the paper. A selected bibliography on theory as well as observations and recent papers is also included. (orig.)

  4. Coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J; Scott, A C

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include transitions in weakly coupled nonlinear oscillators, singularly perturbed delay-differential equations, and chaos in simple laser systems. Papers are presented on truncated Navier-Stokes equations in a two-dimensional torus, on frequency locking in Josephson point contacts, and on soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions. Attention is also given to the nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media, to aspects of interrupted coarse-graining in stimulated excitation, and to a statistical analysis of long-term dynamic irregularity in an exactly soluble quantum mechanical model.

  5. Brain Oscillations, Hypnosis, and Hypnotizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Adachi, Tomonori; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the state-of-science knowledge regarding the associations between hypnosis and brain oscillations. Brain oscillations represent the combined electrical activity of neuronal assemblies, usually measured as specific frequencies representing slower (delta, theta, alpha) and faster (beta, gamma) oscillations. Hypnosis has been most closely linked to power in the theta band and changes in gamma activity. These oscillations are thought to play a critical role in both the recording and recall of declarative memory and emotional limbic circuits. The authors propose that this role may be the mechanistic link between theta (and perhaps gamma) oscillations and hypnosis, specifically, that the increases in theta oscillations and changes in gamma activity observed with hypnosis may underlie some hypnotic responses. If these hypotheses are supported, they have important implications for both understanding the effects of hypnosis and for enhancing response to hypnotic treatments.

  6. Bounded-oscillation Pushdown Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ganty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an underapproximation for context-free languages by filtering out runs of the underlying pushdown automaton depending on how the stack height evolves over time. In particular, we assign to each run a number quantifying the oscillating behavior of the stack along the run. We study languages accepted by pushdown automata restricted to k-oscillating runs. We relate oscillation on pushdown automata with a counterpart restriction on context-free grammars. We also provide a way to filter all but the k-oscillating runs from a given PDA by annotating stack symbols with information about the oscillation. Finally, we study closure properties of the defined class of languages and the complexity of the k-emptiness problem asking, given a pushdown automaton P and k >= 0, whether P has a k-oscillating run. We show that, when k is not part of the input, the k-emptiness problem is NLOGSPACE-complete.

  7. Single ICCII Sinusoidal Oscillators Employing Grounded Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two inverting second-generation current conveyors (ICCII based sinusoidal oscillators are presented. The first sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and two resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable. The second sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and three resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be independently controllable through different resistors.

  8. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  9. Isotropic oscillator: spheroidal wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Ter-Antonyan, V.M.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Solutions of the Schroedinger equation are found for an isotropic oscillator (10) in prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates. It is shown that the obtained solutions turn into spherical and cylindrical bases of the isotropic oscillator at R→0 and R→ infinity (R is the dimensional parameter entering into the definition of prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates). The explicit form is given for both prolate and oblate basis of the isotropic oscillator for the lowest quantum states

  10. Neutrino oscillations. Theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical schemes on neutrino oscillations are considered. The experimental data on neutrino oscillations obtained in the Super-Kamiokande (Japan) and SNO (Canada) experiments are given. Comparison of these data with the predictions obtained in the theoretical schemes is done. Conclusion is made that the experimental data confirm only the scheme with transitions (oscillations) between aromatic ν e -, ν μ -, ν τ - neutrinos with maximal angle mixings. (author)

  11. Effect of a heme oxygenase-1 inducer on NADPH oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a heme oxygenase-1 inducer on NADPH oxidase expression in ... and immunohistochemistry of hepatic NOX1 and NOX4 were investigated in week 4. ... (HO-1 inhibitor) administration caused upregulation of NOX gene expression ...

  12. Effects of glucose oxidase on the growth performance, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2016-02-06

    Feb 6, 2016 ... The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of diets supplemented with ... Keywords: Glucose oxidase, intestinal health, performance, swine ..... This work was supported by the National High-Tech Research and ...

  13. Structure and activity of Aspergillus nidulans copper amine oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGrath, Aaron P; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Collyer, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans amine oxidase (ANAO) has the unusual ability among the family of copper and trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone-containing amine oxidases of being able to oxidize the amine side chains of lysine residues in large peptides and proteins. We show here that in common with the related...... enzyme from the yeast Pichia pastoris, ANAO can promote the cross-linking of tropoelastin and oxidize the lysine residues in α-casein proteins and tropoelastin. The crystal structure of ANAO, the first for a fungal enzyme in this family, has been determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The enzyme is a dimer...... with the archetypal fold of a copper-containing amine oxidase. The active site is the most open of any of those of the structurally characterized enzymes in the family and provides a ready explanation for its lysine oxidase-like activity....

  14. Chemotaxis and Actin Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Negrete, Jose; Beta, Carsten; Pumir, Alain; Gholami, Azam; Tarantola, Marco; Westendorf, Christian; Zykov, Vladimir

    Recently, self-oscillations of the cytoskeletal actin have been observed in Dictyostelium, a model system for studying chemotaxis. Here we report experimental results on the self-oscillation mechanism and the role of regulatory proteins and myosin II. We stimulate cells rapidly and periodically by using photo un-caging of the chemoattractant in a micro-fluidic device and measured the cellular responses. We found that the response amplitude grows with stimulation strength only in a very narrow region of stimulation, after which the response amplitude reaches a plateau. Moreover, the frequency-response is not constant but rather varies with the strength of external stimuli. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the polymerization and de-polymerization time in the single cell level. Despite of the large cell-to-cell variability, we found that the polymerization time is independent of external stimuli and the de-polymerization time is prolonged as the stimulation strength increases. Our conclusions will be summarized and the role of noise in the signaling network will be discussed. German Science Foundation CRC 937.

  15. The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic of the ampli......A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...

  16. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ...... in the circuit. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential equations, PSPICE simulations, and hardware experiment.......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  17. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  18. Regulation of expression of Na+ -translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase genes in Vibrio harveyi and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Maria S; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A; Belevich, Galina A; Bertsova, Yulia V; Bogachev, Alexander V

    2007-10-01

    The expression of genes encoding sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) was studied in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi and in the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. It has been shown that such parameters as NaCl concentration, pH value, and presence of an uncoupler in the growth media do not influence significantly the level of nqr expression. However, nqr expression depends on the growth substrates used by these bacteria. Na(+)-NQR is highly repressed in V. harveyi during anaerobic growth, and nqr expression is modulated by electron acceptors and values of their redox potentials. The latter effect was shown to be independent of the ArcAB regulatory system.

  19. Production of rabbit antibodies against purified Glucose oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Zia,Muhammad Anjum; Ain,Qurat-ul; Iftikhar,Tehreema; Abbas,Rao Zahid; Rahman,Khalil-ur

    2012-01-01

    Glucose oxidase is an active oxygen species generating enzyme produced from Aspergillus niger grown in submerged fermentation. Disintegration of the mycelium resulted in high glucose oxidase activity that was subjected to ammonium sulfate precipitation at 60-85% saturation rates that resulted to 6.14 U mg -1 specific activity. Purification of enzyme by anion exchange column (DEAE-Cellulose) resulted into 22.53 U mg-1 specific activity and 10.27 fold purification. This was applied to sephadex ...

  20. Hairpin stabilized fluorescent silver nanoclusters for quantitative detection of NAD+ and monitoring NAD+/NADH based enzymatic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyamvada; Chakma, Babina; Patra, Sanjukta; Goswami, Pranab

    2017-03-01

    A set of 90 mer long ssDNA candidates, with different degrees of cytosine (C-levels) (% and clusters) was analyzed for their function as suitable Ag-nanocluster (AgNC) nucleation scaffolds. The sequence (P4) with highest C-level (42.2%) emerged as the only candidate supporting the nucleation process as evident from its intense fluorescence peak at λ 660 nm . Shorter DNA subsets derived from P4 with only stable hairpin structures could support the AgNC formation. The secondary hairpin structures were confirmed by PAGE, and CD studies. The number of base pairs in the stem region also contributes to the stability of the hairpins. A shorter 29 mer sequence (Sub 3) (ΔG = -1.3 kcal/mol) with 3-bp in the stem of a 7-mer loop conferred highly stable AgNC. NAD + strongly quenched the fluorescence of Sub 3-AgNC in a concentration dependent manner. Time resolved photoluminescence studies revealed the quenching involves a combined static and dynamic interaction where the binding constant and number of binding sites for NAD + were 0.201 L mol -1 and 3.6, respectively. A dynamic NAD + detection range of 50-500 μM with a limit of detection of 22.3 μM was discerned. The NAD + mediated quenching of AgNC was not interfered by NADH, NADP + , monovalent and divalent ions, or serum samples. The method was also used to follow alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase catalyzed physiological reactions in a turn-on and turn-off assay, respectively. The proposed method with ssDNA-AgNC could therefore be extended to monitor other NAD + /NADH based enzyme catalyzed reactions in a turn-on/turn-off approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The reaction of NADPH with bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase revisited: II. Comparison of the proposed working hypothesis with literature data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albracht, S.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The first purification of bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) was reported nearly half a century ago (Hatefi et al. J Biol Chem 237:1676-1680, 1962). The pathway of electron-transfer through the enzyme is still under debate. A major obstacle is the assignment of EPR signals to the

  2. The reaction of NADPH with bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase revisited: I. Proposed consequences for electron transfer in the enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albracht, S.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is the first complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has long been assumed that it contained only one FMN group. However, as demonstrated in 2003, the intact enzyme contains two FMN groups. The second FMN was proposed to be located in a

  3. Amperometric sensing of NADH and ethanol using a hybrid film electrode modified with electrochemically fabricated zirconia nanotubes and poly (acid fuchsin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Li, B.; Zhan, G.; Liu, C.; Li, C.; Ma, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a film of chitosin containing acid fuchsin (AF) adsorbed onto zirconia nanotubes. The mixture was polymerized by cyclic voltammetric scannings in the potential range from - 0. 8 V to +1. 3 V in buffer solution to produce a hybrid film electrode (nano-ZrO 2 /PAF/GCE). The morphology of the hybrid film electrode surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical properties were studied via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical response of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and amperometry. The results indicated that the nano-ZrO 2 /PAF/GCE possesses well synergistic catalytic activity towards NADH. Compared to an unmodified GCE, the oxidation overpotential is negatively shifted by 224 mV, and the oxidation current is significantly increased. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric response is linearly proportional to the concentration of NADH in the 1. 0 - 100. 0 μM concentration range. Ethanol also can be determined by amperometry if alcohol dehydrogenase and NADH are added to the sample. Two linear relationships between current and alcohol concentration were obtained. They cover the range from 0. 03 to 1. 0 mM, and from 1. 0 to 12. 0 mM. (author)

  4. Gold electrodes modified with 16H, 18H-dibenzo[c,l]-7,9-dithia-16,18-diazapentacene for electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, V.; Muresan, L.; Popescu, I.C.; Cristea, C.; Silberg, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    16H,18H-Dibenzo[c,l]-7,9-dithia-16,18-diazapentacene (DDDP), a new phenothiazine derivative containing two linearly condensed phenothiazine rings, strongly adsorbs on polyoriented gold resulting in a modified electrode with electrocatalytic activity for ß-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)

  5. Disruption of key NADH-binding pocket residues of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA affects DD-CoA binding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel J; Robb, Kirsty; Vetter, Beatrice V; Tong, Madeline; Molle, Virginie; Hunt, Neil T; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2017-07-05

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem that affects over 10 million people. There is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial therapies to combat TB. To achieve this, a thorough understanding of key validated drug targets is required. The enoyl reductase InhA, responsible for synthesis of essential mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell wall, is the target for the frontline anti-TB drug isoniazid. To better understand the activity of this protein a series of mutants, targeted to the NADH co-factor binding pocket were created. Residues P193 and W222 comprise a series of hydrophobic residues surrounding the cofactor binding site and mutation of both residues negatively affect InhA function. Construction of an M155A mutant of InhA results in increased affinity for NADH and DD-CoA turnover but with a reduction in V max for DD-CoA, impairing overall activity. This suggests that NADH-binding geometry of InhA likely permits long-range interactions between residues in the NADH-binding pocket to facilitate substrate turnover in the DD-CoA binding region of the protein. Understanding the precise details of substrate binding and turnover in InhA and how this may affect protein-protein interactions may facilitate the development of improved inhibitors enabling the development of novel anti-TB drugs.

  6. NADH-fluorescence scattering correction for absolute concentration determination in a liquid tissue phantom using a novel multispectral magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible needle probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Frank; Schalk, Robert; Heintz, Annabell; Feike, Patrick; Firmowski, Sebastian; Beuermann, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    In this report, a quantitative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) fluorescence measurement algorithm in a liquid tissue phantom using a fiber-optic needle probe is presented. To determine the absolute concentrations of NADH in this phantom, the fluorescence emission spectra at 465 nm were corrected using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy between 600 nm and 940 nm. The patented autoclavable Nitinol needle probe enables the acquisition of multispectral backscattering measurements of ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and fluorescence spectra. As a phantom, a suspension of calcium carbonate (Calcilit) and water with physiological NADH concentrations between 0 mmol l-1 and 2.0 mmol l-1 were used to mimic human tissue. The light scattering characteristics were adjusted to match the backscattering attributes of human skin by modifying the concentration of Calcilit. To correct the scattering effects caused by the matrices of the samples, an algorithm based on the backscattered remission spectrum was employed to compensate the influence of multiscattering on the optical pathway through the dispersed phase. The monitored backscattered visible light was used to correct the fluorescence spectra and thereby to determine the true NADH concentrations at unknown Calcilit concentrations. Despite the simplicity of the presented algorithm, the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.093 mmol l-1.

  7. Confirmation of a blocked amino terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janolino, V.G.; Morrison-Rowe, S.J.; Swaisgood, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    The isolation of sulfhydryl oxidase from bovine milk in a suitably pure form for sequencing was carried out by transient covalent affinity chromatography of diafiltered whey using cysteinylsuccinamidopropyl-glass as matrix. The glutathione-eluted proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. By radiolabeling the affinity chromatography-purified enzyme with [ 14 C]iodoacetate before subjecting to SDS-PAGE, the sulfhydryl oxidase band was identified, because sulfhydryl oxidase is known to be inactivated by alkylation of one sulfhydryl group per mole. The results confirmed that sulfhydryl oxidase corresponds to the 85 (± 5)-kDa band observed on SDS-PAGE. The protein band corresponding to radiolabeled sulfhydryl oxidase was recovered from SDS-PAGE gels by electrophoretic elution and by electroblotting on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane and subjected to gas phase sequencing. Precautions were taken during electrophoretic elution to prevent reactions that result in N-terminal blocking. Both methods of protein recovery yielded negative results when subjected to sequence analysis indicating that the N-terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase is blocked

  8. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  9. Reactor oscillator - I - III, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolic, B.

    1961-12-01

    Project 'Reactor oscillator' covers the following activities: designing reactor oscillators for reactors RA and RB with detailed engineering drawings; constructing and mounting of the oscillator; designing and constructing the appropriate electronic equipment for the oscillator; measurements at the RA and RB reactors needed for completing the oscillator construction

  10. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating

  11. Determination of the in vivo NAD:NADH ratio in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic conditions, using alcohol dehydrogenase as sensor reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekers, K M; Heijnen, J J; van Gulik, W M

    2015-08-01

    With the current quantitative metabolomics techniques, only whole-cell concentrations of NAD and NADH can be quantified. These measurements cannot provide information on the in vivo redox state of the cells, which is determined by the ratio of the free forms only. In this work we quantified free NAD:NADH ratios in yeast under anaerobic conditions, using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the lumped reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase as sensor reactions. We showed that, with an alternative accurate acetaldehyde determination method, based on rapid sampling, instantaneous derivatization with 2,4 diaminophenol hydrazine (DNPH) and quantification with HPLC, the ADH-catalysed oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde can be applied as a relatively fast and simple sensor reaction to quantify the free NAD:NADH ratio under anaerobic conditions. We evaluated the applicability of ADH as a sensor reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown in anaerobic glucose-limited chemostats under steady-state and dynamic conditions. The results found in this study showed that the cytosolic redox status (NAD:NADH ratio) of yeast is at least one order of magnitude lower, and is thus much more reduced, under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic glucose-limited steady-state conditions. The more reduced state of the cytosol under anaerobic conditions has major implications for (central) metabolism. Accurate determination of the free NAD:NADH ratio is therefore of importance for the unravelling of in vivo enzyme kinetics and to judge accurately the thermodynamic reversibility of each redox reaction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Damping of Coherent oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    1996-01-01

    Damping of coherent oscillations by feedback is straightforward in principle. It has been a vital ingredient for the safe operation of accelerators since a long time. The increasing dimensions and beam intensities of the new generation of hadron colliders impose unprecedented demands on the performance of future systems. The arguments leading to the specification of a transverse feedback system for the CERN SPS in its role as LHC injector and the LHC collider itself are developped to illustrate this. The preservation of the transverse emittance is the guiding principle during this exercise keeping in mind the hostile environment which comprises: transverse impedance bent on developping coupled bunch instabilities, injection errors, unwanted transverse excitation, unavoidable tune spreads and noise in the damping loop.

  13. Convection and stellar oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarslev, Magnus Johan

    2017-01-01

    for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them...

  14. Photospheric oscillations. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossat, E.; Ricort, G.

    1975-01-01

    Intensity fluctuations in the wings of the Fraunhofer line Na D 1 5896 have been recorded for about two hundred hours at the focus of the Nice coude refractor, using a sodium optical resonance device. Because of the large beam aperture available, records have been made on circular apertures from 22'' up to 32' diameter (the whole sun). The principal results from the analysis of these date are: As shown by White and Cha, the five-minute oscillation has a gaussian random character with a mean lifetime of about 20 min. Its two-dimensional spatial power spectrum is roughly gaussian for every temporal frequency between 2 and 6 MHz. The width of this gaussian spectrum is near 5 x 10 -5 km -1 (i.e. π = 20,000 km). (orig./BJ) [de

  15. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  16. Covalently bound phosphate residues in bovine milk xanthine oxidase and in glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: A reevaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA)); London, R.E. (National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The reported presence of covalently bound phosphate residues in flavoproteins has significant implications with regard to the catalytic mechanisms and structural stability of the specific enzymes themselves and in terms of general cellular metabolic regulation. These considerations have led to a reevaluation of the presence of covalently bound phosphorus in the flavoproteins xanthine oxidase and glucose oxidase. Milk xanthine oxidase purified by a procedure that includes anion-exchange chromatography is shown to contain three phosphate residues. All three are noncovalently associated with the protein, two with the FAD cofactor, and one with the molybdenum cofactor. Results of chemical analysis and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy indicate that enzyme purified by this method contains no phosphoserine residues. Xanthine oxidase preparations purified by chromatography on calcium phosphate gel in place of DEAE-Sephadex yielded higher phosphate-to-protein ratios, which could be reduced to the expected values by additional purification on a folate affinity column. Highly active, highly purified preparations of glucose oxidase are shown to contain only the two phosphate residues of the FAD cofactor. The covalently bound bridging phosphate reported by others may arise in aged or degraded preparations of the enzyme but appears not to be a constituent of functional glucose oxidase. These results suggest that the presence of covalent phosphate residues in other flavoproteins should be rigorously reevaluated as well.

  17. Covalently bound phosphate residues in bovine milk xanthine oxidase and in glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: A reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; London, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The reported presence of covalently bound phosphate residues in flavoproteins has significant implications with regard to the catalytic mechanisms and structural stability of the specific enzymes themselves and in terms of general cellular metabolic regulation. These considerations have led to a reevaluation of the presence of covalently bound phosphorus in the flavoproteins xanthine oxidase and glucose oxidase. Milk xanthine oxidase purified by a procedure that includes anion-exchange chromatography is shown to contain three phosphate residues. All three are noncovalently associated with the protein, two with the FAD cofactor, and one with the molybdenum cofactor. Results of chemical analysis and 31 P NMR spectroscopy indicate that enzyme purified by this method contains no phosphoserine residues. Xanthine oxidase preparations purified by chromatography on calcium phosphate gel in place of DEAE-Sephadex yielded higher phosphate-to-protein ratios, which could be reduced to the expected values by additional purification on a folate affinity column. Highly active, highly purified preparations of glucose oxidase are shown to contain only the two phosphate residues of the FAD cofactor. The covalently bound bridging phosphate reported by others may arise in aged or degraded preparations of the enzyme but appears not to be a constituent of functional glucose oxidase. These results suggest that the presence of covalent phosphate residues in other flavoproteins should be rigorously reevaluated as well

  18. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  19. Hyperchaos in coupled Colpitts oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenys, Antanas; Tamasevicius, Arunas; Baziliauskas, Antanas

    2003-01-01

    The paper suggests a simple solution of building a hyperchaotic oscillator. Two chaotic Colpitts oscillators, either identical or non-identical ones are coupled by means of two linear resistors R-k. The hyperchaotic output signal v(t) is a linear combination, specifically the mean of the individual...

  20. Stochastic and Chaotic Relaxation Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1988-01-01

    For relaxation oscillators stochastic and chaotic dynamics are investigated. The effect of random perturbations upon the period is computed. For an extended system with additional state variables chaotic behavior can be expected. As an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is changed into a

  1. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.

  2. Augmenting cognition by neuronal oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horschig, J.M.; Zumer, J.; Bahramisharif, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cortical oscillations have been shown to represent fundamental functions of a working brain, e.g., communication, stimulus binding, error monitoring, and inhibition, and are directly linked to behavior. Recent studies intervening with these oscillations have demonstrated effective modulation of both

  3. Oscillating universe with quintom matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Huahui; Cai Yifu; Qiu Taotao; Piao Yunsong; Zhang Xinmin

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we study the possibility of building a model of the oscillating universe with quintom matter in the framework of 4-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. Taking the two-scalar-field quintom model as an example, we find in the model parameter space there are five different types of solutions which correspond to: (I) a cyclic universe with the minimal and maximal values of the scale factor remaining the same in every cycle, (II) an oscillating universe with its minimal and maximal values of the scale factor increasing cycle by cycle, (III) an oscillating universe with its scale factor always increasing, (IV) an oscillating universe with its minimal and maximal values of the scale factor decreasing cycle by cycle, and (V) an oscillating universe with its scale factor always decreasing

  4. Cytochemical localization of catalase and several hydrogen peroxide-producing oxidases in the nucleoids and matrix of rat liver peroxisomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of catalase, amino acid oxidase, α-hydroxy acid oxidase, urate oxidase and alcohol oxidase was studied cytochemically in rat hepatocytes. The presence of catalase was demonstrated with the conventional diaminobenzidine technique. Oxidase activities were visualized with methods based

  5. Free oscillation of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abedini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available   This work is a study of the Earths free oscillations considering a merge of solid and liquid model. At the turn of 19th century Geophysicists presented the theory of the free oscillations for a self-gravitating, isotropic and compressible sphere. Assuming a steel structure for an Earth size sphere, they predicted a period of oscillation of about 1 hour. About 50 years later, the free oscillations of stars was studied by Cowling and others. They classified the oscillation modes of the stars into acoustic and gravity modes on the basis of their driving forces. These are pressure and buoyancy forces respectively. The earliest measurements for the period of the free oscillations of the Earth was made by Benyove from a study of Kamchathca earthquake. Since then, the Geophysicists have been trying to provide a theoretical basis for these measurements. Recently, the theory concerning oscillations of celestial fluids is extended by Sobouti to include the possible oscillations of the Earthlike bodies. Using the same technique, we study the free oscillations of a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and elastic model for the Earth.   We used the actual data of the Earths interior structure in our numerical calculations. Numerical results show that there exist three distinct oscillation modes namely acoustic, gravity and toroidal modes. These modes are driven by pressure, buoyancy and shear forces respectively. The shear force is due to the elastic properties of the solid part of the Earth. Our numerical results are consistent with the seismic data recorded from earthquake measurements.

  6. Serum diamine oxidase activity in patients with histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, G; Breda, D; Di Gioacchino, M; Burastero, S E

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to various foods, excluding bona fide coeliac disease and lactose intolerance, represents a growing cause of patient visits to allergy clinics.Histamine intolerance is a long-known, multifaceted clinical condition triggered by histamine-rich foods and alcohol and/or by drugs that liberate histamine or block diamine oxidase (DAO), the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of ingested histamine. Histamine limitation diets impose complex, non-standardized restrictions that may severely impact the quality of life of patients. We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients who visited allergy outpatient facilities in northern Italy with a negative diagnosis for IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, coeliac disease, conditions related to gastric hypersecretion, and systemic nickel hypersensitivity, and who previously underwent a histamine limitation diet with benefits for their main symptoms. Serum diamine oxidase levels and the clinical response to diamine oxidase supplementation were investigated. We found that 10 out of 14 patients had serum DAO activityintolerance. Moreover, 13 out of 14 patients subjectively reported a benefit in at least one of the disturbances related to food intolerances following diamine oxidase supplementation. The mean value (±SD) of diamine oxidase activity in the cohort of patients with histamine intolerance symptoms was 7.04±6.90 U/mL compared to 39.50±18.16 U/mL in 34 healthy controls (P=0.0031). In patients with symptoms triggered by histamine-rich food, measuring the serum diamine oxidase activity can help identify subjects who can benefit from a histamine limitation diet and/or diamine oxidase supplementation.Properly designed, controlled studies investigating histamine intolerance that include histamine provocation are indispensable for providing insights into the area of food intolerances, which are currently primarily managed with non-scientific approaches in Italy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezsi, Livia; Vecsei, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence increasing with age. Oxidative stress and glutamate toxicity are involved in its pathomechanism. There are still many unmet needs of PD patients, including the alleviation of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, and the development of therapies with neuroprotective potential. To give an overview of the pharmacological properties, the efficacy and safety of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors in the treatment of PD, with special focus on the results of randomized clinical trials. A literature search was conducted in PubMed for 'PD treatment', 'MAO-B inhibitors', 'selegiline', 'rasagiline', 'safinamide' and 'clinical trials' with 'MAO-B inhibitors' in 'Parkinson' disease'. MAO-B inhibitors have a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, improve the dopamine deficient state and may have neuroprotective properties. Safinamide exhibits an anti-glutamatergic effect as well. When applied as monotherapy, MAO-B inhibitors provide a modest, but significant improvement of motor function and delay the need for levodopa. Rasagiline and safinamide were proven safe and effective when added to a dopamine agonist in early PD. As add-on to levodopa, MAO-B inhibitors significantly reduced off-time and were comparable in efficacy to COMT inhibitors. Improvements were achieved as regards certain non-motor symptoms as well. Due to the efficacy shown in clinical trials and their favorable side-effect profile, MAO-B inhibitors are valuable drugs in the treatment of PD. They are recommended as monotherapy in the early stages of the disease and as add-on therapy to levodopa in advanced PD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Forage Polyphenol Oxidase and Ruminant Livestock Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richard F. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PPO is associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however interest within PPO containing forage crops has grown since the brownng reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency (NUE when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalysing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP. If the protein is an enzyme the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase un-degraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of red clover.

  9. Monoamine oxidase and agitation in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Uzun, Suzana; Podobnik, Josip; Kozumplik, Oliver; Vlatkovic, Suzana; Pivac, Nela

    2016-08-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia or conduct disorder display a lifelong pattern of antisocial, aggressive and violent behavior and agitation. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme involved in the degradation of various monoamine neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and therefore has a role in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and pathological behaviors. Platelet MAO-B activity has been associated with psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits, while variants of the MAOA and MAOB genes have been associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, including aggressiveness, antisocial problems and violent delinquency. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of platelet MAO-B activity, MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism and MAOA uVNTR polymorphism with severe agitation in 363 subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. The results demonstrated significant association of severe agitation and smoking, but not diagnosis or age, with platelet MAO-B activity. Higher platelet MAO-B activity was found in subjects with severe agitation compared to non-agitated subjects. Platelet MAO-B activity was not associated with MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism. These results suggested the association between increased platelet MAO-B activity and severe agitation. No significant association was found between severe agitation and MAOA uVNTR or MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism, revealing that these individual polymorphisms in MAO genes are not related to severe agitation in subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. As our study included 363 homogenous Caucasian male subjects, our data showing this negative genetic association will be a useful addition to future meta-analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of Kaixinsan on monoamine oxidase activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Dong, Xian-Zhe; Tan, Xiao; Wang, Yu-Ning; Liu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    To observe the effect of antidepressant medicine prescription, Kaixinsan (KXS) on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, and explore the mechanism of KXS in elevating the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter from the perspective of metabolism, in vitro enzyme reaction system and C6 neuroglial cells, the effect of KXS at different concentrations on MAO-A and MAO-B activity was observed. In animal studies, the effect of KXS at different concentrations on MAO-A and MAO-B activities of brain mitochondrialin normal rats and solitary chronic unpredictable moderate stress (CMS) model rats after intragastric administration for 1, 2, 3 weeks. Results showed that 10 g•L⁻¹ KXS could significantly reduce the activity of MAO-A and MAO-B in enzyme reaction system; and in C6 cells, KXS within 0.625-10 g•L⁻¹ concentration range had no significant effect on the activity of MAO-A, but had obvious inhibitory effect on the activity of MAO-B in a dose dependent manner. KXS had no significant effect on the activity of MAO-A and MAO-B in brains of normal rats after action for 1, 2, 3 weeks. After 2 and 3 weeks treatment with 338 mg•kg⁻¹ dose KXS, MAO-A activity in the brain of CMS rats was decreased as compared with the model group (PMAO-B activity after 1, 2, 3 weeks of treatment. The results indicated that KXS had certain effect on in vitro MAO-A and MAO-B activity, had no effect on brain MAO-A and MAO-B activity in vivo in normal rats, and had certain inhibitory effect on MAO-A activity in brains of CMS rats. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Lysyl oxidase and adipose tissue dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Emilie; Price, Emily; Sjöholm, Kajsa; McCulloch, Laura J; Rittig, Nikolaj; Liversedge, Neil; Knight, Bridget; Møller, Niels; Svensson, Per-Arne; Kos, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an enzyme crucial for collagen fibre crosslinking and thus for fibrosis development. Fibrosis is characterised by a surplus of collagen fibre accumulation and is amongst others also a feature of obesity-associated dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT) which has been linked with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that in type 2 diabetes and obesity LOX expression and activity will be increased as a consequence of worsening AT dysfunction. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive characterisation of LOX in human AT. LOX mRNA expression was analysed in omental and abdominal subcutaneous AT obtained during elective surgery from subjects with a wide range of BMI, with and without diabetes. In addition, LOX expression was studied in subcutaneous AT before and 9.5months after bariatric surgery. To study the mechanism of LOX changes, its expression and activity were assessed after either hypoxia, recombinant human leptin or glucose treatment of AT explants. In addition, LOX response to acute inflammation was tested after stimulation by a single injection of lipopolysaccharide versus saline solution (control) in healthy men, in vivo. Quantity of mRNA was measured by RT-qPCR. LOX expression was higher in obesity and correlated with BMI whilst, in vitro, leptin at high concentrations, as a potential feedback mechanism, suppressed its expression. Neither diabetes status, nor hyperglycaemia affected LOX. Hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation increased LOX AT expression, latter was independent of macrophage infiltration. Whilst LOX may not be affected by obesity-associated complications such as diabetes, our results confirm that LOX is increased by hypoxia and inflammation as underlying mechanism for its upregulation in adipose tissue with obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and correlation of this inhibition with the occurrence of energy-coupling site 1 in various organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity of the respiratory chains of several organisms was inhibited by the carboxyl-modifying reagent N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). This inhibition correlated with the presence of an energy-transducing site in this segment of the respiratory chain. Where the NADH-quinone reductase segment involved an energy-coupling site (e.g., in bovine heart and rat liver mitochondria, and in Paracoccus denitrificans, Escherichia coli, and Thermus thermophilus HB-8 membranes), DCCD acted as an inhibitor of ubiquinone reduction by NADH. By contrast, where energy-coupling site 1 was absent (e.g., in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria and BacilLus subtilis membranes), there was no inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity by DCCD. In the bovine and P. denitrificans systems, DCCD inhibition was pseudo first order with respect to incubation time, and reaction order with respect to inhibitor concentration was close to unity, indicating that inhibition resulted from the binding of one inhibitor molecule per active unit of NADH-ubiquinone reductase. In the bovine NADH-ubiquinone reductase complex (complex I), [ 14 C]DCCD was preferentially incorporated into two subunits of molecular weight 49,000 and 29,000. The time course of labeling of the 29,000 molecular weight subunit with [ 14 C]DCCD paralleled the time course of inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity

  13. A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggen, Lars; Lassen, Benny; Lew Yan Voon, L C; Willatzen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics. (paper)

  14. Production of rabbit antibodies against purified Glucose oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anjum Zia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase is an active oxygen species generating enzyme produced from Aspergillus niger grown in submerged fermentation. Disintegration of the mycelium resulted in high glucose oxidase activity that was subjected to ammonium sulfate precipitation at 60-85% saturation rates that resulted to 6.14 U mg -1 specific activity. Purification of enzyme by anion exchange column (DEAE-Cellulose resulted into 22.53 U mg-1 specific activity and 10.27 fold purification. This was applied to sephadex G-200 column for gel filtration chromatography. It was observed that enzyme achieved 59.37 U mg-1of specific activity with 27.08 fold purity and 64.36% recovery. Purified glucose oxidase was injected into rabbits through intravenous route, to raise the glucose oxidase antibodies. After 30 days incubation period, the rabbits were slaughtered and serum was separated from blood. The antibodies were isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and confirmed by agar gel precipitation test. This could be a convenient and low cost alternate assay for the estimation of glucose oxidase in biological fluids. Moreover, such antibodies against the said enzyme could be used in various therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  15. Calcium transport in vesicles energized by cytochrome oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosier, Randy N. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Experiments on the reconstitution of cytochrome oxidase into phospholipid vesicles were carried out using techniques of selectivity energizing the suspensions with ascorbate and cytochrome c or ascorbate, PMS, and internally trapped cytochrome c. It was found that the K+ selective ionophore valinomycin stimulated the rate of respiration of cytochrome oxidase vesicles regardless of the direction of the K+ flux across the vesicle membranes. The stimulation occurred in the presence of protonophoric uncouplers and in the complete absence of potassium or in detergent-lysed suspensions. Gramicidin had similar effects and it was determined that the ionophores acted by specific interaction with cytochrome oxidase rather than by the previously assumed collapse of membrane potentials. When hydrophobic proteins and appropriate coupling factors were incorporated into the cytochrome oxidase, vesicles phosphorylation of ADP could be coupled to the oxidation reaction of cytochrome oxidase. Relatively low P:O, representing poor coupling of the system, were problematical and precluded measurements of protonmotive force. However the system was used to study ion translocation.

  16. Immobilization of xanthine oxidase on a polyaniline silicone support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadruz, W; Marques, E T; Azevedo, W M; Lima-Filho, J L; Carvalho, L B

    1996-03-01

    A polyaniline silicone support to immobilize xanthine oxidase is proposed as a reactor coil to monitor the action of xanthine oxidase on hypoxanthine, xanthine and 6-mercaptopurine. A purified xanthine oxidase immobilized on this support lost 80% of the initial activity after 12 min of use. Co-immobilization of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased the stability of immobilized xanthine oxidase so that the derivative maintained 79% of its initial activity after 4.6 h of continuous use in which 1.5 mumol purine bases were converted by the immobilized enzyme system. There is no evidence of either polyaniline or protein leaching from the coil during 3 h of continuous use. When solutions (10 ml) of hypoxanthine, xanthine and 6-mercaptopurine were circulated individually through the xanthine oxidase-superoxide dismutase-catalase-polyaniline coil (1 mm internal diameter and 3 m in length, 3 ml internal volume) activities of 8.12, 11.17 and 1.09 nmol min-1 coil-1, respectively, were obtained. The advantages of the reactor configuration and the redox properties of the polymer, particularly with respect to immobilized oxidoreductases, make this methodology attractive for similar enzyme systems. This immobilized enzyme system using polyaniline-silicone as support converted 6-mercaptopurine to 6-thiouric acid with equal efficiency as resins based on polyacrylamide and polyamide 11.

  17. Engineering a synthetic anaerobic respiration for reduction of xylose to xylitol using NADH output of glucose catabolism by Escherichia coli AI21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Andrew; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Wang, Jinhua; Gao, Yuanyuan; Grayburn, Scott; Zhou, Shengde

    2016-04-16

    Anaerobic rather than aerobic fermentation is preferred for conversion of biomass derived sugars to high value redox-neutral and reduced commodities. This will likely result in a higher yield of substrate to product conversion and decrease production cost since substrate often accounts for a significant portion of the overall cost. To this goal, metabolic pathway engineering has been used to optimize substrate carbon flow to target products. This approach works well for the production of redox neutral products such as lactic acid from redox neutral sugars using the reducing power NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced) generated from glycolysis (2 NADH per glucose equivalent). Nevertheless, greater than two NADH per glucose catabolized is needed for the production of reduced products (such as xylitol) from redox neutral sugars by anaerobic fermentation. The Escherichia coli strain AI05 (ΔfrdBC ΔldhA ΔackA Δ(focA-pflB) ΔadhE ΔptsG ΔpdhR::pflBp 6-(aceEF-lpd)), previously engineered for reduction of xylose to xylitol using reducing power (NADH equivalent) of glucose catabolism, was further engineered by 1) deleting xylAB operon (encoding for xylose isomerase and xylulokinase) to prevent xylose from entering the pentose phosphate pathway; 2) anaerobically expressing the sdhCDAB-sucABCD operon (encoding for succinate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA synthetase) to enable an anaerobically functional tricarboxcylic acid cycle with a theoretical 10 NAD(P)H equivalent per glucose catabolized. These reducing equivalents can be oxidized by synthetic respiration via xylose reduction, producing xylitol. The resulting strain, AI21 (pAI02), achieved a 96 % xylose to xylitol conversion, with a yield of 6 xylitol per glucose catabolized (molar yield of xylitol per glucose consumed (YRPG) = 6). This represents a 33 % improvement in xylose to xylitol conversion, and a 63 % increase in xylitol yield per glucose catabolized over

  18. Neutrino oscillation: status and outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, P.

    1994-01-01

    Whether the neutrinos are massive or not is one of the most puzzling question of physics today. If they are massive, they can contribute significantly to the Dark Matter of the Universe. An other consequence of a non-zero mass of neutrinos is that they might oscillate from one flavor to another. This oscillation process is by now the only way to detect a neutrino with a mass in the few eV range. Several neutrino experiments are currently looking for such an oscillation, in different modes, using different techniques. An overview of the experimental situation for neutrino experiments at accelerators is given. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Synchronous Oscillations in Microtubule Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, M. F.; Melki, R.; Pantaloni, D.; Hill, T. L.; Chen, Y.

    1987-08-01

    Under conditions where microtubule nucleation and growth are fast (i.e., high magnesium ion and tubulin concentrations and absence of glycerol), microtubule assembly in vitro exhibits an oscillatory regime preceding the establishment of steady state. The amplitude of the oscillations can represent >50% of the maximum turbidity change and oscillations persist for up to 20 periods of 80 s each. Oscillations are accompanied by extensive length redistribution of microtubules. Preliminary work suggests that the oscillatory kinetics can be simulated using a model in which many microtubules undergo synchronous transitions between growing and rapidly depolymerizing phases, complicated by the kinetically limiting rate of nucleotide exchange on free tubulin.

  20. Rabi oscillation between states of a coupled harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Jun

    2003-01-01

    Rabi oscillation between bound states of a single potential is well known. However the corresponding formula between the states of two different potentials has not been obtained yet. In this work, we derive Rabi formula between the states of a coupled harmonic oscillator which may be used as a simple model for the electron transfer. The expression is similar to typical Rabi formula for a single potential. This result may be used to describe transitions between coupled diabatic potential curves

  1. Oscillations in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...

  2. Principal oscillation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Buerger, G.; Storch, J.S. von

    1993-01-01

    The Principal Oscillation Pattern (POP) analysis is a technique which is used to simultaneously infer the characteristic patterns and time scales of a vector time series. The POPs may be seen as the normal modes of a linearized system whose system matrix is estimated from data. The concept of POP analysis is reviewed. Examples are used to illustrate the potential of the POP technique. The best defined POPs of tropospheric day-to-day variability coincide with the most unstable modes derived from linearized theory. POPs can be derived even from a space-time subset of data. POPs are successful in identifying two independent modes with similar time scales in the same data set. The POP method can also produce forecasts which may potentially be used as a reference for other forecast models. The conventional POP analysis technique has been generalized in various ways. In the cyclostationary POP analysis, the estimated system matrix is allowed to vary deterministically with an externally forced cycle. In the complex POP analysis not only the state of the system but also its ''momentum'' is modeled. Associated correlation patterns are a useful tool to describe the appearance of a signal previously identified by a POP analysis in other parameters. (orig.)

  3. Lumba-Lumba Hidung Botol Laut Jawa Adalah Tursiops aduncus Berdasar Sekuen Gen NADH Dehidrogenase Subunit 6 (VERIFICATION BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS FROM JAVA SEA IS TURSIOPS ADUNCUS BASED ON GENE SEQUENCES OF NADH DEHYDROGENASE SUBUNIT 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Widayanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp. is one of the aquatic mammals widely spread in the marines ofIndonesia archipelago, especially the Java Sea. The taxonomy of the genus Tursiops is still  controversial.The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular basis of Tursiops sp of Java sea marine origin onthe basis of its NADH dehydrogenase gene subunit 6 (ND6 sequences. Samples of blood were collectedfrom five male bottle nose dolphins from captivity of PT. Wersut Seguni Indonesia. DNA was isolated,amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequenced, and analyzed the data using the MEGA v. 5.1program. The results of PCR amplification was 868 base pairs (bp, DNA sequencing showed that 528nucleotides were ND6 gene, nucleotide at the position of 387 could be used to distinguish the bottle nosedolphins Java marine origin with T. aduncus.   Filogram using Neighbor joining method based on thenucleotide sequence of the gene ND6, showed that bottle nose dolphins Java marine origin belong to groupof T. aduncus.

  4. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III and As(III/Sb(III-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Li

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III]/antimonite [Sb(III]-oxidizing strain. The As(III oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III, ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  5. Fluorescent Probes for Analysis and Imaging of Monoamine Oxidase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dokyoung; Jun, Yong Woong; Ahn, Kyo Han [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of dietary amines and amine neurotransmitters, and assist in maintaining the homeostasis of the amine neurotransmitters in the brain. Dysfunctions of these enzymes can cause neurological and behavioral disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To understand their physiological roles, efficient assay methods for monoamine oxidases are essential. Reviewed in this Perspective are the recent progress in the development of fluorescent probes for monoamine oxidases and their applications to enzyme assays in cells and tissues. It is evident that still there is strong need for a fluorescent probe with desirable substrate selectivity and photophysical properties to challenge the much unsolved issues associated with the enzymes and the diseases.

  6. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Heng-Yen; Whittaker, Mei M.; Bouveret, Romaric; Berna, Anne; Bernier, Francois; Whittaker, James W.

    2007-01-01

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an α-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 10 4 U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions

  7. The use of galactose oxidase in lipid labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radin, N.S.; Evangelatos, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    Galactose oxidase can be used to oxidize the terminal carbon atom of lipids containing galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine, and the resultant aldehyde group can be reduced back to the original carbinol with radioactive borohydride. The efficiency of the first reaction has been investigated systematically by using [6- 3 H]galactosyl ceramide as substrate and measuring the amount of radioactive water formed. This enabled us to establish that the addition of catalase and peroxidase greatly speeded the oxidation, that phosphate and PIPES buffers were the best among those tested, that the reaction continued for 24 hr without a second addition of galactose oxidase, and that the optimum concentration of organic solvent (tetrahydrofuran) was 50%. The suggestion if made that a similar set of variables be studied for each lipid or nonlipid by the same basic technique: labeling by the oxidase/borohydride method and use of the resultant compound as substrate

  8. The Duffing oscillator with damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    An analytical solution to the differential equation describing the Duffing oscillator with damping is presented. The damping term of the differential equation and the initial conditions satisfy an algebraic equation, and thus the solution is specific for this type of damping. The nonlinear term...... of the differential equation is allowed to be considerable compared to the linear term. The solution is expressed in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions by including a parameter-dependent elliptic modulus. The analytical solution is compared to the numerical solution, and the agreement is found to be very good....... It is established that the period of oscillation is shorter compared to that of a linearized model but increasing with time and asymptotically approaching the period of oscillation of the linear damped model. An explicit expression for the period of oscillation has been derived, and it is found to be very accurate....

  9. Electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Valeriu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two types of active configurations for realizing electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators. The type-1 network employs two grounded scaled resistances KR 1 and KR 2 , where K is scaling factor. The frequency of oscillation W 0 is controlled conveniently by adjusting K, since W 0 appears in the form W 0 =1/K √ R 1 C 1 R 2 C 2 . For realizing the scaled resistances, an active configuration is proposed, which realizes KR 1 =R 1 /(1+f(V B )), where f(V B ) denotes a function of a controlling voltage V B . Thus the frequency tuning can be effected by controlling a voltage V B . The type-2 oscillator uses two periodically switched conductances. It is shown that the tuning of oscillation frequency can be done by varying the pulse width-to-period ratio (t/T) of the periodically switched conductances. (author)

  10. Thermoelastic Loss in Microscale Oscillators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Houston, B. H; Photiadis, D. M; Marcus, M. H; Bucaro, J. A; Liu, Xiao; Vignola, J. F

    2001-01-01

    ...) and nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) oscillators. The theory defines a flexural modal participation factor, the fraction of potential energy stored in flexure, and approximates the internal friction by assuming the energy loss to occur solely via...

  11. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  12. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  13. Modelling solar-like oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggenberger, P; Miglio, A [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique de l' Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Carrier, F [Institute of Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mathis, S [CEA/DSM/DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA/Saclay, AIM-Unite Mixte de Recherche CEA-CNRS-Universite Paris VII, UMR 7158, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: eggenberger@Qastro.ulg.ac.be

    2008-10-15

    The computation of models of stars for which solar-like oscillations have been observed is discussed. After a brief intoduction on the observations of solar-like oscillations, the modelling of isolated stars and of stars belonging to a binary system is presented with specific examples of recent theoretical calibrations. Finally the input physics introduced in stellar evolution codes for the computation of solar-type stars is discussed with a peculiar emphasis on the modelling of rotation for these stars.

  14. Calcium signaling in brain mitochondria: interplay of malate aspartate NADH shuttle and calcium uniporter/mitochondrial dehydrogenase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Laura; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2009-03-13

    Ca2+ signaling in mitochondria has been mainly attributed to Ca2+ entry to the matrix through the Ca2+ uniporter and activation of mitochondrial matrix dehydrogenases. However, mitochondria can also sense increases in cytosolic Ca2+ through a mechanism that involves the aspartate-glutamate carriers, extramitochondrial Ca2+ activation of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS). Both pathways are linked through the shared substrate alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG). Here we have studied the interplay between the two pathways under conditions of Ca2+ activation. We show that alphaKG becomes limiting when Ca2+ enters in brain or heart mitochondria, but not liver mitochondria, resulting in a drop in alphaKG efflux through the oxoglutarate carrier and in a drop in MAS activity. Inhibition of alphaKG efflux and MAS activity by matrix Ca2+ in brain mitochondria was fully reversible upon Ca2+ efflux. Because of their differences in cytosolic calcium concentration requirements, the MAS and Ca2+ uniporter-mitochondrial dehydrogenase pathways are probably sequentially activated during a Ca2+ transient, and the inhibition of MAS at the center of the transient may provide an explanation for part of the increase in lactate observed in the stimulated brain in vivo.

  15. Oxygen reduction activity of carbon fibers cathode, and application for current generation from the NAD+ and NADH recycling reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maeda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibers treated at 700 oC for 10 min were found to have O2 reduction activity when being used as a cathode. The special type of partition combined with both cationic and anionic exchange membranes was applied between anode cell and cathode cell in order to use a highly acidic solution such as 0.5 M H2SO4 as an electrolyte of the cathode cell for increasing the efficiency of O2 reduction activity. The current generation from NAD+ and NADH recycling system combined with D-gluconolactone production from 500 mg of D-glucose was performed by applying only carbon fibers for both anode and cathode. The total current volume obtained was 81.4 mAh during the reaction for 10 h, and the current efficiency was 93%. One gram of carbon fibers was pressed with Nafion paste on a piece of carbon paper(area : 50 mm×50mm with heating to prepare the cathode, and this construct was combined with conventional fuel cell. The power density was 3.6 mW/cm2, and the total power volume was calculated to be 90 mW per 1 g of carbon fibers.

  16. Effects of the deletion of the Escherichia coli frataxin homologue CyaY on the respiratory NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grauman Peter L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frataxin is discussed as involved in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Recently it was discovered that a frataxin homologue is a structural component of the respiratory NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I in Thermus thermophilus. It was not clear whether frataxin is in general a component of complex I from bacteria. The Escherichia coli homologue of frataxin is coined CyaY. Results We report that complex I is completely assembled to a stable and active enzyme complex equipped with all known iron-sulfur clusters in a cyaY mutant of E. coli. However, the amount of complex I is reduced by one third compared to the parental strain. Western blot analysis and live cell imaging of CyaY engineered with a GFP demonstrated that CyaY is located in the cytoplasm and not attached to the membrane as to be expected if it were a component of complex I. Conclusion CyaY plays a non-essential role in the assembly of complex I in E. coli. It is not a structural component but may transiently interact with the complex.

  17. Mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation links the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with methionine metabolism and nuclear DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, Oswaldo A; Martinez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Wang, Tianyuan; Grenet, Dagoberto; Bushel, Pierre; Li, Jianying; Chandel, Navdeep; Woychik, Richard P; Santos, Janine H

    2018-04-18

    Mitochondrial function affects many aspects of cellular physiology, and, most recently, its role in epigenetics has been reported. Mechanistically, how mitochondrial function alters DNA methylation patterns in the nucleus remains ill defined. Using a cell culture model of induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, in this study we show that progressive mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an early transcriptional and metabolic program centered on the metabolism of various amino acids, including those involved in the methionine cycle. We find that this program also increases DNA methylation, which occurs primarily in the genes that are differentially expressed. Maintenance of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation in the context of mtDNA loss rescues methionine salvage and polyamine synthesis and prevents changes in DNA methylation and gene expression but does not affect serine/folate metabolism or transsulfuration. This work provides a novel mechanistic link between mitochondrial function and epigenetic regulation of gene expression that involves polyamine and methionine metabolism responding to changes in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Given the implications of these findings, future studies across different physiological contexts and in vivo are warranted.

  18. Mono and bimetallic nanoparticles of gold, silver and palladium-catalyzed NADH oxidation-coupled reduction of Eosin-Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanalakshmi, J.; Venkatesan, P.

    2011-02-01

    Mono metallic (Au, Ag, Pd) and bimetallic (Au-Ag, Ag-Pd, Au-Pd) with 1:1 mol stoichiometry, nanoparticles are synthesized using one-pot, temperature controlled chemical method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping agent. The particle sizes (Au = 5.6, Ag = 5.0, Pd = 6.0, Au-Ag = 9.2, Ag-Pd = 9.6, Au-Pd = 9.4 nm) are characterized by UV-Vis, HRTEM, and XRD measurements, respectively. CTAB bindings onto mono and bimetallic nanoparticles are analyzed by FTIR spectra. The catalytic activities of mono and bimetallic nanoparticles are tested on the reaction between NADH oxidation and Eosin-Y reduction. The effects of base, pH, ionic strength, nature of mono and bimetallic catalysts are studied and the reaction conditions are optimized. Bimetallic nanoparticles exhibited better catalysis than the mono metallic nanoparticles, which may be due to the electronic effects of the core to shell metal atoms.

  19. Mono and bimetallic nanoparticles of gold, silver and palladium-catalyzed NADH oxidation-coupled reduction of Eosin-Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanalakshmi, J.; Venkatesan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Mono metallic (Au, Ag, Pd) and bimetallic (Au–Ag, Ag–Pd, Au–Pd) with 1:1 mol stoichiometry, nanoparticles are synthesized using one-pot, temperature controlled chemical method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping agent. The particle sizes (Au = 5.6, Ag = 5.0, Pd = 6.0, Au–Ag = 9.2, Ag–Pd = 9.6, Au–Pd = 9.4 nm) are characterized by UV–Vis, HRTEM, and XRD measurements, respectively. CTAB bindings onto mono and bimetallic nanoparticles are analyzed by FTIR spectra. The catalytic activities of mono and bimetallic nanoparticles are tested on the reaction between NADH oxidation and Eosin-Y reduction. The effects of base, pH, ionic strength, nature of mono and bimetallic catalysts are studied and the reaction conditions are optimized. Bimetallic nanoparticles exhibited better catalysis than the mono metallic nanoparticles, which may be due to the electronic effects of the core to shell metal atoms.Graphical Abstract

  20. Effects of NADH-preferring xylose reductase expression on ethanol production from xylose in xylose-metabolizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Haeng; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-04-30

    Efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol is an essential factor for commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol. To minimize production of xylitol, a major by-product in xylose metabolism and concomitantly improve ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 was engineered to overexpress NADH-preferable xylose reductase mutant (XR(MUT)) and NAD⁺-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Pichia stipitis and endogenous xylulokinase (XK). In vitro enzyme assay confirmed the functional expression of XR(MUT), XDH and XK in recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. The change of wild type XR to XR(MUT) along with XK overexpression led to reduction of xylitol accumulation in microaerobic culture. More modulation of the xylose metabolism including overexpression of XR(MUT) and transaldolase, and disruption of the chromosomal ALD6 gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase (SX6(MUT)) improved the performance of ethanol production from xylose remarkably. Finally, oxygen-limited fermentation of S. cerevisiae SX6(MUT) resulted in 0.64 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹ xylose consumption rate, 0.25 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹ ethanol productivity and 39% ethanol yield based on the xylose consumed, which were 1.8, 4.2 and 2.2 times higher than the corresponding values of recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XR(MUT), XDH and XK only. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging of a glucose analog, calcium and NADH in neurons and astrocytes: dynamic responses to depolarization and sensitivity to pioglitazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancani, Tristano; Anderson, Katie L.; Porter, Nada M.; Thibault, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal Ca2+ dyshomeostasis associated with cognitive impairment and mediated by changes in several Ca2+ sources has been seen in animal models of both aging and diabetes. In the periphery, dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ signals may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the brain, while it is well-established that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for the development of dementia in the elderly, it is not clear whether Ca2+ dysregulation might also affect insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization. Here we present a combination of imaging techniques testing the disappearance of the fluorescent glucose analog 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) as an indication of glycolytic activity in neurons and astrocytes. Our work shows that glucose utilization at rest is greater in neurons compared to astrocytes, and ceases upon activation in neurons with little change in astrocytes. Pretreatment of hippocampal cultures with pioglitazone, a drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, significantly reduced glycolytic activity in neurons and enhanced it in astrocytes. This series of experiments, including FURA-2 and NADH imaging, provides results that are consistent with the idea that Ca2+ levels may rapidly alter glycolytic activity, and that downstream events beyond Ca2+ dysregulation with aging, may alter cellular metabolism in the brain. PMID:21978418

  2. Increased xanthine oxidase during labour--implications for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, A; Roberts, J M

    1997-11-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) produces uric acid. When in the oxidase form, this production is coupled with the generation of free radicals. Hypoxia-reperfusion enhances conversion of XDH to XO. Since the placenta is exposed to short periods of hypoxia reperfusion during labour, 17 placentae of pregnancy terminated by elective caesarean section and five placentae of pregnancies terminated by caesarean section during labour were examined for XDH/XO activity. It was found that XO activity was higher in the placentae of labouring women (P = 0.003), which suggests that labour enhances conversion of XDH to XO, facilitating free radical production.

  3. Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.

  4. Two X-linked chronic granulomatous disease patients with unusual NADPH oxidase properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Broides, Arnon; Zeeli, Tal; Gavrieli, Ronit; de Boer, Martin; van Leeuwen, Karin; Levy, Jacov; Roos, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immune deficiency syndrome caused by defects in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, the enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytizing leukocytes. This study evaluates the NADPH oxidase capacity in two

  5. Catalytic aspects of a copper(II) complex: biological oxidase to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BISWAJIT CHOWDHURY

    2017-10-03

    Oct 3, 2017 ... made with a Jasco model V-730 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. ..... Ligand-induced coordination changes ... Fet3 protein from yeast, a multinuclear copper oxidase ... of mutants of the multicopper oxidase Fet3p Biochem-.

  6. Quantitative fluorescence kinetic analysis of NADH and FAD in human plasma using three- and four-way calibration methods capable of providing the second-order advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Wu, Hai-Long, E-mail: hlwu@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhou, Chang; Xiang, Shou-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Ru-Qin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-03-03

    The metabolic coenzymes reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are the primary electron donor and acceptor respectively, participate in almost all biological metabolic pathways. This study develops a novel method for the quantitative kinetic analysis of the degradation reaction of NADH and the formation reaction of FAD in human plasma containing an uncalibrated interferent, by using three-way calibration based on multi-way fluorescence technique. In the three-way analysis, by using the calibration set in a static manner, we directly predicted the concentrations of both analytes in the mixture at any time after the start of their reactions, even in the presence of an uncalibrated spectral interferent and a varying background interferent. The satisfactory quantitative results indicate that the proposed method allows one to directly monitor the concentration of each analyte in the mixture as the function of time in real-time and nondestructively, instead of determining the concentration after the analytical separation. Thereafter, we fitted the first-order rate law to their concentration data throughout their reactions. Additionally, a four-way calibration procedure is developed as an alternative for highly collinear systems. The results of the four-way analysis confirmed the results of the three-way analysis and revealed that both the degradation reaction of NADH and the formation reaction of FAD in human plasma fit the first-order rate law. The proposed methods could be expected to provide promising tools for simultaneous kinetic analysis of multiple reactions in complex systems in real-time and nondestructively. - Highlights: • A novel three-way calibration method for the quantitative kinetic analysis of NADH and FAD in human plasma is proposed. • The method can directly monitor the concentration of each analyte in the reaction in real-time and nondestructively. • The method has the second-order advantage. • A

  7. Increased Furfural Tolerance Due to Overexpression of NADH-Dependent Oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli Strains Engineered for the Production of Ethanol and Lactate▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Miller, E. N.; Yomano, L. P.; Zhang, X.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

    2011-01-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low Km for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced eth...

  8. Quantitative fluorescence kinetic analysis of NADH and FAD in human plasma using three- and four-way calibration methods capable of providing the second-order advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chao; Wu, Hai-Long; Zhou, Chang; Xiang, Shou-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic coenzymes reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are the primary electron donor and acceptor respectively, participate in almost all biological metabolic pathways. This study develops a novel method for the quantitative kinetic analysis of the degradation reaction of NADH and the formation reaction of FAD in human plasma containing an uncalibrated interferent, by using three-way calibration based on multi-way fluorescence technique. In the three-way analysis, by using the calibration set in a static manner, we directly predicted the concentrations of both analytes in the mixture at any time after the start of their reactions, even in the presence of an uncalibrated spectral interferent and a varying background interferent. The satisfactory quantitative results indicate that the proposed method allows one to directly monitor the concentration of each analyte in the mixture as the function of time in real-time and nondestructively, instead of determining the concentration after the analytical separation. Thereafter, we fitted the first-order rate law to their concentration data throughout their reactions. Additionally, a four-way calibration procedure is developed as an alternative for highly collinear systems. The results of the four-way analysis confirmed the results of the three-way analysis and revealed that both the degradation reaction of NADH and the formation reaction of FAD in human plasma fit the first-order rate law. The proposed methods could be expected to provide promising tools for simultaneous kinetic analysis of multiple reactions in complex systems in real-time and nondestructively. - Highlights: • A novel three-way calibration method for the quantitative kinetic analysis of NADH and FAD in human plasma is proposed. • The method can directly monitor the concentration of each analyte in the reaction in real-time and nondestructively. • The method has the second-order advantage. • A

  9. On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2009-06-01

    We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  10. Some comparison of two fractional oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yonggang; Zhang Xiu'e

    2010-01-01

    The other form of fractional oscillator equation comparing to the widely discussed one is ushered in. The properties of vibration of two fractional oscillators are discussed under the influence of different initial conditions. The interpretation of the characteristics of the fractional oscillators using different method is illustrated. Based on two fractional oscillator equations, two linked bodies and the continuous system are studied.

  11. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

  12. On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2009-01-01

    We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  13. One-step construction of an electrode modified with electrodeposited Au/SiO2 nanoparticles, and its application to the determination of NADH and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Li, B.; Wang, X.; Li, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new electrode was developed by one-step potentiostatic electrodeposition (at -2. 0 V for 20 s) of Au/SiO 2 nanoparticles on a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting electrode (nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE) was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical behavior of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at the nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the unmodified electrode, the overpotential decreased by about 300 mV, and the current response significantly increased. These changes indicated that the modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity in the oxidation of NADH. A linear relationship was obtained in the NADH concentration range from 1. 0 x 10 -6 to 1. 0 x 10 -4 mol L -1 . In addition, amperometric sensing of ethanol at the nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE in combination with alcohol dehydrogenase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide was successfully demonstrated. A wide linear response was also found for ethanol in the range from 5. 0 x 10 -5 to 1. 0 x 10 -3 mol L -1 and 1. 0 x 10 -3 to 1. 0 x 10 -2 mol L -1 , respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine ethanol in beer and biological samples. (author)

  14. Effects of exogenous vitamins A, C, and E and NADH supplementation on proliferation, cytokines release, and cell redox status of lymphocytes from healthy aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama, Samia; Merzouk, Hafida; Medjdoub, Amel; Merzouk-Saidi, Amel; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared with young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured in vitro and stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence or absence of vitamins. Cell proliferation was determined by conducting MTT assays, and based on interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 secretions. Cell oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed by assaying reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein levels, and catalase activity. The present study demonstrated that T-lymphocyte proliferation was decreased with aging and was associated with cytokine secretion alterations, GSH depletion, and intracellular oxidative stress. In the elderly, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation and mitigated cellular oxidative stress, whereas vitamin A did not affect cell proliferation or cell redox status. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH supplementation improved T-lymphocytes response in the elderly, and could contribute to the prevention of age-related immune alterations. Consumption of food items containing these vitamins is recommended, and further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of vitamin supplementation in vivo.

  15. Peroxisomal Polyamine Oxidase and NADPH-Oxidase cross-talk for ROS homeostasis which affects respiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimios A. Andronis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the intracellular compartments is of critical importance as ROS have been linked with nearly all cellular processes and more importantly with diseases and aging. PAs are nitrogenous molecules with an evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of metabolic and energetic status of cells. Recent evidence also suggests that polyamines (PA are major regulators of ROS homeostasis. In Arabidopsis the backconversion of the PAs spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm to putrescine (Put and Spd, respectively is catalyzed by two peroxisomal PA oxidases (AtPAO. However, the physiological role of this pathway remains largely elusive. Here we explore the role of peroxisomal PA backconversion and in particular that catalyzed by the highly expressed AtPAO3 in the regulation of ROS homeostasis and mitochondrial respiratory burst. Exogenous PAs exert an NADPH-oxidase dependent stimulation of oxygen consumption, with Spd exerting the strongest effect. This increase is attenuated by treatment with the NADPH-oxidase blocker diphenyleneiodonium iodide (DPI. Loss-of-function of AtPAO3 gene results to increased NADPH-oxidase-dependent production of superoxide anions (O2.-, but not H2O2, which activate the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway (AOX. On the contrary, overexpression of AtPAO3 results to an increased but balanced production of both H2O2 and O2.-. These results suggest that the ratio of O2.-/H2O2 regulates respiratory chain in mitochondria, with PA-dependent production of O2.- by NADPH-oxidase tilting the balance of electron transfer chain in favor of the AOX pathway. In addition, AtPAO3 seems to be an important component in the regulating module of ROS homeostasis, while a conserved role for PA backconversion and ROS across kingdoms is discussed.

  16. On the mechanism of oscillations in neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Barington, Torben; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the oscillatory generation of H(2)O(2) and oscillations in shape and size in neutrophils in suspension. The oscillations are independent of cell density and hence do not represent a collective phenomena. Furthermore, the oscillations are independent...... of the external glucose concentration and the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production are 180 degrees out of phase with the oscillations in NAD(P)H. Cytochalasin B blocked the oscillations in shape and size whereas it increased the period of the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. 1- and 2-butanol also blocked...... the oscillations in shape and size, but only 1-butanol inhibited the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. We conjecture that the oscillations are likely to be due to feedback regulations in the signal transduction cascade involving phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). We have tested this using a simple mathematical...

  17. Cytochrome cbb3 of Thioalkalivibrio is a Na+-pumping cytochrome oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntyan, M.S.; Cherepanov, D.A.; Malinen, A.M.; Bloch, D.A.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Severina, I.I.; Ivashina, T.V.; Lahti, R.; Muyzer, G.; Skulachev, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidases (Coxs) are the basic energy transducers in the respiratory chain of the majority of aerobic organisms. Coxs studied to date are redox-driven proton-pumping enzymes belonging to one of three subfamilies: A-, B-, and C-type oxidases. The C-type oxidases (cbb3 cytochromes), which

  18. Reactor oscillator - I - III, Part I; Reaktorski oscilator - I-III, I Deo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolic, B [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za fiziku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    Project 'Reactor oscillator' covers the following activities: designing reactor oscillators for reactors RA and RB with detailed engineering drawings; constructing and mounting of the oscillator; designing and constructing the appropriate electronic equipment for the oscillator; measurements at the RA and RB reactors needed for completing the oscillator construction.

  19. Enhanced production of glucose oxidase from UVmutant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UV rays were used as mutagen in wild type strain of Aspergillus niger for enhanced production of glucose oxidase. After mutangenization and selection, mutant A. niger strains, resistant to 2-deoxy-Dglucose were obtained. The mutants showed 1.57 and 1.98 fold increase in activities of extra and intra cellular glucose ...

  20. Localization of Glucose Oxidase and Catalase Activities in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Cor F.B.; Veenhuis, Marten; Visser, Jaap

    The subcellular localization of glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) in Aspergillus niger N400 (CBS 120.49) was investigated by (immuno)cytochemical methods. By these methods, the bulk of the enzyme was found to be localized in the cell wall. In addition, four different catalases (EC 1.11.1.6) were

  1. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  2. Nanoporous gold assembly of glucose oxidase for electrochemical biosensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xinxin; Ulstrup, Jens; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) is composed of three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous nanostructures with large surface area. Nano-channels inside NPG provide an ideal local environment for immobilization of enzyme molecules with expected stabilization of the protein molecules. In this work, glucose oxidase (...

  3. Optimization of cholesterol oxidase production by Brevibacterium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ultrasound-assisted emulsification as a pretreatment for cholesterol oxidase production by submerge fermentation using Brevibacterium sp. in a batch system was studied. Medium improvement for the production employing response surface methodology (RSM) was optimized in this paper. The concentration of ...

  4. in Escherichia coli with native cholesterol oxidase expressed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure and bio-activity of an endogenous cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sp. was compared to the same enzyme exogenously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with and without N- or C-terminal his-tags. The different proteins were purified with affinity and subtractive protocols. The specific activity of ...

  5. Cytokinin oxidase or dehydrogenase? Mechanism of cytokinin degradation in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galuszka, P.; Frebort, I.; Sebela, M.

    2001-01-01

    An enzyme degrading cytokinins with isoprenoid side chain, previously named cytokinin oxidase, was purified to near homogeneity from wheat and barley grains. New techniques were developed for the enzyme activity assay and staining on native electrophoretic gels to identify the protein. The purifi...

  6. Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of heat treatment (55°C/20 min) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities and total phenolic compounds was investigated in Algerian dates (Deglet Nour variety) at Tamar (fully ripe) stage and in dates stored for 5 months at ambient temperature and in cold storage (10°C). Results obtained ...

  7. Lysyl oxidases regulate fibrillar collagen remodelling in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin, Gavin; White, Eric S; Faiz, Alen; Sicard, Delphine; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Mahar, Annabelle; Kable, Eleanor P W; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive scarring disease of the lung with feweffective therapeutic options. Structural remodelling of the extracellular matrix [i.e. collagen cross-linkingmediated by the lysyl oxidase (LO) family of enzymes (LOX, LOXL1-4)] might contribute to disease

  8. Novel thidiazuron-derived inhibitors of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nisler, Jaroslav; Kopečný, D.; Končitíková, R.; Zatloukal, Marek; Bazgier, Václav; Berka, K.; Zalabák, D.; Briozzo, P.; Strnad, Miroslav; Spíchal, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, 1-2 (2016), s. 235-248 ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA15-22322S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase * Crystal structure * Molecular docking Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.356, year: 2016

  9. DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet sertoli cells exposed to gossypol. Ming Zhang, Hui Yuan, Zuping He, Liyun Yuan, Jine Yi, Sijun Deng, Li Zhu, Chengzhi Guo, Yin Lu, Jing Wu, Lixin Wen, Qiang Wei, Liqun Xue ...

  10. A strategy to promote the electroactive platform adopting poly(o-anisidine)-silver nanocomposites probed for the voltammetric detection of NADH and dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamithirai, D; Munusamy, S; Narayanan, V; Stephen, A

    2017-11-01

    A study on the voltammetric detection of NADH (β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), Dopamine (DA) and their simultaneous determination is presented in this work. The electrochemical sensor was fabricated with the hybrid nanocomposites of poly(o-anisidine) and silver nanoparticles prepared by simple and cost-effective insitu chemical oxidative polymerization technique. The nanocomposites were synthesized with different (w/w) ratios of o-anisidine and silver by increasing the amount of o-anisidine in each, by keeping silver at a fixed quantity. The XRD patterns revealed the semi-crystalline nature of poly(o-anisidine) and the face centered cubic structure of silver. The presence of silver in its metallic state and the formation of nanocomposite were established by XPS analysis. Raman studies suggested the presence of site-selective interaction between poly(o-anisidine) and silver. HRTEM studies revealed the formation of polymer matrix type nanocomposite with the embedment of silver nanoparticles. The sensing performance of the materials were studied via cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. Fabricated sensor with 3:1 (w/w) ratio of poly(o-anisidine) and silver exhibited good catalytic activity towards the detection of NADH and DA in terms of potential and current response, when compared to others. Several important electrochemical parameters regulating the performance of the sensor have been evaluated. Under the optimum condition, differential pulse voltammetry method exhibited the linear response in the range of 0.03 to 900μM and 5 to 270μM with a low detection limit of 0.006μM and 0.052μM for NADH and DA, respectively. The modified electrodes exhibited good sensitivity, stability, reproducibility and selectivity with well-separated oxidation peaks for NADH and DA in the simultaneous determination of their binary mixture. The analytical performance of the nanocomposite as an electrochemical sensor was also

  11. Flashing oscillation in pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Hazuku, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of high-pressure saturated water discharging into the pool water. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur in blow-down of high-pressure saturated water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in an advanced reactor. The results revealed that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when high-pressure saturated water discharges into the pool water, under specified experimental settings. The range of the flashing oscillates between a point very close to and some distance from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and pool water vary according to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and frequency of flashing position might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and its condensation on the steam-water interface. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model. The period of the flashing oscillation in the experiments can be explained by theoretical analysis

  12. Neutrino oscillations at proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Data from many different experiments have started to build a first glimpse of the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations. Results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos are particularly clear while a third result from LSND suggests a possibly very complex oscillation phenomenology. As impressive as the results from current experiments are, it is clear that we are just getting started on a long-term experimental program to understand neutrino masses, mixings and the physics which produce them. A number of exciting fundamental physics possibilities exist, including that neutrino oscillations could demonstrate CP or CPT violation and could be tied to exotic high-energy phenomena including strings and extra dimensions. A complete exploration of oscillation phenomena demands many experiments, including those possible using neutrino beams produced at high energy proton accelerators. Most existing neutrino experiments are statistics limited even though they use gigantic detectors. High intensity proton beams are essential for producing the intense neutrino beams which we need for next generation neutrino oscillation experiments

  13. Neutrino Oscillations at Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Douglas

    2002-12-01

    Data from many different experiments have started to build a first glimpse of the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations. Results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos are particularly clear while a third result from LSND suggests a possibly very complex oscillation phenomenology. As impressive as the results from current experiments are, it is clear that we are just getting started on a long-term experimental program to understand neutrino masses, mixings and the physics which produce them. A number of exciting fundamental physics possibilities exist, including that neutrino oscillations could demonstrate CP or CPT violation and could be tied to exotic high-energy phenomena including strings and extra dimensions. A complete exploration of oscillation phenomena demands many experiments, including those possible using neutrino beams produced at high energy proton accelerators. Most existing neutrino experiments are statistics limited even though they use gigantic detectors. High intensity proton beams are essential for producing the intense neutrino beams which we need for next generation neutrino oscillation experiments.

  14. Inactivation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase involves oxidative modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J N; Zhang, Z; John, P; Baldwin, J E; Schofield, C J

    1997-03-25

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of the plant signaling molecule ethylene. It is a member of the ferrous iron dependent family of oxidases and dioxygenases and is unusual in that it displays a very short half-life under catalytic conditions, typically less than 20 min, and a requirement for CO2 as an activator. The rates of inactivation of purified, recombinant ACC oxidase from tomato under various combinations of substrates and cofactors were measured. Inactivation was relatively slow in the presence of buffer alone (t1/2 > 1 h), but fast in the presence of ferrous iron and ascorbate (t1/2 approximately 10 min). The rate of iron/ascorbate-mediated inactivation was increased by the addition of ACC, unaffected by the addition of CO2 at saturation (supplied as bicarbonate) but decreased by the addition of catalase or ACC + CO2 at saturation (supplied as bicarbonate). Iron/ascorbate-mediated inactivation was accompanied by partial proteolysis as observed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The fragmentation pattern was altered when ACC was also included, suggesting that ACC can bind to ACC oxidase in the absence of bicarbonate. N-terminal sequencing of fragments resulted in identification of an internal cleavage site which we propose is proximate to active-site bound iron. Thus, ACC oxidase inactivates via relatively slow partial unfolding of the catalytically active conformation, oxidative damage mediated via hydrogen peroxide which is catalase protectable and oxidative damage to the active site which results in partial proteolysis and is not catalase protectable.

  15. Expression Studies of Gibberellin Oxidases in Developing Pumpkin Seeds1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisse, Andrea; Pimenta, Maria João; Lange, Theo

    2003-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, 3-ox and 2-ox, have been isolated from developing pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) embryos that show significant amino acid homology to gibberellin (GA) 3-oxidases and 2-oxidases, respectively. Recombinant fusion protein of clone 3-ox converted GA12-aldehyde, GA12, GA15, GA24, GA25, and GA9 to GA14-aldehyde, GA14, GA37, GA36, GA13, and GA4, respectively. Recombinant 2-ox protein oxidized GA9, GA4, and GA1 to GA51, GA34, and GA8, respectively. Previously cloned GA 7-oxidase revealed additional 3β-hydroxylation activity of GA12. Transcripts of this gene were identified in endosperm and embryo of the developing seed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized in protoderm, root apical meristem, and quiescent center by in situ hybridization. mRNA of the previously cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seeds was localized in endosperm and in tissues of protoderm, ground meristem, and cotyledons of the embryo. However, transcripts of the recently cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seedlings were found all over the embryo, and in tissues of the inner seed coat at the micropylar end. Previously cloned GA 2β,3β-hydroxylase mRNA molecules were specifically identified in endosperm tissue. Finally, mRNA molecules of the 3-ox and 2-ox genes were found in the embryo only. 3-ox transcripts were localized in tissues of cotyledons, protoderm, and inner cell layers of the root apical meristem, and 2-ox transcripts were found in all tissues of the embryo except the root tips. These results indicate tissue-specific GA-biosynthetic pathways operating within the developing seed. PMID:12644672

  16. Restoration of oscillation in network of oscillators in presence of direct and indirect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majhi, Soumen; Bera, Bidesh K. [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India); Bhowmick, Sourav K. [Department of Electronics, Asutosh College, Kolkata-700026 (India); Ghosh, Dibakar, E-mail: diba.ghosh@gmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India)

    2016-10-23

    The suppression of oscillations in coupled systems may lead to several unwanted situations, which requires a suitable treatment to overcome the suppression. In this paper, we show that the environmental coupling in the presence of direct interaction, which can suppress oscillation even in a network of identical oscillators, can be modified by introducing a feedback factor in the coupling scheme in order to restore the oscillation. We inspect how the introduction of the feedback factor helps to resurrect oscillation from various kinds of death states. We numerically verify the resurrection of oscillations for two paradigmatic limit cycle systems, namely Landau–Stuart and Van der Pol oscillators and also in generic chaotic Lorenz oscillator. We also study the effect of parameter mismatch in the process of restoring oscillation for coupled oscillators. - Highlights: • Amplitude death is observed using direct and indirect coupling. • Revival of oscillation using feedback parameter is discussed. • Restoration of oscillation is observed in limit cycle and chaotic systems.

  17. Cyanobacterial lactate oxidases serve as essential partners in N2-fixation and evolved into photorespiratory glycolate oxidases in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackenberg, C.; Kern, R.; Hüge, J; Stal, L.J.; Tsuji, Y.; Kopka, J.; Shiraiwa, Y.; Bauwe, H.; Hagemann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is an essential enzyme involved in photorespiratory metabolism in plants. In cyanobacteria and green algae, the corresponding reaction is catalyzed by glycolate dehydrogenases (GlcD). The genomes of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc PCC 7120 and green algae, appear to

  18. Cyanobacterial lactate oxidases serve as essential partners of N2-fixation and evolved to photorespiratory glycolate oxidases in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackenberg, C.; Kern, R.; Hüge, J.; Stal, L.J.; Tsuji, Y.; Kopka, J.; Shiraiwa, Y.; Bauwe, H.; Hagemann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is an essential enzyme involved in photorespiratory metabolism in plants. In cyanobacteria and green algae, the corresponding reaction is catalyzed by glycolate dehydrogenases (GlcD). The genomes of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc PCC 7120 and green algae, appear to

  19. Nonstationary oscillations in gyrotrons revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.; Kalis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Development of gyrotrons requires careful understanding of different regimes of gyrotron oscillations. It is known that in the planes of the generalized gyrotron variables: cyclotron resonance mismatch and dimensionless current or cyclotron resonance mismatch and dimensionless interaction length complicated alternating sequences of regions of stationary, periodic, automodulation, and chaotic oscillations exist. In the past, these regions were investigated on the supposition that the transit time of electrons through the interaction space is much shorter than the cavity decay time. This assumption is valid for short and/or high diffraction quality resonators. However, in the case of long and/or low diffraction quality resonators, which are often utilized, this assumption is no longer valid. In such a case, a different mathematical formalism has to be used for studying nonstationary oscillations. One example of such a formalism is described in the present paper

  20. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  1. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  2. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  3. Oscillating liquid flow ICF Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Oscillating liquid flow in a falling molten salt inertial confinement fusion reactor is predicted to rapidly clear driver beam paths of residual liquid droplets. Oscillating flow will also provide adequate neutron and x-ray protection for the reactor structure with a short (2-m) fall distance permitting an 8 Hz repetition rate. A reactor chamber configuration is presented with specific features to clear the entire heavy-ion beam path of splashed molten salt. The structural components, including the structure between beam ports, are shielded. 3 refs., 12 figs

  4. Neutrino oscillation measurements with reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, R.D. [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Since the first direct observations of antineutrino events by Reines and Cowan in the 1950's, nuclear reactors have been an important tool in the study of neutrino properties. More recently, the study of neutrino oscillations has been a very active area of research. The pioneering observation of oscillations by the KamLAND experiment has provided important information on the neutrino masses and the neutrino mixing matrix. New experiments to study the remaining unknown mixing angle are currently under development. These recent studies and potential future developments will be discussed.

  5. ALG-2 oscillates in subcellular localization, unitemporally with calcium oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Berchtold, Martin Werner

    2007-01-01

    discovered that the subcellular distribution of a tagged version of ALG-2 could be directed by physiological external stimuli (including ATP, EGF, prostaglandin, histamine), which provoke intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Cellular stimulation led to a redistribution of ALG-2 from the cytosol to a punctate...

  6. TOWARDS THRESHOLD FREQUENCY IN CHAOTIC COLPITTS OSCILLATOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Tamasevicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis

    2007-01-01

    A novel version of chaotic Colpitts oscillator is described. Instead of a linear loss resistor, it includes an extra inductor and diode in the collector circuit of the transistor. The modified circuit in comparison with the common Colpitts oscillator may generate chaotic oscillations at the funda......A novel version of chaotic Colpitts oscillator is described. Instead of a linear loss resistor, it includes an extra inductor and diode in the collector circuit of the transistor. The modified circuit in comparison with the common Colpitts oscillator may generate chaotic oscillations...

  7. Neutrino masses and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2000-01-01

    These lectures review direct measurements of neutrino masses and the status of neutrino oscillation searches using both natural neutrino sources (the Sun and cosmic rays interacting in the Earth atmosphere) and artificial neutrinos (produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators). Finally, future experiments and plans are presented. (68 refs).

  8. Harmonic oscillator in Snyder space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The harmonic oscillator in Snyder space is investigated in its classical and quantum versions. The classical trajectory is obtained and the semiclassical quantization from the phase space trajectories is discussed. An effective cut-off to high frequencies is found. The quantum version is developed and an equivalent usual ...

  9. Compressible flow in fluidic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Emilio; Hirsch, Damian; Gharib, Mory

    2013-11-01

    We present qualitative observations on the internal flow characteristics of fluidic oscillator geometries commonly referred to as sweeping jets in active flow control applications. We also discuss the effect of the geometry on the output jet in conditions from startup to supersonic exit velocity. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  10. Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)

  11. The relativistic harmonic oscillator reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofsaess, T.

    1978-01-01

    The bound states of scalar quarks interacting through a scalar harmonic oscillator are investigated. In the presence of this interaction the dressed quark propagator differs substantially from the free one. This leads to a Bethe Salpeter equation which does not allow for any stable bound states of positive mass. (orig.) [de

  12. Inverse problem of solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present some preliminary results of numerical simulation to infer the sound velocity distribution in the solar interior from the oscillation data of the Sun as the inverse problem. They analyze the acoustic potential itself by taking account of some factors other than the sound velocity, and infer the sound velocity distribution in the deep interior of the Sun

  13. Sum rules for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Sum rules for neutrino oscillations are obtained. The derivation of the general form of the s matrix for two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) (where lsub(i)sup(-)e, μ, tau, ... are initial leptons with flavor i and lsub(k)sup(+-) is final lepton) is presented. The consideration of two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) gives the possibility to take into account neutrino masses and to obtain the expressions for the oscillating cross sections. In the case of Dirac and left-handed Majorana neutrino is obtained the sum rule for the quantities 1/Vsub(K)σ(lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+-)), (where Vsub(K) is a velocity of lsub(K)). In the left-handed Majorana neutrino case there is an additional antineutrino admixture leading to lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+) process. Both components (neutrino and antineutrino) oscillate independently. The sums Σsub(K)1/Vsub(k)σ(lsub(i)sup(-) - lsub(K)sup(+-) then oscillate due to the presence of left-handed antineutrinos and right-handed neutrinos which do not take part in weak interactions. If right-handed currents are added sum rules analogous to considered above may be obtained. All conclusions are valid in the general case when CP is not conserved [ru

  14. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of solitons in those physical systems reveals some exciting .... With the following power series expansions for g(z,t) and f(z,t): g(z,t) = εg1(z,t) + ... If nonlinearity γ (z) is also taken as a function in figure 1b, the periodic and oscillation.

  15. Low-Vibration Oscillating Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Oscillating compressor momentum compensated: produces little vibration in its supporting structure. Compressure requires no lubrication and virtually free of wear. Compresses working fluids such as helium, nitrogen or chlorfluorocarbons for Stirling-cycle refrigeration or other purposes. Compressor includes two mutually opposed ferromagnetic pistons of same shape and mass. Electromagnetic flux links both pistons, causing magnetic attraction between them.

  16. Matter effects in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    After a review of the relevant aspects of neutrino oscillations for propagation in vacuum and in material media, this paper discuss the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism and its application to a solution of the solar neutrino puzzle. The elementary level of the talk is suitable to people not working in neutrino physics

  17. Mesino oscillation in MFV SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joshua [Cornell University, Department of Physics, LEPP, Ithaca, NY (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Heidenreich, Ben [Cornell University, Department of Physics, LEPP, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2013-04-15

    R-parity violating supersymmetry in a Minimal Flavor Violation paradigm can produce same-sign dilepton signals via direct sbottom-LSP pair production. Such signals arise when the sbottom hadronizes and the resulting mesino oscillates into an antimesino. The first bounds on the sbottom mass are placed in this scenario using current LHC results. (orig.)

  18. Chimera States in Neural Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Sonya; Glaze, Tera

    2014-03-01

    Chimera states have recently been explored both theoretically and experimentally, in various coupled nonlinear oscillators, ranging from phase-oscillator models to coupled chemical reactions. In a chimera state, both coherent and incoherent (or synchronized and desynchronized) states occur simultaneously in populations of identical oscillators. We investigate chimera behavior in a population of neural oscillators using the Huber-Braun model, a Hodgkin-Huxley-like model originally developed to characterize the temperature-dependent bursting behavior of mammalian cold receptors. One population of neurons is allowed to synchronize, with each neuron receiving input from all the others in its group (global within-group coupling). Subsequently, a second population of identical neurons is placed under an identical global within-group coupling, and the two populations are also coupled to each other (between-group coupling). For certain values of the coupling constants, the neurons in the two populations exhibit radically different synchronization behavior. We will discuss the range of chimera activity in the model, and discuss its implications for actual neural activity, such as unihemispheric sleep.

  19. Generalized oscillator systems and their parabosonic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, A J [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1994-12-31

    The Fock space description of various bosonic oscillator systems are carried out. All descriptions are based on a single creation - annihilation pair. Special attention is paid to the q-deformed Calogero-Vasiliev oscillator. 23 refs.

  20. Analytic Neutrino Oscillation Probabilities in Matter: Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen J. [Fermilab; Denton, Peter B. [Copenhagen U.; Minakata, Hisakazu [Madrid, IFT

    2018-01-02

    We summarize our recent paper on neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter, explaining the importance, relevance and need for simple, highly accurate approximations to the neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter.

  1. Characterizing brain oscillations in cognition and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that neuronal oscillations play a fundamental role for shaping the functional architecture of the working brain. This thesis investigates brain oscillations in rat, human healthy population and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. A novel measurement termed

  2. Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4ºC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity.

  3. Dual inhibitors of cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Damijan; Sova, Matej; Košak, Urban; Gobec, Stanislav

    2017-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates a solid relationship between several enzymes and Alzheimer's disease. Cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases are closely associated with the disease symptomatology and progression and have been tackled simultaneously using several multifunctional ligands. This design strategy offers great chances to alter the course of Alzheimer's disease, in addition to alleviation of the symptoms. More than 15 years of research has led to the identification of various dual cholinesterase/monoamine oxidase inhibitors, while some showing positive outcomes in clinical trials, thus giving rise to additional research efforts in the field. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the novel dual inhibitors identified recently and to shed light on their therapeutic potential.

  4. Variations in epidermal cytochrome oxidase activity after local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoiz, M.E.; Rey, B.M. de; Cabrini, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Cytochrome oxidase activity was evaluated histochemically as an index of mitochondrial damage after local irradiation with X-rays. It was determined by microphotometry on the tail skin of newly born Wistar rats four days after irradiation with doses ranging from 2 to 16krad. The enzyme activity of the whole epidermis increased after irradiation, the increases being related to the increase in thickness of the epithelium which was observed as a response to irradiation injury. Within the dose range tested, the enzyme concentration (expressed per unit volume of tissue) decreased in relation to the dose applied. At the electron microscopy level, the cytochemical demonstration of cytochrome oxidase revealed an irregular reaction over the cristae, intramitochondrial vacuolization and partial homogenization of the matrix. Positive membrane fragments were seen around lipid droplets. This reaction confirms the mitochondrial origin of these previously observed radiation-induced vacuoles. (author)

  5. A novel nine base deletion mutation in NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase gene in an Indian family with recessive congenital methemoglobinemia-type-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Warang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recessive hereditary methemoglobinemia (RCM associated with severe neurological abnormalities is a very rare disorder caused by NADH- cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r deficiency (Type II. We report a case of 11 month old male child who had severe mental retardation, microcephaly and gross global developmental delay with methemoglobin level of 61.1%. The diagnosis of NADH-CYB5R3 deficiency was made by the demonstration of significantly reduced NADH-CYB5R3 activity in the patient and intermediate enzyme activity in both the parents. Mutation analysis of the CYB5R gene revealed a novel nine nucleotide deletion in exon 6 leading to the elimination of 3 amino acid residues (Lys173, Ser174 and Val 175. To confirm that this mutation was not an artifact, we performed PCR-RFLP analysis using the restriction enzyme Drd I. As the normal sequence has a restriction recognition site for Drd I which was eliminated by the deletion, a single band of 603-bp was seen in the presence of the homozygous mutation. Molecular modeling analysis showed a significant effect of these 3 amino acids deletion on the protein structure and stability leading to a severe clinical presentation. A novel homozygous 9 nucleotide deletion (p.K173–p.V175del3 is shown to be segregated with the disease in this family. Knowing the profile of mutations would allow us to offer prenatal diagnosis in families with severe neurological disorders associated with RCM — Type II.

  6. In vitro effects of myricetin, morin, apigenin, (+)-taxifolin, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, naringenin and naringin on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Haydar; Koşar, Müberra; Arinç, Emel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed inhibitory effects of 8 dietary flavonoids on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. • The flavonol myricetin was the most potent in inhibiting cytochrome b5 reduction with an IC 50 value of 0.35 μM. • We investigated kinetics of myricetin-induced inhibition in detail. • We explored the structure–inhibitory activity relationship of compounds. • Modulation of cytochrome b5 reduction indicates a potential for myricetin to lead to some food–drug/xenobiotic interactions. - Abstract: The microsomal NADH-dependent electron transport system consisting of cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 participates in a number of physiologically important processes including lipid metabolism as well as is involved in the metabolism of various drug and xenobiotics. In the present study, we assessed the inhibitory effects of eight dietary flavonoids representing five distinct chemical classes on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified cytochrome b5 reductase. From the flavonoids tested, myricetin was the most potent in inhibiting cytochrome b5 reduction with an IC 50 value of 0.35 μM. Myricetin inhibited b5 reductase noncompetitively with a K i of 0.21 μM with respect to cofactor NADH, and exhibited a non-linear relationship indicating non-Michaelis–Menten kinetic binding with respect to cytochrome b5. In contrast to the potent inhibitory activity of myricetin, (+)-taxifolin was found to be a weak inhibitor (IC 50 = 9.8 μM). The remaining flavonoids were inactive within the concentration range tested (1–50 μM). Analysis of structure–activity data suggested that simultaneous presence of three OH groups in ring B is a primary structural determinant for a potent enzyme inhibition. Our results suggest that inhibition of the activity of this system by myricetin or myricetin containing diets may influence the metabolism of therapeutic drugs as well as detoxification of xenobiotics

  7. Resolution of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria into two subcomplexes, one of which contains the redox centers of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finel, M; Skehel, J M; Albracht, S P; Fearnley, I M; Walker, J E

    1992-11-24

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) was purified from bovine heart mitochondria by solubilization with n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside (lauryl maltoside), ammonium sulfate fractionation, and chromatography on Mono Q in the presence of the detergent. Its subunit composition was very similar to complex I purified by conventional means. Complex I was dissociated in the presence of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide and beta-mercaptoethanol, and two subcomplexes, I alpha and I beta, were isolated by chromatography. Subcomplex I alpha catalyzes electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone-1. It is composed of about 22 different and mostly hydrophilic subunits and contains 2.0 nmol of FMN/mg of protein. Among its subunits is the 51-kDa subunit, which binds FMN and NADH and probably contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster also. Three other potential Fe-S proteins, the 75- and 24-kDa subunits and a 23-kDa subunit (N-terminal sequence TYKY), are also present. All of the Fe-S clusters detectable by EPR in complex I, including cluster 2, are found in subcomplex I alpha. The line shapes of the EPR spectra of the Fe-S clusters are slightly broadened relative to spectra measured on complex I purified by conventional means, and the quinone reductase activity is insensitive to rotenone. Similar changes were found in samples of the intact chromatographically purified complex I, or in complex I prepared by the conventional method and then subjected to chromatography in the presence of lauryl maltoside. Subcomplex I beta contains about 15 different subunits. The sequences of many of them contain hydrophobic segments that could be membrane spanning, including at least two mitochondrial gene products, ND4 and ND5. The role of subcomplex I beta in the intact complex remains to be elucidated.

  8. Two particle states, lepton mixing and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kachelriess, M; Schönert, S

    2000-01-01

    Discussions of lepton mixing and oscillations consider generally only flavor oscillations of neutrinos and neglect the accompanying charged leptons. In cases of experimental interest like pion or nuclear beta decay an oscillation pattern is expected indeed only for neutrinos if only one of the two produced particles is observed. We argue that flavor oscillations of neutrinos without detecting the accompanying lepton is a peculiarity of the two-particle states $|l\

  9. A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact...... oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics....

  10. Pile oscillator ROB-1, cooperation NPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, M; Markovic, V; Obradovic, D; Kocic, A; Velickovic, LJ; Jovanovic, S [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    The present paper explains the purpose of the work on reactor kinetics and separately deals with the region for which the ROB-1 reactor oscillator is constructed. The theoretical part concerns the basic principles on which the oscillator operates. the paper also discusses the details of the oscillator, the procedure for preparation and measurement, and analyzes the source of errors. In addition several examples of the use of oscillator are given. (author)

  11. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  12. Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without...... using process knowledge. The tested methods show potential for detecting the oscillations, however, transient components in the signals cause false detections as well, motivating usage of models in order to remove the expected signals behavior....

  13. Pile oscillator ROB-1, cooperation NPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, M.; Markovic, V.; Obradovic, D.; Kocic, A.; Velickovic, LJ.; Jovanovic, S.

    1965-11-01

    The present paper explains the purpose of the work on reactor kinetics and separately deals with the region for which the ROB-1 reactor oscillator is constructed. The theoretical part concerns the basic principles on which the oscillator operates. the paper also discusses the details of the oscillator, the procedure for preparation and measurement, and analyzes the source of errors. In addition several examples of the use of oscillator are given. (author)

  14. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing; Arcak, Murat; Salama, Khaled N.

    2010-01-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  15. Glucose Oxidase Catalyzed Self-Assembly of Bioelectroactive Gold Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    polymer matrix), however, electrons generated at the FAD/FADH2 active site of glucose oxidase (GOx) must tunnel ca. 15 through the protein shell...described as a surface bound thiolate [33]. Recently, the presence of free thiol groups has been proposed as a mechanism for gold reduction in pure enzymes...simultaneously [38]. The oxidative polymerization of the amines proceeds simulta- neously with the formation of gold nanoparticles such that the polymerized amine

  16. Graphene-glucose oxidase bioanodes for enzymatic biofuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jing; Werchmeister, Rebecka Maria Larsen; Engelbrekt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    as supporting material, polyethyleneimine (PEI) as linker and glucose oxidase (GOD) as the chosen enzyme. GOD can catalyze oxidation of glucose to gluconolactone, but needs a mediator to assist electron transfer between the enzyme and electrodes. The redox molecule ferrocene carboxylic acid (Fc...... and systematically investigated. The assembled EBFCs show good reproducibility. EBFCs provide maximum output power density 2.47 μW cm-2 at 35 ℃, indicating the optimized activity of EBFCs fed with glucose....

  17. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III to As(V as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54 of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III in this microorganism.

  18. Biochemical Conservation and Evolution of Germacrene A Oxidase in Asteraceae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Don Trinh; Göpfert, Jens Christian; Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; MacNevin, Gillian; Kathiresan, Meena; Conrad, Jürgen; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic natural products in Asteraceae, which constitutes ∼8% of all plant species. Despite their physiological and pharmaceutical importance, the biochemistry and evolution of sesquiterpene lactones remain unexplored. Here we show that germacrene A oxidase (GAO), evolutionarily conserved in all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, catalyzes three consecutive oxidations of germacrene A to yield germacrene A acid. Furthermore, it is also capable of oxidizing non-natural substrate amorphadiene. Co-expression of lettuce GAO with germacrene synthase in engineered yeast synthesized aberrant products, costic acids and ilicic acid, in an acidic condition. However, cultivation in a neutral condition allowed the de novo synthesis of a single novel compound that was identified as germacrene A acid by gas and liquid chromatography and NMR analyses. To trace the evolutionary lineage of GAO in Asteraceae, homologous genes were further isolated from the representative species of three major subfamilies of Asteraceae (sunflower, chicory, and costus from Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, and Carduoideae, respectively) and also from the phylogenetically basal species, Barnadesia spinosa, from Barnadesioideae. The recombinant GAOs from these genes clearly showed germacrene A oxidase activities, suggesting that GAO activity is widely conserved in Asteraceae including the basal lineage. All GAOs could catalyze the three-step oxidation of non-natural substrate amorphadiene to artemisinic acid, whereas amorphadiene oxidase diverged from GAO displayed negligible activity for germacrene A oxidation. The observed amorphadiene oxidase activity in GAOs suggests that the catalytic plasticity is embedded in ancestral GAO enzymes that may contribute to the chemical and catalytic diversity in nature. PMID:20351109

  19. Multi-Copper Oxidases and Human Iron Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchenko, Ganna; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-copper oxidases (MCOs) are a small group of enzymes that oxidize their substrate with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. Generally, multi-copper oxidases are promiscuous with regards to their reducing substrates and are capable of performing various functions in different species. To date, three multi-copper oxidases have been detected in humans—ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Each of these enzymes has a high specificity towards iron with the resulting ferroxidase activity being associated with ferroportin, the only known iron exporter protein in humans. Ferroportin exports iron as Fe2+, but transferrin, the major iron transporter protein of blood, can bind only Fe3+ effectively. Iron oxidation in enterocytes is mediated mainly by hephaestin thus allowing dietary iron to enter the bloodstream. Zyklopen is involved in iron efflux from placental trophoblasts during iron transfer from mother to fetus. Release of iron from the liver relies on ferroportin and the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin which is found in blood in a soluble form. Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen show distinctive expression patterns and have unique mechanisms for regulating their expression. These features of human multi-copper ferroxidases can serve as a basis for the precise control of iron efflux in different tissues. In this manuscript, we review the biochemical and biological properties of the three human MCOs and discuss their potential roles in human iron homeostasis. PMID:23807651

  20. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-03-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na2SeO3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant ( K m) values and maximal reaction velocity ( V max) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  1. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  2. Neutrino oscillations: present status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwetz, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this talk the present status of neutrino oscillations is reviewed, based on a global analysis of world neutrino oscillation data from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrino experiments. Furthermore, I discuss the expected improvements in the determination of neutrino parameters by future oscillation experiments within a timescale of 10 years. (author)

  3. Neutrino oscillations in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.

    1990-01-01

    The oscillations of electron neutrinos into inert neutrinos may have resonant behaviour in the heat bath of the early Universe. It is shown that any initial neutrino asymmetry will be washed away by the oscillations. Neutrino oscillations would affect also primordial helium production, which implies stringent limits on the neutrino mixing parameters. (orig.)

  4. The supersymmetric Pegg-Barnett oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2005-01-01

    The su(n) Lie algebraic structure of the Pegg-Barnett oscillator that possesses a finite-dimensional number-state space is demonstrated. The supersymmetric generalization of the Pegg-Barnett oscillator is suggested. it is shown that such a supersymmetric Pegg-Barnett oscillator may have some potential applications, e.g., the mass spectrum of the charged leptons

  5. Three flavour oscillation interpretation of neutrino data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To explain the atmospheric neutrino problem in terms of neutrino oscillations, ЖС¾ of about 10-¿. eV. ¾. [8] is needed whereas the neutrino oscil- lation solution to the solar neutrino problem requires ЖС¾ ~10- eV. ¾ . Hence both solar and atmospheric neutrino problems cannot be explained in terms of e ° μ oscillations.

  6. Slow oscillations orchestrating fast oscillations and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical memory. The slow oscillations temporally group neuronal activity into up-states of strongly enhanced neuronal activity and down-states of neuronal silence. In a feed-forward efferent action, this grouping is induced not only in the neocortex but also in other structures relevant to consolidation, namely the thalamus generating 10-15Hz spindles, and the hippocampus generating sharp wave-ripples, with the latter well known to accompany a replay of newly encoded memories taking place in hippocampal circuitries. The feed-forward synchronizing effect of the slow oscillation enables the formation of spindle-ripple events where ripples and accompanying reactivated hippocampal memory information become nested into the single troughs of spindles. Spindle-ripple events thus enable reactivated memory-related hippocampal information to be fed back to neocortical networks in the excitable slow oscillation up-state where they can induce enduring plastic synaptic changes underlying the effective formation of long-term memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhouse, Christopher James [Oriel College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δmatm2 and sin2atm). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of vμ interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the vμ-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the vμ-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm2 = 2.32-0.08+0.12 x 10-3 eV2, sin 2 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly $\\bar{v}$μ beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ$\\bar{m}${sup 2} = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3eV2, sin2 2$\\bar{θ}$ = 0.86-0.12_0

  8. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-28

    Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.

  9. On the Possibility of Uphill Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Multicopper Oxidases: Electrochemical and Quantum Chemical Study of Bilirubin Oxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shleev, S.; Andoralov, V.; Falk, M.; Reimann, C. T.; Ruzgas, T.; Srnec, Martin; Ryde, U.; Rulíšek, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2012), s. 1524-1540 ISSN 1040-0397 Grant - others:7th Framework Program(XE) NMP4-SL-2009-229255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bilirubin oxidase * intramolecular electron transfer * rate-limiting catalytic step * reorganization energy * QM/MM calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2012

  10. Direct comparison of gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase variants and glucose oxidase: substrate range and H2O2 stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu V; Foumani, Maryam; MacCormick, Benjamin; Kwan, Rachel; Master, Emma R

    2016-11-21

    Glucose oxidase (GO) activity is generally restricted to glucose and is susceptible to inactivation by H 2 O 2 . By comparison, the Y300A variant of gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase (GOOX) from Sarocladium strictum showed broader substrate range and higher H 2 O 2 stability. Specifically, Y300A exhibited up to 40 times higher activity on all tested sugars except glucose, compared to GO. Moreover, fusion of the Y300A variant to a family 22 carbohydrate binding module from Clostridium thermocellum (CtCBM22A) nearly doubled its catalytic efficiency on glucose, while retaining significant activity on oligosaccharides. In the presence of 200 mM of H 2 O 2 , the recombinant CtCBM22A_Y300A retained 80% of activity on glucose and 100% of activity on cellobiose, the preferred substrate for this enzyme. By contrast, a commercial glucose oxidase reported to contain ≤0.1 units catalase/ mg protein, retained 60% activity on glucose under the same conditions. GOOX variants appear to undergo a different mechanism of inactivation, as a loss of histidine instead of methionine was observed after H 2 O 2 incubation. The addition of CtCBM22A also promoted functional binding of the fusion enzyme to xylan, facilitating its simultaneous purification and immobilization using edible oat spelt xylan, which might benefit the usage of this enzyme preparation in food and baking applications.

  11. Accelerator studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ereditato, A

    2000-01-01

    The question of whether the neutrino has a non-vanishing mass plays acrucial role in particle physics. A massive neutrino would unambiguously reveal the existence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, it could have profound implications on astrophysics and cosmology, with effects on the evolution of the Universe. Experiments aiming at direct neutrino-mass measurements based on kinematics have not been able, so far, to measure the very small neutrino mass. Indirect measurements can be performed by exploiting reactions which may only occur for massive neutrinos. Neutrino oscillation is one of those processes. The mass difference between neutrino mass-eigenstates can be inferred from a phase measurement. This feature allows for high sensitivity experiments. Neutrinos from different sources can be used to search for oscillations: solar neutrinos, neutrinos produced in the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere and artificially produced neutrinos from nuclear reactors and particle accelera...

  12. Oscillators that sync and swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Kevin P; Hong, Hyunsuk; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-11-15

    Synchronization occurs in many natural and technological systems, from cardiac pacemaker cells to coupled lasers. In the synchronized state, the individual cells or lasers coordinate the timing of their oscillations, but they do not move through space. A complementary form of self-organization occurs among swarming insects, flocking birds, or schooling fish; now the individuals move through space, but without conspicuously altering their internal states. Here we explore systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together. Specifically, we consider oscillators whose phase dynamics and spatial dynamics are coupled. We call them swarmalators, to highlight their dual character. A case study of a generalized Kuramoto model predicts five collective states as possible long-term modes of organization. These states may be observable in groups of sperm, Japanese tree frogs, colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, and other biological and physical systems in which self-assembly and synchronization interact.

  13. Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Takaaki Kajita of Tokyo University is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande. This volume of collected works of Kajita on neutrino oscillations provides a good glimpse into as well as a record of the rise and the role of Asian research in the frontiers of neutrino physics. Japan is now a major force in the study of the 3 families of neutrinos. Much remains to be done to clarify the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of the neutrino, and the cosmological implications of the neutrino. The collected works of Kajita and his Super-Kamiokande group will leave an indelible foot-print in the history of big and better science.

  14. Torsional oscillations of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, H.B.; Howard, R.; National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1985-01-01

    The sun's differential rotation has a cyclic pattern of change that is tightly correlated with the sunspot, or magnetic activity, cycle. This pattern can be described as a torsional oscillation, in which the solar rotation is periodically sped up or slowed down in certain zones of latitude while elsewhere the rotation remains essentially steady. The zones of anomalous rotation move on the sun in wavelike fashion, keeping pace with and flanking the zones of magnetic activity. It is uncertain whether this torsional oscillation is a globally coherent ringing of the sun or whether it is a local pattern caused by and causing local changes in the magnetic fields. In either case, it may be an important link in the connection between the rotation and the cycle that is widely believed to exist but is not yet understood. 46 references

  15. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  16. Coding of Information in Limit Cycle Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Jan-Hendrik; Stemmler, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Starting from a general description of noisy limit cycle oscillators, we derive from the Fokker-Planck equations the linear response of the instantaneous oscillator frequency to a time-varying external force. We consider the time series of zero crossings of the oscillator’s phase and compute the mutual information between it and the driving force. A direct link is established between the phase response curve summarizing the oscillator dynamics and the ability of a limit cycle oscillator, such as a heart cell or neuron, to encode information in the timing of peaks in the oscillation.

  17. Quantum oscillations of conductivity in bismuth wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the resistance of bismuth nanowires with several diameters and different quality reveal oscillations on the dependence of resistance under uniaxial strain at T = 4.2 K. Amplitude of oscillations is significant (38 %) at helium temperature and becomes smearing at T = 77 K. Observed oscillations originate from quantum size effect. A simple evaluation of period of oscillations allows us to identify the groups of carriers involved in transport. Calculated periods of 42.2 and 25.9 nm satisfy approximately the ratio 2:1 for two experimentally observed sets of oscillations from light and heavy electrons.

  18. Memristor-based reactance-less oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-10-02

    The first reactance-less oscillator is introduced. By using a memristor, the oscillator can be fully implemented on-chip without the need for any capacitors or inductors, which results in an area-efficient fully integrated solution. The concept of operation of the proposed oscillator is explained and detailed mathematical analysis is introduced. Closed-form expressions for the oscillation frequency and oscillation conditions are derived. Finally, the derived equations are verified with circuit simulations showing excellent agreement. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  19. Low-frequency oscillations in Hall thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li-Qiu; Han Liang; Yu Da-Ren; Guo Ning

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the research development of low-frequency oscillations in the last few decades. The findings of physical mechanism, characteristics and stabilizing methods of low-frequency oscillations are discussed. It shows that it is unreasonable and incomplete to model an ionization region separately to analyze the physical mechanism of low-frequency oscillations. Electro-dynamics as well as the formation conditions of ionization distribution play an important role in characteristics and stabilizing of low-frequency oscillations. Understanding the physical mechanism and characteristics of low- frequency oscillations thoroughly and developing a feasible method stabilizing this instability are still important research subjects. (review)

  20. Memristor-based reactance-less oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Omran, Hesham; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    The first reactance-less oscillator is introduced. By using a memristor, the oscillator can be fully implemented on-chip without the need for any capacitors or inductors, which results in an area-efficient fully integrated solution. The concept of operation of the proposed oscillator is explained and detailed mathematical analysis is introduced. Closed-form expressions for the oscillation frequency and oscillation conditions are derived. Finally, the derived equations are verified with circuit simulations showing excellent agreement. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  1. Protein structural development of threadfin bream ( Nemipterus spp.) surimi gels induced by glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fan, Daming; Fu, Lulu; Jiao, Xidong; Huang, Jianlian; Zhao, Jianxin; Yan, Bowen; Zhou, Wenguo; Zhang, Wenhai; Ye, Weijian; Zhang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of glucose oxidase on the gel properties of threadfin bream surimi. The gel strength of surimi increased with the addition of 0.5‰ glucose oxidase after two-step heating. Based on the results of the chemical interactions, the hydrophobic interaction and disulfide bond of glucose oxidase-treated surimi samples increased compared with the control samples at the gelation temperature and gel modori temperature. The surface hydrophobicity of samples with glucose oxidase and glucose increased significantly ( p glucose oxidase induced more α-helixes to turn into a more elongated random and flocculent structure. Glucose oxidase changes the secondary structure of the surimi protein, making more proteins depolarize and stretch and causing actomyosin to accumulate to each other, resulting in the formation of surimi gel.

  2. Harmonic oscillator on a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ader, J.P.; Bonnier, B.; Hontebeyrie, M.; Meyers, C.

    1983-01-01

    The continuum limit of the ground state energy for the harmonic oscillator with discrete time is derived for all possible choices of the lattice derivative. The occurrence of unphysical values is shown to arise whenever the lattice laplacian is not strictly positive on its Brillouin zone. These undesirable limits can either be finite and arbitrary (multiple spectrum) or infinite (overlapping sublattices with multiple spectrum). (orig.)

  3. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  4. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  5. Invariants of collective neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehlivan, Y.; Balantekin, A. B.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We consider the flavor evolution of a dense neutrino gas by taking into account both vacuum oscillations and self-interactions of neutrinos. We examine the system from a many-body perspective as well as from the point of view of an effective one-body description formulated in terms of the neutrino polarization vectors. We show that, in the single angle approximation, both the many-body picture and the effective one-particle picture possess several constants of motion. We write down these constants of motion explicitly in terms of the neutrino isospin operators for the many-body case and in terms of the polarization vectors for the effective one-body case. The existence of these constants of motion is a direct consequence of the fact that the collective neutrino oscillation Hamiltonian belongs to the class of Gaudin Hamiltonians. This class of Hamiltonians also includes the (reduced) BCS pairing Hamiltonian describing superconductivity. We point out the similarity between the collective neutrino oscillation Hamiltonian and the BCS pairing Hamiltonian. The constants of motion manifest the exact solvability of the system. Borrowing the well established techniques of calculating the exact BCS spectrum, we present exact eigenstates and eigenvalues of both the many-body and the effective one-particle Hamiltonians describing the collective neutrino oscillations. For the effective one-body case, we show that spectral splits of neutrinos can be understood in terms of the adiabatic evolution of some quasiparticle degrees of freedom from a high-density region where they coincide with flavor eigenstates to the vacuum where they coincide with mass eigenstates. We write down the most general consistency equations which should be satisfied by the effective one-body eigenstates and show that they reduce to the spectral split consistency equations for the appropriate initial conditions.

  6. Oscillations and Waves in Sunspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Khomenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic field modifies the properties of waves in a complex way. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of the physics of sunspot waves with the help of high-resolution observations, analytical theories, as well as numerical simulations. We review the current ideas in the field, providing the most coherent picture of sunspot oscillations as by present understanding.

  7. Automatic oscillator frequency control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.

  8. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  9. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flauger, Raphael [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: flauger@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu, E-mail: evas@stanford.edu, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.

  10. Neutrino Oscillation Experiment at JHF

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    T2K is a long baseline neutrino experiment designed to investigate how neutrinos change from one flavor to another as they travel (neutrino oscillations). An intense beam of muon neutrinos is generated at the J-PARC nuclear physics site on the East coast of Japan and directed across the country to the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector in the mountains of western Japan. The beam is measured once before it leaves the J-PARC site, using the near detector ND280, and again at Super-K, 295 km away: the change in the measured intensity and composition of the beam is used to provide information on the properties of neutrinos. The high intensity neutrino beam is produced in an off-axis configuration. The peak neutrino energy is tuned to the oscillation maximum of ∼ 0.6 GeV to maximize the sensitivity to neutrino oscillations. The science goals of T2K can be summarized as follows: •\tsearch for CP violation in the neutrino sector •\tdiscovery of νμ → νe ( i.e. the confirmation that θ13 > 0 ) •\tprecision ...

  11. Superconducting low-noise oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebman, L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a cryogenic oscillator having low phase noise and low noise. It comprises resonant circuit means formed of superconducting material for generating a signal at a desired frequency; linear amplifier means electrically connected to the resonant circuit means at first and second locations thereon; limiter means electrically connected to the resonant circuit means at a third location thereon; and buffer amplifier means for applying the signal generated by the resonant circuit means to a load and electrically connected to the resonant circuit means at a fourth location thereon. This patent also describes a method of minimizing phase noise and 1/f noise in an oscillator circuit of the type having a resonant circuit driving a load and at least a linear amplifier connected to the resonant circuit defining a closed loop having a loop gain greater than unity, and having a limiter for stabilizing the oscillator. It comprises connecting between the resonant circuit and the load a buffer amplifier and connecting the linear amplifier and the buffer amplifier to the resonant circuit

  12. Boltzmann map for quantum oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streater, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors define a map tau on the space of quasifree states of the CCR or CAR of more than one harmonic oscillator which increases entropy except at fixed points of tau. The map tau is the composition of a double stochastic map T*, and the quasifree reduction Q. Under mixing conditions on T, iterates of tau take any initial state to the Gibbs states, provided that the oscillator frequencies are mutually rational. They give an example of a system with three degrees of freedom with energies omega 1 , omega 2 , and omega 3 mutually irrational, but obeying a relation n 1 omega 1 + n 2 omega 2 = n 3 omega 3 , n/sub i/epsilon Z. The iterated Boltzmann map converges from an initial state rho to independent Gibbs states of the three oscillators at betas (inverse temperatures) β 1 , β 2 , β 3 obeying the equation n 1 omega 1 β 1 + n 2 omega 3 β 1 number. The equilibrium state can be rewritten as a grand canonical state. They show that for two, three, or four fermions we can get the usual rate equations as a special case

  13. Neutrino Oscillations:. a Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Palazzo, A.; Rotunno, A. M.; Montanino, D.

    We review the status of the neutrino oscillations physics, with a particular emphasis on the present knowledge of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters. We consider first the νμ → ντ flavor transitions of atmospheric neutrinos. It is found that standard oscillations provide the best description of the SK+K2K data, and that the associated mass-mixing parameters are determined at ±1σ (and NDF = 1) as: Δm2 = (2.6 ± 0.4) × 10-3 eV2 and sin 2 2θ = 1.00{ - 0.05}{ + 0.00} . Such indications, presently dominated by SK, could be strengthened by further K2K data. Then we point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, in particular the KamLAND data, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects. Finally, we perform an updated analysis of two-family active oscillations of solar and reactor neutrinos in the standard MSW case.

  14. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flauger, Raphael; Westphal, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.

  15. Nonlinearity induced synchronization enhancement in mechanical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A.; Lopez, Omar; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Antonio, Dario; Arroyo, Sebastian I.; Zanette, Damian H.

    2018-05-08

    An autonomous oscillator synchronizes to an external harmonic force only when the forcing frequency lies within a certain interval, known as the synchronization range, around the oscillator's natural frequency. Under ordinary conditions, the width of the synchronization range decreases when the oscillation amplitude grows, which constrains synchronized motion of micro- and nano-mechanical resonators to narrow frequency and amplitude bounds. The present invention shows that nonlinearity in the oscillator can be exploited to manifest a regime where the synchronization range increases with an increasing oscillation amplitude. The present invention shows that nonlinearities in specific configurations of oscillator systems, as described herein, are the key determinants of the effect. The present invention presents a new configuration and operation regime that enhances the synchronization of micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators by capitalizing on their intrinsic nonlinear dynamics.

  16. Nonlocal synchronization in nearest neighbour coupled oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, H.F.; Elgazzar, A.S.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    2002-02-01

    We investigate a system of nearest neighbour coupled oscillators. We show that the nonlocal frequency synchronization, that might appear in such a system, occurs as a consequence of the nearest neighbour coupling. The power spectra of nonadjacent oscillators shows that there is no complete coincidence between all frequency peaks of the oscillators in the nonlocal cluster, while the peaks for neighbouring oscillators approximately coincide even if they are not yet in a cluster. It is shown that nonadjacent oscillators closer in frequencies, share slow modes with their adjacent oscillators which are neighbours in space. It is also shown that when a direct coupling between non-neighbours oscillators is introduced explicitly, the peaks of the spectra of the frequencies of those non-neighbours coincide. (author)

  17. Poly(neutral red) as a NAD{sup +} reduction catalyst and a NADH oxidation catalyst: Towards the development of a rechargeable biobattery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arechederra, Marguerite N.; Addo, Paul K. [Department of Chemistry, Saint Louis University, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States); Minteer, Shelley D., E-mail: minteers@slu.ed [Department of Chemistry, Saint Louis University, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have established that poly(neutral red), PNR, functions as an electrocatalyst for the reduction and oxidation of NAD{sup +}/NADH in a rechargeable biobattery environment. The reversibility of this catalyst was possible only with the addition of Zn{sup 2+} for complexation to the redox polymer. The zinc ion complexation with the polymer facilitates electron and proton transfer to/from the substrate and the NAD{sup +}/NADH coenzyme without forming covalent bonds between the nicotinamide and the substrate surface. This research presents use of this reversible catalyst in a rechargeable biobattery. The rechargeable battery includes a Prussian blue cathode and a bioanode including NAD{sup +}-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and zinc complexed PNR. This bioanode was coupled to the cathode with Nafion 212 acting as the ion exchange membrane separator between the two compartments. The biobattery has an open circuit potential of 0.545({+-}0.009) V when first assembled and 0.053({+-}0.005) V when fully discharged. However, when fully charged, the biobattery has an open circuit potential of 1.263({+-}0.051) V, a maximum power density of 16.3({+-}4.03) {mu}W cm{sup -3} and a maximum current density of 221({+-}13.2) {mu}A cm{sup -3}. The efficiency and stability of the biobattery were studied by cycling continuously at a discharging rate of 1 C and the results obtained showed reasonable stability over 50 cycles.

  18. Cloning, molecular characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding a functional NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NED A SETAYESH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study a new NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305. A cDNA coding for cb s r was isolated from a Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA including coding and sequences flanking regions was determined. The open reading frame starting from ATG and ending with TAG stop codon encoded 228 amino acids and displayed the closest similarity (73% with Mortierella alpina cb s r. Lack of hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal sequence was apparent, suggesting that the enzyme is a soluble isoform. The coding sequence was then cloned in the pET16b transcription vector carrying an N-terminal-linked His-Tag® sequence and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. The enzyme was then homogeneously purified by a metal affinity column. The recombinant Mucor enzyme was shown to have its optimal activity at pH and temperature of about 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. The apparent Km value was calculated to be 13 μM for ferricyanide. To our knowledge, this is the first report on cloning and expression of a native fungal soluble isoform of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase in E. coli.

  19. Redox Specificity of 2-Hydroxyacid-Coupled NAD+/NADH Dehydrogenases: A Study Exploiting “Reactive” Arginine as a Reporter of Protein Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durani, Susheel

    2013-01-01

    With “reactive” arginine as a kinetic reporter, 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases are assessed in basis of their specialization as NAD+-reducing or NADH-oxidizing enzymes. Specifically, M4 and H4 lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are compared to assess if their coenzyme specificity may involve electrostatics of cationic or neutral nicotinamide structure as the basis. The enzymes from diverse eukaryote and prokaryote sources thus are assessed in “reactivity” of functionally-critical arginine as a function of salt concentration and pH. Electrostatic calculations were performed on “reactive” arginines and found good correspondence with experiment. The reductive and oxidative LDHs and MDHs are assessed in their count over ionizable residues and in placement details of the residues in their structures as proteins. The variants found to be high or low in ΔpKa of “reactive” arginine are found to be also strong or weak cations that preferentially oxidize NADH (neutral nicotinamide structure) or reduce NAD+ (cationic nicotinamide structure). The ionized groups of protein structure may thus be important to redox specificity of the enzyme on basis of electrostatic preference for the oxidized (cationic nicotinamide) or reduced (neutral nicotinamide) coenzyme. Detailed comparisons of isozymes establish that the residues contributing in their redox specificity are scrambled in structure of the reductive enzyme. PMID:24391777

  20. Redox specificity of 2-hydroxyacid-coupled NAD(+/NADH dehydrogenases: a study exploiting "reactive" arginine as a reporter of protein electrostatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta

    Full Text Available With "reactive" arginine as a kinetic reporter, 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases are assessed in basis of their specialization as NAD(+-reducing or NADH-oxidizing enzymes. Specifically, M4 and H4 lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenases (MDHs are compared to assess if their coenzyme specificity may involve electrostatics of cationic or neutral nicotinamide structure as the basis. The enzymes from diverse eukaryote and prokaryote sources thus are assessed in "reactivity" of functionally-critical arginine as a function of salt concentration and pH. Electrostatic calculations were performed on "reactive" arginines and found good correspondence with experiment. The reductive and oxidative LDHs and MDHs are assessed in their count over ionizable residues and in placement details of the residues in their structures as proteins. The variants found to be high or low in ΔpKa of "reactive" arginine are found to be also strong or weak cations that preferentially oxidize NADH (neutral nicotinamide structure or reduce NAD(+ (cationic nicotinamide structure. The ionized groups of protein structure may thus be important to redox specificity of the enzyme on basis of electrostatic preference for the oxidized (cationic nicotinamide or reduced (neutral nicotinamide coenzyme. Detailed comparisons of isozymes establish that the residues contributing in their redox specificity are scrambled in structure of the reductive enzyme.

  1. A complicated biocomputing system based on multi-responsive P(NIPAM-co-APBA) copolymer film electrodes and electrocatalysis of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiying; Yu, Xue; Yang, Tiangang; Li, Menglu; Shen, Li; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hongyun

    2017-08-23

    In this paper, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-3-aminophenylboronic acid) (P(NIPAM-co-APBA)) copolymer films were successfully electropolymerized on the Au electrode surface. The electroactive probe ferrocene carboxylic acid (FCA) in solution showed reversible thermal-, glucose- and pH-responsive on-off cyclic voltammetric (CV) behaviors at the film electrodes. The comparative experiments demonstrated that the thermo-responsive property of the film electrode was ascribed to the PNIPAM component of the films, whereas the glucose- and pH-sensitive behaviors came from the PAPBA constituent. The reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) could be electrocatalytically oxidized by FCA at the film electrodes, which would greatly amplify the multi-responsive CV signal difference between the on and off states. On the basis of these results, a binary 4-input/4-output logic circuit was fabricated with temperature, glucose, pH and NADH as inputs and the CV responses at 4 different levels as outputs. Moreover, a ternary CONSENSUS logic circuit was established on the same platform, which was the first report on the combination of ternary logic gate and bioelectrocatalysis without using enzymes. This work provided a novel idea for constructing complicated biocomputing systems by increasing the number of inputs/outputs with multi-sensitive interfaces and by designing new types of multi-valued logic gates on the basis of bioelectrocatalysis.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the complex of NADH and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. B-0831

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Sachiyo [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5 Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Nakamura, Shota; Ohkubo, Tadayasu [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueda, Shigeru [Diagnostics Department, Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, 632-1 Mifuku, Izunokuni, Shizuoka 410-2321 (Japan); Uchiyama, Susumu [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yuji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Oda, Masayuki, E-mail: oda@kpu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5 Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    The complex of NADH and 3α-HSD from Pseudomonas sp. B-0831 has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.8 Å resolution. The NAD(P){sup +}-dependent enzyme 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of hydroxyl and oxo groups at position 3 of the steroid nucleus. The complex of NADH and 3α-HSD from Pseudomonas sp. B-0831 was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Refinement of crystallization conditions with microseeding improved the quality of the X-ray diffraction data to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.46, b = 82.25, c = 86.57 Å, and contained two molecules, reflecting dimer formation of 3α-HSD, in the asymmetric unit.

  3. Amine oxidases as important agents of pathological processes of rhabdomyolysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkova, O O; Latyshko, N V; Shandrenko, S G

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have tested an idea on the important role of amine oxidases (semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase) as an additional source of oxidative/carbonyl stress under glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis, since the enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive carbonyl species in a variety of tissues is linked to various diseases. In our experiments we used the sensitive fluorescent method devised for estimation of amine oxidases activity in the rat kidney and thymus as targeted organs under rhabdomyolysis. We have found in vivo the multiple rises in activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase (2-4.5 times) in the corresponding cell fractions, whole cells or their lysates at the 3-6th day after glycerol injection. Aberrant antioxidant activities depended on rhabdomyolysis stage and had organ specificity. Additional treatment of animals with metal chelator ‘Unithiol’ adjusted only the activity of antioxidant enzymes but not amine oxidases in both organs. Furthermore the in vitro experiment showed that Fenton reaction (hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron) products alone had no effect on semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in rat liver cell fraction whereas supplementation with methylglyoxal resulted in its significant 2.5-fold enhancement. Combined action of the both agents had additive effect on semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity. We can assume that biogenic amine and polyamine catabolism by amine oxidases is upregulated by oxidative and carbonyl stress factors directly under rhabdomyolysis progression, and the increase in catabolic products concentration contributes to tissue damage in glycerol-induced acute renal failure and apoptosis stimulation in thymus.

  4. Up-Streaming Process for Glucose Oxidase by Thermophilic Penicillium sp. in Shake Flask

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mohsin JAVED; Aroosh SHABIR; Sana ZAHOOR; Ikram UL-HAQ

    2012-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the production of glucose oxidase (GOD) from thermophilic Penicillium sp. in 250 mL shake flask. Fourteen different strains of thermophilic Penicillium sp. were isolated from the soil and were screened for glucose oxidase production. IIBP-13 strain gave maximum extra-cellular glucose oxidase production as compared to other isolates. Effect of submerged fermentation in shaking and static conditions, different carbon sources and incubation period on the produ...

  5. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  6. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 µmoles m-2 s-1 at 25 oC under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 M to 1.0M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 oC to 10 oC to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25 OC, the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10 OC, while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, the observed changes in NaHCO3 dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(PH/NAD(P and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the

  7. Molecular evolution of the polyamine oxidase gene family in Metazoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polticelli Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyamine oxidase enzymes catalyze the oxidation of polyamines and acetylpolyamines. Since polyamines are basic regulators of cell growth and proliferation, their homeostasis is crucial for cell life. Members of the polyamine oxidase gene family have been identified in a wide variety of animals, including vertebrates, arthropodes, nematodes, placozoa, as well as in plants and fungi. Polyamine oxidases (PAOs from yeast can oxidize spermine, N1-acetylspermine, and N1-acetylspermidine, however, in vertebrates two different enzymes, namely spermine oxidase (SMO and acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO, specifically catalyze the oxidation of spermine, and N1-acetylspermine/N1-acetylspermidine, respectively. Little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes. However, since the yeast PAO is able to catalyze the oxidation of both acetylated and non acetylated polyamines, and in vertebrates these functions are addressed by two specialized polyamine oxidase subfamilies (APAO and SMO, it can be hypothesized an ancestral reference for the former enzyme from which the latter would have been derived. Results We analysed 36 SMO, 26 APAO, and 14 PAO homologue protein sequences from 54 taxa including various vertebrates and invertebrates. The analysis of the full-length sequences and the principal domains of vertebrate and invertebrate PAOs yielded consensus primary protein sequences for vertebrate SMOs and APAOs, and invertebrate PAOs. This analysis, coupled to molecular modeling techniques, also unveiled sequence regions that confer specific structural and functional properties, including substrate specificity, by the different PAO subfamilies. Molecular phylogenetic trees revealed a basal position of all the invertebrates PAO enzymes relative to vertebrate SMOs and APAOs. PAOs from insects constitute a monophyletic clade. Two PAO variants sampled in the amphioxus are basal to the dichotomy between two well supported

  8. Oxidação eletrocatalítica de NADH empregando um novo sensor à base de um complexo macrocíclico n4 sobre grafeno e DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Izabela Aparecida Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Área de concentração: Química Analítica. β-Nicotinamida adenina dinucleotídeo (NADH) e sua forma oxidada correspondente (NAD+) representam uma coenzima de grande importância em centenas de reações naturais catalisadas por enzimas desidrogenase, sendo vitais no metabolismo respiratório mitocondrial por estimular a produção de energia e atuam como principais transportadoras de cargas centrais em células vivas. Por estes motivos, a determinação eletroquímica de NADH tem atraído considerável a...

  9. Separation control with fluidic oscillators in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.-J.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2017-08-01

    The present study assesses the applicability of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water. The first part of this work evaluates the properties of the fluidic oscillators including frequency, cavitation effects, and exerted thrust. Derived from the governing internal dynamics, the oscillation frequency is found to scale directly with the jet's exit velocity and the size of the fluidic oscillator independent of the working fluid. Frequency data from various experiments collapse onto a single curve. The occurrence of cavitation is examined by visual inspection and hydrophone measurements. The oscillation frequency is not affected by cavitation because it does not occur inside the oscillators. The spectral information obtained with the hydrophone provide a reliable indicator for the onset of cavitation at the exit. The performance of the fluidic oscillators for separation control on a bluff body does not seem to be affected by the presence of cavitation. The thrust exerted by an array of fluidic oscillators with water as the working fluid is measured to be even larger than theoretically estimated values. The second part of the presented work compares the performance of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water with previous results in air. The array of fluidic oscillators is installed into the rear end of a bluff body model. The drag improvements based on force balance measurements agree well with previous wind tunnel experiments on the same model. The flow field is examined by pressure measurements and with particle image velocimetry. Similar performance and flow field characteristics are observed in both water and air.

  10. Regulation of the NADPH Oxidase RBOHD During Plant Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Shirasu, Ken; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-08-01

    Pathogen recognition induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases in both plants and animals. ROS have direct antimicrobial properties, but also serve as signaling molecules to activate further immune outputs. However, ROS production has to be tightly controlled to avoid detrimental effects on host cells, but yet must be produced in the right amount, at the right place and at the right time upon pathogen perception. Plant NADPH oxidases belong to the respiratory burst oxidase homolog (RBOH) family, which contains 10 members in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leads to a rapid, specific and strong production of ROS, which is dependent on RBOHD. RBOHD is mainly controlled by Ca(2+) via direct binding to EF-hand motifs and phosphorylation by Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. Recent studies have, however, revealed a critical role for a Ca(2+)-independent regulation of RBOHD. The plasma membrane-associated cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 (BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1), which is a direct substrate of the PRR complex, directly interacts with and phosphorylates RBOHD upon PAMP perception. Impairment of these phosphorylation events completely abolishes the function of RBOHD in immunity. These results suggest that RBOHD activity is tightly controlled by multilayered regulations. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling RBOHD activation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei, E-mail: hmliu2004@126.com [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) values and maximal reaction velocity (V{sub max}) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  12. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na 2 SeO 3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K m ) values and maximal reaction velocity (V max ) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  13. Periodic variation in bile acids controls circadian changes in uric acid via regulation of xanthine oxidase by the orphan nuclear receptor PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemitsu, Takumi; Tsurudome, Yuya; Kusunose, Naoki; Oda, Masayuki; Matsunaga, Naoya; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2017-12-29

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD), also known as xanthine dehydrogenase, is a rate-limiting enzyme in purine nucleotide degradation, which produces uric acid. Uric acid concentrations in the blood and liver exhibit circadian oscillations in both humans and rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that XOD expression and enzymatic activity exhibit circadian oscillations in the mouse liver. We found that the orphan nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcriptionally activated the mouse XOD gene and that bile acids suppressed XOD transactivation. The synthesis of bile acids is known to be under the control of the circadian clock, and we observed that the time-dependent accumulation of bile acids in hepatic cells interfered with the recruitment of the co-transcriptional activator p300 to PPARα, thereby repressing XOD expression. This time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids caused an oscillation in the hepatic expression of XOD, which, in turn, led to circadian alterations in uric acid production. Finally, we also demonstrated that the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the XOD inhibitor febuxostat was enhanced by administering it at the time of day before hepatic XOD activity increased. These results suggest an underlying mechanism for the circadian alterations in uric acid production and also underscore the importance of selecting an appropriate time of day for administering XOD inhibitors. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Electroconvulsive therapy in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Tamara J; Habl, Samar S; Barnes, Roxann D; Rasmussen, Keith G

    2004-12-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the use of general anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). We review the published literature and present 4 new cases and conclude that there is no evidence of a dangerous interaction between ECT and MAOI use. In general, a cautious approach would be to discontinue MAOIs before ECT if the medication has not been helpful; however, there is no need for a washout interval before starting ECT. Furthermore, if there is otherwise a reason for continuing the MAOI, it can be continued during index ECT or initiated during maintenance ECT.

  15. Lysyl Oxidase, a Targetable Secreted Molecule Involved in Cancer Metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas Robert; Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine T

    2016-01-01

    to improve the tools available in our arsenal against this disease, both in terms of treatment, but also prevention. Recently, we showed that hypoxic induction of the extracellular matrix modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with metastatic dissemination to the bone in estrogen receptor negative...... of this enzyme as a therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer. Our work is the latest in an emerging body of work supporting the targeting of LOX and calls for greater efforts in developing therapeutics against this extracellular secreted factor in the prevention of cancer progression across multiple solid...

  16. Clusters in nonsmooth oscillator networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, Rachel; Chambon, Lucie; Coombes, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    For coupled oscillator networks with Laplacian coupling, the master stability function (MSF) has proven a particularly powerful tool for assessing the stability of the synchronous state. Using tools from group theory, this approach has recently been extended to treat more general cluster states. However, the MSF and its generalizations require the determination of a set of Floquet multipliers from variational equations obtained by linearization around a periodic orbit. Since closed form solutions for periodic orbits are invariably hard to come by, the framework is often explored using numerical techniques. Here, we show that further insight into network dynamics can be obtained by focusing on piecewise linear (PWL) oscillator models. Not only do these allow for the explicit construction of periodic orbits, their variational analysis can also be explicitly performed. The price for adopting such nonsmooth systems is that many of the notions from smooth dynamical systems, and in particular linear stability, need to be modified to take into account possible jumps in the components of Jacobians. This is naturally accommodated with the use of saltation matrices. By augmenting the variational approach for studying smooth dynamical systems with such matrices we show that, for a wide variety of networks that have been used as models of biological systems, cluster states can be explicitly investigated. By way of illustration, we analyze an integrate-and-fire network model with event-driven synaptic coupling as well as a diffusively coupled network built from planar PWL nodes, including a reduction of the popular Morris-Lecar neuron model. We use these examples to emphasize that the stability of network cluster states can depend as much on the choice of single node dynamics as it does on the form of network structural connectivity. Importantly, the procedure that we present here, for understanding cluster synchronization in networks, is valid for a wide variety of systems in

  17. Power oscillations in BWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa P, G.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main problems in the operation of BWR type reactors is the instability in power that these could present. One type of oscillations and that is the objective of this work is the named density wave, which is attributed to the thermohydraulic processes that take place in the reactor core. From the beginnings of the development of BWR reactors, the stability of these has been an important aspect in their design, due to its possible consequences on the fuel integrity. The reactor core operates in two phase flow conditions and it is observed that under certain power and flow conditions, power instabilities appear. Studying this type of phenomena is complex, due to that a reactor core is constituted approximately by 27,000 fuel bars with different distributions of power and flow. The phenomena that cause the instability in BWR reactors continue being matter of scientific study. In the literature mainly in nuclear subject, it can be observed that exist different methods and approximations for studying this type of phenomena, nevertheless, their results are focused to establish safety limits in the reactor operation, instead of studying in depth of the knowledge about. Also in this line sense of the reactor data analysis, the oscillations characteristic frequencies are obtained for trying to establish if the power is growing or decreasing. In addition to that before mentioned in this paper it is presented a rigorous study applying the volumetric average method, for obtaining the vacuum waves propagation velocities and its possible connection with the power oscillations. (Author)

  18. Modeling of Coupled Chaotic Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.; Grebogi, C.

    1999-01-01

    Chaotic dynamics may impose severe limits to deterministic modeling by dynamical equations of natural systems. We give theoretical argument that severe modeling difficulties may occur for high-dimensional chaotic systems in the sense that no model is able to produce reasonably long solutions that are realized by nature. We make these ideas concrete by investigating systems of coupled chaotic oscillators. They arise in many situations of physical and biological interests, and they also arise from discretization of nonlinear partial differential equations. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  19. Magnus approximation in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, Mario A; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A; D'Olivo, J C

    2011-01-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some anomalous experimental observations. In a four-neutrino (three active plus one sterile) mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos with energies of the order of a few GeV, taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  20. Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Pecseli, Hans L

    2012-01-01

    The result of more than 15 years of lectures in plasma sciences presented at universities in Denmark, Norway, and the United States, Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas addresses central issues in modern plasma sciences. The book covers fluid models as well as kinetic plasma models, including a detailed discussion of, for instance, collisionless Landau damping. Offering a clear separation of linear and nonlinear models, the book can be tailored for readers of varying levels of expertise.Designed to provide basic training in linear as well as nonlinear plasma dynamics, and practical in areas as d

  1. Pair creation and plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorkevich, A. V.; Vinnik, D. V.; Schmidt, S. M.; Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.

    2000-01-01

    We describe aspects of particle creation in strong fields using a quantum kinetic equation with a relaxation-time approximation to the collision term. The strong electric background field is determined by solving Maxwell's equation in tandem with the Vlasov equation. Plasma oscillations appear as a result of feedback between the background field and the field generated by the particles produced. The plasma frequency depends on the strength of the initial background fields and the collision frequency, and is sensitive to the necessary momentum-dependence of dressed-parton masses

  2. Wave Physics Oscillations - Solitons - Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Nettel, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This textbook is intended for those second year undergraduates in science and engineering who will later need an understanding of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The classical physics of oscillations and waves is developed at a more advanced level than has been customary for the second year, providing a basis for the quantum mechanics that follows. In this new edition the Green's function is explained, reinforcing the integration of quantum mechanics with classical physics. The text may also form the basis of an "introduction to theoretical physics" for physics majors. The concluding chapters give special attention to topics in current wave physics: nonlinear waves, solitons, and chaotic behavior.

  3. Coupled oscillators with parity-time symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoy, Eduard N., E-mail: etsoy@uzsci.net

    2017-02-05

    Different models of coupled oscillators with parity-time (PT) symmetry are studied. Hamiltonian functions for two and three linear oscillators coupled via coordinates and accelerations are derived. Regions of stable dynamics for two coupled oscillators are obtained. It is found that in some cases, an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. A family of Hamiltonians for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained. An extension to high-dimensional PT-symmetric systems is discussed. - Highlights: • A generalization of a Hamiltonian system of linear coupled oscillators with the parity-time (PT) symmetry is suggested. • It is found that an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. • A family of Hamiltonian functions for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained.

  4. Phase noise and frequency stability in oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Rubiola, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Presenting a comprehensive account of oscillator phase noise and frequency stability, this practical text is both mathematically rigorous and accessible. An in-depth treatment of the noise mechanism is given, describing the oscillator as a physical system, and showing that simple general laws govern the stability of a large variety of oscillators differing in technology and frequency range. Inevitably, special attention is given to amplifiers, resonators, delay lines, feedback, and flicker (1/f) noise. The reverse engineering of oscillators based on phase-noise spectra is also covered, and end-of-chapter exercises are given. Uniquely, numerous practical examples are presented, including case studies taken from laboratory prototypes and commercial oscillators, which allow the oscillator internal design to be understood by analyzing its phase-noise spectrum. Based on tutorials given by the author at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, international IEEE meetings, and in industry, this is a useful reference for acade...

  5. Driven, autoresonant three-oscillator interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, O.; Friedland, L.; Henis, Z.

    2007-01-01

    An efficient control scheme of resonant three-oscillator interactions using an external chirped frequency drive is suggested. The approach is based on formation of a double phase-locked (autoresonant) state in the system, as the driving oscillation passes linear resonance with one of the interacting oscillators. When doubly phase locked, the amplitudes of the oscillators increase with time in proportion to the driving frequency deviation from the linear resonance. The stability of this phase-locked state and the effects of dissipation and of the initial three-oscillator frequency mismatch on the autoresonance are analyzed. The associated autoresonance threshold phenomenon in the driving amplitude is also discussed. In contrast to other nonlinear systems, driven, autoresonant three-oscillator excitations are independent of the sign of the driving frequency chirp rate

  6. Lepton asymmetry and neutrino oscillations interplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirilova, Daniela, E-mail: dani@astro.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Astronomy and NAO (Bulgaria)

    2013-03-15

    We discuss the interplay between lepton asymmetry L and {nu} oscillations in the early Universe. Neutrino oscillations may suppress or enhance previously existing L. On the other hand L is capable to suppress or enhance neutrino oscillations. The mechanism of L enhancement in MSW resonant {nu} oscillations in the early Universe is numerically analyzed. L cosmological effects through {nu} oscillations are discussed. We discuss how L may change the cosmological BBN constraints on neutrino and show that BBN model with {nu}{sub e}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub s} oscillations is extremely sensitive to L - it allows to obtain the most stringent constraints on L value. We discuss also the cosmological role of active-sterile {nu} mixing and L in connection with the indications about additional relativistic density in the early Universe, pointed out by BBN, CMB and LSS data and the analysis of global {nu} data.

  7. Plasma amine oxidase activities in Norrie disease patients with an X-chromosomal deletion affecting monoamine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K B; Karoum, F; Garrick, N A; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M; Norio, R; Breakefield, X O

    1991-01-01

    Two individuals with an X-chromosomal deletion were recently found to lack the genes encoding monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) and MAO-B. This abnormality was associated with almost total (90%) reductions in the oxidatively deaminated urinary metabolites of the MAO-A substrate, norepinephrine, and with marked (100-fold) increases in an MAO-B substrate, phenylethylamine, confirming systemic functional consequences of the genetic enzyme deficiency. However, urinary concentrations of the deaminated metabolites of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) were essentially normal. To investigate other deaminating systems besides MAO-A and MAO-B that might produce these metabolites of dopamine and 5-HT, we examined plasma amine oxidase (AO) activity in these two patients and two additional patients with the same X-chromosomal deletion. Normal plasma AO activity was found in all four Norrie disease-deletion patients, in four patients with classic Norrie disease without a chromosomal deletion, and in family members of patients from both groups. Marked plasma amine metabolite abnormalities and essentially absent platelet MAO-B activity were found in all four Norrie disease-deletion patients, but in none of the other subjects in the two comparison groups. These results indicate that plasma AO is encoded by gene(s) independent of those for MAO-A and MAO-B, and raise the possibility that plasma AO, and perhaps the closely related tissue AO, benzylamine oxidase, as well as other atypical AOs or MAOs encoded independently from MAO-A and MAO-B may contribute to the oxidative deamination of dopamine and 5-HT in humans.

  8. A Survey on Forced Oscillations in Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbaniparvar, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Oscillations in a power system can be categorized into free oscillations and forced oscillations. Many algorithms have been developed to estimate the modes of free oscillations in a power system. Recently, forced oscillations caught many attentions. Techniques are proposed to detect forced oscillations and locate their sources. In addition, forced oscillations may have negative impact on the estimation of mode and mode-shape if they are not properly accounted for. To improve the power system ...

  9. Phase-locked Josephson soliton oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, T.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Grønbech-Jensen, N.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed experimental characterization of the phase-locking at both DC and at microwave frequencies is presented for two closely spaced Josephson soliton (fluxon) oscillators. In the phase-locked state, the radiated microwave power exhibited an effective gain. With one common bias source......, a frequency tunability of the phase-locked oscillators up to 7% at 10 GHz was observed. The interacting soliton oscillators were modeled by two inductively coupled nonlinear transmission lines...

  10. Chimera States in Mechanical Oscillator Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Thutupalli, Shashi; Fourrière, Antoine; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    The synchronization of coupled oscillators is a fascinating manifestation of self-organization that nature uses to orchestrate essential processes of life, such as the beating of the heart. Although it was long thought that synchrony and disorder were mutually exclusive steady states for a network of identical oscillators, numerous theoretical studies in recent years have revealed the intriguing possibility of “chimera states,” in which the symmetry of the oscillator population is broken into...

  11. Oscillations of neutral B mesons systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boucrot, J.

    1999-01-01

    The oscillation phenomenon in the neutral B mesons systems is now well established. The motivations and principles of the measurements are given; then the most recent results from the LEP experiments, the CDF collaboration at Fermilab and the SLD collaboration at SLAC are reviewed. The present world average of the $\\bd$ meson oscillation frequency is $\\dmd = 0.471 \\pm 0.016 \\ps$ and the lower limit on the $\\bs$ oscillation frequency is

  12. Recent Progress in Silicon Mems Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    MEMS oscillator. As shown, a MEMS resonator is connected to an IC. The reference oscillator, which is basically a transimpedance amplifier ...small size), and (3) DC bias voltage required to operate the resonators. As a result, instead of Colpitts or Pierce architecture, a transimpedence ... amplifier is typically used for sustain the oscillation. The frequency of the resonators is determined by both material properties and geometry of

  13. Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here......: a) by reducing [ACAx] relative to oscillation amplitude, b) by targeting multiple intracellular carbonyl compounds during fermentation, and c) by acting as a phase resetting stimulus....

  14. Electrochemical Oscillation of Vanadium Ions in Anolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Peng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodic electrochemical oscillation of the anolyte was reported for the first time in a simulated charging process of the vanadium redox flow batteries. The electrochemical oscillation could be explained in terms of the competition between the growth and the chemical dissolution of V2O5 film. Also, the oscillation phenomenon was possible to regular extra power consumption. The results of this paper might enable new methods to improve the charge efficiency and energy saving for vanadium redox flow batteries.

  15. Cardiogenic oscillation induced ventilator autotriggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kaloria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic oscillation during mechanical ventilation can auto-trigger the ventilator resembling patient initiated breadth. This gives a false sense of intact respiratory drive and determination brain death, even if other tests are positive, is not appropriate in such a situation. It will prolong the ICU stay and confound the brain-death determination. In this case report, we describe a 35 year old man who was brought to the hospital after many hours of critical delay following multiple gun shot injuries. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest while on the way from another hospital. After an emergency laparotomy, patient was shifted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score of E1VTM1 and was mechanically ventilated. Despite absence of brainstem reflexes, the ventilator continued to be triggered on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP mode and the patient maintained normal oxygen saturation and acceptable levels of carbon dioxide. An apnoea test confirmed absent respiratory drive. Ventilatory waveform graph analysis, revealed cardiogenic oscillation as the cause for autotrigerring.

  16. Energy measurements from betatron oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.; Thompson, K.

    1989-03-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider the electron beam is accelerated from 1--50 GeV in a distance of 3 km. The energy is measured and corrected at the end with an energy feedback loop. There are no bends within the linear accelerator itself, so no intermediate energy measurements are made. Errors in the energy profile due to mis-phasing of the rf, or due to calibration errors in the klystrons' rf outputs are difficult to detect. As the total betatron phase advance down the accelerator is about 30 /times/ 2π, an energy error of a few percent can cause a large error in the total phase advance. This in turn degrades the performance of auto-steering programs. We have developed a diagnostic program which generates and measures several betatron oscillations in the accelerator. It then analyzes this oscillation, looking for frequency changes which indicate energy errors. One can then compensate for or correct these energy errors. 6 refs., 1 fig

  17. Hofmeister effects on the glucose oxidase hydrogel-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Aimi; Tsujimura, Seiya

    2016-01-01

    We describe the consistent effect of salts in the electrolyte solution on glucose oxidation current production in the redox hydrogel-modified electrode containing glucose oxidase as an electrocatalyst and Os complex mediator. The ions affect not only on the electron transfer between the enzyme and the Os complex, but also on the hydrogel structure. This study found that the degree of the effect can be characterized by Hofmeister series. The relative decrease in oxidization current is the lowest in the middle of the Hofmeister series, and increases monotonically on either side. An increase of ionic strength inhibits the electron transfer from the active site of glucose oxidase to Os complex. In addition to this, the kosmotropic anions, which are strongly hydrated, caused hydrogel deswelling (shrinking). The more chaotropic an ion is, the more it adsorbs to uncharged parts of polymer/enzyme with dispersion force, and the swelling of the hydrogel decreases the catalytic current. This study impacts the design of hydrogel electrode and selection of electrolyte ions for bioelectronic applications.

  18. Cytochrome oxidase assembly does not require catalytically active cytochrome C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Antoni; Pierre, Danielle; Lee, Johnson; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2003-03-14

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the transfer of electrons from reduced cytochrome c to molecular oxygen. COX assembly requires the coming together of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded subunits and the assistance of a large number of nuclear gene products acting at different stages of maturation of the enzyme. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of cytochrome c, encoded by CYC1 and CYC7, is required not only for electron transfer but also for COX assembly through a still unknown mechanism. We have attempted to distinguish between a functional and structural requirement of cytochrome c in COX assembly. A cyc1/cyc7 double null mutant strain was transformed with the cyc1-166 mutant gene (Schweingruber, M. E., Stewart, J. W., and Sherman, F. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4132-4143) that expresses stable but catalytically inactive iso-1-cytochrome c. The COX content of the cyc1/cyc7 double mutant strain harboring non-functional iso-1-cytochrome c has been characterized spectrally, functionally, and immunochemically. The results of these studies demonstrate that cytochrome c plays a structural rather than functional role in assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. In addition to its requirement for COX assembly, cytochrome c also affects turnover of the enzyme. Mutants containing wild type apocytochrome c in mitochondria lack COX, suggesting that only the folded and mature protein is able to promote COX assembly.

  19. A broad distribution of the alternative oxidase in microsporidian parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A P Williams

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasitic eukaryotes that were considered to be amitochondriate until the recent discovery of highly reduced mitochondrial organelles called mitosomes. Analysis of the complete genome of Encephalitozoon cuniculi revealed a highly reduced set of proteins in the organelle, mostly related to the assembly of iron-sulphur clusters. Oxidative phosphorylation and the Krebs cycle proteins were absent, in keeping with the notion that the microsporidia and their mitosomes are anaerobic, as is the case for other mitosome bearing eukaryotes, such as Giardia. Here we provide evidence opening the possibility that mitosomes in a number of microsporidian lineages are not completely anaerobic. Specifically, we have identified and characterized a gene encoding the alternative oxidase (AOX, a typically mitochondrial terminal oxidase in eukaryotes, in the genomes of several distantly related microsporidian species, even though this gene is absent from the complete genome of E. cuniculi. In order to confirm that these genes encode functional proteins, AOX genes from both A. locustae and T. hominis were over-expressed in E. coli and AOX activity measured spectrophotometrically using ubiquinol-1 (UQ-1 as substrate. Both A. locustae and T. hominis AOX proteins reduced UQ-1 in a cyanide and antimycin-resistant manner that was sensitive to ascofuranone, a potent inhibitor of the trypanosomal AOX. The physiological role of AOX microsporidia may be to reoxidise reducing equivalents produced by glycolysis, in a manner comparable to that observed in trypanosomes.

  20. Oxidase catalysis via aerobically generated hypervalent iodine intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Asim; Hyun, Sung-Min; Powers, David C.

    2018-02-01

    The development of sustainable oxidation chemistry demands strategies to harness O2 as a terminal oxidant. Oxidase catalysis, in which O2 serves as a chemical oxidant without necessitating incorporation of oxygen into reaction products, would allow diverse substrate functionalization chemistry to be coupled to O2 reduction. Direct O2 utilization suffers from intrinsic challenges imposed by the triplet ground state of O2 and the disparate electron inventories of four-electron O2 reduction and two-electron substrate oxidation. Here, we generate hypervalent iodine reagents—a broadly useful class of selective two-electron oxidants—from O2. This is achieved by intercepting reactive intermediates of aldehyde autoxidation to aerobically generate hypervalent iodine reagents for a broad array of substrate oxidation reactions. The use of aryl iodides as mediators of aerobic oxidation underpins an oxidase catalysis platform that couples substrate oxidation directly to O2 reduction. We anticipate that aerobically generated hypervalent iodine reagents will expand the scope of aerobic oxidation chemistry in chemical synthesis.