WorldWideScience

Sample records for osaka japan 16-21

  1. Travel-related illness at a tertiary care hospital in Osaka, Japan

    Hadano,Yoshiro; Shirano,Michinori; Goto,Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Yoshiro Hadano, Michinori Shirano, Tetsushi Goto Center for Infectious Diseases, Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Japan Abstract: We analyzed the travel-related health problems in persons returning to Japan from overseas. Data were extracted retrospectively for all patients visiting the infectious diseases department of Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Japan, between July 2012 and September 2013. There were 209 sick returning travelers during the period of the study. ...

  2. Distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan.

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Okamura, Hideo; Hayashi, Mitsuru; Nakano, Takeshi; Matsumura, Chisato; Fukushi, Keiichi; Wada, Shinpei; Inui, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples taken from Ajifu Waterway in Osaka city, from Osaka Bay, and from Kagoshima Bay, as well as in fifteen seawater samples collected from Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan. In all sediment samples, only PFCAs were detected, and the highest concentration was determined in Ajifu Waterway, where ΣPFAA was 58990 ng kg -1 dry weight. The total concentrations of PFAAs in sea water samples ranged between the limit of quantification and 53.4 ng L -1 , and perfluorohexanoic acid was the most prevalent and had the highest concentration of 37 ng L -1 . The changes in the patterns and concentrations of PFAAs in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan indicate that the PFAAs in surface waters are influenced by sources from Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, mainly the Yodo River basin, and the dilution effect which naturally occurs during their transport to the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan and in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Nguyen, Ha Thi-Hoang; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Oliva, S.T. de; Botelho, M.M.; Tavares, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of alcohol fuel has received much attention since the 1980s. In Brazil, ethanol-fuelled vehicles have been currently used on a large scale. This paper reports the atmospheric methanol and isoproponal concentrations which were measured from May to December 1997, in Osaka, Japan, where alcohol fuel was not used and from 3 to 9 February 1998 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where ethanol was used. The alcohols were determined by the alkyl nitrite formation reaction using gas chromatography (GC-ECD) analysis. The concentration of atmospheric alcohols, especially ethanol, measured in Sao Paulo were significantly higher than those in Osaka. In Osaka, the average concentrations of atmospheric methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were 5.8 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 4.6, and 7.2 ± 5.9ppbv, respectively. The average ambient levels of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol measured in Sao Paulo were 34.1± 9.2, 176.3 ± 38.1, and 44.2 ± 13.7ppbv, respectively. The ambient levels of aldehydes, which were expected to be high due to the use of alcohol fuel, were also measured at these sampling sites. The atmospheric formaldehyde average measured in Osaka was 1.9± 0.9ppbv, and the average acetaldehyde concentration was 1.5 ± 0.8ppbv. The atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average concentrations measured in Sao Paulo were 5.0 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.8ppbv, respectively. The C 2 H 5 OH/CH 3 OH and CH 3 CHO/HCHO were compared between the two measurement sites and elsewhere in the world, which have already been reported in the literature. Due to the use of ethanol-fuelled vehicles, these ratios, especially C-2H 5 OH/CH 3 OH, are much higher in Brazil than those measured elsewhere in the world. (Author)

  4. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  5. Distributions of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediment of Osaka Bay, Japan.

    Uno, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kokushi, Emiko; Bacolod, Eugene T; Koyama, Jiro

    2017-11-30

    The distributions of 15 nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in sediments collected at 44 sites throughout Osaka Bay, Japan were examined. The highest total NPAHs, with a concentration of 1949ng/kg dry weight, were detected near the city of Amagasaki. Some sites near the cities of Osaka, Kishiwada, sand Sakai registered ng/kg levels of NPAHs, but individual NPAH concentrations were relatively lower than those in previous studies. The sources were estimated using principal component analysis, and NPAHs were derived from exhaust gases of automobiles and industries at some sites. However, our results suggest that it is difficult to estimate the source, especially in coastal areas near big cities and large industrial areas, because the generation pathways between parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs are slightly different, and the ratio of PAHs and NPAHs could not be accurately reflect the characters of sources in sediments especially at coastal areas with large-scale industrial zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 'Radiation Fair' for 15 years in Osaka, Japan, and survey of the participants attitude toward radiation

    Furuta, Masakazu; Asano, Takeyoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1999-01-01

    We have been successfully operating 'Radiation Fair--The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August every year for 15 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan. The purpose of this event is radiation education of public including school kids through efficient information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. Currently we set up the space of it on a floor of Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major department stores in downtown Osaka and display various irradiated products available in our daily life together with explanatory panels. We have been devising various attractions as efficient information transfer media so that even elementary-school kids understand the basic knowledge of radiation and irradiation technologies. The number of participants has increased year by year until more than 20,000 in recent years. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products as well as impression toward the displays. The survey results suggest that school education may contribute to establish the public image toward 'radiation' as well as mass media. (author)

  7. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of insomnia among residents of Tokyo and osaka after the great East Japan earthquake: a prospective study.

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Akahane, Manabu; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Sano, Tomomi; Jojima, Noriko; Bando, Harumi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2013-01-18

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. Tokyo and Osaka, which are located 375 km and 750 km, respectively, from the epicenter, experienced tremors of 5.0 lower and 3.0 seismic intensity on the Japan Meteorological Agency scale. The Great East Japan Earthquake was the fourth largest earthquake in the world and was accompanied by a radioactive leak at a nuclear power plant and a tsunami. In the aftermath of a disaster, some affected individuals presented to mental health facilities with acute stress disorder (ASD) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few studies have addressed mental stress problems other than ASD or PTSD among the general public immediately after a disaster. Further, the effects of such a disaster on residents living at considerable distances from the most severely affected area have not been examined. This study aimed to prospectively analyze the effect of a major earthquake on the prevalence of insomnia among residents of Tokyo and Osaka. A prospective online questionnaire study was conducted in Tokyo and Osaka from January 20 to April 30, 2011. An Internet-based questionnaire, intended to be completed daily for a period of 101 days, was used to collect the data. All of the study participants lived in Tokyo or Osaka and were Consumers' Co-operative Union (CO-OP) members who used an Internet-based food-ordering system. The presence or absence of insomnia was determined before and after the earthquake. These data were compared after stratification for the region and participants' age. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression and a generalized estimating equation. This study was conducted with the assistance of the Japanese CO-OP. The prevalence of insomnia among adults and minors in Tokyo and adults in Osaka increased significantly after the earthquake. No such increase was observed among minors in Osaka. The overall adjusted odds ratios for the risk of insomnia post-earthquake versus pre

  9. Radon concentration, absorbed dose rate in air and concentration of natural radionuclides in soil in the Osaka district of Japan

    Megumi, K.; Matsunami, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Abe, M.; Kimura, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radon concentrations in outdoor air at 18 sites in the Osaka district, in the central part of Japan's main island, were measured with electrostatic integrating radon monitors which were developed by Y Ikebe et al of the Osaka survey centre as part of a nationwide survey of radon indoors and outdoors in Japan conducted by the National Institute of Radiological Science. The mean radon concentration in outdoor air during 2-month periods was measured over a period of a year and a half. In addition, the absorbed dose rate in air and the concentration of natural radionuclides in soil were measured at 40 sites in Osaka Prefecture which is located in the central part of the Osaka district using thermoluminescence dosemeters and with gamma ray spectrometry, respectively. Radon concentration in outdoor air showed a seasonal pattern, reaching its maximum during the winter and its minimum during the summer, but this variation was not significant at the coastal sites. It was concluded that this variation is correlated with a seasonal wind which blows from the continental interior to the ocean in winter and in the opposite direction in summer, as well as with geographical factors. Radon concentration in outdoor air in the Osaka district ranged from 0.6 to 17.9 Bq.m -3 and mean annual radon concentration in outdoor air at the 18 sites ranged from 2.7 to 6.9 Bq.m -3 . It was discovered that radon concentration in outdoor air decreased with wind speed in both winter and summer. The absorbed dose rate in air ranged from 66 to 114 nGy.h -1 , and the concentration of 226 Ra in soil ranged from 20 to 60 Bq.kg -1 respectively. (author)

  10. Volatile organic compounds in urban rivers and their estuaries in Osaka, Japan.

    Yamamoto, K; Fukushima, M; Kakutani, N; Kuroda, K

    1997-01-01

    The levels and distribution of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined by purge and trap GC-MS on water samples from 30 sites within the urban rivers and estuaries of Osaka, a populated industrialized city of Japan. Forty of 55 target VOCs listed in the US EPA Method 524.2 were detected. Dichloromethane (DCM) was found at higher levels at all of the sampling sites. The distribution of dominant VOCs followed four different patterns. First, the most common VOCs (DCM, toluene, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene) showed concentration maxima in the river segments, and the sites of maximum concentration fluctuated due to irregular large spills and/or loadings. Second, one VOC (cis-1,2-dichloroethene) was evenly distributed in particular rivers due to fixed loadings. Both of these patterns were found in the upper and middle reaches. Third, some of VOCs (1,2,3-trichloropropane and benzene) were specific to a single industrial site and truceable to those sources. Finally, some VOCs showed no concentration maxima along the rivers and entered from multiple sources (chloroform and bromodichloromethane). Diurnal variations of VOCs at the border of the city area, receiving domestic and industrial discharges, provided information to interpret their observed downstream distribution and possible sources.

  11. Consumer attitudes to radiation and irradiated potatoes at ``Radiation Fair'' in Osaka, Japan

    Furuta, Masakazu; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1998-06-01

    "Radiation Fair" has been held in summer vacation season in August for more than 10 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan, for the purpose of public education and information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes as well as impression toward the displays. According to the survey results, more than 60% of the kids visitors were satisfied with this exhibition as informative, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of "radiation" when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. Consumer's image toward radiation seems to shift to more "positive" when correct knowledge about radiation is given. More than half of consumers did not know "irradiated potatoes" but the percentage indicating that irradiated potatoes was definitely hazardous was less than 10%.

  12. Consumer attitudes to radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan

    Furuta, Masakazu; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1998-01-01

    'Radiation Fair' has been held in summer vacation season in August for more than 10 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan, for the purpose of public education and information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes as well as impression toward the displays. According to the survey results, more than 60% of the kids visitors were satisfied with this exhibition as informative, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. Consumer's image toward radiation seems to shift to more 'positive' when correct knowledge about radiation is given. More than half of consumers did not know 'irradiated potatoes' but the percentage indicating that irradiated potatoes was definitely hazardous was less than 10%

  13. Nosocomial Serratia marcescens outbreak in Osaka, Japan, from 1999 to 2000.

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kramer, Michael H; Yasui, Yoshinori; Fujii, Hayato; Nakase, Katsumi; Ikeda, Kazunori; Imai, Tatsuya; Okazawa, Akiko; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Ohyama, Takaaki; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2004-02-01

    To investigate and control an outbreak of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Serratia marcescens and to identify risk factors for respiratory colonization or infection with S. marcescens. Epidemiologic investigation, including review of medical and laboratory records, procedural investigations, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of environmental and patient isolates, statistical study, and recommendation of control measures. All patients admitted to a 380-bed, secondary-care hospital in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, from July 1999 through June 2000 (study period). Seventy-one patients were colonized or infected with S. marcescens; 3 patients who developed primary BSIs on the same ward within 5 days in June 2000 had isolates with indistinguishable PFGE patterns and indwelling intravenous catheters for more than 5 days. On multivariate analysis, among 36 case-patients with positive sputum specimens and 95 control-patients, being bedridden (odds ratio [OR], 15.91; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 4.17-60.77), receiving mechanical ventilation (OR, 7.86; CI95, 2.27-27.16), being older than 80 years (OR, 3.12; CI95, 1.05-9.27), and receiving oral cleaning care (OR, 3.10; CI95, 1-9.58) were significant risk factors. S. marcescens was isolated from the fluid tanks of three nebulizers and a liquid soap dispenser. The hospital did not have written infection control standards, and many infection control practices were found to be inadequate (eg, respiratory equipment was used without disinfection between patients). Poor hospital hygiene and the lack of standard infection control measures contributed to infections hospital-wide. Recommendations to the hospital included adoption of written infection control policies.

  14. Sex differences in lung cancer survival: long-term trends using population-based cancer registry data in Osaka, Japan.

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Morishima, Toshitaka; Miyashiro, Isao; Nakayama, Tomio

    2017-09-01

    Several studies of sex differences in lung cancer survival have been reported. However, large-size population-based studies based on long-term observation are scarce. We investigated long-term trends in sex differences in lung cancer survival using population-based cancer registry data from Osaka, Japan. We analyzed 79 330 cases from the Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) diagnosed between 1975 and 2007. We calculated 5-year relative survival in the six periods (1975-1980, 1981-1986, 1987-1992, 1993-1997, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007). To estimate the trends in sex differences in lung cancer survival throughout the study period, we applied a multivariate excess hazard model to control for confounders. The proportion of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 5-year relative relative survival have increased for both sexes. Sex differences in lung cancer survival have widened over the period, especially in ADC and since the late 1990s. The excess hazard ratio of death within 5 years for males was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.16-1.21), adjusting for period at diagnosis, histologic type, stage, age group and treatment. We reported that females have better prognosis in lung cancer than males and the sex differences in lung cancer survival have become wider in Osaka, Japan. This can be partly explained by the sex differences in the proportions of histologic type and stage. Further studies considering other factors that influence sex differences in lung cancer survival are needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 21

    1990-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1987 through March 31, 1988. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: (i) studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations and (ii) studies on radiation chemistry of high polymers and radiation dosimetry. (J.P.N.)

  16. Fission-track ages of Neogene and Quaternary volcanic ashes in south of Osaka, Japan

    Yokoyama, Takuo; Nakagawa, Yonosuke; Danhara, Tohru.

    1984-01-01

    A calculation method is proposed for the fission-track ages of zircon crystals in volcanic material. In this method, it is checked whether the spontaneous fission-track number of respective zircon crystals follows the Poisson distribution. If it does, the age is calculated by population method with all crystals, and if not, only with those crystals following the Poisson distribution, eliminating abnormal crystals. Extraneous zircon crystals are thus excluded and crystals with spontaneous fission-track number zero are not ignored. The following ages were obtained: Tamateyama volcanic ash in the Nijo group, 14.0 +- 0.6 Ma; pink volcanic ash in the Osaka group, 1.0 +- 0.2 Ma; Matsuo volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 1.5 +- 0.4 Ma; pumice volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 2.3 +- 0.4 Ma; Asashiro volcanic ash in the Ko-Osaka group, 2.9 +- 0.6 Ma. (Mori, K.)

  17. Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan

    Furuta, Masakazu; Hayashi, Toshio; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

  18. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no.19)

    1987-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1985 through March 31, 1986. The latest report, for 1984, is JAERI-M 86-051. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  19. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (no. 20)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1986 through March 31, 1987. The latest report, for 1985, is JAERI-M 87-046. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  20. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 14

    1981-12-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1980 through March 31, 1981. The latest report, for 1980, is JAERI-M 9214. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  1. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    1982-12-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1981 through March 31, 1982. The latest report, for 1981, is JAERI-M 9856. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  2. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 12

    1979-11-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1978 through March 31, 1979. The latest report, for 1978, is JAERI-M 7949. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  3. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (17)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1983 through March 31, 1984. The latest report, for 1983, is JAERI-M 83-199. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  4. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (13)

    1980-11-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1979 through March 31, 1980. The latest report, for 1979, is JAERI-M 8569. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  5. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (9)

    1976-09-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1975 through March 31, 1976. The latest report, for 1975, is JAERI-M 6260. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and drafting. (auth.)

  6. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no. 18)

    1986-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1984 through March 31, 1985. The latest report, for 1984, is JAERI-M 84-239. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  7. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 10

    1977-10-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1976 through March 31, 1977. The latest report, for 1976, is JAERI-M 6702. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (auth.)

  8. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no. 16)

    1983-11-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1982 through March 31, 1983. The latest report, for 1982, is JAERI-M 82-192. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, water and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  9. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (no. 11)

    1978-10-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1977 through March 31, 1978. The latest report, for 1977, is JAERI-M 7355. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  10. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (No. 8)

    1975-10-01

    This report describes research activities in Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the one year period from April 1, 1974 through March 31, 1975. The major research field covers the following subjects: studies related to reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization studies under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers; fundamental studies on polymerization, degradation, crosslinking, and grafting. (auth.)

  11. Influence of ship emission on atmospheric pollutant concentration around Osaka Bay, Japan

    Kondo, A.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nishikawa, E.

    1999-01-01

    Marine traffic in Osaka Bay is very intensified and much atmosphere pollutant (SO x and NO x ) from ships is released but there is no regulation about the ship emission. In this paper, we investigated the emission amounts of SO x NO x and HC from car, factory and ships in Osaka bay area and estimated the influence of the ship emission on the atmospheric pollutant concentration, using both the meteorological prediction model and the atmospheric pollutant concentration prediction model including the dry deposition and the chemical reaction. In Osaka bay area, the emission amounts of SO x and NO x from ships were about 30% of the total emission amounts, respectively. Using these emission data, the atmospheric pollutant concentration was simulated on a summer fine day when high oxidant concentration was measured at several observatories and was compared with the observed data. Though some differences were seen between the simulated results and the observed data, the diurnal variation agreed reasonably. The second simulation was carried out except for the ship emission and we estimated the influence of the ship emission on the atmospheric pollutant concentration. It was found that the ship emission raised SO 2 , NO 2 and NO concentration not only in shore area but also in 40km inland. (Author)

  12. Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface thermal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, Thailand.

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamano, Makoto; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Kaneko, Shinji; Yoshikoshi, Akihisa

    2009-04-15

    Anthropogenic effects in both Osaka and Bangkok were evaluated to compare the relationships between subsurface environment and the development stage of both cities. Subsurface thermal anomalies due to heat island effects were found in both cities. The Surface Warming Index (SWI), the departure depth from the steady geothermal gradient, was used as an indicator of the heat island effect. SWI increases (deeper) with the magnitude of heat island effect and the elapsed time starting from the surface warming. Distributions of subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect agreed well with the distribution of changes in air temperature due to the same process, which is described by the distribution of population density in both Osaka and Bangkok. Different time lags between groundwater depression and subsidence in the two cities was found. This is attributed to differences in hydrogeologic characters, such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity. We find that differences in subsurface degradations in Osaka and Bangkok, including subsurface thermal anomalies, groundwater depression, and land subsidence, depends on the difference of the development stage of urbanization and hydrogeological characters.

  13. 'Radiation Fair' for 15 years in Osaka, Japan, and survey of the participants attitude toward radiation

    Furuta, Masakazu; Asano, Takeyoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1999-09-01

    We have been successfully operating 'Radiation Fair--The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August every year for 15 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan. The purpose of this event is radiation education of public including school kids through efficient information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. Currently we set up the space of it on a floor of Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major department stores in downtown Osaka and display various irradiated products available in our daily life together with explanatory panels. We have been devising various attractions as efficient information transfer media so that even elementary-school kids understand the basic knowledge of radiation and irradiation technologies. The number of participants has increased year by year until more than 20,000 in recent years. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products as well as impression toward the displays. The survey results suggest that school education may contribute to establish the public image toward 'radiation' as well as mass media. (author)

  14. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 26)

    1994-03-01

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1992 (April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1993) are described. The research activities were conducted under the two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: laser-induced organic synthesis, modification of polymer surface by laser irradiation, radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author)

  15. Dietary intake estimations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) based on a total diet study in Osaka, Japan.

    Akutsu, K; Takatori, S; Nakazawa, H; Hayakawa, K; Izumi, S; Makino, T

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a total diet study performed for estimating the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Osaka, Japan. The concentrations of 36 PBDEs were measured in samples from 14 food groups (Groups I-XIV). PBDEs were detected only in Groups IV (oils and fats), V (legumes and their products), X (fish, shellfish, and their products), and XI (meat and eggs) at concentrations of 1.8, 0.03, 0.48, and 0.01 ng g⁻¹, respectively. For an average person, the lower bound dietary intakes of penta- and deca-formulations were estimated to be 46 and 21 ng day⁻¹, respectively. A high proportion of the decabrominated congener (DeBDE-209) was observed in Group IV. To confirm the presence of DeBDE-209 in vegetable oils, an additional analysis was performed using 18 vegetable oil samples. Of these, seven contained ng g⁻¹ levels of DeBDE-209.

  16. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Aiko Kurosawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0, the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases than the first (879 cases, but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42. The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928, and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001, indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01, there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01. We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed

  17. Factors associated with prehospital death among traffic accident patients in Osaka City, Japan: A population-based study.

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2018-01-02

    Although it is important to assess the factors associated with traffic accident fatalities to decrease them as a matter of public health, such factors have not been fully identified. Using a large-scale data set of ambulance records in Osaka City, Japan, we retrospectively analyzed all traffic accident patients transported to hospitals by emergency medical service personnel from 2013 to 2014. In this study, prehospital death was defined as that occurring at the scene or in the emergency department immediately after hospital arrival. We assessed prehospital factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents by logistic regression models. This study enrolled 28,903 emergency patients involved in traffic accidents, of whom 68 died prehospital. In a multivariate model, elderly patients aged ≥75 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.29-8.23), nighttime (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.65-4.70), and type of injured person compared to bicyclists such as pedestrians (AOR = 9.58; 95% CI, 5.07-17.99), motorcyclists (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.21-6.24), and car occupants (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.39-6.40) were significantly associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents. In addition, the AOR for automobile versus nonautomobile as the collision opponent was 4.76 (95% CI, 2.30-9.88). In this population, the factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents were elderly people, nighttime, and pedestrian as the type of patient. The proportion of prehospital deaths due to traffic accidents was also high when the collision component was an automobile.

  18. Annual reports of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 23, 24, 25)

    1992-09-01

    Research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during three year period from April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1992 are described. The latest report. for 1988, is JAERI-M 91-054. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: laser-induced organic synthesis, modification of polymer surface by laser irradiation, polymerization and modification of polymers by electron beam, and electron beam dosimetry. (author) 77 refs

  19. Major Change in the Predominant Type of “Norwalk-Like Viruses” in Outbreaks of Acute Nonbacterial Gastroenteritis in Osaka City, Japan, between April 1996 and March 1999

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Haruki, Kosuke; Kimura, Masatsugu; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2000-01-01

    In Osaka City, Japan, between April 1996 and March 1999, a total of 350 fecal specimens from 64 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis were examined to investigate infection by “Norwalk-like viruses” (NLVs). By reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, 182 samples (52.0%) from 47 outbreaks (73.4%) were NLV positive. During those three years, the incidence of NLV-associated outbreaks showed seasonality, being higher during January to March (winter to early spring). The ingestion of contaminated oysters was the most common transmission mode (42.6%). The amplicons of the 47 outbreak strains that were NLV positive by RT-PCR were tested using Southern hybridization with four probe sets (Ando et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:64–71, 1995). Forty of the outbreak strains were classified as 4 probe 1-A (P1-A) strains, 6 P1-B strains, 10 P2-A strains, 17 P2-B strains, and 3 untypeable strains, and the other 7 outbreaks were determined to be mixed-probe-type strains. Probe typing and partial sequence analysis of the outbreak strains indicated that a predominant probe type of NLVs in Osaka City had drastically changed; P2-B strains (77.8%) with multiple genetic clusters were observed during the 1996–97 season, the P2-A common strain (81.3%) related to the Toronto virus cluster was observed during the 1997–98 season, and P1-B strains (75.0%) with a genetic similarity were observed during the 1998–99 season. For the three untypeable outbreak strains (96065, 97024, and 98026), the 98026 outbreak strain had Southampton virus (SOV)-like sequences, and each of the other outbreak strains had a unique 81-nucleotide sequence. Newly designed probes (SOV probe for the 98026 outbreak strain and the 96065 probe for the 96065 and 97024 outbreak strains) were hybridized with relative strains and without other probe type strains. The prevalent NLV probe types in Osaka City during those three years were classified in six phylogenetic groups: P1-A, P1-B, P2-A, P2-B, SOV, and 96065 probe

  20. Factors associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance among elderly emergency patients: A population-based study in Osaka City, Japan.

    Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Katayama, Yusuke; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hayashida, Sumito; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku; Ohta, Bon

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to investigate prehospital factors associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance among elderly emergency patients. We reviewed ambulance records in Osaka City from January 2013 through December 2014, and enrolled all elderly emergency patients aged ≥65 years who were transported by on-scene emergency medical service personnel to a hospital that the personnel had selected. The definition of difficulty in hospital acceptance was to the requirement for ≥4 phone calls to hospitals by emergency medical service personnel before receiving a decision from the destination hospitals. Prehospital factors associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance were examined through logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 72 105 elderly patients were included, and 13 332 patients (18.5%) experienced difficulty in hospital acceptance. In the simple linear regression model, hospital selection time increased significantly with an increasing number of phone calls (R 2  = 0.774). In the multivariable analysis, older age (P for trend emergency-related symptoms and difficulty in hospital acceptance among elderly patients with symptoms of internal disease (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.53-1.91). In Japan, which has a rapidly aging population, a comprehensive strategy for elderly emergency patients, especially for advanced age groups or nursing home residents, is required. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2441-2448. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Dominant incidence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis clones in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Aki Tamaru

    Full Text Available Infection and transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-Mtb and extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis (XDR-Mtb is a serious health problem. We analyzed a total of 1,110 Mtb isolates in Osaka Prefecture and neighboring areas from April 2000 to March 2009. A total of 89 MDR-Mtb were identified, 36 (48.5% of which were determined to be XDR-Mtb. Among the 89 MDR-Mtb isolates, 24 (27.0% phylogenetically distributed into six clusters based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-various number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing. Among these six clusters, the MIRU-VNTR patterns of four (OM-V02, OM-V03, OM-V04, and OM-V06 were only found for MDR-Mtb. Further analysis revealed that all isolates belonging to OM-V02 and OM-V03, and two isolates from OM-V04 were clonal. Importantly such genotypes were not observed for drug-sensitive isolates. These suggest that few but transmissible clones can transmit after acquiring multidrug resistance and colonize even in a country with a developed, well-organized healthcare system.

  2. Prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Foods and Fecal Specimens Obtained from Cattle, Pigs, Chickens, Asymptomatic Carriers, and Patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan.

    Wang, Lili; Zhang, Shaobo; Zheng, Dongming; Fujihara, Sami; Wakabayashi, Akiyo; Okahata, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Masakazu; Saeki, Atsunori; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-07-24

    The source and routes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) remain poorly understood. To investigate the involvement of domestic animals in the dissemination of DEC, the prevalence of DEC in foods and fecal specimens from cattle, pigs, chickens, healthy carriers, and patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan was investigated using a multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction assay. The most abundant virulence genes were astA and eae, which had a prevalence 46.8% and 27.4%, respectively. Additionally, stx1 (26.6%) and stx2 (45.9%) were prevalent in cattle feces, while est (8.5%) and elt (7.6%) were prevalent in pig feces. afaB was the second-most prevalent gene in patients and healthy carriers, and it had detection rates of 5.1% and 8.1%, respectively. In contrast, afaB was not detected in animal feces or foods, except for three porcine fecal samples. The aggR gene was more prevalent in humans than in foods or animal feces. Both Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli carried by cattle may be sources for diarrheal diseases in humans. Pigs may be a source for human enterotoxigenic E. coli infections, whereas humans are expected to be the reservoir for diffusely adhering E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli.

  3. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests during exercise among urban inhabitants in Japan: Insights from a population-based registry of Osaka City.

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Sado, Junya; Matsuyama, Tasuku; Nishiyama, Chika; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Hayashida, Sumito; Kitamura, Yuri; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nakata, Ken; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa

    2017-08-01

    The patient characteristics, pre-hospital interventions, and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring during exercise, have not been sufficiently investigated among the general population. OHCA data from 2009 to 2015 were obtained from the population-based OHCA registry in Osaka City, Japan. Patients who suffered OHCA, which occurred during exercise before the arrival of emergency medical service personnel, were included. The primary endpoint was one-month survival with a favourable neurological outcome after OHCA, defined using the Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category scale 1 or 2. During the 7-year study period, 16,278 OHCAs were observed, and 52 (0.3%) occurred during exercise (male, n=41 [79%]; median age, 62 years). These incidents occurred mainly during running activities (n=14), followed by swimming (n=8), dance/social dance (n=6), tennis (n=4), and weight training (n=3). Within these exercise-related OHCAs, 47 (90%) were of cardiac origin, 45 (87%) were bystander-witnessed cardiac arrests, 49 (94%) received bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 30 (57%) received public-access defibrillation (PAD). Overall, 56% (29/52) had one-month survival with a favourable neurological outcome after OHCA, which was significantly higher among OHCAs of cardiac origin with PAD (77%, 23/30) than among those of cardiac origin without PAD (35%, 6/17) and among those of non-cardiac origin (0%, 0/5) (pexercise represented a small subset of the overall OHCA burden, but occurred during a wide variety of exercise activities. Patients with OHCA of cardiac origin had a good prognosis, and PAD played an important role in improving patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 29. April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    1997-03-01

    The annual research activities of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI, during the fiscal year 1995, are reported. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed description of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, photochemical separation of stable isotopes, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma-ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facility is also included. In October 1995, the Osaka Laboratory was dissolved into the Kansai Research Establishment which was newly inaugurated to promote advanced photon research. Therefore, this is the final issue of the annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry. (author)

  5. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 22. April 1, 1988 - March 31, 1989

    1991-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1988 through March 31, 1989. The latest report, for 1987, is JAERI-M 90-054. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects : (i) studies on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and (ii) studies on radiation chemistry of high polymers and radiation dosimetry. (J.P.N.)

  6. Evaluation of factors associated with the difficulty in finding receiving hospitals for traffic accident patients at the scene treated by emergency medical services: a population-based study in Osaka City, Japan.

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    Although the prolongation of the time between injury and hospital arrival of traffic accident patients can influence their prognosis, factors associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance of these patients have not been sufficiently evaluated in Japan. We retrospectively analyzed the population-based ambulance records of all traffic accident patients for whom the Osaka Municipal Fire Department (Osaka City, Japan) dispatched an ambulance in 2013. We defined "cases with difficulty in hospital acceptance" as cases that required ≥4 calls by emergency medical service personnel at the scene before receiving hospital acceptance. We included patient characteristics (age, sex, coma status, and trauma severity judged by emergency medical service personnel), time factors (day/night or weekday/holiday and weekends), and accident location for multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance. Among 13,427 traffic accident patients, 2,033 (15.1%) were cases with difficulty in hospital acceptance. Pediatric patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.265; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.060-1.509), male sex (adjusted OR, 1.260; 95% CI, 1.135-1.398), moderate-grade trauma (adjusted OR, 2.241; 95% CI, 1.972-2.547), severe-grade trauma (adjusted OR, 2.057; 95% CI, 1.249-3.388), holidays and weekends (adjusted OR, 1.702; 95% CI, 1.539-1.882), and night-time (adjusted OR, 2.720; 95% CI, 2.443-3.027) were positively associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance. Using population-based ambulance records from a large urban community in Japan, we showed that the difficulty in hospital acceptance of patients at the scene of traffic accidents was positively associated with several prehospital factors.

  7. 31 CFR 16.21 - Discovery.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 16.21 Section 16.21 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized... to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  8. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 28). April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    1995-10-01

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1994 (April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995) are described. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author)

  9. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 28). April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1994 (April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995) are described. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author).

  10. EDITORIAL: Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009) Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    The 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio and the 4th International Conference on Artificial Muscles were held in Osaka, Japan, 23-27 November 2009. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers presented at this international conference and congress. Of the 76 or so papers presented at the conference, only 10 papers were finally selected, reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular reviewing procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites and their applications. In particular, an electromechanical model for self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes is presented which discusses the concept of creating self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes where actuator and sensor elements are separated by a grounded shielding electrode. Eventually, an electromechanical model of the device is also proposed and validated. Following that, there is broad coverage of polytetrahydrofurane-polyethylene oxide-PEDOT conducting interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) for high speed actuators. The conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) is incorporated within the IPNs, which are synthesized from polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF) networks. PEO/PTHF IPNs are prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and dimethacrylate and hydroxythelechelic PTHF as starting materials. The conducting IPN actuators are prepared by oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene (EDOT) using FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent within the PEO/PTHF IPN host matrix. Subsequently, giant and reversible magnetorheology of carrageenan/iron oxide magnetic gels are discussed and the effect of magnetic fields on the viscoelastic properties

  11. Improvements in Patient Acceptance by Hospitals Following the Introduction of a Smartphone App for the Emergency Medical Service System: A Population-Based Before-and-After Observational Study in Osaka City, Japan.

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Izawa, Junichi; Gibo, Koichiro; Komukai, Sho; Hayashida, Sumito; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-09-11

    Recently, the number of ambulance dispatches has been increasing in Japan, and it is therefore difficult for hospitals to accept emergency patients smoothly and appropriately because of the limited hospital capacity. To facilitate the process of requesting patient transport and hospital acceptance, an emergency information system using information technology (IT) has been built and introduced in various communities. However, its effectiveness has not been thoroughly revealed. We introduced a smartphone app system in 2013 that enables emergency medical service (EMS) personnel to share information among themselves regarding on-scene ambulances and the hospital situation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of introducing this smartphone app on the EMS system in Osaka City, Japan. This retrospective study analyzed the population-based ambulance records of Osaka Municipal Fire Department. The study period was 6 years, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. We enrolled emergency patients for whom on-scene EMS personnel conducted hospital selection. The main endpoint was the difficulty experienced in gaining hospital acceptance at the scene. The definition of difficulty was making ≥5 phone calls by EMS personnel at the scene to hospitals until a decision to transport was determined. The smartphone app was introduced in January 2013, and we compared the patients treated from 2010 to 2012 (control group) with those treated from 2013 to 2015 (smartphone app group) using an interrupted time-series analysis to assess the effects of introducing this smartphone app. A total of 600,526 emergency patients for whom EMS personnel selected hospitals were eligible for our analysis. There were 300,131 emergency patients in the control group (50.00%, 300,313/600,526) from 2010 to 2012 and 300,395 emergency patients in the smartphone app group (50.00%, 300,395/600,526) from 2013 to 2015. The rate of difficulty in hospital acceptance was 14.19% (42,585/300,131) in the

  12. Verification and Improvement of the Three-Dimensional Basin Velocity Structure Model in the Osaka Sedimentary Basin, Japan Using Interstation Green's Functions and H/V Spectral Ratios of Microtremors

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Sekiguchi, H.; Somei, K.; Nishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Osaka sedimentary basin is filled by the Plio-Pleistocene Osaka group, terrace deposits, and alluvium deposits with thickness of 1 to 2 km over the bedrock, and it is surrounded by active fault systems. The Uemachi active fault system underlies the Osaka urban area. In order to predict the strong ground motions for future events of the Uemachi fault and others, the precise basin velocity structure model is indispensable as well as the detailed source fault model. The velocity structure of the Osaka basin has been extensively investigated by using various techniques such as gravity anomaly measurements, reflection surveys, boring explorations, and microtremor measurements. Based on these surveys and ground motion simulations for observed events, the three-dimensional velocity structure models of the Osaka basin have been developed and improved for decades (e.g., Kagawa et al., 1993; Horikawa et al., 2003; Iwata et al., 2008; Iwaki and Iwata, 2011). Now we are trying to verify the velocity structure model of the Osaka basin and to improve it incorporating new data sets. We have conducted two kinds of observations in the Osaka basin. The first observation is continuous microtremor observation. We have temporarily installed three-component velocity sensors at 15 sites covering the Osaka basin to record microtremors continuously for more than one year. The seismic interferometry technique (e.g. Shapiro and Campillo, 2004) is applied to retrieve interstation Green's function for analyzing the wave propagation characteristics inside the sedimentary basin. Both Rayleigh- and Love-wave type signals are identified in 0.1-0.5 Hz from observed interstation Green's functions. The group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves propagating between two stations are estimated from them using the multiple filter analysis method, and they are compared with the theoretical group-velocities of the model. For example, estimated Love-wave group velocity along a line inside the basin is

  13. 28 CFR 16.21 - Purpose and scope.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 16.21 Section 16.21 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production or Disclosure in Federal and State Proceedings § 16.21 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart sets...

  14. Time series modelling of the Kobe-Osaka earthquake recordings

    N. Singh

    2002-01-01

    generated by an earthquake. With a view of comparing these two types of waveforms, Singh (1992 developed a technique for identifying a model in time domain. Fortunately this technique has been found useful in modelling the recordings of the killer earthquake occurred in the Kobe-Osaka region of Japan at 5.46 am on 17 January, 1995. The aim of the present study is to show how well the method for identifying a model (developed by Singh (1992 can be used for describing the vibrations of the above mentioned earthquake recorded at Charters Towers in Queensland, Australia.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Self-Reported Violence of Osaka and Seattle Male Youths

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Atmospheric Aerosol in Osaka

    Sonoyo Mukai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the aerosol distribution in Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in Asian urban cities are important. In this work, we focus on the spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric particles around Higashi-Osaka in Japan. Higashi-Osaka is located in the eastern part of Osaka, the second-largest city in Japan, and is famous for small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises. For this study, we placed various ground measurement devices around the Higashi-Osaka campus of Kinki University including a Cimel sunphotometer supported by NASA/AERONET (Aerosol robotics network, suspended particulate matter (SPM sampler and LIDAR (light detection and ranging. Individual particle analyses with a SEM (scanning electron microscope/EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer show the temporal variations of particle properties, such as size, shape and components, during a dust event on 21 March 2010. The simultaneous measurement using a portable sun photometer with AERONET was conducted from April to November 2011. A comparison of the data at each site and the combination of the observed LIDAR data and model simulations indicate the difference in the transportation processes between dust and anthropogenic particles. We suppose this difference is attributed to the differences in the vertical aerosol profiles, where one aerosol is transported over Mount Ikoma and the other is blocked by it.

  17. Long-period Ground Motion Simulation in the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake

    Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Sato, K.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude long-period ground motions (1-10s) with long duration were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) and its aftershock (Ibaraki-Oki, Mw7.7), which is about 600 km away from the source regions. Sato et al. (2013) analyzed strong ground motion records from the source region to the Osaka basin and showed the following characteristics. (1) In the period range of 1 to 10s, the amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified in the Osaka basin sites. The predominant period is about 7s in the bay area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier amplitude spectra with their predominant period of around 7s are observed at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. Those characteristics were observed during both of the mainshock and the largest aftershock. Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. They simulated ground motions due to the largest aftershock as a simple point source model using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). They used a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012), with the minimum effective period of the computation of 3s. Their simulation result reproduced the observation characteristics well and it validates the applicability of the JIVSM for the long period ground motion simulation. In this study, we try to simulate long-period ground motions during the mainshock. The source model we used for the simulation is based on the SMGA model obtained by Asano and Iwata (2012). We succeed to simulate long-period ground motion propagation from Kanto area to the Osaka basin fairly well. The long-period ground motion simulations with the several Osaka basin velocity structure models are done for improving the model applicability. We used strong motion

  18. Japan

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  19. Nanocommunication design in graduate-level education and research training programs at Osaka University

    Sekiya, Mizuki; An, SoonHwa; Ata, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    After more than ten years of strategic investment research and development supported by government policies on science and technology, nanotechnology in Japan is making a transition from the knowledge creation stage of exploratory research to the stage of making the outcomes available for the benefit of society as a whole. Osaka University has been proactive in discussions about the relationship between nanotechnology and society as part of graduate and continuing education programs. These pr...

  20. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  1. Japan

    Matsui, T.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG) [de

  2. Japan

    Huttner, Kevin; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1987-01-01

    The Japanese nuclear power programme began with reactors imported from the United States. A natural uranium heavy water reactor using domestic materials was started in 1958. Subsequent progress was with light water reactors imported from the United States. Domestic reactor development was of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor. By March 1986 there were 32 commercial power plants in operation which produced approximately 23% of the electricity consumed in Japan. Ten more are under construction and six more are planned. Their location and comparative generating cost are tabulated. Energy demand and targets for nuclear power generation are discussed. The FBR advanced thermal reactor and high temperature reactor programmes are summarized. The Japanese nuclear fuel cycle - uranium prospecting, enrichment, reprocessing, the development of mixed oxide fuels, thermal recycling and radioactive waste management is also discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Scientific Grid activities and PKI deployment in the Cybermedia Center, Osaka University.

    Akiyama, Toyokazu; Teranishi, Yuuichi; Nozaki, Kazunori; Kato, Seiichi; Shimojo, Shinji; Peltier, Steven T; Lin, Abel; Molina, Tomas; Yang, George; Lee, David; Ellisman, Mark; Naito, Sei; Koike, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Shuichi; Yoshida, Kiyokazu; Mori, Hirotaro

    2005-10-01

    The Cybermedia Center (CMC), Osaka University, is a research institution that offers knowledge and technology resources obtained from advanced researches in the areas of large-scale computation, information and communication, multimedia content and education. Currently, CMC is involved in Japanese national Grid projects such as JGN II (Japan Gigabit Network), NAREGI and BioGrid. Not limited to Japan, CMC also actively takes part in international activities such as PRAGMA. In these projects and international collaborations, CMC has developed a Grid system that allows scientists to perform their analysis by remote-controlling the world's largest ultra-high voltage electron microscope located in Osaka University. In another undertaking, CMC has assumed a leadership role in BioGrid by sharing its experiences and knowledge on the system development for the area of biology. In this paper, we will give an overview of the BioGrid project and introduce the progress of the Telescience unit, which collaborates with the Telescience Project led by the National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research (NCMIR). Furthermore, CMC collaborates with seven Computing Centers in Japan, NAREGI and National Institute of Informatics to deploy PKI base authentication infrastructure. The current status of this project and future collaboration with Grid Projects will be delineated in this paper.

  4. Summary of discussions on the next project at RCNP, Osaka University

    1985-01-01

    A meeting was held in May 1985 to discuss what should be the next project of RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics), Osaka University, in relation with other similar projects in Japanese Universities or institutes. About 70 researchers from various universities and institutes in Japan gathered and discussed new nuclear physics projects including a 300 MeV cyclotron. Before entering discussions some short reports conserning selection of machine, requirement from physical studies or political problems were presented. And some selected commentators gave short comments for active discussions. All these reports and comments are included in this collective report. (Aoki, K.)

  5. [TUBERCULOSIS SCREENING BY CHEST RADIOGRAPHY AMONG INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AT JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS IN OSAKA CITY].

    Tsuda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Komukai, Jun; Furukawa, Kanae; Saito, Kazumi; Shimouchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    With a broader aim of controlling pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among foreigners, here, we have reported the findings of chest radiography screening for TB among international students at Japanese language schools in Osaka city. Between April 2011 and December 2013, 4,529 international students from 19 Japanese language schools in Osaka city underwent chest radiography for TB screening. The chest radiographs were studied in reference to the student's sex, age, nationality, and date of entry to Japan as well as any health conditions present at the time of screening. We further analyzed the bacterial information and pulmonary TB classification based on chest radiography findings of students who were identified to be positive for TB. Information on the implementation of health education was also gathered. The results revealed that 52.5% of the students who underwent chest radiography came from China, 20.3 % from South Korea, and 16.3% from Vietnam. Of the students, 52.9% were male and 47.1% were female. The median age of students was 23 years (range: 14-70 years). The median number of days from the first date of entry to Japan up until the radiography screening was 63 days. Based on the chest radiography findings, 71 students (1.6%) were suspected to have TB; however, further detailed examination confirmed that 19 students (0.4%) had active TB. This percentage is significantly higher than the 0.1% TB identification rate among residents in Osaka city of the same time period (Pschools (for a total of 12 times) in the 3-year period. A total of 257 language school staff and students attended the health education seminars. The identification rate of TB positive students in Japanese language schools was higher than that of the general residents in Osaka city. In addition, most of these students came to Japan within 1 year. It is also important to note that the majority of TB positive students had sputum smear negative results. This study proves that medical examination after

  6. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O. [Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  7. Daily variation of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations in the atmosphere in Osaka during the early phase after the FDNPP accident

    Zijian Zhang; Kazuhiko Ninomiya; Naruto Takahashi; Atsushi Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the time variations of radionuclides discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants accident, we started collecting aerosol samples in Osaka, Japan, using a high-volume sampler from March 15 to May 1, 2011. Atmospheric radioactivity concentrations of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 were measured with germanium semi-conductor detectors. Only I-131 was detected in the early phase and two Cs-134.137 peaks were found in Osaka in April. Using the HYSPLIT model, we concluded that direct transportation of the air mass from the Fukushima area was responsible for such events. (author)

  8. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Miyakoshi, K; Kagawa, T; Echigo, T [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Fast ignition studies at Osaka University

    Tanaka, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    After the invention of the chirped pulse amplification technique [1], the extreme conditions of matters have become available in laboratory spaces and can be studied with the use of ultra intense laser pulse (UILP) with a high energy. One such example is the fast ignition [2] where UILP is used to heat a highly compressed fusion fuel core within 1-10 pico-seconds before the core disassembles. It is predicted possible with use of 50-100 kJ lasers for both imploding the fuel and heating [2] to attain a large fusion gain. Fast ignition was shown to be a promising new scheme for laser fusion [3] with a PW (= 10 1 5 W) UILP and GEKKO XII laser systems at Osaka. Many new physics have been found with use of UILP in a relativistic parameter regime during the process of the fast ignition studies. UILP can penetrate into over-dense plasma for a couple hundred microns distance with a self-focusing and relativistic transparency effects. Hot electrons of 1-100 MeV can be easily created and are under studies for its spectral and emission angle controls. Strong magnetic fields of 10's of MGauss are created to guide these hot electrons along the target surface [4]. Based on these results, a new and largest UILP laser machine of 10 kJ energy at PW UILP peak power is under construction to test if we can achieve the sub-ignition fusion condition at Osaka University. The machine requires challenging optical technologies such as large size (0.9 m) gratings, tiling these gratings for UILP compression; segmenting four large UILP beams to obtain diffraction limited focal spot. We would like to over-view all of these activities. References [1]D. STRICKLAND and G. MOUROU, Opt. Commun., 56, 219 (1985) [2] S. ATZENI et al., Phys Plasmas, 6, 3316 (1999) [3] R. KODAMA, K.A. TANAKA et al., Nature, 418, 933 (2002) [4] A.L. LEI, K.A. TANAKA et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 96, 255006(2006) ; H. HABARA, K.A. TANAKA et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 97, 095004 (2006)

  10. Advances of energy drivers at Osaka

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Sadao; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1979-01-01

    The energy driver development at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, comprises three fields; glass, laser, carbon dioxide laser, and relativistic electron beam. The development of reliable glass lasers has been the main program at ILE. The GEKKO 12 module program was carried out in the fiscal years from 1977 to 1979 in order to develop various laser components and subsystems which are necessary to construct a 20 kJ GEKKO 12 glass laser. The measured gain coefficient of the 200 mm disk amplifier was 0.10/cm corresponding to the αD product of 4.0. The expected peak output power of the system was 2 TW at 0.1 ns and 0.9 kJ at 1 ns. The recent advances in coating techniques will enable to operate this system over 1.3 kJ per beam at 3 ns. Carbon dioxide lasers have been developed as efficient high energy lasers to study the wave length scaling of implosion process. The design and construction of the 10 kJ LEKKO 8 laser system are in progress. Relativistic electron beam machines, being the most cost-effective driver, have been studied to control pulsed power and to investigate electron beam plasma interaction. As the future plans of ILE, the construction of a 100 kJ energy driver from 1958 to 1987 for scientific break-even experiments is considered. (Kato, T.)

  11. Analysis of tooth decay data in Japan using asymmetric statistical models

    Yamamoto, Kouji; Tomizawa,Sadao

    2012-01-01

    Kouji Yamamoto,1 Sadao Tomizawa21Department of Medical Innovation, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda City, Chiba, JapanBackground: The aim of the present paper was to develop two new asymmetry probability models to analyze data for tooth decay from 363 women and 349 men aged 18–39 years who visited a dental clinic in Sapporo City, Japan, from 2001 to 2005.Methods: We analyzed th...

  12. Expo 70 - Osaka, Japón

    Editorial, Equipo

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available The following pavillions at the Expo-70 in Osaka are outstanding. The West German Exhibit, with a structure reminiscent of an astronomical observatory. The U.R.R.S. Pavillion, which is 109 m high, and has a tubular support. The Motor Car Industry Display, which involves two units and a tent like roof. The Festival Palace, within the representative zone of the Exhibition, and houses the official ceremonies in honour of the participating nations. The Tashida IHI Pavillion, whose structure includes the use of 1,338 interconnected tetrapods. The Takara Group Display, which is an abstract concept, consisting of a large number of cube space forms. The firm Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd. has taken a very active part in the construction of 28 buildings, both Japanese and foreign.Destacan en la EXPO-70 los siguientes pabellones: el pabellón de la Alemania Occidental, con su estructura en forma de cúpula para observaciones astronómicas; el de la U.R.S.S., de 109 m de altura y estructura tubular; el de la Industria Automovilística, que consta de dos unidades y presenta una cubierta en forma de tienda de campaña; el palacio de Festivales, que forma parte de la zona representativa de la exposición; en él se desarrollan los actos dedicados a las naciones participantes; el pabellón Toshiba IHI, en cuya estructura se emplearon un total de 1.338 tetrápodos ensamblados; el pabellón del grupo Takara, diseñado con una concepción abstracta —a base de cubos—. La empresa «Takenaka Komuten, Co. Ltd.», ha intervenido eficazmente en la construcción de 28 pabellones, japoneses y extranjeros.

  13. Nanocommunication design in graduate-level education and research training programs at Osaka University

    Sekiya, Mizuki; An, SoonHwa; Ata, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    After more than ten years of strategic investment research and development supported by government policies on science and technology, nanotechnology in Japan is making a transition from the knowledge creation stage of exploratory research to the stage of making the outcomes available for the benefit of society as a whole. Osaka University has been proactive in discussions about the relationship between nanotechnology and society as part of graduate and continuing education programs. These programs are intended to fulfill the social accountability obligation of scientists and corporations involved in R&D, and to deepen their understanding of the relationship between science and society. To meet those aims, the program has covered themes relating to overall public engagement relating to nanotechnology governance, such as risk management of nanomaterials, international standardization for nanotechnology, nanomeasurement, intellectual property management in an open innovation environment, and interactive communication with society. Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science and technology. This paper reports and comments on initiatives for public engagement on nanotechnology at Osaka University's Institute for NanoScience Design, which aims to create new technologies based on nanotechnology that can help realize a sustainable society.

  14. First experiment on liquid hydrogen transportation by ship inside Osaka bay

    Maekawa, K.; Takeda, M.; Hamaura, T.; Suzuki, K.; Miyake, Y.; Matsuno, Y.; Fujikawa, S.; Kumakura, H.

    2017-12-01

    A project to import a large amount of liquid hydrogen (LH2) from Australia by a cargo carrier, which is equipped with two 1250 m3 tanks, is underway in Japan. It is important to understand sloshing and boil-off characteristics inside the LH2 tank during marine transportation. However, the LH2 sloshing and boil-off characteristics on the sea have not yet been clarified. First experiment on the LH2 transportation of 20 liter with magnesium diboride (MgB2) level sensors by the training ship “Fukae-maru”, which has 50 m long and 449 ton gross weight, was carried out successfully inside Osaka bay on February 2, 2017. In the experiment, synchronous measurements of liquid level, temperature, pressure, ship motions, and accelerations as well as the rapid depressurization test were done. The increase rate of the temperature and the pressure inside the LH2 tank were discussed under the rolling and the pitching conditions.

  15. Annual report of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. 1994 (April 1, 1994 - March, 31, 1995)

    Itahashi, Takahisa; Futakuchi, Atsuko

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the research activities and operations of the Research Center For Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, during the period of the academic year 1994, April 1994 to March 1995. RCNP is the national laboratory for nuclear physics in Japan. The AVF cyclotron with K = 0.14GeV and the ring cyclotron with K = 0.4GeV and E P = 0.4GeV are the major user facilities at RCNP. They have been extensively used for studying nuclear nucleon-meson systems. All facilities are open for users from universities and research institutes in Japan as well as those in foreign countries. The research activities at the RCNP cyclotron laboratory include studies of nuclear interactions and nuclear potentials, spin isospin excitations and decays nuclear reaction dynamics and others. Studies of solid state and atomic physics and medical applications were carried out also at the cyclotron laboratory. New external ion sources have been instaled for the injector cyclotron. New extensions of the RCNP research activities are under progress. One is the possible use of the 8 GeV electron storage ring built at the synchrotron radiation laboratory SPring-8. It is located 100 Km west of Osaka. It is expected to start its operation in 1997. The Compton back-scattering of laser photons from the 8 GeV electron beam provides 1-3.5 GeV γ-rays, which are very promising for studying nuclear quark and meson systems. Other is the non-accelerator physics for ultra-rare nuclear processes at the new under ground laboratory 'Ohto Cosmo Observatory'. It is located 100 km south of Osaka. Neutrino studies by investigating double beta decays, dark matter studies by investigating nuclear responses to them, and studies of other weak processes are planned to be studied there. (J.P.N.)

  16. The revision of the master's curiculm at Osaka Kyoiku University

    赤松, 喜久; 伊藤, 敏雄

    2007-01-01

    The background covering the revision of the master's curriculum and a point concerning this revision in a teacher-training program at Osaka Kyoiku University are explained in this paper. Furthermore, future problems are organized and evaluated. The paper will help us to consider the revision of the curriculum expected as part of the master's course in a teacher's program. The number of required subjects is minimal so that a student may take more optional subjects to meet various needs. New su...

  17. English Loanwords in the 1990's in Japan.

    Nakagawa, Akira

    A sociolinguistic analysis of English loan words in use in the 1990s in the discourse of young Japanese people is presented. The study drew data from a 1993 survey of undergraduate students at two Osaka (Japan) higher education institutions, one for men and one for women, which asked what loanwords students used and heard often. The report first…

  18. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  19. Modeling of Wave Propagation in the Osaka Sedimentary Basin during the 2013 Awaji Island Earthquake (Mw5.8)

    Asano, K.; Sekiguchi, H.; Iwata, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Hayashida, T.; Saomoto, H.; Horikawa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The three-dimensional velocity structure model for the Osaka sedimentary basin, southwest Japan is developed and improved based on many kinds of geophysical explorations for decades (e.g., Kagawa et al., 1993; Horikawa et al., 2003; Iwata et al., 2008). Recently, our project (Sekiguchi et al., 2013) developed a new three-dimensional velocity model for strong motion prediction of the Uemachi fault earthquake in the Osaka basin considering both geophysical and geological information by adding newly obtained exploration data such as reflection surveys, microtremor surveys, and receiver function analysis (hereafter we call UMC2013 model) . On April 13, 2013, an inland earthquake of Mw5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which is close to the southwestern boundary of the aftershock area of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The strong ground motions are densely observed at more than 100 stations in the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than four minutes in the Osaka urban area where its bedrock depth is about 1-2 km. This long-duration ground motions are mainly due to the surface waves excited in this sedimentary basin whereas the magnitude of this earthquake is moderate and the rupture duration is expected to be less than 5 s. In this study, we modeled long-period (more than 2s) ground motions during this earthquake to check the performance of the present UMC2013 model and to obtain a better constraint on the attenuation factor of sedimentary part of the basin. The seismic wave propagation in the region including the source and the Osaka basin is modeled by the finite difference method using the staggered grid solving the elasto-dynamic equations. The domain of 90km×85km×25.5km is modeled and discretized with a grid spacing of 50 m. Since the minimum S-wave velocity of the UMC2013 model is about 250 m/s, this calculation is valid up to the period of about 1 s. The effect of attenuation is included in the form of Q(f)=Q0(T0/T) proposed by Graves (1996). A PML is implemented in

  20. Postnatal growth of children in relation to noise from Osaka International Airport

    Schell, L. M.; Ando, Y.

    1991-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of different levels of exposure to airport noise on the physical growth of children. Heights and weights of 6686 three-year-old boys and girls were measured between April 1972 and March 1974. These children are grouped into one of five exposure levels according to their exposure to noise from nearby Osaka International Airport in Japan. The frequency of growth inhibition is examined in each noise group and compared across groups. The frequency of very short boys and girls (less than 87 cm) increases significantly ( p short stature (10th percentile of local standards), the presence of moderate growth inhibition also is related to the level of airport noise, more so in males than females. With a third and less restrictive definition (less than 91 cm), the association is still present. Parallel analyses with weight did not find significant effects of noise exposure. We conclude that airport noise exposure may be related to a greater frequency of children of very small stature. We interpret this as evidence for a long-term physical effect of airport noise on children.

  1. Effect of highly reflective roofing sheet on building thermal loads for a school in Osaka

    Yuan Jihui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and building energy consumptions are becoming serious. Strategies to mitigate UHI and reduce building energy consumptions are implemented worldwide. In Japan, as an effective means of mitigating UHI and saving energy of buildings, highly reflective (HR and green roofs are increasingly used. In order to evaluate the effect of roofs with high reflection and thermal insulation on the energy conservation of buildings, we investigated the roof solar reflectivity of the subject school in Osaka, in which the HR roofing sheet was installed on the roof from 2010. Thermal loads, including cooling and heating loads of the top floor of school, were calculated using the thermal load calculation software, New HASP/ACLD-β. Comparing the thermal loads after HR roofing sheet installation to previous, the annual thermal load decreased about 25 MJ/m2-year and the cooling load decreased about 112 MJ/m2-year. However, the heating load increased about 87 MJ/m2-year in winter. To minimize the annual thermal load, thermal insulation of the roof was also considered be used together with HR roofing sheet in this study. The results showed that the combination of HR roofing sheet and high thermal insulation is more effective to reduce the annual thermal load.

  2. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  3. Seismic reflection survey of the Uemachi fault in Osaka Prefecture; Osaka Uemachi danso no hanshaho danseiha tansa

    Sugiyama, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshizawa, M; Hirooka, S [Nikko Exploration and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yokota, H; Ito, S [Hanshin Consultant Co., Osaka (Japan); Hayashi, K; Aizawa, H

    1997-05-27

    Reflection survey is conducted using three traverse lines in Sakai City for confirming the presence of a southward stretch of the Uemachi fault underground along the western periphery of the Uemachi terrace, Osaka, and for elucidating its connection to the Sakamoto fault distributed near Izumi. Another reflection survey is conducted in the bed of Kanzaki river, Osaka, for the confirmation of its connection to the Nembutsuji-zan fault in Senri hillock. It is estimated on the basis of boring data that there exists another flexural structure approximately 3km south of the flexural structure whose presence is confirmed by the Sakai second traverse line. Accordingly, possibilities are high that the southward stretch of the Uemachi fault connects to the Sakamoto fault. The confirmation by the Kanzaki river traverse line of the flexural structure again confirms the continuity between the Uemachi fault and Nembutsuji-zan fault. The above-said findings enable an inference that the three faults of Nembutsuji-zan, Uemachi, and Sakamoto constitute a chain of active faults. Furthermore, there exists an active fault to the south of the Sakamoto fault, which zigzags to the south on the right-hand side as far as the south of the Kumeda pond. Accordingly, the Uemachi fault system as a whole spans approximately 43km from the northern end of the Nembutsuji-zan fault as far as the south of the Kumeda pond. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  5. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  6. Performance management of nuclear medical apparatuses in Osaka University Hospital

    Ikehara, Katsuhiro; Kusumi, Yoshimi; Hayashi, Makoto; Miharu, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Kazutaka

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear medical out side-body measuring equipments in Osaka University Hospital consist of scinticamera, scintiscanner and movement-measuring equipment as measuring equipments, and central processing equipment, CRT attached with Polaroid camera, data typewriter, X-Y recorder, and high speed tape reader as data processing equipments. Daily and monthly management items are set up to maintain the best function of these equipments. The data processing room is air-conditioned to keep temperature at 25 0 C and humidity at 60% constantly, and they are confirmed with a temperature and humidity self-recorder. Computer system is used for the homogeneity control and the correction to counting failure of the scinticamera. As the repair of nuclear medical apparatuses needs long period and because of the special circumstances of radioactive drugs, very close cooperation among technicians, doctors and equipment makers is required. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Long-period Ground Motion Characteristics Inside and Outside of the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Its Largest Aftershock

    Sato, K.; Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.7) at the region adjacent to south boundary of the mainshock's source region. Long-period ground motions (1-10s) of large amplitude were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin about 550-800km away from the source regions during both events. We studied propagation and site characteristics of these ground motions, and found some common features between these two events in the Osaka basin. (1) The amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified at each sedimentary station. The predominant period is around 7s in the bayside area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier spectra have their peak values around 7s at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. (3) Two remarkable wave packets separated by 30s propagating from stations around the Nobi plain to the bedrock sites near the Osaka basin were seen in the pasted-up velocity waveforms from the source regions to the Osaka basin for both events (Sato et al., 2012). Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. Firstly, we simulate ground motions due to the largest aftershock using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The reason we focus on the largest aftershock is that this event has a relatively small rupture area and simple rupture process compared to the mainshock. The source model is based on the model estimated by Kubo et al. (2013). The velocity structure model is a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012) and the layer of Vs 350m/s in this model is replaced with one of Vs 500m/s. The minimum effective period in this computation is 3s. Then, we compare synthetic waveforms with observed ones. At CHBH14, the nearest station to the source and 60km away from the

  8. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  9. Status of the activities for disseminating the knowledge concerning radiation at Osaka Prefecture University

    Okuda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Research facilities for using radioisotopes and accelerators are installed in Radiation Research Center, Organization of University-Industry-Government (U-I-G) Cooperation, Osaka Prefecture University. These facilities were first built in 1959 in Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture and were then succeeded to Osaka Prefecture University in 1990 along with advanced radiation technologies. Until now, they have been used by many users in universities, research institutes and companies for about 50 years. In this period one of the important activities is the dissemination of the knowledge concerning radiation for the people in the society, especially for young people. The status of the activity is reported. (author)

  10. [Explicit and implicit attitudes toward standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect language use].

    Watanabe, Takumi; Karasawa, Kaori

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker. Compared with explicit attitudes, the analyses of implicit attitudes revealed that participants showed a consistent implicit bias favoring standard-Japanese language use. The changing processes and relationships of explicit and implicit attitudes were discussed.

  11. Annual report of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. April 1, 1993 - March 31, 1994

    Matsuoka, Nobuyuki; Miura, Iwao; Takahisa, Keiji

    1994-01-01

    This volume of the RCNP annual report gives briefly research activities of the RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics), Osaka University, in the academic year of 1993 (April 1993 - March 1994). RCNP is a national nuclear physics laboratory with the AVF cyclotron and the ring cyclotron. This annual report includes major research activities at RCNP as follows. 1) Low-energy nuclear physics by means of the K=140 MeV AVF cyclotron. Nuclear reactions and nuclear structures were studied. 2) Medium-energy nuclear physics by means of the 0.4 GeV ring cyclotron. The new ring cyclotron is in full operation, and several new progresses in the medium energy nuclear physics have been made. In particular, spin-isospin responses for discrete states, giant resonances and for quasi-free scattering processes have been studied by means of charge exchange reactions. 3) Heavy-ion physics with the secondary radio-active nuclear beams. It includes production of radioactive nuclei with large spin-polarization and studies of snow-balls. 4) Non-accelerator physics programs have started in collaboration with the Dept. Phys. group. Neutrino studies by means of double beta decays and dark matter searches by means of scintillators are under progress at the Kamioka underground laboratory. 5) Theoretical works on nuclear structures and nuclear reactions. The RCNP computers are widely used for theoretical studies all over Japan. 6) Developments of accelerators and detector systems. The new external ion-source and the new axial injection line are build in order to increase beam currents. (J.P.N.)

  12. Effects of Recent Climate Change on Hourly Weather Data for HVAC Design: A Case Study of Osaka

    Jihui Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current design weather data used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC design in Japan was created using an old data period. New design weather data should be created to reflect recent local climate change. Based on our previous proposal of creating design weather data with two weather indices (dry-bulb temperature and enthalpy for HVAC design, design weather data for Osaka was created using more recently-measured weather data (period: 2001~2015 from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA in this study. The effect of recent climate change on the design weather data created with eight proposed methods was found. It showed the change in weather elements for cooling design clearly trends to warmer and drier weather, with more solar radiation and lower enthalpy, while the trends in heating design are less clear, mainly showing higher enthalpy. Furthermore, the difference in the peak load for the heating and cooling designs using the new and old design weather data was compared. The comparison showed that the minimum difference in peak load for the heating design was found using the mean daily dry-bulb temperature as the first and second indices; for the cooling design, the minimum difference in peak load was found using mean daily enthalpy as both the first and second indices.

  13. Annual report of Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, 1980

    1981-01-01

    This is the progress report of the research activities in the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies during the period from April, 1980, to March, 1981. The activities were carried out by the OULNS staffs and also by outsiders at the OULNS. In this period, the X-ray astrophysics group, the radiation physics group and the high energy physics group joined the OULNS. The main accelerators in the OULNS are a 110 cm variable energy cyclotron and a 4.7 MeV Van de Graaff machine. The detailed experimental studies on inbeam e-gamma spectroscopy and beta-decay were carried out at two accelerator laboratories. The radiochemistry facility and a mass spectrometer were fully used. The research activities extended to high energy physics by utilizing national facilities, such as a 230 cm cyclotron in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics and a proton synchrotron in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The theoretical studies on elementary particles and nuclear physics were carried out also. It is important that the facilities in the OULNS were used by the outsiders in Osaka University, such as solid state physics group and particle-induced X-ray group. The activities of the divisions of cyclotron, Van de Graaff, high energy physics, accelerator development and nuclear instrumentation, mass spectroscopy, radioisotope, solid state and theoretical physics are reported. (Kako, I.)

  14. Construction of transmission pipeline across Osaka bay area -pipeline construction by shield tunnel under seabed-; Construction d'un gazoduc dans la zone de la baie d'Osaka - tunnel de protection sous-marin

    Takashi, AIhara [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Osaka Gas has been constructing a transmission gas pipeline across Osaka Bay Area with Osaka Port that has busy traffic. The company met several technical problems on the construction-design with measures against the subsidence of reclaimed land, anti-seismic measures, for example, in designing the pipeline construction by shield tunnel under seabed. This paper introduces the solutions to the technical problems. (authors)

  15. [Beginnings of the study of Western sciences, "Rangaku," in Kyoto and Osaka in close relations with the Edo school].

    Murata, T

    2001-01-01

    Beginnings of the study of Western sciences, "Rangaku," in Kyoto and Osaka in the late 18th century are reviewed. Profiles and achievements of several active learners are briefly described; they include Koishi Genzui (Osaka-Kyoto), Tsuji Ranshitsu (Kyoto), Kimura Kenkadō (Osaka), and Hashimoto Sōkichi (Osaka). Genzui, after having successfully made good relations with Sugita Genpaku and Ohtsuki Gentaku, leading masters of the Edo school, played a role of an advocator for promoting "Rangaku" in Osaka and Kyoto. As a result, Kenkadō attained the publication of his book "Ikkaku Sankō," a monograph of the Western crude drug unicorn, with the help of Gentaku, who had translated a Dutch reference into Japanese for him. Ranshitsu and Sōkichi were taught the Dutch language by Gentaku; Sōkichi is known as the founder of "Rangaku" in Osaka.

  16. Highly excited states in nuclear reactions. [Osaka Univ. , Japan, May 12-16, 1980

    Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-07-01

    Three of the 62 papers in this volume have already been processed for inclusion in the energy data base; these may be found by reference to the entry CONF-800540-- in the Report Number Index. The remaining papers will be entered into the data base as they are received from INIS. (RWR)

  17. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Nakagawa, K; Shiono, K; Inoue, N; Senda, S [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  18. A University–Industry Collaborative Entrepreneurship Education Program as a Trading Zone: The Case of Osaka University

    Koichi Nakagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two complementary problems are that busy practitioners find it difficult to access academic knowledge and university students lack practical experience. University–industry collaborative education is a potential solution for both of these problems by bringing together theoretical insights from universities and experiential know-how from industry. However, university–industry collaborative education has not been sufficiently studied to offer clear frameworks and mechanisms to foster effective knowledge exchanges between these two groups. In this article, we propose the metaphor of a “trading zone” as a potential analytical framework for implementing this method of education. Applying this framework to the analysis of a university–industry collaborative education program, this study proposes that the exchange of knowledge between students and practitioners is the essential learning experience and that it is made more meaningful by the heterogeneity between students and practitioners. The shared language provided by the program and those who deliver it make the exchanges efficient, and the temporary and extraordinary nature of the program accelerate those exchanges. Here, we analyze the case of Osaka University in Japan to illustrate the framework and develop associated propositions to encourage further study and validation of the framework.

  19. Japan - From Hiroshima to Fukushima

    Pons, Philippe; Guillain, Robert; Pedroletti, Brice; Bouc, Alain; Vichney, Nicolas; Izraelewicz, Erik; Mesmer, Philippe; Fenoglio, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of articles published by Le Monde and which addressed some important events of the history of the Japanese society since the destruction of Hiroshima by the first atomic bomb until the Fukushima accident. The addressed facts and events are: the destruction of Hiroshima, the surrender of Japan, the end of the peculiar status of the emperor, the strong growth period from the 1950's to the 1980's (the revival of Japanese trusts, industrial pollution in Minamata, the activists of Zengakuren, the Osaka exhibition, Mishima's suicide, nuclear and data processing are defined as national priorities), the lost decades 1990-2010 (a new emperor, the Kobe earthquake, the increasing gap between the society and the political class, life and death in Toyota, demographic decline, etc.). The last articles address the Fukushima accident, and propose some photos and an interview with the Japanese Prime Minister

  20. Japan 2003

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  1. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    Yunoki M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mikihiro Yunoki,1-3 Takeshi Kurosu,2 Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu,2,4 Kazuo Takahashi,5 Yoshinobu Okuno,4 Kazuyoshi Ikuta2,4 1Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, 2Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, 3Pathogenic Risk Evaluation, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, 4Research and Development Division, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kagawa, 5Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, West Nile virus (WNV, and dengue virus (DenV are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. Keywords

  2. Electric vehicles, magnetic levitation and superconductive levitation in Japan

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This is a technological assessment of electric automotive vehicles, high speed magnetic levitation trains and hyperspeed superconductive magnetic levitation trains in Japan. It includes conventional battery electric vehicles for the automotive application, conventional magnetic levitation trains with peak speeds of 300 km/h and superconductive levitation trains capable of speeds over 500 km/h in transcontinental service. These electric vehicles have been under development since 1971 and are now considered ready for introduction into intercity commercial service. Conventional magnetic levitation trains are targeted to connect New Chitose International Airport with Sapporo and shorter connections in LasVegas, Philadelphia and Miami. The first superconductive train is planned for the Osaka to Tokyo link by the year 2000, a distance of 515 km. The initial step has been taken with approval of funding for the first five year phase of construction beginning with the Kansai project near Osaka

  3. The Effects of Marital Support, Social Network Support, and Parenting Stress on Parenting: Self-Efficacy among Mothers of Young Children in Japan

    Suzuki, Sawako

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether Japanese women's perceived marital and social support affect their parenting self-efficacy directly or indirectly through their levels of parenting stress. Participants were 98 mothers of children in the second grade living in Sapporo or Osaka, Japan. Data collected through surveys were submitted to a structural…

  4. Structural dynamics of the ΔE22 (Osaka) familial Alzheimer's disease-linked amyloid β-protein.

    Inayathullah, Mohammed; Teplow, David B

    2011-09-01

    A familial form of Alzheimer disease recently was described in a kindred in Osaka, Japan. This kindred possesses an amyloid β-protein (Aβ) precursor mutation within the Aβ coding region that results in the deletion of Glu22 (ΔE22). We report here results of studies of [ΔE22]Aβ40 and [ΔE22]Aβ42 that sought to elucidate the conformational dynamics, oligomerization behavior, fibril formation kinetics, fibril morphology, and fibril stability of these mutant peptides. Both [ΔE22]Aβ peptides had extraordinary β-sheet formation propensities. The [ΔE22]Aβ40 mutant formed β-sheet secondary structure elements ≈400-fold faster. Studies of β-sheet stability in the presence of fluorinated alcohol cosolvents or high pH revealed that the ΔE22 mutation substantially increased stability, producing a rank order of [ΔE22]Aβ42 >Aβ42 > [ΔE22]Aβ40 > Aβ40. The mutation facilitated formation of oligomers by [ΔE22]Aβ42 (dodecamers and octadecamers) that were not observed with Aβ42. Both Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides formed nebulous globular and small string-like structures immediately upon solvation from lyophilizates, whereas short protofibrillar and fibrillar structures were evident immediately in the ΔE22 samples. Determination of the critical concentration for fibril formation for the [ΔE22]Aβ peptides showed it to be ≈1/2 that of the wild type homologues, demonstrating that the mutations causes a modest increase in fibril stability. The magnitude of this increase, when considered in the context of the extraordinary increase in β-sheet propensity for the ΔE22 peptides, suggests that the primary biophysical effect of the mutation is to accelerate conformational changes in the peptide monomer that facilitate oligomerization and higher-order assembly.

  5. Standardization of an irradiation field using 60Co and 137Cs sources (at Radioisotope Research Centre of Osaka University)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamashito, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, J.; Nomura, T.

    1996-01-01

    On the occasion of installing the γ-ray irradiation system for animal experiments at the Radioisotope Research Center of Osaka University both lead collimators and shield screen have been supplemented to the system in order to satisfy the Japanese legal regulation that the dose equivalent rate outside the controlled area should be less than 300 μSv/w because the experimental room has not been so designed as to install such an apparatus. The original use of the system is to study the internal β-ray exposure of a small animal on a dosage of tritium water, which will be eliminated from a body with a biological half-life. Accordingly, the dose rate of internal exposure due to β-ray will change with time, and hence such a situation could be simulated with an external exposure due to γ-rays by changing the dose rate spatially, that is, the distance between the γ-ray source and a sample. It is, however, anticipated that improvement of the system would bring increase in the scattered γ-rays at an irradiation point and hence it becomes the purpose of the present paper to obtain precise exposures including scattered γ-rays at each irradiation point for animal experiments and also to find an optimum point for standard calibration where no scattered γ-rays are observed. For that purpose the effect of them will be evaluated with both calculations due to the Monte Carlo code for neutron photon transport (MCNP) and experiments due to the ionization chamber calibrated at the National Bureau of Standard in Japan. (author)

  6. Just emotions: Reading the Sarah and Hagar narrative (Genesis 16, 21 through the lens of human dignity

    Juliana Claassens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeked to read the interconnected narratives of Sarah and Hagar (Genesis 16, 21 in terms of the hermeneutical lens of human dignity. For the purpose of this article, recent studies on the performative nature of emotions, which considered the central role of emotions such as pain, disgust and hatred in shaping the lives of individuals as well as the ways in which people relate to one another, were helpful in contemplating the situations of dehumanisation faced by both Sarah and Hagar as well as the broader question regarding upholding human worth in a context of indignity. This article furthermore considered the role of emotions in a conversation on ethics and particularly the way in which the narrative offered a fruitful avenue for considering Israel�s relationship to their neighbours � a line of interpretation that holds potential for reflecting on complex interracial and interethnic relationships in today�s global context.

  7. Hydrodynamic instability experiments on the HIPER laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University

    Shigemori, K.; Azechi, H.; Fujioka, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present recent results on the hydrodynamic instability experiments on the HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) laser facility at ILE, Osaka University. We measured the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate on the HIPER laser. Also measured were all parameters that determine the RT growth rate. We focused on the measurements of the ablation density of laser-irradiated targets, which had not been experimentally measured. The experimental results were compared with calculations with one dimensional simulation coupled with Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport. (author)

  8. International Conference on Crystal Growth (10th) Held in San Diego, California, on 16-21 August 1992

    1993-07-14

    point defects in bulk ZnSe were subsequently [41 K. Terashima, M. Kawachi and M. Takena, I. Crystal investigated using positron annihilation technique [6...tIiguchi and Kohei Kodaira Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060, Japan Rufile • TiO2 ) single crystals

  9. Bone marrow transplantation in Japan

    Masaoka, Tohru

    1989-01-01

    BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

  10. Outline of developing projects of atomic bomb in Japan and USA

    Fukui, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    The content of the title connecting with the World War II is described hoping that younger researchers of nuclear physics could know some of the facts that scientists and the military of Japan and USA, respectively, had have developing projects of atomic bomb by fission reaction, although there are no official documents of those in Japan, even if there are some unofficial documents that are uncertain partly in Japan. Described are a chronological table, the content of research and development of atomic bombs, Japan's experiments by Kikuchi Laboratory of Osaka Imperial University and Nishina Laboratory of RIKEN, as well as the USA's action such as production of fissile nuclide, Pu-239 and U-235, selection of the site to fabricate atomic bomb, investigation the state of research and development of atomic bombs in Germany, Italy and Japan. (S.Y.)

  11. Annual report of Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, for fiscal 1995

    1996-01-01

    This publication is the progress report of the research activities carried out by the members of the Osaka University Laboratory of Nuclear Studies (OULNS) in fiscal year 1995. Some groups carried out their experimental researches using the major research facilities at the OULNS, that include 4.75 MV Van de Graaff, a mass spectrograph, and an M360 Computer. Other groups intensively carried out all or part of their researches outside Osaka University including the facilities in foreign countries. In short the reader will enjoy a whole spectrum of research fields studied by nuclear and particle techniques. To expand and enrich the studies in the interdisciplinary region between nuclear physics and solid state physics investigated by use of nuclear technologies, especially by use of unstable nuclear beams, OULNS is now planning a small Radioactive-Nuclear-Beam Facility which consists of an AVF cyclotron of K = 30 with high intensity beams of light ions and a post accelerator, a radio-frequency-quadrupole accelerator (RFQ). (J.P.N.)

  12. Centro comercial Daiei Nakamozu Sakal Osaka – Japón

    Takenaka Komuten Co., Ltd., Arquitectos e ingenieros

    1974-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief description of the lay out and essential characteristics of this Shopping Centre in Nakamozu-cho, Sakai, Osaka. It consists of two storeys and basement for the part to be used as a supermarket, shops and swimmingpool and of three storeys and basement in the bank section. The basement is used as a parking lot which together with the space above ground accommodates 1,200 units. A great contrasting effect is achieved by using reinforced concrete for the structure and glass for the roofs and the large vertical surfaces.Se describen brevemente en este artículo la distribución y características esenciales de este Centro Comercial, situado en Nakamozu-cho, Sakai, Osaka. Está constituido por dos plantas y sótano en la parte de supermercado, tiendas y piscina, y por tres plantas y sótano en la zona destinada a banco. El sótano está ocupado por un aparcamiento que, con las plazas de superficie, alcanza las 1.200 unidades. La construcción se ha realizado con estructuras de hormigón armado, contrastando con cubiertas y grandes superficies verticales acristaladas.

  13. The sixteenth period report on the cooperative utilization of the AVF cyclotron at Osaka University RCNP (May 1983 - Oct 1983)

    1984-01-01

    The AVF cyclotron at the RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics) of Osaka University has been cooperatively used by various researchers of Japanese universities or colleges. This collective report covers papers concerning various studies performed on the AVF during May 1983 to Oct 1983. About 30 individual papers are presented (some in English and the others in Japanese). (Aoki, K.)

  14. Networking Japan

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  15. Present status of direct drive inertial confinement fusion research at ILE Osaka University

    Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Nakai, Sadao

    1993-01-01

    The activities of direct drive implosion experiments at ILE of Osaka Univ. are focused on the planar- and spherical-target experiments relating to Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the implosion experiments of cryogenic targets with low density plastic foam shell overcoated by a solid plastic layer. In the spherical shell target implosions a very early x-ray emission (refer as pre-emission hereafter) has been observed at the center of the target. The appearance of the pre-emission is related to the illumination nonuniformity. The appearance time of the pre-emission, the electron temperature of the source plasma of the pre-emission and the possibility of Rayleigh-Taylor instability have been studied experimentally to understand the mechanism of the pre-emission. Shell break up by Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been concluded to be the most probable mechanism of the pre-emission

  16. Measurement of Rn-222 concentration in underground water in Osaka stratum group in Sennan area

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kosuke

    1977-01-01

    The Rn-222 concentration in underground water is reported as follows, which is the result obtained when the ground inspection was carried out in the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University located at Kumatori area in Osaka stratum group. Underground water, at different depth, well water and rain water were taken, and the contained Rn-222 was extracted with toluene to measure by liquid scintillation technique. Rn-222 concentration in rain water was 3.5 - 8.0 pCi/l, while the concentration in well water was 130 - 250 pCi/l, and that in underground water was 240 - 313 pCi/l. The seasonal change, geographical difference and variation according to depth of Rn-222 concentration were examined. Rn-222 behavior in soil should be investigated more in detail in reference to Rn-222 dispersion, transport and equilibrium problems in soil-water system in the future. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  18. Mock-up experiment at Birmingham University for BNCT project of Osaka University – Neutron flux measurement with gold foil

    Tamaki, S.; Sakai, M.; Yoshihashi, S.; Manabe, M.; Zushi, N.; Murata, I.; Hoashi, E.; Kato, I.; Kuri, S.; Oshiro, S.; Nagasaki, M.; Horiike, H.

    2015-01-01

    Mock-up experiment for development of accelerator based neutron source for Osaka University BNCT project was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. In this paper, spatial distribution of neutron flux intensity was evaluated by foil activation method. Validity of the design code system was confirmed by comparing measured gold foil activities with calculations. As a result, it was found that the epi-thermal neutron beam was well collimated by our neutron moderator assembly. Also, the design accuracy was evaluated to have less than 20% error. - Highlights: • Accelerator based neutron source for BNCT is being developed in Osaka University. • Mock-up experiment was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. • Neutronics performance of our assembly was evaluated from gold foil activation. • Gold foil activation was determined by using HPGe detectors. • Validity of the neutronics design code system was confirmed.

  19. Japan 2014

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  20. Upgrade of the ISIR L-band linac at Osaka University and stabilization of the electron beam

    Kato, R.; Kashiwagi, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Suemine, S.; Isoyama, G.

    2004-01-01

    The L-band electron linac at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University has been extensively remodeled to realize high operational stability and reproducibility for advanced studies in beam science and technology. Almost all the peripheral components are replaced with new ones. The modification of the linac has been completed and commissioning is now in progress. In this paper, we will report performance and characteristics of the linac after modification. (author)

  1. Measurement of indoor radon Concentrations in Osaka, Nara, Wakayama and Hyogo with passive dosemeters

    Mori, Toshiaki; Hori, Yasuharu; Takeda, Atsuhiko; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Uchiyama, Masahumi; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kankura, Takako; Kobayashi, Sadayosi.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations of 792 houses in Osaka, Nara, Wakayama and Hyogo were measured by the passive dosemeter which was developed in Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in West Germany. Each house was measured at two places for successive two periods of six months to obtain annual average exposure due to radon daughters. The arithmetic mean concentration of all houses was 45.2 Bq/m 3 with a standard deviation of 27.2; the geometric mean, 40.7 Bq/m 3 and the median, 39 Bq/m 3 . The distribution of the radon levels was approximately log-normal with 80% of houses having radon concentrations less than 60 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variation of the mean radon concentration was evident between the former period including winter value of 45 Bq/m 3 and the latter including summer value of 32 Bq/m 3 . The indoor radon concentrations of wooden houses were found to have the widest distribution with the highest value of 371 Bq/m 3 . The highest value obtained in the ferro-concrete house was 118 Bq/m 3 . Twelve houses having indoor radon concentrations higher than 120 Bq/m 3 were all Japanese traditional wooden houses with walls made of soil. (author)

  2. Present status of inertial confinement fusion in Japan

    Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1984-01-01

    The Japanese inertial fusion program has made important progress towards implosion fusion process and the technical development required for realizing the breakeven of inertial fusion energy. The key issues for the ICF research are the development of a high power driver, the pertinent pellet design for implosion by a super computer code, and the diagnostics of implosion process with high space and time resolution. The Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, is the central laboratory for ICF research in Japan. The ILE Osaka has advanced the Kongo Project aiming at the breakeven of inertial fusion since 1980, and as the first phase, the Gekko 12 Nd glass laser of 20 kJ having 12 beams was constructed. The ILE has also the Lekko 8 CO 2 laser and the Reiden 4 light ion beam machine. In the second phase, a 100 kJ class driver will be provided. At the ILE, rare gas halide lasers such as KrF and ArF have been investigated. Laser plasma coupling, the scaling law for implosion pressure, the invention of a new type target ''Cannonball'', and the development of computer codes are described. Also the activities in universities, government laboratories and industrial companies are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. ROUND-ROBIN ATOM-PROBE EXPERIMENT : PRELIMINARY RESULTS IN JAPAN

    Nakamura , S.

    1986-01-01

    A round-robin experiment were to be carried out by 6 laboratories in Japan (Nishikawa ; Tokyo Inst. Tech., Sakurai and Igata ; Univ. of Tokyo, Ishikawa ; Hitachi, Tanino ; Nippon Steel Corp. and Nakamura ; Osaka Univ.) under the normal operating condition (T < l00 °K,. pulse fraction ~ 15% ~, P < 10-9 torr). Fe-Cr-Al and W-25%Re alloys, which are divided from a single wire were chosen as the specimen materials. A preliminary analysis of the W-Re alloy of the laboratory concerned show the good...

  4. Mathematical experimental modeling for muffle furnace drying process of municipal sewage sludge in Beijing and Osaka

    Li, Xinyi; Takaoka, Masaki; Zhu, Fenfen; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, China has experienced rapid urbanization, which also leads to a lot of environmental problems including those of sewage sludge. As the amount of sewage sludge increases, conventional methods of treatment, such as compost and landfill, are facing the problems of limitations in demands or land. Considering that the demand of constructive materials in China keeps increasing, reusing municipal sewage sludge (MSS) in cement manufactory plant as fuels and raw materials is another practicable way to deal with it. The aim of this study is to describe the process of the heating of sewage sludge under different atmospheres of nitrogen and oxygen, and to find out some relation between the moisture of MSS and the heating time under different surrounding temperature by means of a mathematical model. In this study, we compared 4 kinds of MSS sampled in Beijing and Osaka. First of all, we defined the differences in those fundamental physical properties, such as concentration of various elements, calorific values and so on. Then the macroscopical thermal properties of the sludges were observed by means of thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Both pyrolysis and combustion of 4 samples of MSS were studied by TG dynamic runs carried out at 10K/m. Visual observation of the heating profiles shows three stages in the heating process, which have been characterized. At last, we focused on batch processing drying tests using muffle furnace under temperature of 200, 250 and 300 degrees Celsius. The volatile matters loss besides moisture during heating process was evaluated and the experimental drying curves were matched with a mathematical model. (author)

  5. Wind Energy Japan

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  6. The gas industry in Japan

    Jego, H.

    2000-01-01

    Though oil is the most widely used primary energy in Japan, its market share is decreasing steadily in favour of other energies such as natural gas. Around 80 % of the gas consumed in Japan is imported in the form of LNG, with locally produced natural gas accounting for 5 % and LPG 12%. Annual LNG supplies now total 48 million tons (720 TWh) and are forecast to rise to 57 million tons over the next ten years. However, only on third of the total volume of LNG, i.e., 242 TWh, is distributed to final consumers. The rest is imported directly by power companies to produce electricity. The 245 gas distribution companies, 70 in the public sector and 175 in the private sector (including three large firms: Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas) carry the gas through their own non-interconnected networks to around 25 million customers, though the gas supply area covers only 5 % of the country. This small percentage can be explained partly by Japan's topography: 80 % of the land is covered by mountains. This means that only 20 % of the country is suitable for industrial and residential development. Populations living outside the gas supply areas mainly use LPG. The number of LPG customers totals around 25 million, a similar number to those using mains gas. However, the share of mains gas is increasing each year due to the population increase in urban zones. Though gas represents only 11 % of the energy consumed in Japan, it is nevertheless present on practically all markets and holds the leading position for domestic hot water and cooking in the residential sector. However, for heating, it lags well behind oil. In industry, mains gas covers only 5% of energy needs. However, with the expansion of the pipeline network and market liberalization, the share of gas is set to increase. The price of gas for the residential sector is 2 to 3 times higher than in western countries. This can be attributed to the following factors: most natural gas is imported LNG; unit consumption in the

  7. An assessment of PKI and networked electronic patient record system: lessons learned from real patient data exchange at the platform of OCHIS (Osaka Community Healthcare Information System).

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Kuwata, Shigeki; Nakano, Hirohiko; Shanmai, Ji; Qiyan, Zhang; Yufen, Chen; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masaki

    2004-03-31

    To enhance medical cooperation between the hospitals and clinics around Osaka local area, the healthcare network system, named Osaka Community Healthcare Information System (OCHIS), was established with support of a supplementary budget from the Japanese government in fiscal year 2002. Although the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (PKI), there remain security issues to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority in contract with the Japanese Medical Information Systems Organization (MEDIS) in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design and the results of the study concerning message security.

  8. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4–C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300–16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900–29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. -- Highlights: • High perfluorohexanoic acid concentration was detected in the Samondogawa River. • The mass flow rate of PFCs in this river section was 3900–29,000 kg/y. • Perfluorohexanoic acid was the dominant compound at all seawater sampling sites. • Perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay. -- Discharge of perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay

  9. Field operational tests of Smartway in Japan

    Fumihiko Kanazawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway in Japan to promote “Smartway” next-generation roadways, which provide a variety of services through the use of advanced ITS technologies. In recent years, the National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM, part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT, has conducted public–private joint research on next-generation road services using ITS technologies. Field operational tests (FOTs of services including forward obstacle information provision and merging assistance using 5.8 GHz dedicated short range communication (DSRC were conducted on the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway through FY2007. In FY2008–2009, FOTs were conducted in three major metropolitan areas—Tokyo, Nagoya, and Keihanshin (Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe—to promote future deployment nationwide. These included tests of information provision services to alert drivers to forward obstacles hidden beyond the crest of an incline and prevent excessive speed on sharp curves. This paper presents an overview of these FOTs conducted by NILIM in recent years and their results.

  10. Sea bottom gravity survey of Osaka bay and its study; Osakawan kaitei juryoku chosa to sono kosatsu

    Komazawa, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ota, Y; Shibuya, S; Kumai, M; Murakami, M [Japex Geoscience Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a sea bottom gravity survey conducted with an objective to identify deep underground structure in the vicinity of the epicenter of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. The surveyed areas are the whole Osaka Bay area north of the north latitude of 34 degrees and 20 minutes, and the eastern part of the Sea of Harima east of the east longitude of 134 degrees and 40 minutes, excluding the areas difficult of performing measurements. A square lattice with sides each about 2 km was arranged with 408 measurement points. The measurement was carried out by using an observation vessel mounted with a sea bottom gravimeter made by LaCoste and Romberg Corporation, which was lowered down to the sea bottom at the measurement points. Errors in positions and water depths at the gravity measuring points were suppressed to less than 0.002 minutes and 0.1 m, respectively. The measurement data were given necessary corrections by using a unified method applicable also to land areas, and a Bouguer anomaly chart was prepared. Based on the chart, this paper summarizes features in the Bouguer anomaly in the surveyed areas (such as the low-gravity anomaly band extending the central part of the Osaka bay from north-east to south-west, and the gradient structure existing on the Awaji island side). 6 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 5: The 1950 Osaka solar grating array proposal

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Ishiguro, Masato; Nakamura, Tsuko

    2017-04-01

    In November 1950, a paper was presented at the 5th Annual Assembly of the Physical Society of Japan that outlined the plan for a radio frequency grating array, designed to provide high-resolution observations of solar radio emission at 3.3 GHz. This short paper provides details of the invention of this array, which occurred independently of W.N. Christiansen's invention of the solar grating array in Australia at almost the same time.

  12. Competition in Japan

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  13. The Japanese mind in disaster 3.11. Web survey in Tohoku, Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyushu (1)

    Tsuchida, Shoji; Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Shiotani, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The Tohoku Disaster 3.11 with earthquake M9.0, tsunami, and the Fukushima accident brought the inhabitants horrible damages. Tohoku area people [N=1,000], Tokyo people [N=500], Osaka people [N=500], and Kyushu people [N=500] (Total N=2,500) were targeted at Online survey which was designed to figure out the people's responses to the disaster and their psychological factors. The results showed that the Tohoku area people were in relatively solid local communities and bonded intimately each other. They thought it proper to cope with the disaster through community. They had more negative attitudes to Nuclear Power, and their trust toward the TEPCO and the government was more negative in dealing with the Fukushima accident. (author)

  14. Present status of the infrared free-electron laser of the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University

    Okuda, Shuichi; Isoyama, Goro; Honda, Yoshihide; Kato, Ryukou; Tagawa, Seiichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research

    1997-03-01

    A free-electron laser with a 38-MeV L-band linear accelerator was developed at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University. The self-amplified spontaneous emission was observed at wavelengths of 20 and 40 {mu}m with a high-intensity single-bunch beam passing through a wiggler. In the oscillation experiments with a multibunch beam laser light was obtained at wavelengths from 32 to 40 {mu}m. The peak power in a micropulse of the laser is estimated to be 8.3 MW at a wavelength of 40 {mu}m. In order to apply the laser to basic researches some components of the linac and the optical cavity are being improved. (author)

  15. Mental and somatic symptoms related to suicidal ideation in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kouichi Yoshimasu1, Tetsuya Kondo2,4, Shoji Tokunaga3, Yoshio Kanemitsu2, Hideyo Sugahara2, Mariko Akamine2, Kanichiro Fujisawa2, Kazuhisa Miyashita1, Chiharu Kubo21Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate school of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Kansai University of Health Sciences, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Patients with suicidal ideation (SI have various mental or somatic symptoms. A questionnaire-based interview elicited details concerning mental and somatic symptoms in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan. Univariate logistic regression analyses followed by multiple regression models using a stepwise method were selected for identifying the candidate symptoms. Overall, symptoms related to depression were associated with SI in both sexes. Although women showed more various somatic symptoms associated with SI than men, many of those associations were diminished once severity of the depression was controlled. The current results suggest that a variety of self-reported symptoms, mainly related to depression, might reveal suicidal risk in outpatients with an urban hospital clinical setting.Keywords: suicidal ideation, psychosomatic clinic, subjective symptoms

  16. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    Yamada K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Yamada,1,2 Ko Matsudaira,3,4 Eizaburo Tanaka,1,5 Hiroyuki Oka,3 Junji Katsuhira,3,6 Hiroyasu Iso1 1Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Center for Pain Management, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, 3Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japan Labour Health & Welfare Organization, Tokyo, 5Hyogo Institute for Traumatic Stress, Kobe, 6Department of Prosthetics & Orthotics and Assistive Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan Background: Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the ­sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods: We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1 chronic pain prevalence, 2 multisite pain (≥3 sites prevalence, and 3 multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results: The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01 in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01 in women. Among women with chronic pain, early

  17. Nuclear energy in Japan

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  18. [Clustering analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the JATA(12)-VNTR system for molecular epidemiological surveillance in broad areas of Japan].

    Wada, Takayuki; Tamaru, Aki; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Komukai, Jun; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hase, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA) (12)-variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) is a standard method for genotyping of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Japan. As a model study for nationwide surveillance, this study aimed to describe the tendency and frequency of genotypes of M. tuberculosis in a large number of clinical samples. Clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis (n = 1,778) were obtained from patients with tuberculosis in 3 areas, i.e., Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture, and Kobe City, during 2007 and 2008. The samples were analyzed using JATA (12)-VNTR. All genotypes were subjected to clustering analysis. In total, 1,086 (61.1%) isolates showed clustering. The most common clusters were composed of 3 members. Such clusters were considered to reflect either actual transmission or low discriminatory power of JATA (12)-VNTR. Several prevalent JATA(12)-VNTR genotypes formed large clusters and were discussed in relation with epidemiological findings of other studies. The findings of this study will aid in the construction of an effective genotyping-based surveillance system of M. tuberculosis, through improvement of interpretation of VNTR types, observation of certain particular strains in an area, and efficient detection of unidentified outbreaks.

  19. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-15

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  20. Multibeam collection for COOK22MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2002-04-14 to 2002-04-27, Majuro, Marshall Islands to Osaka, Japan

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Multibeam collection for COOK23MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2002-05-01 to 2002-06-06, Osaka, Japan to Honolulu, HI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Managing Productivity and Quality in the 1990s. Some Observations on TIMS (The Institute for Management Sciences) XXIX, 23-26 July 1989, Osaka, Japan

    1989-10-01

    often attempted. This profound knowledge must be possessed by management; hence Dr. Deming’s slogan: "Quality is Made in the Boardroom ." Dr. Deming...Out of the Crisis, MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, Cambridge, MA, 1982. 5. Lawrence M. Miller, Barbarians to Bureaucrats, Corporate Life

  3. Study on quantum beam science by using ultra short electron pulse, FEL, and slow positron beam at ISIR (Institute of Science and Industrial Research), Osaka University

    Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.; Okuda, S.; Honda, Y.; Kimura, N.; Yamamoto, T.; Isoyama, G.

    1995-01-01

    Three projects for quantum beam science, an ultra fast electron pulse, a free electron laser, and a slow positron beam, has been started by using 38 MeV L-band and 150 MeV S-band linacs at ISIR in Osaka University. Both study on the production of three beams and study on quantum material science by using three beams will play an important role in the beam science. (author)

  4. Estimation of underground structures in the Osaka-Kobe area by array-network observations of microtremors; Bido no array kansoku ni yoru Osaka-Hyogo chiiki no chika kozo no suitei

    Okada, H; Ishikawa, K; Ling, S [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sasabe, K [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Microtremor observations have been carried out with an objective to estimate underground structures including the foundation depth in the Osaka-Kobe area which has been greatly damaged by the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake in 1995. Different organizations have made seismic surveys and boring investigations in this area, by which elucidation has been made on the underground structures. The present observations are intended to identify S-wave velocity distribution in a wide area from the ground surface to the foundation, which is difficult to be verified by using conventional surveys and investigations. Methods to detect surface waves which are contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (the SPAC method). The SPAC method can estimate phase velocities of longer waves for the size of an array than with the F-K method, and is more advantageous in estimating ground structures at greater depths. S-wave velocity structure was estimated down to the foundation rocks existing in depths of about 0.5 to 2.0 km. For estimating the phase velocities in Raleigh waves, the SPAC method and the expanded spatial autocorrelation method were used. The underground structures thus derived showed a good agreement with the results of explorations using other methods. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental

  6. The fifteenth period report on the cooperative utilization of the AVF cyclotron at Osaka University RCNP (Dec 1982 - Apr 1983)

    1984-01-01

    The AVF cyclotron at the RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics) of Osaka University has been cooperatively used by various researchers of Japanese universities or colleges. This collective report covers papers concerning various studies performed at the AVF during Dec 1982 to Apr 1983. Some of the titles of these papers are as follows : Elastic scattering of 56 MeV polarized deuterons from 12 C and 40 Ca ; Pionic three-nucleon capture reactions ; Measurement on branching ratios of short-lived beta emitter 23 Mg and its hyperfine interactions ; Half-life and branching ratios of short-lived beta emitter 13 O ; 7 Li excitation of the giant resonances in 208 Pb ; Measurements of spin polarization of residual nuclei after light particle emission in heavy ion reactions ; Target dependence of the sequential alpha decay through the narrow resonances of 20 Ne ; Analyzing power of neutron continuum spectra for the 93 Nb (p,nx) reaction and a simple one step OWBA analysis ; Energy dependence of the reaction mechanism for the 3 He and alpha induced reactions ; Medium energy gamma rays following radiative capture of polarized protons on light nuclei. (Aoki, K.)

  7. [Kaiseijutsu and obstetrics in Osaka during the Yedo era: focusing mainly on the development of surgical operations in obstetrics].

    Uchino, Hanna

    2009-03-01

    In the Yedo era, the Kamigata area was the place of dispatch of new cultures and was the seat of the economy. However, because natural disasters happened frequently, the economic differential between the central area and the provinces grew wider. The families who suffered poverty sold their daughters to the licensed quarters. Moreover, among the general public, there were a lot of foundlings and women who had abortions. Indeed, we can find these phenomena throughout the Yedo era. Early in the era, such cases were regarded as very common; for example, in IHARA Saikaku works, which describes scenes in Osaka early in the Yedo era, there are a lot of descriptions of foundlings and women who had abortions as common social phenomena. However, in the middle of the era, these phenomena came to be considered sins, as they were in Saikaku's works. This transition period of conceptions about foundlings or abortions coincided with changes in technology in obstetrics. Early in the era when dystocia occurred, both mothers and babies could only be expected to die, and in the middle, after the invention of Kaiseijutsu, which was designed by KAGAWA Gen'etsu, obstetricians could help a lot of women in childbirth. However, when abortions came to be regarded as a sin, people accepted Kaiseijutsu because of the concept of life and because it could help women in childbed and babies as medicine, before everything else.

  8. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder carcinoma. Development of novel bladder preservation approach, Osaka Medical College regimen

    Azuma, Haruhito; Inamoto, Teruo; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Ibuki, Naokazu; Nomi, Hayahito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Narumi, Yoshihumi; Ubai, Takanobu

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been widely used in a neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant setting. Furthermore, trimodal approaches including complete transurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by combined chemotherapy and radiation have generally been performed as bladder preservation therapy. However, none of the protocols have achieved a 5-year survival rate of more than 70%. Additionally, the toxicity of chemotherapy and/or a decreased quality of life due to urinary diversion cannot be ignored, as most patients with bladder cancer are elderly. We therefore newly developed the novel trimodal approach of ''combined therapy using balloon-occluded arterial infusion of anticancer agent and hemodialysis with concurrent radiation, which delivers an extremely high concentration of anticancer agent to the site of a tumor without systemic adverse effects (''Osaka Medical College regimen'' referred to as the OMC regimen). We initially applied the OMC regimen as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer. However, since more than 85% of patients with histologically-proven urothelial cancer achieved complete response with no evidence of recurrence after a mean follow-up of 170 (range 21-814) weeks, we have been applying the OMC-regimen as a new approach for bladder sparing therapy. We summarize the advantage and/or disadvantage of chemotherapy in neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant settings, and show the details of our newly developed bladder sparing approach OMC regimen in this review. (author)

  9. IRBA SERIES : Accounting In Japan

    Arai, Kiyomitsu

    1994-01-01

    Preface / Legal and Conceptual Framework of Accounting in Japan / Setting Accounting Standards in Japan - The American Influence and The Present Status / Accounting Education and Profession in Japan / The International Harmonization of Accounting Standards / The Accounting Standard Setting in Japan and Its Responses to International Accounting Standards / Selected Bibliography for Accounting in Japan

  10. Japan and LPG

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    About 20 million metric tonnes of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are consumed each year in Japan, of which 14,5 million metric tonnes are imported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. This paper presents LPG industry in Japan and gives informations on the present status: supply and demand, imports, market, distribution

  11. Radioactive caesium contamination due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants accident in Osaka city. Evaluation of accumulation and decontamination of radioactive materials via reverse logistics function of a city

    Nishio, Takayuki; Kitano, Masaaki; Sakai, Mamoru; Takakura, Akito; Katahira, Kenshi; Nishitani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed background level of radioactive contamination in city area of Osaka before combusting the wide area disposal of disastrous debris at a municipal waste incineration plant of Osaka city. The debris was caused by Tohoku district great earthquake disaster and suspected to be contaminated with radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants. We also investigated radioactivity in incineration ash of municipal waste incineration plants and of sewage treatment plants, as well as in water clarifier sludge of potable water treatment plants, and evaluated the accumulation and cleansing of radioactive materials via the reverse logistic function of the city. Radioactive caesium deposited in Osaka city area was estimated to be approximately 4.3 GBq from the concentrations observed in the monthly fallout, whereas that collected as municipal wastes and sewage was estimated to be approximately 0.9 GBq a year in 2011. Even two years after the accident, "1"3"4Cs, which is the evidence of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, had been detected in the municipal wastes at a level comparable to the activities found just after the accident, however, the radioactive caesium concentration in fallout measured in the Osaka city area had decreased below a detection limit after May 2012. Introduction of materials contaminated with radioactive caesium from outside the city area was suspected because the observed contamination level was inexplicable by that of observed in the environmental wastes such as pruned branches which are contaminated by with the fallout in city area of Osaka. (author)

  12. METHODS OF FINDING BUSINESS PARTNERS OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN JAPAN

    Nobuhiro Takahashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses new methods of finding business partners for joint development in Japan. These methods create opportunities for a manufacturing firm, which has excellent technology, to find an appropriate business partner. We call these methods the Osaka model. In the model, a company finds a business partner among plenty of companies, while they establish mutual trust and solve higher levels of technological difficulties. The model shares strong points of both spot transaction and conventional co-development. In other words, this model takes advantages of both Western style and Japanese style inter-business relationship. This paper also argues the environment for encouraging the model. The area should be a place where you can obtain many sources of information. Increasing meetings or facilities on specific themes is an effective method to encourage the model in the area. In addition, a database with which each technological seed has been already arranged with their technological needs is beneficial for matching them. If such a database becomes a shared knowledge in the area, the model would be promoted.

  13. Statistics on the use of radiation in Japan, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The number of the business establishments which utilize radiation with radioisotopes and radiation generators has continued to increase, and as of the end of March, 1989, it exceeded 4700. As to the state of utilization classified by districts, the use concentrates in large urban districts of Tokyo, Osaka, Kanagawa and Aichi, and the field of application spread to many fields of industries, agriculture, medical treatment and others. Recently, the utilization of radiation has become to be very highly advanced and diversified such as the medical diagnosis and treatment and the application to advanced technology using radiation generators. Now, the utilization of radiation is indispensable for national life and economical activities, but also the prevention of injury and the securing of safety are important. It is necessary to clarify the latest state of radiation utilization in Japan for the promotion of the production and utilization of radioisotopes and the prevention of radiation injury. In this book, the number of the business establishments using radiation and the state of utilization in medical, education and research, private enterprises and other fields, the state of distribution of radioisotopes, waste treatment, and radiation-related technicians are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Microelectronics in Japan

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  15. Muon Beamline Commissioning and Feasibility Study for μSR at a New DC Muon Beamline, MuSIC-RCNP, Osaka University

    Tomono, Dai; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Higemoto, Wataru; Kawashima, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Kenji M.; Kuno, Yoshitaka; Matsuda, Yugo; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Koichiro; Morita, Yasuyuki; Motoishi, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Yu; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Ohta, Saki; Sato, Akira; Shimomura, Koichiro; Takahisa, Keiji; Weichao, Yao; Wong, Ming L.

    At the new DC muon beamline MuSIC at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, the beamline construction from the solenoid system of the muon production to the experimental port was completed. A beamline commissioning and a feasibility study for μSR are now in progress. With newly refurbished spectrometer installed at the experimental port, we succeeded in observing μSR spectra and μ-e decay asymmetry in a simple setup down to 4 K. We are still under development of other μSR appratuses.

  16. Kirishima, Japan Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  17. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  18. In Defense of Japan

    2018-01-03

    potential addition of F-35B STOVL aircraft to their Izumo class helicopter destroyers is a good example. Japan’s conduct during World War II remain locked ...antiwar and antinuclear identity . But after sixty years, Japan’s neighbors still see bayoneted babies. Relations between Japan and its former victims...and the world order Robert Cooper defines Japan as the lone post-modern country surrounded by states firmly locked into an earlier age and that if

  19. Industrial lasers in Japan

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  20. Helical-type device and laser fusion. Rivals for tokamak-type device at n-fusion development in Japan

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Under the current policy on the research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan, as enunciated by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the type of a prototype fusion reactor will be chosen after 2020 from tokamak, helical or some other type including the inertial confinement fusion using lasers. A prototype fusion reactor is the next step following the tokamak type International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). With the prototype reactor, the feasibility as a power plant will be examined. At present the main research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan are on tokamak type, which have been promoted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). As for the other types of nuclear fusion, researches have been carried out on the helical type in Kyoto University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), the mirror type in Tsukuba University, the tokamak type using superconductive coils in Kyushu University, and the laser fusion in Osaka University. The features and the present state of research and development of the Large Helical Device and the laser fusion which is one step away from the break-even condition are reported. (K.I.)

  1. [Introduction of hospital information system and anesthesia information management system into the perianesthetic practice at Osaka City University Hospital].

    Shimizu, Motoko; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Hagiwara, Chie; Ikenaga, Kazutake; Yoshioka, Miwako; Asada, Akira

    2011-06-01

    Recently, the hospital information systems (HIS) and anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) have been rapidly improved and have been introduced into the clinical practice in Japan drastically; however, few reports have detailed their influences on clinical practice. We here report our experience. We introduced HIS (EGMAIN-EX, Fujitsu Co., Ltd.) in our preoperative evaluation clinic and in the postoperative care unit. AIMS (ORSYS, Philips Electronics Japan) was introduced almost only to the intraoperative management. It became easy for us to acquire patient's information and to share it with the medical staffs in the other departments. However, we had to invest large human resources for the introduction and maintenance of the HIS and the AIMS. Though AIMS is more useful in anesthetic management than HIS, it seems to be more suitable for coordination with the medical staffs in the other departments to use HIS for perioperative management than to use AIMS.

  2. Japan steel mill perspective

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  3. Inertial fusion energy research. Report of consultants meetings held in Osaka, Japan, 14-15 march 1997, Vienna, Austria, 16-17 June 1997, Culham, United Kingdom, 23-24 March 1998, and Yokohama, Japan 20-22 October 1998

    2000-02-01

    Summarising 4 IAEA consultants meetings in 1997 and 1998, this technical document is based on the final consultants report. It contains a summary of the state of the art of inertial fusion energy research in 17 countries. The sections on individual countries were sent to the governments for their comments, which have been incorporated into the present publication

  4. Study design and patient recruitment for the Japan Polyp Study

    Sano Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Sano,1,2 Takahiro Fujii,3,4 Takahisa Matsuda,3 Yasushi Oda,5,6 Shin'ei Kudo,7 Masahiro Igarashi,8 Hiroyasu Iishi,9 Kazuhiro Kaneko,1,10 Kinichi Hotta,3,11,12 Nozomu Kobayashi,3,13 Yuichiro Yamaguchi,12 Kiyonori Kobayashi,8 Hideki Ishikawa,14 Yoshitaka Murakami,15 Tadakazu Shimoda,16 Takahiro Fujimori,17 Yoichi Ajioka,18 Hirokazu Taniguchi,16 Hiroaki Ikematsu,1,3 Kazuo Konishi,10 Yutaka Saito,3 Shigeaki Yoshida1,19 1Department of Gastroenterology, Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, 2Gastrointestinal Center and Institute of Minimally Invasive Endoscopic Care (iMEC, Sano Hospital, Kobe, 3Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, 4Takahiro Fujii Clinic, Tokyo, 5Hattori GI Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Clinic, Kumamoto, 6Oda GI Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Clinic, Kumamoto, 7Digestive Disease Center, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama, 8Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Sagamihara, 9Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka, 10Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 11Department of Gastroenterology, Saku Central Hospital, Saku, 12Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Mishima, 13Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tochigi Cancer Center, Utsunomiya, 14Department of Molecular-Targeting Cancer Prevention, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 15Department of Medical Statistics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, 16Pathology and Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, 17Department of Surgical and Molecular Pathology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, 18Division of Molecular and Diagnostic Pathology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 19Aomori Prefectural Hospital, Aomori

  5. Reorganization and the present situation of the department of nuclear engineering of the national universities in Japan

    Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru; Imanishi, Nobutsugu; Takeda, Toshikazu; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    2000-01-01

    On July 1999, the 36th Conference on Isotopes in Physics and Engineering was held, where a panel discussion titled on 'new development on nuclear energy and radiation education at universities' was carried out. In the discussion, reports from every universities were stated and some opinion exchanges were carried out. Every representatives of faculty mentioned not only on how nuclear energy and radiation education became, but also on general problems on recent engineering education (for example, what education is aimed under maintenance of what cooperation with the other faculties and specialties). Here were introduced on five cases of typical universities in Japan (Hokkaido, Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, and Kyushu Universities), where present states and future scopes in the Nuclear Engineering Faculty and its graduate school were described at a standpoint of their educational researches on nuclear energy. (G.K.)

  6. Japan's nuclear juggernaut

    Richner, S.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of nuclear energy in Japan is presented. Nuclear energy provides 17% of Japan's electricity but could provide much more. 25 more reactors (to add to the existing 27) are planned by 1995. The cooperation between Japanese government and industry and the economic assistance in building new plants means that these are not likely to be cancelled. Public acceptance of new plants has often been obtained by large cash employment inducements. Now, however, there is growing disillusionment when short-term well paid employment building the reactors is followed by unemployment when the reactor is in operation. Also there is a growing opposition to the storage of the nuclear waste. To maintain the growth of its nuclear industry Japan needs to export to provide a steady flow of big orders. (U.K.)

  7. Japan's advanced medicine.

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform.

  8. The internationalization of Japan

    Kuroki, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    There are growing tensions and frictions between the U.S. and Japan. Among them are science and technology issues that relate to the development of superconductor technology, as well as economic, trade and agricultural issues. The structure of this friction is very complex. There are many interconnected issues that cannot be resolved one by one. This article focuses on the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. Some of the complexities behind the issues are discussed by defining different notions of internationalization and by presenting the positive and negative aspects of the Japanese approach that affects the future cooperation and competition between our nations in the area of superconductivity

  9. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  10. Relationship Between Distance of Schools from the Nearest Municipal Waste Incineration Plant and Child Health in Japan

    Miyake, Y.; Yura, A.; Misaki, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Usui, T.; Iki, M.; Shimizu, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, the main source of dioxins is incinerators. This study examined the relationship between the distance of schools from municipal waste incineration plants and the prevalence of allergic disorders and general symptoms in Japanese children. Study subjects were 450,807 elementary school children aged 6-12 years who attended 996 public elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. Parents of school children completed a questionnaire that included items about illnesses and symptoms in the study child. Distance of each of the public elementary schools from all of the 37 municipal waste incineration plants in Osaka Prefecture was measured using geographical information systems packages. Adjustment was made for grade, socioeconomic status and access to health care per municipality. Decreases in the distance of schools from the nearest municipal waste incineration plant were independently associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for shortest vs. longest distance categories =1.08 [1.01-1.15], 1.05 [1.00-1.11], 1.06 [1.01-1.11], and 1.12 [1.08-1.17], respectively). A positive association with fatigue was pronounced in schools within 4 km of the second nearest municipal waste incineration plant. There was no evident relationship between the distance of schools from such a plant and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. The findings suggest that proximity of schools to municipal waste incineration plants may be associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue in Japanese children

  11. Cognitive impairment associated with locomotive syndrome in community-dwelling elderly women in Japan

    Nakamura M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Misa Nakamura,1 Fumie Tazaki,1 Kazuki Nomura,1 Taeko Takano,1 Masashi Hashimoto,1 Hiroshi Hashizume,2 Ichiro Kamei1 1Department of Rehabilitation, Osaka Kawasaki Rehabilitation University, Kaizuka, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan Abstract: In our worldwide aging society, elderly people should maintain cognitive and physical function to help avoid health problems. Dementia is a major brain disease among elderly people, and is caused by cognitive impairment. The locomotive syndrome (LS refers to a condition in which people require healthcare services because of problems associated with locomotion. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between cognitive impairment and LS. Study participants were 142 healthy elderly female volunteers living in a rural area in Japan. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. A score of ≤26 points on the MMSE was used to indicate categorically defined poor cognitive performance (cognitive impairment. The LS was defined by a score ≥16 points, and non-LS as <16 points, on the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25. Twenty-one participants (14.8% had an MMSE score ≤26, and 19.0% were found to have LS. Compared with the MMSE >26 group, the ≤26 group was significantly older, had a higher percentage of body fat, and a higher GLFS-25 score. Those with LS were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, a higher percentage of body fat, and a lower MMSE score. Participants in the LS group had higher odds of cognitive impairment than those without LS [odds ratio (OR =3.08] by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age. Furthermore, participants with GLFS-25 scores ≥6 had higher odds of cognitive impairment than those with a GLFS-25 score <6 by logistic regression analysis adjusted for both age (OR =4.44, and age and percent body fat (OR =4.12. These findings

  12. Estimated dietary intake of radionuclides and health risks for the citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 nuclear accident.

    Michio Murakami

    Full Text Available The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone, Tokyo (∼230 km, and Osaka (∼580 km after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario. The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1 and 2700 µSv (Case 2 in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 1.7-37×10-6 (Case 1 and5.6-79×10-6 (Case 2 in Fukushima City, 0.73-13×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.04-0.49×10- 6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 5.4%-11% of all exposure (Case 1 and 11%-25% (Case 2 in Fukushima City [corrected].

  13. Language Testing in Japan.

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  14. Dutch surgery in Japan

    van Gulik, Thomas M.; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of

  15. Globalization in Japan

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  16. China, South Korea, Japan

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  17. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  18. Japan's plutonium economy

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  19. Everywhere in Japan: an international approach to working with commercial gay businesses in HIV prevention.

    Sherriff, Nigel; Koerner, Jane; Kaneko, Noriyo; Shiono, Satoshi; Takaku, Michiko; Boseley, Ross; Ichikawa, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    In the UK and Japan, there is concern regarding rising rates of annual new HIV infections among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). Whilst in the UK and Europe, gay businesses are increasingly recognized as being important settings through which to deliver HIV prevention and health promotion interventions to target vulnerable populations; in Japan such settings-based approaches are relatively underdeveloped. This article draws on qualitative data from a recently completed study conducted to explore whether it is feasible, acceptable and desirable to build on the recent European Everywhere project for adaptation and implementation in Japan. A series of expert workshops were conducted in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka with intersectoral representatives from Japanese and UK non-governmental organizations (NGOs), gay businesses, universities and gay communities (n = 46). Further discussion groups and meetings were held with NGO members and researchers from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's Research Group on HIV Prevention Policy, Programme Implementation and Evaluation among MSM (n = 34). The results showed that it is desirable, feasible and acceptable to adapt and implement a Japanese version of Everywhere. Such a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV prevention framework for gay businesses may help to facilitate the necessary scale up of prevention responses among MSM in Japan. Given the high degree of sexual mobility between countries in Asia, there is considerable potential for the Everywhere Project (or its Japanese variant) to be expanded and adapted to other countries within the Asia-Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. FENDL-3 benchmark test with neutronics experiments related to fusion in Japan

    Konno, Chikara; Ohta, Masayuki; Takakura, Kosuke; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We have benchmarked FENDL-3.0 with integral experiments with DT neutron sources in Japan. •The FENDL-3.0 is as accurate as FENDL-2.1 and JENDL-4.0 or more. •Some data in FENDL-3.0 may have some problems. -- Abstract: The IAEA supports and promotes the gathering of the best data from evaluated nuclear data libraries for each nucleus involved in fusion reactor applications and compiles these data as FENDL. In 2012, the IAEA released a major update to FENDL, FENDL-3.0, which extends the neutron energy range from 20 MeV to greater than 60 MeV for 180 nuclei. We have benchmarked FENDL-3.0 versus in situ and TOF experiments using the DT neutron source at FNS at the JAEA and TOF experiments using the DT neutron source at OKTAVIAN at Osaka University in Japan. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-5 and the ACE file of FENDL-3.0 supplied from the IAEA were used for the calculations. The results were compared with measured ones and those obtained using the previous version, FENDL-2.1, and the latest version, JENDL-4.0. It is concluded that FENDL-3.0 is as accurate as or more so than FENDL-2.1 and JENDL-4.0, although some data in FENDL-3.0 may be problematic

  1. Nuclear power development in Japan

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy situation in Japan and Japan's strategy for stable supply of energy are discussed. Benefits of nuclear power in comparison with other energy sources is considered. History of nuclear power development in Japan, modern status and future trends are described. 6 figs

  2. Mutation analysis of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 viruses collected in Japan during the peak phase of the pandemic.

    Jean-Étienne Morlighem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus infection quickly circulated worldwide in 2009. In Japan, the first case was reported in May 2009, one month after its outbreak in Mexico. Thereafter, A(H1N1 infection spread widely throughout the country. It is of great importance to profile and understand the situation regarding viral mutations and their circulation in Japan to accumulate a knowledge base and to prepare clinical response platforms before a second pandemic (pdm wave emerges. METHODOLOGY: A total of 253 swab samples were collected from patients with influenza-like illness in the Osaka, Tokyo, and Chiba areas both in May 2009 and between October 2009 and January 2010. We analyzed partial sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the 2009 pdm influenza virus in the collected clinical samples. By phylogenetic analysis, we identified major variants of the 2009 pdm influenza virus and critical mutations associated with severe cases, including drug-resistance mutations. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our sequence analysis has revealed that both HA-S220T and NA-N248D are major non-synonymous mutations that clearly discriminate the 2009 pdm influenza viruses identified in the very early phase (May 2009 from those found in the peak phase (October 2009 to January 2010 in Japan. By phylogenetic analysis, we found 14 micro-clades within the viruses collected during the peak phase. Among them, 12 were new micro-clades, while two were previously reported. Oseltamivir resistance-related mutations, i.e., NA-H275Y and NA-N295S, were also detected in sporadic cases in Osaka and Tokyo.

  3. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  4. Future accelerators in Japan

    Toge, Nobu

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the present status of future accelerator projects at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Japan. The KEK laboratory has been successfully operating the TRISTAN accelerator complex since 1986. It consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linac, an 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR) and a 29 GeV Main Ring (MR). Concurrently with this operation, in response to recommendations by the Japanese High Energy Physics Committee, survey studies have been continued on new accelerator facilities at KEK. They have two major future projects, namely, the asymmetric e + e - B-factory based on TRISTAN (TRISTAN-II) and the Japan Linear Collider (JLC). The purpose of this paper is to outline those research activities and to present an update on their status

  5. Safeguards activities in Japan

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  6. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  7. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Anon.

    1989-11-15

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation.

  8. Nuclear situation in Japan

    2006-01-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  9. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Psychology in Japan.

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Unmet service needs evaluated by case managers among disabled patients on hemodialysis in Japan

    Sugisawa H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidehiro Sugisawa,1 Toshio Shinoda,2 Yumiko Shimizu,3 Tamaki Kumagai,4 Hiroaki Sugisaki,5 Seiji Ohira6,† 1Department of Gerontology, Graduate School of Gerontology, J. F. Oberlin University, Tokyo, 2Department of Medical Care Technology, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, Tsukuba International University, Tsuchiura, 3Department of Community Health Nursing, The Jikei University School of Nursing, Chofu, 4Department of Fundamental Nursing, Graduate School of Nursing, Osaka City University, Osaka, 5Hachioji Azumacho Clinic, Hachioji, Tokyo, 6Sapporo Kita Clinic, Sapporo, Hokkai-do, Japan †Professor Dr. Seiji Ohira passed away on September 5, 2017 Background: This study aimed to investigate the levels of unmet needs for home and ­community-based services (HCBS evaluated by case managers (CMs among disabled patients on hemodialysis (DPHD and to examine factors related to unmet needs. Unmet needs for HCBS were defined as situations in which patients do not use or underuse HCBS despite needing them. Candidates for the factors relating to unmet needs for HCBS included three dimensions: predisposing, enabling, and need factors.Methods: Self-administrated questionnaires were collected from 391 CMs of DPHD certified with long-term care insurance. These were introduced by the dialysis facilities that a member of the Japanese Association of Dialysis Physicians belonged to. CMs were asked questions about their management of each individual case. HCBS included home help, visiting nursing, daycare, and short stay.Results: The prevalence of unmet needs for each HCBS ranged from 32% for home help to 48% for short stay. Barriers to service usage in the patients were associated with unmet needs for all four services. The patients with more severe cognitive malfunction were more likely to have unmet needs for visiting nursing and short stay. Heavier burden with caregiving was associated with more likelihood of unmet needs for home help and short stay

  12. Do you know 'food irradiation'?. A survey of consumer status toward food irradiation in Japan

    Furuta, Masakazu

    1998-01-01

    In Japan potatoes have been irradiated for the purpose of sprout inhibition for more than 20 years and more than ten thousand irradiated potatoes are circulated in Japanese market in recent years. Nevertheless, there are few surveys about the consumer status toward food irradiation in Japan. We have been held 'Radiation Fair -- The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August for more than 10 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan, for the purpose of public education and information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology especially to school kids. We displayed 200 kg of irradiated potatoes together with explanatory panels. We distributed questionnaires to the senior high school students (16 years old) and upward visitor for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes as well as impression toward the displays. According to the survey results in 1997, the ratio of respondents who had heard of irradiated potatoes was 51% of 228 answers. This value was smaller than those of the Gallop survey conducted in the United States (73%). After viewing the display and description of irradiated potatoes, almost half of the respondents indicated a positive feeling for tasting the irradiated potatoes. Most of the respondents chose one of the following issues, Freshness' (37%), 'Open date' (13%), or 'Food additives' (34%) as the major concerns about food safety. Interestingly, 'Pesticide' and/or 'Foodborne pathogen' highly were chosen by only 15% of the respondents in total even though these issue were highly ranked in the US surveys. These results indicate that original methodology is necessary for distributing the information related food irradiation related food irradiation efficiently. (J.P.N)

  13. Using digital technologies to engage with medical research: views of myotonic dystrophy patients in Japan.

    Coathup, Victoria; Teare, Harriet J A; Minari, Jusaku; Yoshizawa, Go; Kaye, Jane; Takahashi, Masanori P; Kato, Kazuto

    2016-08-24

    As in other countries, the traditional doctor-patient relationship in the Japanese healthcare system has often been characterised as being of a paternalistic nature. However, in recent years there has been a gradual shift towards a more participatory-patient model in Japan. With advances in technology, the possibility to use digital technologies to improve patient interactions is growing and is in line with changing attitudes in the medical profession and society within Japan and elsewhere. The implementation of an online patient engagement platform is being considered by the Myotonic Dystrophy Registry of Japan. The aim of this exploratory study was to understand patients' views and attitudes to using digital tools in patient registries and engagement with medical research in Japan, prior to implementation of the digital platform. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional, self-completed questionnaire with a sample of myotonic dystrophy (MD) patients attending an Open Day at Osaka University, Japan. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were 18 years or older, and were diagnosed with MD. A total of 68 patients and family members attended the Open Day and were invited to participate in the survey. Of those, 59 % submitted a completed questionnaire (n = 40). The survey showed that the majority of patients felt that they were not receiving the information they wanted from their clinicians, which included recent medical research findings and opportunities to participate in clinical trials, and 88 % of patients indicated they would be willing to engage with digital technologies to receive relevant medical information. Patients also expressed an interest in having control over when and how they received this information, as well as being informed of how their data is used and shared with other researchers. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that there is scope to develop a digital platform to engage with patients so that they can receive

  14. The graying of Japan.

    Martin, L G

    1989-07-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women.

  15. Skiing research in Japan.

    Watanabe, K

    1981-01-01

    Skiing and skiing techniques were introduced by the Austrians to Japanese soldiers in 1911. After that, skiing spread beyond the original purpose and recently produced the ski sciences. From a sports biomechanical aspect, the development of the study of ski jumping, alpine skiing, and the basic movement in skiing is introduced in this paper. One of the characteristic points of these studies in Japan was that the ski sciences were supported not only by biomechanists and physiologists, but also basically by physicists and engineers. The fundamental research and studies from divergent fields are supporting each other and being integrated into ski science.

  16. Nuclear services for Japan

    Anderson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) became AEA Technology in April 1990. The commercial interests are focussed through 4 business units: AEA Reactor Services, with whom several contracts have been won from Japanese customers for high resolution Field Emission Gun Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (FEGSTEM); AEA Fuel Services, a contract is being negotiated with an existing Japanese customer; AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, with whom further development of an alternative approach to evaporation of liquid waste effluent for specific application in Japan is in progress; AEA Fusion. 1 fig

  17. Nyheder i Japan

    Sejrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Kan man stole på, hvad folk siger, når man ikke ved, hvem de er? Forholdet mellem kildeanonymitet og troværdighed er forskelligt i mediesystemer rundt om i verden. Troværdighed er ingen universel størrelse, men en retorisk effekt der opstår på baggrund af faktorer som er kulturelt og systemisk in...... indlejret. I Japan har seriøse nyhedsmedier et specielt forhold til udsagn fra anonyme kilder, og udstrakt brug af uidentificerede informanter står ikke i modsætning til journalistisk kvalitet og pålidelighed....

  18. Japan country report

    Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production

  19. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices...... that act as significant barriers to the entry of foreign skilled professionals. The paper brings out the source and pattern of foreign professionals and students in Japan as a proxy for talent. Though India’s presence in Japan is currently limited, its share of technical professionals to the total number....... For Japan, it means access to technical professionals and managed interfacing with the global economy....

  20. Zinc(II PVC-based membrane sensor based on 5,6-benzo-4,7,13,16,21,24- hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8,8,8]hexacos-5-ene

    Zamani Hassan Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5,6-benzo-4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8,8,8]hexacos-5-ene (BHDE was used as an excellent ionophore in construction of a Zn(II PVC-based membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride, 64.5% nitrobenzen (NB, 2.5% BHDE and 3% sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB. This sensor shows very good selectivity and sensitivity towards zinc ion over a wide variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor revealed a great enhancement in selectivity coefficients for zinc ions, in comparison to the previously reported zinc sensors. The proposed sensor exhibits a Nernstian behavior (with slope of 29.1 ? 0.4 mV per decade over a wide concentration range (1.0 10-6-1.0 10-1 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 6.3 x10-7 mol L-1 (41.2 ng mL-1. It shows relatively fast response time, in the whole concentration range (< 10s, and can be used for at least 10 weeks in a pH range of 2.8-7.3. The proposed sensor was successfully used in direct determination of zinc ions in wastewater of industrial zinc electroplating companies, and also as an indicator electrode in titration with EDTA.

  1. Resumption of transport of KUR spent fuel from Japan to USA - Very long-term storage and public acceptance for transport

    Nakagome, Yoshihiro; Nishimaki, Kenzo; Kanda, Keiji

    1999-01-01

    The Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI) has more than 250 MTR-type HEU spent fuel elements. They have been stored in water pools after irradiation in the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) core. The longest pool residence time is 25 years. In accordance with the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Receipt Program of the United States, sixty KUR spent fuel elements were shipped from KURRI to the Savannah River Site of the USDOE in August, 1999. This shipment was done successfully through a public port in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. This is the first shipment in the past twenty-six years after the last shipment through the Yokohama Port. Concerning the use of a public port, we had to solve many issues for public acceptance. In this paper, we describe how we have stored the spent fuels for a long time with high integrity and how we have obtained public acceptance for the transport. (author)

  2. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  3. Food irradiation in Japan

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  4. Food Irradiation in Japan

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-09-15

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, 'kamaboko' (fish-paste products), 'Vienna' sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given 'unconditional acceptance' for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  5. Bevacizumab in the treatment of five patients with breast cancer and brain metastases: Japan Breast Cancer Research Network-07 trial

    Yamamoto D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daigo Yamamoto,1,3 Satoru Iwase,2 Yu Tsubota,1 Noriko Sueoka,1 Chizuko Yamamoto,3 Kaoru Kitamura,4 Hiroki Odagiri,5 Yoshinori Nagumo61Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka, 2Department of Palliative Medicine, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Seiko Hospital, Neyagawa, Osaka, 4Breast Unit, Nagumo Clinic, Fukuoka, 5Department of Surgery, Hirosaki National Hospital, Hirosaki, 6Breast Unit, Nagumo Clinic, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Brain metastases from breast cancer occur in 20%–40% of patients, and the frequency has increased over time. New radiosensitizers and cytotoxic or cytostatic agents, and innovative techniques of drug delivery are still under investigation.Methods: Five patients with brain metastases who did not respond to whole-brain radiotherapy and then received bevacizumab combined with paclitaxel were identified using our database of records between 2011 and 2012. The clinicopathological data and outcomes for these patients were then reviewed.Results: The median time to disease progression was 86 days. Of five patients, two (40% achieved a partial response, two had stable disease, and one had progressive disease. In addition, one patient with brain metastases had ptosis and diplopia due to metastases of the right extraocular muscles. However, not only the brain metastases, but also the ptosis and diplopia began to disappear after 1 month of treatment. The most common treatment-related adverse events (all grades were hypertension (60%, neuropathy (40%, and proteinuria (20%. No grade 3 toxicity was seen. No intracranial hemorrhage was observed.Conclusion: We present five patients with breast cancer and brain metastases, with benefits from systemic chemotherapy when combined with bevacizumab.Keywords: brain, bevacizumab, metastatic breast cancer

  6. Annual report of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. 1997 (April 1, 1997-March 31, 1998)

    Toki, Hiroshi; Sakai, Tsutomu; Hirata, Maiko

    1998-01-01

    Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) is the national center of nuclear physics in Japan, which is a laboratory complex of the cyclotron laboratory, the laser electron photon laboratory, and the Oto underground laboratory and aims at studies of nucleon meson nuclear physics and quark lepton nuclear physics. In the cyclotron laboratory, AVF/Ring cyclotron complex provides high quality beams of polarized protons and light ions in the medium energy region. Experimental studies have extensively been carried out on nucleon meson nuclear physics. The subjects studied include the nucleon mass and the nuclear interaction in nuclear medium, nuclear spin isospin motions and nuclear responses for neutrinos, pions and isobars interactions, medium energy nuclear reactions of light heavy ions, medical applications, and so on. The Oto Cosmo Observatory is the low background underground laboratory for lepton nuclear physics, and is used for applied science. The laser photon laboratory is used to study quark nuclear physics by means of the multi-GeV laser electron photon beam, and will be ready in the academic year of 1998 to be used for studying quark gluon structures and low-energy QCD. The accelerator researches and developments are being carried out for the new future plan of the multi-GeV electron proton collider. Theoretical works on nuclear particle physics have extensively been made by the RCNP theory groups and laser groups. Computer, network and DAQ systems, including the supercomputer system and the new generation network, have been developed. In this report, 25 reports of nuclear physics, 8 reports of lepton nuclear physics, 1 report of quark nuclear physics, and 2 reports of interdisciplinary physics are described in the experimental nuclear physics. And, 16 reports of quark nuclear physics, 9 reports of intermediate nuclear physics, 19 reports of nuclear physics, and 1 report of miscellaneous are described in the theoretical physics. (G.K.)

  7. Association between pain severity, depression severity, and use of health care services in Japan: results of a nationwide survey

    Vietri J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Vietri,1 Tempei Otsubo,2 William Montgomery,3 Toshinaga Tsuji,4 Eiji Harada5 1Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Milan, Italy; 2Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd., West Ryde, Australia; 4Medical Affairs, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 5Eli Lilly Japan KK, Kobe, Japan Background: Depression is often associated with painful physical symptoms. Previous research has seldom assessed the relationship between the severity of physical symptoms and the severity of mental and emotional symptoms of depression or other health outcomes, and no such studies have been conducted previously among individuals with depression in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the severity of physical pain and depression and other outcomes among individuals in Japan diagnosed with depression.Methods: Data for individuals aged 18 and older in Japan who reported being diagnosed with depression and also reported physical pain were obtained from the Japan National Health and Wellness Survey. These respondents were characterized on sociodemographics and health characteristics, and the relationship between ratings of severity on pain in the last week and health outcomes were assessed using bivariate correlations and generalized linear models. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression severity, Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument for health-related quality of life, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment for work and activity impairment, and 6-month report of health care use.Results: More severe physical pain in the past week was correlated with more severe depression, worse health-related quality of life, lower health utility, greater impairment at work, and more health care provider visits. These relationships remained significant after incorporating sociodemographics and health characteristics in the statistical models

  8. A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst.

    Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.

    2008-12-01

    Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  9. Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.

    Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

    2002-10-01

    THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868.

  10. Recent developments: Japan and Australia

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear industry in Japan and Australia are briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include: the world energy situation; and nuclear power generation trends and completion the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Recent events that suggest possible policy changes in Australia are briefly discussed

  11. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  12. Spent fuel management in Japan

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  13. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  14. Japan and the global environment

    Miller, A.S.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  15. Moral Education in Japan

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits...... in the legal frame work (the Fundamental Law on Education was revised in 2006) and the ministerial guidelines and policies (new curriculum guidelines have been issued after the law change, and new proposals for strengthening the position of moral education come on a regular basis) have reflected the increased......What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...

  16. Will Japan Rearm.

    1977-06-10

    Faculty Accepte d th is _________ day of~~~U)~4 l977~c~y.11 -~~~~~~~~~~~~D i rector , Master of Militar y Art Science . The opinions and...j~ s’ri : ‘~~~~ ~ IC . _ __~~~~~~ i 1~~~~~n Unhi ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 150 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ L~ MASTER OF MILITARY ART ... SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate Joseph Bertrand Berger, Jr. Major, Air Defense Artillery T it le of Thes i s W i l l Japan Rearm

  17. Typhoon Chataan off Japan

    2002-01-01

    Slowly winding its way down, Typhoon Chataan had dropped to tropical storm status by Thursday, July 11, 2002, when this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was captured. In the image, the storm is located off the east coast of central Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The storm is much less organized than it was in the previous day's image. Through a gap in the clouds to the southwest of the storm's eye, Tokyo can be seen as a grayish cluster of pixels surrounding a small bay or inlet that protrudes into the island of Honshu. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  18. Dosimetry studies in Japan

    Maruyama, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Hashizume, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba estimated the radiation doses in air from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by using some building materials exposed to the nuclear explosions in both cities. These estimated doses were in good agreement with the doses estimated on the basis of the Ichiban project by the research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which were the basis for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission's tentative 1965 radiation dose (T65D). Recently the radiation doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been reevaluated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In Japan a new research group was started last August, with the intention of making new estimates of doses from the atomic bombs in cooperation with US research groups

  19. Radiation processing in Japan

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  20. Radiation processing in Japan

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  1. SCWR Concepts in Japan

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    Two SCWR concepts are being developed in Japan, one corresponding to the thermal spectrum reactor and the other to the fast spectrum reactor. Yamada et al. described the thermal-spectrum reactor concept referred to as the Japan SCWR (or JSCWR). This concept was developed under the financial support of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The basic philosophy of the JSCWR development is to utilize proven light water reactor and supercritical fossil-fired power plant technologies as much as possible to minimize the R&D cost, time and risks. Therefore, the JSCWR is designed as a thermal neutron spectrum reactor using light water as moderator and reactor coolant. The JSCWR plant consists of a pressure-vessel type, once-through reactor and a direct Rankine cycle system. Reactor coolant fed through inlet nozzles is heated up in the core and flows through outlet nozzles with no recirculation in the vessel. Other options to the JSCWR core design are being investigated at the University of Tokyo. The electric output of the JSCWR is assumed to range from 600 MWe to 1700 MWe class to fulfill user’s requirements as much as possible. In this section, the reference value is selected to 1725 MWe, which corresponds to a reactor thermal output of 4039 MWth. Nakatsuka et al. described the core design for the fast-spectrum reactor, which is based on a similar plant system compared to that of the thermal-spectrum reactor. The fast-spectrum reactor, however, would produce higher power rating than the thermal-spectrum one of the same reactor pressure-vessel size. Since the fast-spectrum reactor does not require the moderator, its unit capital cost would be lower than the thermal-spectrum reactor.

  2. Efficacy comparison of duloxetine and SSRIs at doses approved in Japan

    Harada E

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Harada,1 Alexander Schacht,2 Tsukasa Koyama,3 Lauren Marangell,4,5 Toshinaga Tsuji,6 Rodrigo Escobar41Medical Science, Eli Lilly Japan K.K, Kobe, Japan; 2Global Statistical Sciences, Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, Germany; 3Clinical Research Center, Ohyachi Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, 5The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA; 6Medical Affairs, Shionogi & Co Ltd, Osaka, JapanBackground: Approved doses of antidepressants in Japan are usually lower than those in the USA and European Union, but to date meta-analyses comparing antidepressants have all used the higher doses approved in the USA and European Union and often have used indirect comparisons. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrated database analysis of patient level data to compare the effects of duloxetine with those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs at the doses approved in Japan.Methods: Pooled data were analyzed from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that compared duloxetine at the dose range approved in Japan (40–60 mg/day with other SSRIs (paroxetine 20 mg/day or escitalopram 10 mg/day and placebo in patients with major depressive disorder. In total, 1,694 patients were included in the analysis (duloxetine, n=688; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, n=690; placebo, n=316. The primary outcome measure was the mean change from baseline at week 8 in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17 total and subscale scores.Results: Duloxetine and both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were superior to placebo in HAMD17 total score at week 8 in both the all-randomized group and the more severe subgroup (HAMD17 total scores ≥19. Duloxetine was superior to SSRIs in improving the HAMD17 Retardation subscale score (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]: all-randomized group, −0.33 [−0.60, −0.07], P=0.015; severe subgroup,

  3. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2004-10-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, 'RADIATION FAIR - the relationship between daily life and radiation' has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices.

  4. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    Furuta, Masakazu

    2004-09-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, ''RADIATION FAIR—the relationship between daily life and radiation" has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices.

  5. A cost-benefit analysis on the specialization in departments of obstetrics and gynecology in Japan.

    Shen, Junyi; Fukui, On; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Takako; Kimura, Tadashi; Morishige, Kenichiro; Saijo, Tatsuyoshi

    2012-03-27

    In April 2008, the specialization in departments of obstetrics and gynecology was conducted in Sennan area of Osaka prefecture in Japan, which aims at solving the problems of regional provision of obstetrical service. Under this specialization, the departments of obstetrics and gynecology in two city hospitals were combined as one medical center, whilst one hospital is in charge of the department of gynecology and the other one operates the department of obstetrics. In this paper, we implement a cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the validity of this specialization. The benefit-cost ratio is estimated at 1.367 under a basic scenario, indicating that the specialization can generate a net benefit. In addition, with a consideration of different kinds of uncertainty in the future, a number of sensitivity analyses are conducted. The results of these sensitivity analyses suggest that the specialization is valid in the sense that all the estimated benefit-cost ratios are above 1.0 in any case.

  6. Dental implant status of patients receiving long-term nursing care in Japan.

    Kimura, Toru; Wada, Masahiro; Suganami, Toru; Miwa, Shunta; Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Yoshiobu

    2015-01-01

    The increase in implant patients is expected to give rise to a new problem: the changing general health status of those who have had implants placed. The aim of this present study was to find out the needs of and proper measures for elderly implant patients in long-term care facilities. A questionnaire was sent by mail to 1,591 long-term care health facilities, daycare services for people with dementia, and private nursing homes for the elderly in the Osaka area, which is in the middle area of Japan, in order to extract patients with cerebrovascular disease or dementia who were possibly at risk of inadequate oral self-care, as well as patients with implants. Approximately half of all facilities responded that they cannot recognize implants, and many facilities did not know anything about oral care for implant patients. Residents with implants were reported at 19% of all facilities. Also, the facilities pointed out problems with implants relating to the difference in oral care between implants and natural teeth. There are people with implants in some 20% of caregiving facilities, and there is a low level of understanding regarding implants and their care among nurses and care providers who are providing daily oral care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    Furuta, Masakazu

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, 'RADIATION FAIR - the relationship between daily life and radiation' has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices

  8. The Cogema group in Japan

    1998-12-01

    The partnership between the Cogema group and Japan in the domain of fuel cycle started about 20 years ago and the 10 Japanese nuclear operators are all clients of the Cogema group. The 1997 turnover realized with Japan reached 3.6 billions of francs (11% of the total turnover of the group). This short paper presents briefly the nuclear program of Japan (nuclear park, spent fuels reprocessing-recycling strategy) and the contracts between Cogema and the Japanese nuclear operators (natural uranium, uranium conversion and enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium recycle and MOX fuel production markets). (J.S.)

  9. Whistleblowing in Japan.

    Davis, Anne J; Konishi, Emiko

    2007-03-01

    This article, written from research data, focuses on the possible meaning of the data rather than on detailed statistical reporting. It defines whistleblowing as an act of the international nursing ethical ideal of advocacy, and places it in the larger context of professional responsibility. The experiences, actions, and ethical positions of 24 Japanese nurses regarding whistleblowing or reporting a colleague for wrongdoing provide the data. Of these respondents, similar in age, educational level and clinical experience, 10 had previously reported another nurse and 12 had reported a physician for a wrongful act. These data raise questions about overt actions to expose a colleague in a culture that values group loyalty and saving face. Additional research is needed for an in-depth understanding of whistleblowing, patient advocacy and professional responsibility across cultures, especially those that value group loyalty, saving face and similar concepts to the Japanese Ishin Denshin, where the value is on implicit understanding requiring indirect communication. Usually, being direct and openly discussing sensitive topics is not valued in Japan because such behavior disrupts the most fundamental value, harmony (wa).

  10. Outage planning in Japan

    Nedderman, John.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators in Japan are constrained to keep refuelling and maintenance outages to a minimum by the regulation limiting operating cycles to no longer than 13 months. Outage planning by two contrasting operators is described. Hokkaido Electric, which operates only one plant, Tomari, with two PWRs, plans to reduce outage time from the present 65 days in two stages. Detailed review of previous outage schedules has shown that a reduction to 59 days should be achievable by careful planning without any fundamental changes. The second reduction to 49 days will require such measures as relaxing water purity standards, rescheduling fuel unloading and loading shifts and speeding up eddy current testing of primary equipment by using steam generator nozzle dams. Kansai Electric, operating 11 PWRs at three plants, has scope for reducing outages at all of its units using a range of measures. Steam generator replacement in the seven oldest reactors, completed in July 1997, is by far the most significant of these and is expected to save 64 days repair time in a previous average outage time of 131 days. (UK)

  11. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    1981-06-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  12. Nuclear power development in Japan

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    The energy situation in Japan is briefly outlined. Vulnerability in energy structure of the country is shown by a comparison of primary energy supply patterns of Japan and Western countries. Japan's energy policy consists in reducing dependence on oil, promoting efficient use of energy and increasing use of non-fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a core of alternative energy for petroleum because of stable supply of nuclear fuel, low detrimental emissions and less dependence on the fuel. A short historical review of nuclear power development in Japan is presented. Some future issues as development of entire nuclear fuel cycle, social acceptance, reactor safety and nuclear power economics are also discussed. 6 figs. (R.T.)

  13. Japan Sports Arbitration Agency (JSAA

    Ekaterina P. Rusakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.

  14. The photovoltaic energy in Japan

    Georgel, O.

    2005-07-01

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  15. Japan's approach to monetary policy

    Giovanni P. Olivei

    2002-01-01

    The goal of monetary policy as conducted by the Bank of Japan is to contribute to the sound development of the national economy through the pursuit of price stability. The objective of price stability, however, is not precisely defined as it has been for other central banks. Following the implementation of the new Bank of Japan Law in 1998, the monetary policy framework is characterized by central bank independence, the primacy of the price stability objective, instrument independence, and po...

  16. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan.

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Naramura, H; Fujiwara, H; Takashima, Y; Fukuda, H

    1997-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence among a community-residing older population in Japan. Population-based cross-sectional study. A randomly selected sample of 1473 people aged 65 years and older living in the City of Settsu, Osaka, in 1992. Data collected via in-home visits were used to estimate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and to provide information regarding potential risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Data were obtained from 1405 older adults, a response rate of 95.4%. The prevalence of any degree of urinary incontinence was 98/1000 in both sexes, and 87/ 1000 men and 66/1000 women admitted to some degree of fecal incontinence. Daily, 34/1000 and 20/1000 of the population were incontinent of urine and feces, respectively. There was an increasing prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence with age in both sexes, but the expected greater prevalence in women was not found. By univariate analyses, age older than 75 years, poor general health as measured by Activities of Daily Living, stroke, dementia, no participation in social activities, and lack of life worth living (Ikigai) were associated significantly with both urinary and fecal incontinence. In the multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age older than 75 years, poor general health, and stroke were independent risk factors for any type of incontinence. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for isolated fecal incontinence, and dementia and no participation in social activities were independent risk factors for double incontinence. Incontinence of urine and feces is a prevalent condition among very old people living in the community in Japan and is associated highly with health and psychosocial conditions.

  17. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  18. Detection and genetic characterization of norovirus strains circulating among infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan during 2004-2005.

    Phan, Tung Gia; Takanashi, Sayaka; Kaneshi, Kunio; Ueda, Yuichi; Nakaya, Shigekazu; Nishimura, Shuichi; Sugita, Kumiko; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Atsuko; Yagyu, Fumihiro; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    A total of 752 fecal specimens collected during the period of July 2004 to June 2005 from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis from four different regions (Maizuru, Tokyo, Sapporo, and Osaka) of Japan were tested for the presence of norovirus by RT-PCR. It was found that 139 (18.5%) fecal specimens were positive for norovirus. Norovirus infection was detected almost all year round with the highest prevalence in January. Norovirus GII was the most predominant genogroup (98.6%; 137 of 139). The genotypes detected in this study were GI/1, GII/1, GII/3, GII/4, and GII/6. Of these, NoV GII/4 (known as the Lordsdale virus cluster) was re-emerging and became the leading genotype (77.7%). Meanwhile, the incidence of NoV GII/3 (known as the Arg320 virus cluster) has dropped rapidly, accounting for only 15.8%. Another interesting feature of the study was the identification of Picton03/AU-like recombinant NoV for the first time in Japan. Based on the genetic analysis, it was interesting to note that NoV GII/4 in 2004-2005 made a distinct cluster in comparison to other NoV GII/4 circulating in 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. Of note, "new recombinant variant designated GIIb" within NoV GII/3, which was first detected in Saga City, Japan in 2003-2004 in only one case, had increased, spreading widely in Japan and representing 45.5% (10 of 22). Further epidemiological studies should be conducted to determine whether this new recombinant variant strain will be dominant in Japan in the coming year.

  19. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats.

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-10

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown ( Rattus norvegicus , n = 43) and black ( R. rattus , n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  20. Nuclear power in Japan

    Kishida, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

  1. Nuclear power in Japan

    Kishida, J [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-07-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations.

  2. Japan`s civil use of foreign military plutonium

    Suzuki, A. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Quantum Engineering and Systems Sciences

    1995-12-31

    This paper is intended to propose one of the MOX options of international cooperation for safer and more secured management of excess military plutonium. The proposal was made with special reference to the Japanese public`s view. Owing to the domestic plutonium shortage anticipated soon after the 200 in Japan, some specific reactors will be available to get rid of foreign excess weapon plutonium. According to the Japan AEC`s new long-term programme, the shortage will be approximately 0.5 tonne of plutonium per annum, which is a sort of the least amount that Japan can buy from a certain external source. With international requests for a more positive Japanese contribution, however, the amount of Japanese purchase would be increased. It follows from the preliminary estimate shown in this paper that roughly 2 tonnes of plutonium can be burned annually in the reactors without any major modifications concerning safe reactor operation. (author) 10 refs.

  3. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  4. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    Taniura, W.; Otani, H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the specialist research meeting on 'abnormal protein aggregation and the folding diseases, and their protection and repair system' [1-2 November 2012, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    Sadakane, Yutaka; Fujii, Noriko

    2013-03-01

    For this meeting, we invited leading biochemistry, structural biology, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, molecular biology, radiation biology, and enzymology researchers. During the meeting, it was reported that the triggers of abnormal protein aggregation include racemization and isomerization of aspartyl residues, deamination of appraisingly residues. The process and the protection of amyloid fibril formation, and the alteration of the higher order structure of abnormal aggregated protein were also covered. Furthermore, the new analytical methods for the detection of the abnormal protein were presented. The topics of this meeting were widespread and the discussion was exciting. This special issue was the proceedings of the meeting with collection of 11 papers. The one of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. The educational system in Japan

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  7. Datafile: [nuclear power in] Japan

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Japan is third after the USA and France in terms of the Western World's installed nuclear capacity, but it has by far the largest forward programme. Great effort is also being put into the fuel cycle and advanced reactors. There is close co-operation between the government, utilities and manufacturers, but Japan has not sought to export reactors. The government has responded to the growing public opposition to nuclear power with a massive increase in its budget for public relations. Details of the nuclear power programme are given. (author)

  8. Local Government System in Japan

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  9. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems ... Physics Department, Nara Women University, Nara, Japan. 5 ... RCNP, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan ...... We acknowledge partial financial support from the DGICYT under contract ...

  10. JPRS Report, East Asia, Japan

    1987-11-02

    May 87) 17 Amada Technical Center 17 Punch-press Production in France, by Andreas Gandow 17 Study on Dynamics of Foreign Exchange Rates (Kenichi...468 20 ECONOMIC STUDY ON DYNAMICS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES Tokyo THE JAPAN TIMES in English 29 Jul 87 pp 7-9 (Article by Kenichi Ohmae] [Text

  11. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan

    2007-01-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  12. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of

  13. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb 3 Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting μ meson channel and π meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration

  14. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    1981-09-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  15. Geothermal country update of Japan

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    1988-05-06

    Sought ( Nobuaki Teraoka; PUROMETEUSU, Nov 87) 62 IPCR Molecular Laser Uranium Enrichment Method Discussed (GENSHIRYOKU IINKAI GEPPO, Nov 87... Kobayashi ) Investigation of Tokyo University character of winter (Professor Tatsuo thunder on Japan Kawamura, Sea side by new Assistant...PUROMETEUSU in Japanese Nov 87 pp 78-81 [Article by Nobuaki Teraoka, Technology Development Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency

  17. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  18. U.S. Forces Japan

    Okinawa Fri, 25 May 2018 02:07:00 GMT Scuba Savior: 3d MLG Marine saves life in Okinawa Fri, 25 May 2018 by @USForcesJapan Facebook Facebook Followers, We hope you've brushed up on your USFJ knowledge over the weekend, b... Followers, We hope you've brushed up on your USFJ knowledge over the weekend

  19. July 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  20. Japan's new basic energy plan

    Duffield, John S.; Woodall, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the Japanese cabinet adopted a new Basic Energy Plan (BEP). This was the third such plan that the government has approved since the passage of the Basic Act on Energy Policy in 2002, and it represents the most significant statement of Japanese energy policy in more than four years, since the publication of the New National Energy Strategy (NNES) in 2006. Perhaps more than its predecessors, moreover, the new plan establishes a number of ambitious targets as well as more detailed measures for achieving those targets. Among the targets are a doubling of Japan's 'energy independence ratio,' a doubling of the percentage of electricity generated by renewable sources and nuclear power, and a 30 percent reduction in energy-related CO 2 emissions, all by 2030. This paper explains the origins of the 2010 BEP and why it was adopted. It then describes the content of the plan and how it differs from the NNES. A third section analyzes the appropriateness of the new goals and targets contained in the BEP and their feasibility, finding that achievement of many of the targets was likely to be quite challenging even before the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. - Highlights: → Origins of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Content of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Feasibility of achieving the targets in Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Impact of 2011 earthquake and tsunami on Japanese energy policy.

  1. Comparison of cardiovascular mortality in the Great East Japan and the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquakes - a large-scale data analysis of death certificates.

    Takegami, Misa; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Nakai, Michikazu; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Ogawa, Hisao; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Toh, Ryuji; Morino, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Naito, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Large earthquakes have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In Japan, the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji (H-A) Earthquake was an urban-underground-type earthquake, whereas the 2011 Great East Japan (GEJ) Earthquake was an ocean-trench type. In the present study, we examined how these different earthquake types affected CVD mortality. We examined death certificate data from 2008 to 2012 for 131 municipalities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (n=320,348) and from 1992 to 1996 for 220 municipalities in Hyogo, Osaka, and Kyoto prefectures (n=592,670). A Poisson regression model showed significant increases in the monthly numbers of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-related deaths (incident rate ratio [IRR] GEJ=1.34, P=0.001; IRR of H-A=1.57, Pdeaths (IRR of GEJ=1.42, Pdeaths remained significant only for H-A (IRR=1.13, P=0.029). When analyzing the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) after the earthquakes using the Cochran-Armitage trend test, seismic intensity was significantly associated with AMI mortality for 2 weeks after both the GEJ (P for trend=0.089) and H-A earthquakes (P for trend=0.005). Following the GEJ and H-A earthquakes, there was a sharp increase in CVD mortality. The effect of the disaster was sustained for months after the H-A earthquake, but was diminished after the GEJ Earthquake.

  2. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  3. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  4. Urban and spatial planning in Japan

    Marin Tominaga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  5. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    Taniura, Wataru; Otani, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

  6. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  7. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the Nordic region of Asia’s increased interest in the Arctic region and Arctic affairs, including in relation to Greenland. However, with the possible exception of China, there has been little Western scholarly work to analyze exactly why Asian countries...... are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with the development of other foreign policy objectives, is a complex mix of national, bureaucratic...... and group interests. For Greenlandic and Danish policymakers, it may be useful to understand the genesis of Japan and Singapore’s Arctic policies and that their interest is complex and multi-faceted....

  8. Another Neolithic in Holocene Japan

    Masaki Nishida

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Japanese Islands, small sedentary villages sustained by hunting, gathering, fish- ing and cultivation emerged around 10 000 years ago. This life style of the Jomon people continued for around 7000 years without any drastic changes in material culture, subsistence strategy and vil- lage size until the diffusion of continental civilization into Japan approximately 2500 years ago. This indicates that the incipient sedentary society of the Jomon Period was very stable, a state which is not indicative of civilized society after that time. After the prehistoric situation in Japan, we are able to classify sedentary society into two phases; sedentism with stability and sedentism with instability (civilized society. Therefore it is possible to say that the emergence of sedentism and cultivation are not direct factors which promote the emergence of civilization.

  9. WDC Activities in Japan, 2008

    Takashi Watanabe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the activities of the International Council for Science (ICSU World Data Centers (WDCs in Japan at a time of great change in the data and information structures of the ICSU ? the creation of the World Data System (WDS in 2009. Seven WDCs are currently operating in Japan: the WDC for Airglow, the WDC for Cosmic Rays, the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, the WDC for Ionosphere, the WDC for Solar Radio Emission, and the WDC for Space Science Satellites. Although these WDCs are highly active, along-term support system must be established to ensure the stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community.

  10. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  11. The japan a nuclear power?

    Cumin, D.; Joubert, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  12. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  13. Japan's Trade Policy with Asia

    Shujiro Urata

    2014-01-01

    Japan's economic relations with Asian countries have rapidly become increasingly close in recent years, mainly through trade and direct investment. In Asia, Japanese companies have pursued a gfragmentation strategy, h which refers to breaking down production processes and assigning each process, through direct investment, to the country or region suited to implement it most efficiently. As a result, when a certain product is manufactured, its intermediate materials and parts are actively trad...

  14. Supply of radiopharmaceuticals in Japan

    Genka, Tsuguo

    2006-01-01

    Detailed statistics of the application of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine in Japan are summarized. They are the amount of supply in terms of monetary value and radioactivity, categorized usages of in vivo and in vitro, number of facilities using the radiopharmaceuticals for the time span of 5 years (1998-2002). Obvious tendency of decrease for in vitro use can be seen while the total amount of radiopharmaceuticals is almost unchanged. (author)

  15. Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) project

    Nagamiya, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is the next accelerator project proposed at KEK to promote exciting sciences by utilising high-intensity proton beams. The project is characterised by three unique features: hadronic beams of the world's highest intensity; a variety of beams from one accelerator complex; frontier sciences to cover a broad research area including nuclear physics, particle physics, material sciences and life sciences by utilising a common accelerator complex. (author)

  16. Reactor construction programme in Japan

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    In September last year, the Japanese Government requested the International Atomic Energy Agency to supply three tons of natural uranium for a research reactor, and the Agency has now arranged for its sale to Japan. The metal will be supplied in ingot form and after fabrication it will be used as fuel in a reactor of the natural uranium, heavy water type. The uranium will be obtained from Canada and sold to Japan by IAEA. The Agency had invited tenders for its supply, and after considering the tenders received, the Agency's Board of Governors decided that the Canadian offer to the Agency of three tons of natural uranium free of charge should be accepted and that the selling price to Japan should be US $35. 50 per kilogramme. The price takes into account Article XIV/E of the Agency's Statute which says that the Agency shall establish a scale of charges (including those for storage and handling) for materials furnished to Member States, and that the scale shall be designed to produce revenues to meet expenses in connexion with materials acquired by the Agency and costs of materials and services provided by it under agreements with one or more members. This is the first operation of its kind to be undertaken by the Agency, and the reactor for which the supply is being made will be the first in Japan to be constructed by Japanese scientists and technicians. IAEA's Board of Governors has given the necessary approval to the reactor project for which the Agency is providing assistance

  17. Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan

    Rosa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ryōtarō. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it refle...

  18. Japan Report - Science and Technology

    1986-10-17

    Stock of Bacillus Subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a relative of bacillus natto that has been in use in Japan from the ancient times. It is safe and...addition to the advantages of this combination of personal styles, the two had great confidence in each other. Chairman Kaneo is the so-called "fair...sixth year of his presidency. That has been just the right age for a president, and given these advantages Sunagane has a good chance of becoming

  19. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  20. Contamination profiles of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in foodstuff samples from Japan

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kurunthachalam, S; Ohi, Etsumasa; Takasuga, Takumi [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Iino, Fukuya; Nakanishi, Junko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs) are group of chemicals manufactured by chlorination of liquid n-paraffin or paraffin wax that contain 30 to 70% chlorine by weight. Large amounts of PCAs are widely used as plasticizers for vinyl chloride, lubricants, paints, and flame retardants and number of other industrial applications. Annual global production of PCAs is approximately 300 kilo tones, with a majority having medium-carbon-chain (C14-C19) length. According to the investigation made by Kagaku Kogyo Nippon-Sha, the annual consumption of PCAs in Japan was about 83,000 tons in between 1986-2001. Short-carbon-chain (C10-C13) has been placed on the Priority Substance List under Canadian Environmental Protection Act and on the Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Release Inventory in the USA due to its potential to act as tumor promoters in mammals. Data on environment levels of PCAs is meager, nevertheless, PCAs have been measured at relatively high concentrations in biota from Sweden, biota, sediment from Canada and marine biota and human milk from the Canadian Arctic. In our earlier study, we reported concentrations of short-chain PCAs from sewage treatment plant (STP) collected from Tama River, Tokyo and river water and sediment from Tokyo and Osaka. STP influent water contained greater shortchain PCAs concentrations than STP effluent. In addition, some river water and sediment samples contained detectable concentrations of short-chain PCAs, which was similar to other industrial countries. However, there is no study conducted to explore the contamination profiles of short-chain PCAs in human foodstuff samples. In the present study, we analyzed eleven foodstuff samples that were purchased from various supermarkets in order to know the short-chain PCAs concentrations in the foodstuff and possible human total daily intake (TDI) amounts.

  1. Japan: 45 Years of INIS

    Yonezawa, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    I would like to congratulate INIS on its 45th anniversary. Japan is a founding member of this international cooperation program, and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (formerly, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute — JAERI) was appointed as the national center of INIS by the Japanese government. We have contributed to the collection, classification, indexing, abstracting and submission of nuclear literature published in our country, as well as promoted the INIS database within our country. I have been engaged in INIS activities for many years and have a lot of experience with INIS. On the occasion of INIS’ 45th anniversary, I would like to look back on this experience. I started my career at JAERI in 1984. The first regional training seminar for the Far East was held in Tokyo in October 1984. I was assigned to the Library Division of JAERI, but I worked as support staff for the regional training seminar. During the seminar, I had an opportunity to attend the technical tour with the seminar participants to the University of Library and Information Science, research laboratories, etc., in Tsukuba Science City. This was my first involvement with INIS. It was a very impressive and interesting experience

  2. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Junichi Ishitoya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP. The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term ''eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'' (ECRS was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001.ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States. KEY WORDS: chronic rhinosinusitis, clinical feature, diagnosis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophils

  3. Stress transferred by the 1995 Mw = 6.9 Kobe, Japan, shock: Effect on aftershocks and future earthquake probabilities

    Toda, S.; Stein, R.S.; Reasenberg, P.A.; Dieterich, J.H.; Yoshida, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Kobe earthquake struck at the edge of the densely populated Osaka-Kyoto corridor in southwest Japan. We investigate how the earthquake transferred stress to nearby faults, altering their proximity to failure and thus changing earthquake probabilities. We find that relative to the pre-Kobe seismicity, Kobe aftershocks were concentrated in regions of calculated Coulomb stress increase and less common in regions of stress decrease. We quantify this relationship by forming the spatial correlation between the seismicity rate change and the Coulomb stress change. The correlation is significant for stress changes greater than 0.2-1.0 bars (0.02-0.1 MPa), and the nonlinear dependence of seismicity rate change on stress change is compatible with a state- and rate-dependent formulation for earthquake occurrence. We extend this analysis to future mainshocks by resolving the stress changes on major faults within 100 km of Kobe and calculating the change in probability caused by these stress changes. Transient effects of the stress changes are incorporated by the state-dependent constitutive relation, which amplifies the permanent stress changes during the aftershock period. Earthquake probability framed in this manner is highly time-dependent, much more so than is assumed in current practice. Because the probabilities depend on several poorly known parameters of the major faults, we estimate uncertainties of the probabilities by Monte Carlo simulation. This enables us to include uncertainties on the elapsed time since the last earthquake, the repeat time and its variability, and the period of aftershock decay. We estimate that a calculated 3-bar (0.3-MPa) stress increase on the eastern section of the Arima-Takatsuki Tectonic Line (ATTL) near Kyoto causes fivefold increase in the 30-year probability of a subsequent large earthquake near Kyoto; a 2-bar (0.2-MPa) stress decrease on the western section of the ATTL results in a reduction in probability by a factor of 140 to

  4. Foreword [IJEGMBE 2015: India-Japan expert group meeting on biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environment preservation, Fukuoka (Japan), 23-26 December 2015

    2016-01-01

    like to express our sincere thanks to the organizing committee members of this workshop and thank organizations such as by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan, Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, Delhi Technological University (DTU), India, Kitakyushu City, and West Japan Industry and Trade Convention Association for their financial support. Thanks are also given to University of Hyogo and the Kyushu Institute of Technology. Many people have made efforts so as to make this meeting possible and valuable, and we would like to express our thanks to Prof. Wataru Takashima, Prof. Shuichi Nagamatsu, Prof. Shyam S. Pandey, and Ms. Megumi Furuta of Kyushu Institute of Technology, Prof. Ashutosh Sharma (DST, India), Dr Navin Vasishta (DST, India), Prof. Yogesh Singh (DTU, India), Prof. Akihiko Fujii and Dr. Hirotake Kajii from Osaka University for their efforts in planning and arranging this expert group meeting. Finally, we hope that many young and active researchers who are participating will enjoy stimulating discussions and exchanging their ideas with each other at the IJEGMBE being organized at Kitakyushu in Japan. (paper)

  5. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  6. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  7. Institutionalisation of Japan Identity Construction Policy

    Zadvornaya Elena S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the modern politics of identity construction in Japan, which actively refers to the practice of designing self-image in international relations. This trend dates back to the 19th century, when there was the end of Sakoku (Japan’s policy of isolation. It is now possible to talk about the institutionalization of the identity construction policy to organized structures and regulations. Enhanced efforts in the field of Japanese traditional and popular culture, education and creative content has led to a number of institutions appearance (like Japan Foundation Fund, Japan Creative Agency, Japan Culture Fund, Agency for Cultural Affairs, Cool Japan Fund, Japan brand Fund and changing idea about the role of culture in foreign policy realization (it is fixed the documents of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, as well as a number of projects (Cool Japan, Visit Japan, Japan Culture Power, Japan Manga Awards, Kawaii Ambassadors, Cosplay International Fest and etc.. These efforts are aimed at forming Japan identity abroad to solve a number of foreign policy challenges of the future and the development of economic cooperation. The Japanese government nearest plans is to increase funding in order to create a positive image of Japan in the region of East Asia. All of these allows us to speak about the policy of the Japanese construction of identity as an institutionalized process in which there was clearance of organizations and regulatory activities.

  8. Public information activities in Japan

    Ijima, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the public information (PI) activities in Japan. At present in Japan 51 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation contributing with a capacity of about 440 G We, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity is produced by nuclear power. An investigation conducted by Advisory Committee for Energy resulted in the following guidelines in the advancing the Nuclear Power Policy: - maintain transparency in determining policy and reflect the voice of people, making information available to the public; - promote mutual understanding between areas that produce electricity by nuclear power and those that consume electricity; - cultivate an awareness of energy issues amongst the public to encourage them to take issues regarding Japan's energy policy to heart. Concerning the current PI, the following actions are undertaken at a nationwide scale: - for all people, supplying information by mass media, internet and holding lecture meetings and panel discussions etc; - for women, advertisements in journals; - for youth, educational materials, exhibition of energy etc; - for teachers, seminars; for opinion leaders, sending newsletters on nuclear energy. In areas for planned or constructed nuclear plants the PI actions are addressed to all people, women, fishermen, farmers and opinion leaders. There are given the responses to the following three questions addressed to the public concerning the nuclear power: - do you think whether we need nuclear power plants? - do you think whether nuclear power plants are safe? - what mechanism do you think generates energy during the production of nuclear power. A discussion of the results is presented. As future objectives of PI activities the following are in view: to cultivate reliability, to aware of information about nuclear power, to promote awareness of nuclear power, to promote mutual understanding of nuclear power. In conclusion, the need is stressed to make the PI activities more effective, to find

  9. Children in Japan and multimedia.

    Shimauchi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia.

  10. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  11. Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    Destruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

  12. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  13. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  14. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons.

    Asamoto, Shunji

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  16. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  17. Thorium research activities in Japan

    Sasa, Toshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear energy policy in Japan is based on the Uranium-Plutonium fuel cycle with Light Water Reactors (LWR) and Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). After the accident at Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Japanese government recognizes the importance to ensure the flexibility for future nuclear power generation and then, it was specified in the latest Japanese strategic energy plan. Two research groups related to thorium fuelled nuclear systems and fuel cycle was set up in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan in 2013. One is a 'Research Committee on Nuclear Applications of Molten Salt'. The committee was established to discuss the current molten-salt technology including molten-salt cooled reactor, molten-salt fuelled reactor, accelerator driven system, fusion reactor blankets and dry reprocessing processes. Throughout two years discussion, the committee summarizes a current state of the art and issues of molten-salt application systems. Committee also discussed the handling technologies for molten-salt reactors especially in China and United Kingdom, issues of molten-salt application to fusion reactor, dry reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, and non-nuclear application of molten-salt. Term of the committee will be extended for further research activities

  18. Laser precision microfabrication in Japan

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

    2000-11-01

    Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

  19. Food irradiation development in Japan

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-01-01

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  20. Medical facility statistics in Japan.

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Hasebe, Ryo; Myat Cho, Su; Khaing, Moe; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Mon Saw, Yu; Yamamoto, Eiko

    2017-11-01

    Medical facility statistics provide essential information to policymakers, administrators, academics, and practitioners in the field of health services. In Japan, the Health Statistics Office of the Director-General for Statistics and Information Policy at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is generating these statistics. Although the statistics are widely available in both Japanese and English, the methodology described in the technical reports are primarily in Japanese, and are not fully described in English. This article aimed to describe these processes for readers in the English-speaking world. The Health Statistics Office routinely conduct two surveys called the Hospital Report and the Survey of Medical Institutions. The subjects of the former are all the hospitals and clinics with long-term care beds in Japan. It comprises a Patient Questionnaire focusing on the numbers of inpatients, admissions, discharges, and outpatients in one month, and an Employee Questionnaire, which asks about the number of employees as of October 1. The Survey of Medical Institutions consists of the Dynamic Survey, which focuses on the opening and closing of facilities every month, and the Static Survey, which focuses on staff, facilities, and services as of October 1, as well as the number of inpatients as of September 30 and the total number of outpatients during September. All hospitals, clinics, and dental clinics are requested to submit the Static Survey questionnaire every three years. These surveys are useful tools for collecting essential information, as well as providing occasions to implicitly inform facilities of the movements of government policy.

  1. The electronuclear program of Japan

    Mori, Kazuhisa

    1978-01-01

    Japan, depending on imports for 80% of its energy supply, introduced a nuclear power program, which now comprises 14 reactors in operation (8,000 MW., that is 8% of its electricity production), and 15 reactors (14,000MW) under construction or being investigated. The objective for 1985 is from 26,000 to 33,000 MW. Japanese industry committed the error of placing too much confidence in its American licensers and not undertaking enough of its own research. This resulted in having a too small number of nuclear stations available, approximately 50%. Japan secured its uranium supply (Niger), its enrichment facilities (U.S.A. and Eurodif), while studying the centrifugation process, and facilities for reprocessing irradiated fuels (France and U.K.) while, at the same time, seeking national independence regarding its entire fuel cycle. The siting of nuclear power stations comes up against local opposition, which is being overcome by a taxation on electricity used to subsidize local collectivities favorable to the construction of a power station, whether hydro-electric, thermal or nuclear [fr

  2. Nuclear power development in Japan

    Mishiro, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the advantages of nuclear energy for Japan. In 1997 the composition of the total primary energy supply (TPES) was oil 52.7%, coal 16.5%, nuclear 16.1% and natural gas 10.7%. Nuclear power has a significant role to play in contributing to 3 national interests: i) energy security, ii) economic growth and iii) environmental protection. Energy security is assured because a stable supply of uranium fuel can be reasonably expected in spite of dependence on import from abroad. Economic growth implies the reduction of energy costs. As nuclear power is capital intensive, the power generation cost is less affected by the fuel cost, therefore nuclear power can realize low cost by favoring high capacity utilization factor. Fossil fuels have substantial impacts on environment such as global warming and acid rain by releasing massive quantities of CO 2 , so nuclear power is a major option for meeting the Kyoto limitations. In Japan, in 2010 nuclear power is expected to reach 17% of TPES and 45% of electricity generated. (A.C.)

  3. Fusion tritium program in Japan

    Okamoto, M.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Fusion Council, Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, has started to review the nuclear fusion R and D plan for the next stage, post JT-60. The council launched a subcommittee on fundamental issues in the nuclear fusion development in 1985, for review of the basic strategy of a development plan. The subcommittee presented an interim report in Feb. 1986 after 6 months discussion and the report was approved by the Nuclear Fusion Council. Two major R and D programs described in the interim report are the development of a Tokamak type large facility and the comprehensive development of the fusion reactor technology. The latter means to promote the reactor technologies which will be essential in the future to construct not only a D/T burning but also a DEMO reactor. The Nuclear Fusion Development Program in Japan is shown. The interim report recommended to organize two subcommittees to establish an integrated national R and D plan; one was for the design of the next step large facility and the other was for the R and program of the fusion technology. The subcommittee for the latter consisted of 7 working groups; one of them was organized for the tritium technology

  4. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  5. Japan mellem øst og vest

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  6. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  7. Internet Ethics Issues and Actions in Japan

    江澤, 義典

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Internet Ethics 2012 was planned and organized by the Korea Internet Security Agency and was held in September 2012 at the Lotte Hotel World in Seoul. This note relates to the presentation in Japan, it outlines current Internet ethics issues and actions in Japan. Moreover, four aspects of Japanese civilization were introduced as the bases of these ethics issues.

  8. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is

  9. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  10. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    1992-01-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.)

  11. Japan's oil situation and relationship with the Middle East

    Oka, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Japan's energy supply structure and the demand for energy in the country. It focuses on oil relations between Japan and the Middle Eastern oil countries, and Japan's attempt to enhance energy supply-security policy measures

  12. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  13. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  14. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  15. Application of EB in Japan

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  16. Application of EB in Japan

    Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  17. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade... Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum...

  18. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  19. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  20. Japan's new energy policy

    2014-11-01

    Japan's energy policy is undergoing fundamental changes. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant questions the future contribution of nuclear power in the national energy mix. Growing imports of fossil fuels to replace the lost nuclear capacity inflated energy prices and raise economic and energy security challenges. At the same time, the US shale gas and oil revolution is reshaping the global energy scene. Japan expects to take advantage of the trend to eliminate the 'Asian premium' on natural gas prices and expand cheaper natural gas consumption. These developments have driven the Government of Japan to review its energy policy from scratch and adopt a new Strategic Energy Plan. This new policy has far reaching implications for gas and coal development in Japan but also for the international markets as Japan is the world's largest LNG importer and the second largest coal importer. This document summarizes the key findings of a new report by CEDIGAZ 'Japan's new energy policy: In search for stable and competitive energy supply'. The report analyzes the current changes taking place on the gas and coal markets in Japan, in light of the new energy policy adopted in April 2014, and in particular the decision to restart safe nuclear power plants and push forward electricity market reforms

  1. [Building epilepsy care network in Japan].

    Otsuki, Taisuke

    2012-01-01

    Number of epilepsy patient in Japan officially surveyed by our government in 2008 is 219,000, which is only 0.17% of the total population and less than one third of the prevalence rate reported in Western countries. Number of epilepsy surgery per year in Japan is also low and less than half of other countries such as US, UK and Korea. These numbers may suggest that epilepsy care in Japan is not sufficient to cover all hidden medical needs of people with epilepsy at present. To solve this issue, our research group funded by the government have started to build an epilepsy care network among primary care physicians, secondary care neurology specialists and tertiary care epilepsy centers by utilizing a web site: Epilepsy Care Network-Japan (http://www.ecn-japan.com/) from July 2012. We are also proposing an epilepsy care algorithm suitable for our complex medical community consisted with various neurology specialists such as pediatric and adult neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. Building Epilepsy Care Network in Japan may facilitate better medical and social support for people with epilepsy in Japan.

  2. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    1993-01-01

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  3. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  4. Fukushima accident: the consequences in Japan, France and in Japan

    Foucher, N.; Sorin, F.

    2011-01-01

    This document begins with a description of the Fukushima accident, the second article reviews the main consequences in Japan of the accident: setting of a forbidden zone around the plant, restriction of the exports of food products, or the shutdown of the Hamaoka plant. The third article is the reporting of an interview of L. Oursel, deputy general director of the Areva group, this interview deals mainly with the safety standard of the EPR and with the issue of passive safety systems. The last part of the document is dedicated to the consequences in France (null sanitary impact, cooperation between Areva, EdF, CEA and the Japanese plant operator Tepco...) and in the rest of the world: the organization of resistance tests in the nuclear power plants operating in the European Union, the decision about the agreement of EPR and AP1000 reactor has been delayed in United-Kingdom, acceleration of the German program for abandoning nuclear energy, Italy suspends its nuclear program, China orders a general overhaul of the safety standard of its nuclear power plants, Poland and Romania reaffirm their trust in nuclear energy, France wishes a 'mechanism' allowing a quick international intervention in case of major nuclear accident, Russia proposes measures to improve nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  5. Childbirth in aristocratic households of Heian Japan.

    Andreeva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on childbirth in Japan's aristocratic households during the Heian period (794-1185). Drawing on various sources, including court diaries, visual sources, literary records, and Japan's first medical collection, with its assortment of gynaecological and obstetric prescriptions, as well as Buddhist and other ritual texts, this short excursion into the cultural history of childbirth offers an insight into how childbirth was experienced and managed in Heian Japan. In particular, it addresses the variety of ideas, knowledge systems and professionals involved in framing and supporting the process of childbirth in elite households. In so doing, it casts light on the complex background of early Japanese medicine and healthcare for women.

  6. The scale of biomass production in Japan

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima-shi 739-8527 (Japan); Inoue, Takashi; Fukuda, Katsura [Global Warming Research Department, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., 2-3-6 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8141 (Japan); Komoto, Keiichi; Hada, Kenichiro [Renewable energy Team, Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division, Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Inc., 2-3 Kanda-nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8443 (Japan); Hirata, Satoshi [Technical Institute, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Kawasakicho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Recycle Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced and Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro, Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiromi [Socioeconomic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1-6-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8126 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    Policymakers working to introduce and promote the use of bioenergy in Japan require detailed information on the scales of the different types of biomass resources generated. In this research, the first of its type in Japan, the investigators reviewed various statistical resources to quantify the scale distribution of forest residues, waste wood from manufacturing, waste wood from construction, cattle manure, sewage sludge, night soil, household garbage, and waste food oil. As a result, the scale of biomass generation in Japan was found to be relatively small, on the average is no more than several tons in dry weight per day. (author)

  7. Sensitivity of surface resistance measurement of HTS thin films by ...

    2Research Center for Superconductor Photonics, Osaka University, Osaka 565 0871, Japan ... rical constants of the resonator obtained from the mathematical model ... from the knowledge of the electromagnetic field distribution in a resonator.

  8. Monetary Diet Cost is Associated with not only Favorable but also Unfavorable Aspects of Diet in Pregnant Japanese Women: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study

    Kentaro Murakami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women.

  9. Monetary Diet cost is Associated with not only Favorable but also Unfavorable Aspects of Diet in pregnant Japanese Women: The Osaka Maternal and child Health study

    Yukihiro Ohya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women.

  10. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  11. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  12. From the Jura to Japan...

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a week-long school for physicists took place in Saint Cergue, in the Jura mountains not far from CERN. Its focus was on using emulsion techniques, but its legacy was much more far reaching. Last week I was in Fukuoka, Japan, on the last day of a direct descendent – the first Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP).   That first small school in 1962 was the precursor to the annual European Schools of High-Energy Physics, which are organised jointly by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in countries that are a member state of either (or both) of the organisations. They led in turn to the CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, first held in Brazil in 2001. The aim of these schools is not only to give young particle physicists the opportunity to learn from leading experts in the field, but also to nurture from the start communication among researchers from different regions. CERN and JI...

  13. Spent fuel management in Japan

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  14. Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan

    Rosa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ryōtarō. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it reflects their ‘philosophies of the age’, which may be discovered by examining popular heroes with their subsequent replications. This article will identify why Shinsengumi is appealing by comparing Shiba’s hero in Moeyo ken with its twenty-first century reincarnation in Gintama, a popular manga series, and by discerning reader response to Moeyo ken from customer reviews on Amazon.co.jp. It will be demonstrated from these studies that a likely reason for the Japanese public’s romanticisation of Shinsengumi in recent years could be their attraction to autonomous, self-determining heroes who also appreciate the value of community.

  15. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  16. Rationale, design, and profile of the Three-Prefecture Cohort in Japan: A 15-year follow-up

    Junya Sado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We reutilized the existing Three-Prefecture Cohort to evaluate the relationship between lifestyle factors and the incidence or mortality from non-communicable diseases. Methods: This study was a prospective population-based observation conducted from the 1980s to 2000 in three prefectures (Miyagi, Aichi, and Osaka in Japan. The study subjects were residents aged ≥40 years who received a questionnaire. The follow-up period was 15 years from the baseline survey in each study area. A self-administered questionnaire, which included items on participants' demographic factors and lifestyle characteristics, was administered. Vital status and date of death were collected from residence certificates by the local government, and cause of death was identified using vital statistics. Cancer incidence and the date of diagnosis were collected from local cancer registry data. Results: A total of 46,421 men and 54,189 women were eligible for our analysis. The person-years of follow-up for cancer incidence were 464,664 and 567,271 for men and women, respectively, and those for death were 527,940 and 648,601 for men and women, respectively. There were 8479 cancer incidences (5106 men and 3373 women and 20,240 total deaths (11,156 men and 9084 women. The stomach was the most common cancer incidence site for both men (25.6% and women (18.6%. The leading cause of death was cancer among men (35.0% and cardiovascular disease among women (41.0%. Conclusions: The Three-Prefecture Cohort Study enabled us to reveal the association of multiphasic lifestyle factors with cancer incidence and mortality. The study will also allow us to conduct a pooled analysis in combination with other large-scale cohorts.

  17. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  18. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia

  19. United States - Japan - European Union probe data.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S., Japan, and Europe have a long : history of sharing information on ITS : activities. These efforts include both bilateral : and trilateral relationships. International : coordination is underway in several areas, : including: : 1. Internatio...

  20. Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan is a collection of data summarizing daily weather observations taken at Misawa Naval Air Station, near the north end...

  1. Remilitarization of Japan - Prospects and Impacts

    Yee, Tay

    1997-01-01

    ...? Also, there have always been concerns, especially among older Southeast Asians, who still have vivid memories of Japanese military atrocities during the Japanese Occupation, that Japan may trend towards militarism...

  2. Japan's System of Official Development Assistance | IDRC ...

    Today, and since 1989, Japan is the largest donor of ODA in the world. ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network ... (RRF) for Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks will fund social science, population and ...

  3. May 1983 Akita, Honshu, Japan Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The tsunami generated by a magnitude 7.9 (Mw) earthquake destroyed 700 boats and 59 houses for a total of $800 million in property damage in Japan (1983 dollars)....

  4. Pulse radiolysis facilities and activities in Japan

    Ogasawara, M.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis studies in Japan have been reviewed in special reference to the facilities and the people who have engaged in the experiments. Main achievement is summarized with the list of selected publications. (author)

  5. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    This thesis evaluates Japanese geopolitical change in the post-Cold War era. It does so by analyzing Japan's history, its foreign policy since 1945, its reasons for becoming a normal country, and the impact of its normalization...

  6. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  7. ITER on display at Yokohama, Japan

    Green, B.

    1998-01-01

    During the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, held in Yokohama, Japan, from 19-24 October 1998, the ITER Project exhibited a display, primarily of the research and development which has taken place to support the design of ITER

  8. Japan's contribution to nuclear medical research

    Rahman, M.; Sakamoto, Junichi; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the degree of Japan's contribution to the nuclear medical research in the last decade. Articles published in 1991-2000 in highly reputed nuclear medical journals were accessed through the MEDLINE database. The number of articles having affiliation with a Japanese institution was counted along with publication year. In addition, shares of top-ranking countries were determined along with their trends over time. Of the total number of articles (7,788), Japan's share of articles in selected nuclear medical journals was 11.4% (889 articles) and ranked 2nd in the world after the USA (2,645 articles). The recent increase in the share was statistically significant for Japan (p=0.02, test for trend). Japan's share in nuclear medical research output is much higher than that in other biomedical fields. (author)

  9. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  10. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan

    Blackard, W G; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L R

    1964-03-12

    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Explaining Meiji Japans Top Down Revolution

    2017-12-01

    Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction...Modernization in Japanese Culture, ed. Donald H. Shively (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971), 93–97. 24 David J. Lu, Japan: A Documentary ...but also took advantage of international developments. Japan managed to alter the unequal treaties with his oversight. The Japanese began to study an

  12. Revitalizing US electronics lessons from Japan

    Sprague, John

    1993-01-01

    Written by one of the few executives who have extensive experience in the electronics industry in both the US and Japan, this book compares market research, design, and manufacturing techniques as used in both countries. Unlike other books on theJapanese business culture, Sprague gives specific advice and recommendations about what companies can do now to compete with Japan, clearly pointing out what is and what is not adaptable from the Japanese approach to business.

  13. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    2007-12-01

    particularly the United States. This was significant because a soured economic relationship would undoubtedly affect the U.S.-Japan security...around the world, has sometimes soured its image as a serious international player.136 This is because many of the world’s great powers have extended...for International Exchange, 2005. Beer , Lawrence W. “Japan Turning the Corner.” Asian Survey 11, no. 1 (January 1971): 74 – 85. Bueno de Mesquita

  14. Explaining Meiji Japan's top-down revolution

    McClain, Kendra M.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Meiji Japanese leaders consisted of an oligarchy that strived to overcome Western imperialist pressures in Asia. They did so by overturning some deeply rooted Tokugawa-Era traditions in Japanese society and replaced them with Western ones. They understood that Western norms dictated world affairs, so they sought to make Japan strong along Western norms. Modeling the West provided enough traction for Japan to meet Western threats and ma...

  15. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now re...

  16. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction

    Ihori, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  17. The disappointments for nuclear energy in Japan

    2004-01-01

    Several dysfunctions are reported in this paper: A reactor (Onagawa) closed after a nitrogen leakage; a small leakage of radioactive water in the nuclear power plant of Mihama assessment raised to five deaths, the operator stops its nuclear power plants for inspection, the Japan face to its ageing nuclear power plants, the truth about the cost of M.O.X., the seven reactors of Japan closed for inspection after cracks and leaks hidden to authorities, Tokai MURA accident. (N.C.)

  18. Proto-Industrialization in Tokugawa Japan

    Murphy, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the process of early capitalism in Japanese history. Generally it is thought that capitalism developed in the years leading to the Meiji Restoration. Like European models of early capitalist development in handicraft and cottage industries, Japan went through a similar process. Development of rural trade and small-scale capitalism sowed the seeds that broke feudal bonds and resulted in the mass factory system that made modern capitalist Japan.

  19. Comparison of land use regression models for NO2 based on routine and campaign monitoring data from an urban area of Japan.

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Sawada, Norie; Nakaya, Tomoki; Eboshida, Akira

    2018-08-01

    Typically, land use regression (LUR) models have been developed using campaign monitoring data rather than routine monitoring data. However, the latter have advantages such as low cost and long-term coverage. Based on the idea that LUR models representing regional differences in air pollution and regional road structures are optimal, the objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of LUR models for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) based on routine and campaign monitoring data obtained from an urban area. We selected the city of Suita in Osaka (Japan). We built a model based on routine monitoring data obtained from all sites (routine-LUR-All), and a model based on campaign monitoring data (campaign-LUR) within the city. Models based on routine monitoring data obtained from background sites (routine-LUR-BS) and based on data obtained from roadside sites (routine-LUR-RS) were also built. The routine LUR models were based on monitoring networks across two prefectures (i.e., Osaka and Hyogo prefectures). We calculated the predictability of the each model. We then compared the predicted NO 2 concentrations from each model with measured annual average NO 2 concentrations from evaluation sites. The routine-LUR-All and routine-LUR-BS models both predicted NO 2 concentrations well: adjusted R 2 =0.68 and 0.76, respectively, and root mean square error=3.4 and 2.1ppb, respectively. The predictions from the routine-LUR-All model were highly correlated with the measured NO 2 concentrations at evaluation sites. Although the predicted NO 2 concentrations from each model were correlated, the LUR models based on routine networks, and particularly those based on all monitoring sites, provided better visual representations of the local road conditions in the city. The present study demonstrated that LUR models based on routine data could estimate local traffic-related air pollution in an urban area. The importance and usefulness of data from routine monitoring networks should be

  20. Tuberculosis infection among homeless persons and caregivers in a high-tuberculosis-prevalence area in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Takatorige, Toshio; Hirayama, Yukio; Nakata, Nobuaki; Harihara, Shigeyoshi; Shimouchi, Akira; Fujita, Koshiro; Yoshida, Hiroko; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Takashima, Tetsuya; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. The Airin district of Osaka City has a large population of homeless persons and caregivers and is estimated to be the largest TB-endemic area in the intermediate-prevalence country, Japan. However, there have been few studies of homeless persons and caregivers. The objective of this study is to detect active TB and to assess the prevalence and risk factors for latent TB infection among homeless persons and caregivers. We conducted a cross-sectional study for screening TB infection (active and latent TB infections) using questionnaire, chest X-ray (CXR), newly available assay for latent TB infection (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube; QFT) and clinical evaluation by physicians at the Osaka Socio-Medical Center Hospital between July 2007 and March 2008. Homeless persons and caregivers, aged 30-74 years old, who had not received CXR examination within one year, were recruited. As for risk factors of latent TB infection, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for QFT-positivity were calculated using logistic regression model. Complete responses were available from 436 individuals (263 homeless persons and 173 caregivers). Four active TB cases (1.5%) among homeless persons were found, while there were no cases among caregivers. Out of these four, three had positive QFT results. One hundred and thirty-three (50.6%) homeless persons and 42 (24.3%) caregivers had positive QFT results. In multivariate analysis, QFT-positivity was independently associated with a long time spent in the Airin district: ≥10 years versus homeless (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.39-4.61) and for caregivers (OR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.05-5.13), and the past exposure to TB patients for caregivers (OR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.30-7.91) but not for homeless persons (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 0.71-3.21). Although no active TB was found for caregivers, one-quarter of them had latent TB infection. In addition to homeless persons, caregivers need examinations for

  1. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  2. Future Accelerators Seminar in Japan

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    ICFA, the International Committee for Future Accelerators, was set up by the Particles and Fields Commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in 1976. Its mandate was 'To organize workshops for the study of problems related to an international super-high energy accelerator complex (VBA) and to elaborate the framework of its construction and of its use. To organize meetings for the exchange of information on future plans of regional facilities and for the formulation of advice on joint studies and uses.' In the seven years of its existence (it first met in August 1977), ICFA has organized three workshops on the first topic — t w o on 'Possibilities and Limitations of Accelerators and Detectors' (Fermilab, 1978 and Les Diablerets, 1979) and one on 'Possibilities and Limitations for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets' (Protvino, 1981). At an ICFA meeting at Fermilab in August 1983, it was realized that the second topic had been somewhat neglected. It was therefore decided to postpone a fourth workshop scheduled at the Japanese National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) and to organize instead a Seminar on 'Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics' similar to that held in New Orleans in 1975, which had in fact led to the creation of ICFA.The Seminar (jointly hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Study of Tokyo University and KEK, with support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Yamada Science Foundation and the Nishina Memorial Foundation) took place from 14-20 May. There were about a hundred participants, mostly senior scientists from Western and Eastern Europe, USA, USSR and Japan (including the Directors of almost all the major high energy physics Laboratories) and representatives from Australia, Canada, China, India, Mexico, South Korea and Vietnam

  3. Future Accelerators Seminar in Japan

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    ICFA, the International Committee for Future Accelerators, was set up by the Particles and Fields Commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in 1976. Its mandate was 'To organize workshops for the study of problems related to an international super-high energy accelerator complex (VBA) and to elaborate the framework of its construction and of its use. To organize meetings for the exchange of information on future plans of regional facilities and for the formulation of advice on joint studies and uses.' In the seven years of its existence (it first met in August 1977), ICFA has organized three workshops on the first topic — t w o on 'Possibilities and Limitations of Accelerators and Detectors' (Fermilab, 1978 and Les Diablerets, 1979) and one on 'Possibilities and Limitations for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets' (Protvino, 1981). At an ICFA meeting at Fermilab in August 1983, it was realized that the second topic had been somewhat neglected. It was therefore decided to postpone a fourth workshop scheduled at the Japanese National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) and to organize instead a Seminar on 'Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics' similar to that held in New Orleans in 1975, which had in fact led to the creation of ICFA.The Seminar (jointly hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Study of Tokyo University and KEK, with support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Yamada Science Foundation and the Nishina Memorial Foundation) took place from 14-20 May. There were about a hundred participants, mostly senior scientists from Western and Eastern Europe, USA, USSR and Japan (including the Directors of almost all the major high energy physics Laboratories) and representatives from Australia, Canada, China, India, Mexico, South Korea and Vietnam.

  4. Research of fault activity in Japan

    Nohara, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Takeda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Six hundreds and eighty earthquakes causing significant damage have been recorded since the 7. century in Japan. It is important to recognize faults that will or are expected to be active in future in order to help reduce earthquake damage, estimate earthquake damage insurance and siting of nuclear facilities. Such faults are called 'active faults' in Japan, the definition of which is a fault that has moved intermittently for at least several hundred thousand years and is expected to continue to do so in future. Scientific research of active faults has been ongoing since the 1930's. Many results indicated that major earthquakes and fault movements in shallow crustal regions in Japan occurred repeatedly at existing active fault zones during the past. After the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, 98 active fault zones were selected for fundamental survey, with the purpose of efficiently conducting an active fault survey in 'Plans for Fundamental Seismic Survey and Observation' by the headquarters for earthquake research promotion, which was attached to the Prime Minister's office of Japan. Forty two administrative divisions for earthquake disaster prevention have investigated the distribution and history of fault activity of 80 active fault zones. Although earthquake prediction is difficult, the behaviour of major active faults in Japan is being recognised. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) submitted a report titled 'H12: Project to Establish the. Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan' to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan for official review W. The Guidelines, which were defined by AEC, require the H12 Project to confirm the basic technical feasibility of safe HLW disposal in Japan. In this report the important issues relating to fault activity were described that are to understand the characteristics of current fault movements and the spatial extent and magnitude of the effects caused by these movements, and to

  5. Reconsidering Japan's underperformance in pharmaceuticals: evidence from Japan's anticancer drug sector.

    Umemura, Maki

    2010-01-01

    Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry.

  6. 427 Case studies

    Marinda

    2009-05-22

    May 22, 2009 ... b Department of Anesthesia, Morinomiya Hospital, Japan c Department of Dentistry, Bobath Memorial Hospital, Japan d The First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Osaka University, Japan e Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Dental University, Japan. Correspondence to: Dr Yoshinao Asahi ...

  7. The great East Japan earthquake

    Fluke, R.

    2011-06-15

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this

  8. The great East Japan earthquake

    Fluke, R.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  9. Advanced USC technology in Japan

    Fukuda, Masafumi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

    2010-07-01

    The 600deg-C class Ultra Super-Critical(USC) steam condition technology was mainly developed through projects led by J-Power in the '80s and 90s'. In 2001, the project was successfully finished with newly developed 9-12% chromium steels. These materials were selected for the major parts of the USC power plants in Japan and almost half of the coal power plants have the USC steam condition today. However, aged plants, which were built in the '70s and early '80s will reach the point where they will need to be rebuilt or refurbished in the near future. The steam temperatures of the older plants are 538 deg-C or 566deg-C. We did a case study, retrofitting these plants with the USC and an advanced USC technology that takes a 700deg-C class steam temperature to increase thermal efficiency and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study showed that the advanced USC Technology(A-USC) is suitable for the retrofitting of aged plants and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 15%. The Japanese government launched the ''Cool Earth-Innovative Energy Technology Program'' in 2008 March to promote international cooperation and actively contribute to substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions. 21 technologies that will contribute to substantial reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions by efficiency improvement and low carbonization were selected. The A-USC that aims at 46% (net, HHV) thermal efficiency of coal power generation is included in the technologies. We started a large-scale development project of the A-USC technology in 2008 August. 700deg-C class boiler, turbine and valve technologies, which include high temperature material technology, will be developed. Some candidate materials for boilers are being tested. Turbine rotor and casing materials are being developed and tested, as well. Two years from the beginning of the project, we have obtained some useful test results regarding the candidate materials. (orig.)

  10. Japan/India. Towards a nuclear cooperation?

    Pajon, Celine

    2011-10-01

    As diplomatic, economic and strategic relationships between Japan and India have been intensively developed for a decade, the author aims at discussing the very sensitive approach to a nuclear cooperation between these two countries as Japan, while taking benefit of the American nuclear umbrella, is a strong defender of nuclear disarmament and non proliferation, and India has been developing its own civilian and military nuclear programme outside of the international regime which it considers as discriminative. The author first discusses factors which incited Japan to build up a strategic partnership with India in front of the evolution of the political context, of the powerful upswing of China, and of the new American orientation with respect to Delhi. She comments the economic and political stakes of the currently negotiated Japan-India nuclear cooperation agreement which not only concerns the relationships between these both countries, but also French and American industrial groups which are present on the Indian market. She also notices that the Fukushima accident which has put Japan energy choices into question again, is a new deal which is to be taken into account

  11. Male acceptance of condoms in Japan.

    Uchida, Y

    1981-01-01

    Current surveys indicate that more than 70% of married couples in Japan use condoms as their primary contraceptive method. The popularity of condoms is due to the oral contraceptive (OC) pills not being recognized as safe forms of contraception and IUDs not being legalized by the government until 1974. The history of condom use in Japan goes back to 1872 when condoms of thin leather were imported into Japan from England and France. Manufacturing of condoms in Japan began in 1909, mainly as a method for venereal disease prevention. The condom and induced abortion are now the major methods of contraception. 60% of the distribution of condoms is through pharmacies and cosmetic stores; 50% of the buyers are women. Since 1955, teams of family planning workers have distributed condoms by selling on a door-to-door basis, especially to lower middle class couples. Between 1969-75, 75% of contraceptive users were using condoms. Currently there are 81% users. The rhythm method ranks second in popularity at 30% between 1969-75. OCs have gradually increased recently to 3% users, but side effects have deterred people from selecting them. The proportion of IUD users has remained at a consistently low level for the past several years. Japan accounts for 1/3 of the total world production of condoms.

  12. Middle term prospects for Japan's safeguards

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    Japan has responded to IAEA requirements on reinforced safeguard regulations. The IAEA additional protocol entered in force in Japan on December 1999. Japan submitted a preliminary information report to IAEA on June 2000 after joint works with the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) of Japan. The first annual report was submitted to IAEA on May 2001. Another activity for the additional protocol is complementary accesses. The total 36 accesses to facilities have been done from November 2000 to September 2001. Procedures of access to managements are under discussion. MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) has been constructing the Rokkasho Safeguards On-Site Laboratory from 1997, and the Rokkasho Safeguards Center from 2000. The Design Information Verification (DIV) is now ongoing. Much more personal resources will be needed for future inspections. Therefore, the budget for safeguards is increasing in contrast to the flat base budget for the total atomic energy. As for future activity, a MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuels) fuel processing plant is one of the issues for discussion. The construction of the MOX processing plant is supposed to begin on around 2004. The conclusion of additional protocol will be given by IAEA until end of 2002. Shift to integrated safeguards are under discussions by MEXT, NMCC and utilities of Japan parallel with IAEA. Key issues of discussion are cost saving for safeguards, development of personal resources for inspectors and the role of NMCC. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan

    Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

  14. L-Band RFI in Japan

    Soldo, Yan; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Le Vine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, three instruments have been launched into orbit with the aim of producing global maps of sea surface salinity and soil moisture using the 1400-1427 MHz band: SMOS, Aquarius and SMAP. Although this frequency band is allocated to passive measurements only, RFI (Radio-Frequency Interference) is present in the data of all three missions. On a global scale, the three sensors have observed approximately the same distribution of RFI. Japan is an important exception that has implications for the design of RFI detection algorithms. RFI in Japan is caused by a large number of emitters belonging to the same system (TV receivers) and for this reason some traditional RFI detection strategies detect little to no RFI over Japan. The study of this case has led to an improvement of the approach to detect RFI in Aquarius data.

  15. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  16. Japan's Ambivalent Diplomacy on Climate Change

    Pajon, C.

    2010-01-01

    Japan often pictures itself as an environmental leader. While many examples of Japan's actions against climate change are in line with global climate change norms, others can be in opposition to them. This study, based on first hand interviews with Japanese policy makers and actors from the private and civil society sector, gives an informed perspective on the process through which Japan came to integrate and implement, at the domestic level, the international objective of climate change prevention, pointing out the discrepancies, tensions or synergies that emerged. As the current governance on climate change, and particularly after the Copenhagen conference, tends to reassert the importance of the national level against the global one, the Japanese case can serve as an example of tools and strategies that fully integrate the domestic level

  17. Insights into software development in Japan

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  18. Introduction of nuclear medicine research in Japan

    Inubushi, Masayuki [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Higashi, Tatsuya [National Institutes of Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba (Japan); Kuji, Ichiei [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hidaka-shi, Saitama (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Dokkyo University School of Medicine, PET Center, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    There were many interesting presentations of unique studies at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, although there were fewer attendees from Europe than expected. These presentations included research on diseases that are more frequent in Japan and Asia than in Europe, synthesis of original radiopharmaceuticals, and development of imaging devices and methods with novel ideas especially by Japanese manufacturers. In this review, we introduce recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan in the five categories of Oncology, Neurology, Cardiology, Radiopharmaceuticals and Technology. It is our hope that this article will encourage the participation of researchers from all over the world, in particular from Europe, in scientific meetings on nuclear medicine held in Japan. (orig.)

  19. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  20. Situation of nuclear industry in Japan

    2002-08-01

    This document is a reprint of a note published by the nuclear service of the French embassy in Japan. It evokes the present day situation of nuclear facilities in Japan, the public acceptance and its attitude in front of accidents, the national energy program, the deregulation and competitiveness of nuclear power, the carrying out of the nuclear program, the future reactors, the fast neutron reactors, the dismantling activities, the fuel enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuels, the use of MOX fuel, the off-site storage, the vitrified and radiological wastes, the geological disposal of wastes, the prospects of the nuclear program, the companies involved in the Japan nuclear industry, the French-Japanese bilateral cooperation, and the ITER project in the domain of nuclear fusion. (J.S.)

  1. Current trends in rehabilitation engineering in Japan.

    Ohnabe, Hisaichi

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the elderly generation comprised 20% of the Japanese population. This percentage will grow to approximately 30% in 2030, meaning that nearly one in three people in Japan will be 65 years of age or older. Japan is the first nation in the world to face this situation. This article uses the context of Japanese society to give an overview of the elderly and people with disabilities; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model; rehabilitation engineering-related policy; and education. In addition, we examine how governmental programs and Japanese law regarding technical aids may evolve by 2030. Partner robots, intelligent powered wheelchairs, nursing robots, and other technologies are introduced as examples of rehabilitation engineering and assistive technology. We also discuss the volunteer activities of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of Japan (RESJA) in response to the Asian tsunami disaster and the achievements of a group of students from a Japanese senior high school of industry.

  2. Status report of shielding investigation in Japan

    Shindo, M.

    1964-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was established in 1954, and immediately proceeded with the construction of a research reactor. The first symposium in Japan on nuclear energy was held in 1957. Most of the papers presented in the field of reactor shielding were limited to shielding materials and their fabrication. In the first stage of our investigations, our efforts were devoted to practical design studies of reactor shielding. As a result of these studies, it was found that the formulae at hand for calculations were inadequate, but at that time no electronic computer was available in Japan nor were theoretical calculations very actively undertaken. Problems on nuclear ship shielding had been investigated at the Ship Research Institute, since 1956 and many fruitful results had been obtained. About that time the Japan Atomic Industry Forum started activities and took the initiative in organizing shielding research. Research workers in the shipbuilding industry in particular have been seriously studying shielding problems. Few years after the first symposium, problems concerning more fundamental studies were treated by many research workers. Shielding experiments using radioisotopes were carried out and many fruitful results were obtained. They are described in the this paper. Medium size electronic computers became available in Japan, permitting a theoretical study group to make an active contribution. They produced some codes, and their results are also described in the following sections. This constituted the second stage of our investigations. A swimming-pool reactor, JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor-4), has been under construction at JAERI since 1962 and will become critical in autumn 1964. After characteristic tests it will be a very powerful tool for the shielding investigations. This id the beginning of the third stage of investigations

  3. Toward freedom from cancer pain in Japan.

    Otsuka, Kuniko; Yasuhara, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Life expectancy in Japan is highest in the world. Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in Japan, accounting for about 30 percent of all deaths. Many Japanese cancer patients experience severe pain although they and their families hope to be pain free at the end of their lives. Toward that end, the consumption of morphine in Japan has increased markedly since 1989. The amount of morphine hydrochloride and morphine sulfate consumed in 2001 was 6.1 times that used in Japan in 1989. However, the amount of morphine consumed in Japan is still less than in other developed nations, and was only one-sixth of the amount used in Australia in 2001. As a result, many Japanese cancer patients experience potentially manageable cancer pain, largely because the amount of the drug used by doctors is insufficient for pain control. An increasing number of Japanese doctors now understand that their patients' quality of life is most important in end-of-life care and how to use the three step analgesic ladder of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, other doctors do not understand these issues sufficiently causing some patients to die without good pain control. Both the general population and some medical professionals misunderstand and have prejudice against the use of morphine. Patients often do not participate in decision making about medical treatment because of remaining paternalism in the relationship between Japanese doctors and patients. Thus, cancer pain management in Japan is not as effective as it can be and not all Japanese cancer patients receive appropriate management for their cancer pain. To improve outcomes for Japanese patients, it is necessary for health professional and social work students and practicing professionals to receive contemporary education including an introduction to palliative care and ethics.

  4. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-07

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Outline of geothermal power generation in Japan

    Ezaki, Y

    1960-01-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy in electrical power generation throughout the world is described. Details of generating capacity and cost are given for Larderello, Italy; Wairakei, New Zealand: and the Geysers, USA. In Japan three types of conversion systems are used. These include the direct use of steam, direct use of hot water and binary fluid type systems. The history of Japanese investigation and exploitation of geothermal energy is reviewed and the status of the Matsukawa, Hakone, Otake and Takenoyu geothermal power plants is discussed. It is recommended that laws be enacted in Japan to encourage the development of this form of energy conversion.

  6. Operational experiences of INES in Japan

    1997-01-01

    Japan has introduced IAEA's INES in August, 1992. As of September, 1997, the total number of domestic nuclear events which have evaluated by using the INES system has amounted 119. In Japan, when a nuclear event occurs at a nuclear power plant, a provisional evaluation is performed immediately by Nuclear Power Operation Administration Office, MITI. The final evaluation of events is implemented a few months after event occurrence by the Evaluation Committee on Incidents and Failures of Nuclear Power Plant which holds a neutral position. The results of the evaluation are transmitted to IAEA according to the INES reporting criteria

  7. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...

  8. Status of LMFBR development project in Japan

    Nagane, G.; Akebi, M.; Matsuno, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Initiation of the LMFBR development project in Japan was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan in 1966. In 1967, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) was established to realize the project as a part of its tasks of a wide scope covering all the reseatch and development activities concerning fuel cycle. In the present paper the status of experimental fast reactor (Joyo), which is the first milestone of the LMFBR project, prototype fast reactor (Monju) and R and D activities supporting the project including that for larger LMFBRs in the future is described. (author)

  9. Control of radiation sources in Japan

    Maki, S.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the regulations for radioactive material in force in Japan, and to the organizations with responsibilities for regulating radiation sources. An outline of the law regulating the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials is provided, including its scope, types of radiation sources under control, exemptions and the system of notification, authorization and inspection. The experience of Japan with orphan sources is presented in three different cases, and the measures carried out to store the orphan sources in safe conditions. (author)

  10. Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.

    Jinno, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I concisely summarized the current indoor air quality of Japan.

  11. Japan's telecommunications - New initiatives in space communications

    Iida, T.

    1992-04-01

    Despite recent advances in optical transmission technology, intensive R&D work in the field of satellite communications is now being undertaken in Japan. It is believed that satellites offer advantages in several important areas, including wide coverage broadcasting, immediacy of service, suitability for the implementation of HDTV, and advantages in disaster communications and other social services. Here, some experimental projects in the field of satellite communications planned in Japan for the 1990s are summarized. In particular, attention is given to broadcast satellite development, intersatellite links, advanced mobile communication concepts, large antenna assembly experiment, small satellite R&D, and Pan-Pacific information network experiment.

  12. Human rights in Japan: progress and challenges

    Yolanda Muñoz González

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the improvements and challenges that Japan has been facing between 1983 and 2007. The paper explores the interaction among the different stakeholders –i.e. the Japanese Government, international organizations and civil society- to advance full access to citizenship regarding gender equality, the elimination of social and physical barriers for the inclusion of people with disabilities and elderly persons; ethnic minorities –specifically the situation of the Ainu people and the Buraku community – and the persons considered as “foreigners” living in Japan.

  13. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five... revocation of the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely...

  14. Area Handbook Series: Japan: A Country Study

    1992-01-01

    special decorations, eating noodles on New Year’s Eve to show continuity into the new year, and playing a poetry card game are among the more...transmitted by satellite for instant replay after the government, in 1979, set up the Communications and Broadcasting Satellite Or- ganization. Japan’s first

  15. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  16. Characteristics of primary sclerosing cholangitis in Japan.

    Takikawa, Hajime

    2007-10-01

    At a workshop on primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) held during Digestive Disease Week - Japan 2003, 388 PSC cases in Japan were analyzed. Two peaks in the age distribution were also observed in this survey. Jaundice and itching, major symptoms in PSC patients included in the diagnostic criteria, were observed in only 28% and 16%, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase levels were less than twofold of the upper limit of the normal range in 35%. In this regard, the diagnostic criteria in 2003 from the Mayo Clinic, including cholestatic symptoms and two- to threefold increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, should be modified in Japan. Inflammatory bowel diseases were complicated in 37%, and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in 7.2%. PSC cases with inflammatory bowel diseases were younger than the average, creating the firstpeak in age distribution, and have similar characteristics compared to patients with PSC in foreign countries. In addition, even after the exclusion of cases of sclerosing cholangitis complicated with AIP, the second peak in the age distribution was clearly evident. Recently, a concept of immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis has been postulated, which has a similar pathogenesis to AIP but without apparent pancreatic lesions. PSC patients without apparent involvement of the pancreas may be present in older patients and seem to be specific to Japan.

  17. ASYLUM SEEKERS IN JAPAN: A HARD ROAD

    Rini Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Japan has ratified the 1951 Convention regarding the status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees since 1981 and 1982, yet Japan only accepted an exceptionally low number of refugees in the course 30 years since it ratified the Convention. Japan needs to closely revise and align its national policies with international agreements that it is signatory to. The main framework with which Japan’s government still tackles the issue of refugees is tightly restrained by its overall controlling immigration policies in an attempt to remain a homogenous nation. Japan has a long way to go in order to fully comply with the spirit of the Convention, the Protocol, and international instruments relating to the Status of Refugees. Jepang telah meratifikasi Konvensi Mengenai Status Pengungsi 1951 dan Protokol tentang Kedudukan Pengungsi 1967 sejak tahun 1981 dan 1982, namun Jepang hanya menerima sejumlah kecil pengungsi dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun sejak diratifikasinya konvensi tersebut. Jepang harus meninjau kembali dan memastikan bahwa kebijakan-kebijakan nasional negaranya telah sesuai dengan perjanjian internasional yang telah ditandatangani Jepang. Kerangka kerja pemerintah Jepang dalam menangani isu pengungsi sangat dibatasi oleh berbagai pengetatan kebijakan imigrasi yang dikeluarkan dalam semangat mempertahankan homogenitas bangsa. Jepang memiliki banyak pekerjaan rumah yang harus dilakukan agar dapat memenuhi semangat konvensi, protokol, dan berbagai instrumen internasional terkait status pengungsi.

  18. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  19. On Being There: Korean in Japan.

    Maher, John C.; Kawanishi, Yumiko

    1995-01-01

    Examines the experiences of ethnic Koreans and the Korean language in Japan since 1945, focusing on Japanese attitudes toward Koreans and the Korean language, provisions for Korean and bilingual education, and the increasing influence of Koreans in Japanese society. (18 references) (MDM)

  20. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    Katsuta, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  1. Development of nuclear powered ship in Japan

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The development of nuclear merchant ship in Japan was started in 1955 by the establishment of Nuclear Ship Study Group, and since then, the investigation, test and research on nuclear ships have been continued. As a result, a nuclear ocean observation and supply ship was designed for trial. Researches were carried out also in JAERI and Institute for Technical Research of Ships. Meanwhile, the nuclear icebreaker Lenin was completed in Soviet Union in 1959, the nuclear ship Savannah set out for maiden voyage in U.S. in 1962, and the construction of the nuclear ore carrier Otto Hahn was prepared in FRG. Japan Nuclear Ship Development Corp. was established in 1963, and started the design and construction of the first nuclear ship in Japan, Mutsu. The basic policy in the construction is the improvement of nuclear ship technology, the securing of safety, and the use of domestic technologies as far as possible. The progress of the design, construction and test of the Mutsu is described. Owing to the problem of radiation leak, the development of nuclear ships stagnated for a while, but the nuclear plant of the Mutsu demonstrated the expected performance in the functional test, land criticality test and zero output test, and it is expected that the bud of the independent development brought up so far can bear valuable fruit. The independent development of marine nuclear reactors should be continued by selecting the way most suitable to Japan. (Kako, I.)

  2. Multicultural and Multiethnic Education in Japan

    Nomoto, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the Ainu people have been living mainly in Hokkaido and many Koreans continue to live since the end of the World War Two. Since 1990's, the number of migrant workers has increased rapidly. In this sense, Japanese society has been multicultural and multiethnic. However, those minority groups have been strictly discriminated against in…

  3. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  4. Role of fast breeders in Japan

    Oyama, A.; Tomabechi, K.

    1978-09-01

    To meet increasing future energy demand in Japan utilization of fission energy should be promoted. In particular it is of vital importance to develop and utilize FBRs as soon as possible in order to save the natural uranium needed. If one considers the commercial introduction of FBRs in the mid-1990s in Japan, a delay of only one year will eventually result in an additional demand for natural uranium of more than 20,000 tons, because several LWRs will have to be installed instead. Ten years have passed since the development of FBRs in Japan was initiated as a national project with the highest priority and now the experimental fast reactor JOYO is successfully being operated at 50MW and the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has reached the stage of proceeding to construction with a schedule of operation in the mid-1980s. Following operation of MONJU, construction of a large demonstration reactor of 1000 - 15000 MW(e) will be undertaken. Some 2 - 3 years after the construction of the demonstration reactor, a series of reactors will be constructed similar in size and design to promote commercialization of LMFBRs. Strong efforts will be made to put this programme into practice. It is expected that LMFBRs will play an important role in mitigating the serious problem of energy supply in Japan foreseeable around the turn of the century

  5. X-Ray Lithography In Japan

    1991-10-01

    electrons hitting the walls of the ring is not in the direct line of sight of a tilted beamline. A translating mirror is then used to expand the...34 Remarch Peromnnel and Facilities for Resist R&D T. Nakayama TOK, 1590 Tabata , Samukawa-cho, Kohza-gun, Kanagawa-ken 253-01 Japan M. Sasago Matsushita

  6. Entomological journals and publishing in Japan.

    Fukatsu, Takema

    Here I present an overview of entomological journals and publishing in Japan, thereby providing a convenient portal to the valuable scientific resources for the world's entomological researchers and scientific communities. Currently, except for several international journals published fully in English such as Applied Entomology and Zoology and Entomological Science , many entomological and entomology-related journals in Japan are not indexed by major scientific databases like Web of Science, and therefore they are neither conveniently recognizable nor accessible for the world's entomological communities. However, I point out that many of the contents of such journals are freely available via Japan's public platforms for electronic scientific literature, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic (J-stage) or Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics (CiNii). Here I list 32 entomological and entomology-related societies and their 45 journals, the majority of which belong to either the Union of Japanese Societies for Insect Sciences (UJSIS), the Union of the Japanese Societies for Systematic Biology (UJSSB), the Union of Japanese Societies for Natural History (UJSNH), or the Union of Japanese Societies for Biological Science (UJSBS), with their respective URL and open-access availability.

  7. Japan's System of Official Development Assistance

    ... is a founding principle of the “IDRC approach” to development assistance. ...... Given the structure and practices of the Government of Japan, it is very difficult to ...... The recipient country must provide their housing and tax exemptions on ...... involving 11 Japanese corporations for the afforestation of land in Malaysia.

  8. Current asthma deaths among adults in Japan

    Tsugio Nakazawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent asthma deaths were examined from yearly reports of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan and from reports published by the Japan Asthma Death Investigation Committee on 811 deaths over the period 1992–2000. The rate and number of recent asthma deaths in Japan have been decreasing rapidly. Most asthma deaths were of patients aged 70–90 years and there has been a marked trend for increased asthma deaths in the elderly. As for the circumstances surrounding the deaths, sudden death, unstable sudden aggravation and intermittent aggravation were mainly noted. Respiratory infections, fatigue and stress were the major courses of fatal attacks contributing to deaths due to asthma. Many of the patients who died from asthma had been diagnosed as having as moderate to severe asthma and many had non-atopic asthma. There are some reports that suggest that the recent decrease in asthma deaths in Japan is correlated with the use of inhaled cortico- steroids.

  9. Urbanization and Changing Funerals in Japan

    栗原, 淑江; Toshie, Kurihara

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, the 'death problem' has become a big topic of discussion in Japan. In the past, Japanese people did not like to talk about such an ominous matter as death. However, issues surrounding death, such as euthanasia, brain death, terminal care,

  10. APWR - Mitsubishi, Japan/Westinghouse, USA

    Aeba, Y.; Weiss, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power generated by light water reactors accounts for approximately 1/3 of Japan's power supply. Development of the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) was initiated by five PWR electric power companies (Hokkaido, Kansai, Shikoku, Kyushu and Japan Atomic Power), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Westinghouse, with a view to providing a nuclear power source to meet future energy demand in Japan. The APWR was developed based on the results of the Improvement and Standardization Program, promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, with reconsideration of the needs of age, such as construction cost reduction, enhanced safety and increased reliability. One of the important concepts of the APWR is its large power rating that decreases the construction cost per unit of electric generation capacity. Though the electric output was lower at the early stage of basic design than it is now, uprating to approximately 1530 MW is achieved based on the results of design progress and high efficiency improvements to the steam turbine and reactor coolant pumps. Furthermore, the APWR remarkably enhances reliability, safety operability and maintainability by introducing new technologies that include a radial reflector and advanced accumulators. The first APWR is planned to be built at Tsuruga No. 3 and No. 4 by the Japan Atomic Power Company and will be the largest commercial operation plant in the early 21st century. (author)

  11. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

  12. The Japan white book about nuclear energy

    1997-01-01

    We find here a partial translation of the white book on nuclear energy published by Japan. In this document are the following themes: the safety of nuclear energy, research and development (JAERI), international cooperation, financing distribution, administrative chart of principal authorities and state agencies, budget for 1996 of nuclear energy and situation of the Japanese nuclear park. (N.C.)

  13. With a Little Help from Japan

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  14. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  15. Policy of Japan of radioactive waste management

    Oyama, A.

    1989-01-01

    Development and utilization of nuclear power has been steadily pursued in Japan in order to secure a stable source of energy over a long-term period. According to the author, nuclear power plants are operated carefully and safely and have been generating electricity for more than twenty years. In fact, it now accounts for approximately 30% of total electricity generated, and has become an integral part of the energy supply in Japan. The benefits of nuclear technology are now enjoyed not only in the electricity production, but also in the fields such as medicine and other industries. Under such circumstances, radioactive waste management generated in nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants as well as in industrial and medical uses of radiation, is an important part of the nuclear energy policy, and there is also a strong public interest in this field. The government is active in formulating waste management policies based on the basic policies indicated by Japan ATomic Energy Commission (JAEC). This presentation will touch upon the future perspective of radioactive waste management policy in Japan

  16. Identity, gender and teaching English in Japan

    Nagatomo, Diane Hawley

    2016-01-01

    How do teachers, who have chosen to settle down in one country, manage the difficulties of living and teaching English in that country? This book answers this question by investigating the personal and professional identity development of ten Western women with Japanese spouses who teach English in various educational contexts in Japan.

  17. Application of neutron radiography in Japan

    Kobayashi, M.; Wada, N.; Sekita, J.; Sanno-cho, Ota-ku, Tokyo, Japan)

    1983-01-01

    The history and the present state of neutron radiography in Japan are reviewed. Three types of neutron sources, namely nuclear reactors, accelerators and radioisotopes are now used. The interests on the application on neutron radiography become greater and greater in the industries, such as atomic energy, aeronautics and space etc. (Auth.)

  18. Megastock'97 Kongres, Juni, 1997, Sapporo, Japan

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Report on experiences, contacts and novelties in the technics of energy storage made at the Megastock'97 konference in Sapporo, Japan, seen from a Danish point of view.A number of methods and technics for energy storgare are discussed and recommendations to the Ministery of Environment and Energy...

  19. U.S.-Japan Quake Prediction Research

    Kisslinger, Carl; Mikumo, Takeshi; Kanamori, Hiroo

    For the seventh time since 1964, a seminar on earthquake prediction has been convened under the U.S.-Japan Cooperation in Science Program. The purpose of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the two countries to share recent progress and future plans in the continuing effort to develop the scientific basis for predicting earthquakes and practical means for implementing prediction technology as it emerges. Thirty-six contributors, 15 from Japan and 21 from the U.S., met in Morro Bay, Calif.September 12-14. The following day they traveled to nearby sections of the San Andreas fault, including the site of the Parkfield prediction experiment. The conveners of the seminar were Hiroo Kanamori, Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), for the U.S., and Takeshi Mikumo, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, for Japan . Funding for the participants came from the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Japan Society forthe Promotion of Science, supplemented by other agencies in both countries.

  20. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  1. Japan, new agenda for energy security

    Chrisstoffels, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    The author argues that the Japanese government will actively seek to strengthen security of supply. Japan has almost no domestic energy reserves. It is Asia's leading energy importer, but it faces increasing competition for resources from China and India. This has led to growing concern among Japanese policy makers. In the spring of 2007 a new Basic Energy Law was drafted that offers a strategic change of direction, away from a policy emphasis on free (energy) trade promotion and liberalisation of domestic energy markets. Japan will boost energy diplomacy towards energy producing countries and increase financial guarantees to Japanese oil and gas development companies. At the same time, Japan will raise efforts to lower its dependency on foreign oil and gas. To this end, it has set ambitious targets for further nuclear power development and the promotion of bio-trade. The author points at a multitude of complexities that may impede the success of these policies, Still, EU policy makers should be aware that Japan's energy policy has changed, driven by the conviction that markets alone cannot be relied upon to guarantee a secure supply of energy. [nl

  2. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

  4. IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant reported to have elevated levels of radiation. The IAEA dispatched the mission to Japan on 7 October following a request from the country's Government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several Ministries and institutions. ''The meetings held and visits made by the team over the last eight days gave us a first-hand appreciation of the extraordinary efforts and dedication on the part of Japanese people in their effort to remediate the areas affected by elevated levels of radiation in the Fukushima Prefecture,'' says Mr. Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. ''As Japan continues its current remediation efforts, it is our belief that this work will bring relief to the populations who are affected by the consequences of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.'' In a Preliminary Summary Report delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of conclusions including, though not limited to, the following: - Japan developed an efficient program for remediation - allocating the necessary legal, financial and technological resources to bring relief to the people affected by the accident, with priority being given to children. The Team was impressed with the strong commitment to the remediation effort from all institutions and parties involved, including the public; - Japan has also taken practical measures to inform the public and involve residents and local institutions in the process of defining its remediation strategy; - Japan is advised to avoid

  5. Japan’s National Interests in Taiwan

    2013-06-01

    the existential recognition of the power asymmetry at the core of the issue. C. PRC POWER ASYMMETRY: “COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL POWER” Dealing with a...technological strength. Japan needs a grand strategy consonant with its self-image as a humanistic , democratic and peaceful nation, and a strategy able

  6. Military aspect of nuclear policy of Japan

    Fujita, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Military aspect of nuclear policy of Japan was outlined. In 1952 Prime Minister Yoshida asked to prepare production of weapons for rearmament and to establish Science and Technology Agency such as to overcome lack of science research budget and inefficiency of research and cooperation. Kaya and Fushimi proposed establishment of Atomic Energy Commission as recommendation of Science Council of Japan. In 1954 Nakasone proposed budget for nuclear energy with yen 235 million to construct reactor. In 1955 Japanese delegation participated in international conference on peaceful use of nuclear energy at Geneva and nonpartisan members proposed Atomic Energy Basic Law, which limited the use of nuclear technology to peaceful purposes, ensured three principles - democratic methods, independent management, and transparency - as the basis of nuclear research and promoted international co-operation. In 1956 Atomic Energy Commission and Science and Technology Agency were established with other organizations under this law. According to internal report in the age of Prime Minister Sato, nuclear policy in Japan would be (1) no holding nuclear weapon for the time being, (2) maintaining economic and technical potential of nuclear weapon production and (3) considering no restraint for this policy whether Japan participated in NPT or not. Fuel cycle program of Monju reactor and reprocessing for power production seemed to be deployed corresponding to (3) above. Irradiated blanket of Monju reactor could be reprocessed to produce highly purified plutonium suited for nuclear bombs. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  8. Brasil-Japan collaboration experiment at Chacaltaya

    Fujimoto, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The historical aspects on the beginning of the Brazil-Japan Collaboration on cosmic ray experiments at Chacaltaya-Bolivia are introduced. The physical aspects concerning with this subject are presented. Some well-Known results are briefly discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  9. Japan's international peace operations in South Sudan ...

    2016-11-20

    Nov 20, 2016 ... the new mission was based on the Peace and Security Legislation enacted by the Abe government in .... Japan's commitment to human security and peacekeeping operations in. South Sudan. On the basis of ..... cameras on their helmets in order to prove that their shootings were legally justifiable (Mainichi ...

  10. Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan

    Thomas F. Cargill

    2006-01-01

    This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.

  11. Memento. Maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan

    1999-07-01

    The maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan represents the last of the 3 steps of transport of the nuclear fuel reprocessing-recycling program settled between ORC (Japan), BNFL (UK) and Cogema (France). This document summarizes the different aspects of this program: the companies concerned, the physical protection measures, the US-Japan agreements (accompanying warship), the in-depth safety, the handling of MOX fuels (containers and ships), and the Japan MOX fuel needs. (J.S.)

  12. The cost of schizophrenia in Japan

    Sado M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuhiro Sado,1 Ataru Inagaki,2 Akihiro Koreki,1 Martin Knapp,3 Lee Andrew Kissane,4 Masaru Mimura,1 Kimio Yoshimura4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, 2Center for Clinical Psychopharmacology, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Schizophrenia is a disorder that produces considerable burdens due to its often relapsing/remitting or chronic longitudinal course. This burden is felt not only by patients themselves, but also by their families and health care systems. Although the societal burden caused by this disorder has been evaluated in several countries, the magnitude of the societal cost of schizophrenia in Japan has never been estimated. The aim of this study is to clarify the societal burden of schizophrenia by estimating the cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008. Methods: A human capital approach was adopted to estimate the cost of schizophrenia. The total cost of schizophrenia was calculated as the sum of the direct, morbidity, and mortality costs. Schizophrenia was defined as disorders coded as F20.0–F20.9 according to the International Classification of Diseases-10. The data required to estimate the total cost was collected from publicly available statistics or previously reported studies. Results: The total cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008 was JPY 2.77 trillion (USD 23.8 billion. While the direct cost was JPY 0.770 trillion (USD 6.59 billion, the morbidity and mortality costs were JPY 1.85 trillion (USD 15.8 billion and JPY 0.155 trillion (USD 1.33 billion, respectively. Conclusion: The societal burden caused by schizophrenia is tremendous in Japan, similar to that in other developed countries where published data exist. Compared with other disorders, such as depression or anxiety disorders

  13. Japan and atomic co-operation

    1965-01-01

    Japan, which is host country for the Ninth Regular Session of the Agency General Conference, has an important programme of nuclear power development to meet future needs. In addition, Japan is active in other applications of atomic energy and is building up a domestic nuclear engineering industry. Japan has profited by the Agency as a channel of international cooperation, and was a party to the first bilateral agreement in which the responsibility for administering safeguards against the diversion of materials to military purposes, was transferred to the Agency. Japan has also lent support to Agency programmes by gifts, training courses, research, and the loan of experts. In 1961, the Japan Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) formulated the 'Long-Range Programme for Development and Utilization of Atomic Energy', on the basis of the economic prospects of nuclear power generation, and the conditions necessary to meet the ever-increasing domestic energy demands. According to this programme, in the light of power reactor development trends overseas, it is expected that nuclear power costs will compete with those of oil burning stations by 1970. On this basis, total nuclear power generating capacity of 1000 MW(e) will be attained by 1970, and 7000 - 9 500M(e) by 1980. As a prelude to the above programme the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO) began construction in 1959 of a graphite-moderated gas-cooled nuclear power station (Improved Calder Hall type) of 165 MW(e) gross capacity. This is now progressing smoothly, and reached criticality in May 1965; it is expected to supply commercial power by the end of this year. The second nuclear power station will be built by the same company on the coast of the Japan Sea, with a light water-moderated reactor of 250 - 300 MW(e) capacity. The construction plan i s currently being pushed forward for completion in 1970. Thereafter three private utility companies - Tokyo, Kansai and Chubu Electric Companies - are doing preparatory work for

  14. International development of Japan's Nuclear Industry. Indispensable Japan-U.S. cooperation

    Saigo, Masao

    2006-01-01

    It is significant to internationally develop the nuclear power plants technology that has been fostered by Japan's nuclear industry. It is also important to work with taking the degree of development of nuclear power plants of the recipient country into consideration. ''Forum on International Development of Nuclear Industry'' organized by the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) proposed it would be indispensable for a Japan's nuclear industry to establish a Japan-U.S. Cooperation with the support of Government in order to develop the nuclear technology internationally. In November 2005, the investigating team including utilities and nuclear industry visited U.S. and exchanged opinions on its possibility. Investigating results and their evaluation were described. (T.Tanaka)

  15. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan

    2013-11-06

    ...)] Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for in subheadings 2933.69... (LTFV) from Japan and subsidized by the Government of China.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2...

  16. 77 FR 60380 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    2012-10-03

    ... Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... December 3, 2012 in Tokyo in conjunction with the U.S.-Japan Energy Policy Dialogue. The U.S. Department of... roundtable and other related events will be held in Japan the week of December 3-7, 2012. Participants must...

  17. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  18. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    2010-11-01

    ... Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan. SUMMARY... order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  19. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    2012-10-22

    ... Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Revised... conjunction with the U.S.-Japan Energy Policy Dialogue. The U.S. Department of Energy--the lead U.S. agency... more about the policy and regulatory landscape for renewable energy developing in Japan at this time...

  20. Clinical statistics of gynecologic cancers in Japan

    Nagase, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, have both high morbidity and mortality among the gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. The present study was conducted using both the population-based cancer registry and the gynecologic cancer registry to elucidate the characteristics of gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. Based on nationwide estimates from the population-based cancer registry in Japan, the morbidities and mortality of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were obtained and used for analysis. Clinicopathologic factors for cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, including age, clinical stage, postsurgical stage, histological type, therapeutic strategy, and prognosis were retrieved from the gynecologic cancer registry published by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and used for analysis. The morbidities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 10,908, 13,606, and 9,384 women in 2012, respectively. The prevalence of endometrial cancer has significantly and consistently been increasing and represents the most common gynecologic malignant tumor in Japan. The mortalities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 2.1, 1.3, and 3.2 per 100,000 in 2012, respectively. In 2014, 52.2% of cervical cancer patients were classified as stage I, 22.5% as stage II, 10.2% as stage III, and 11.2% as stage IV. In addition, 71.9% of endometrial cancer patients were classified as stage I, 6.0% as stage II, 13.3% as stage III, and 7.5% as stage IV. Finally, 43.2% of ovarian cancer patients were classified as stage I, 9.1% as stage II, 27.6% as stage III, and 7.2% as stage IV. Twelve-point six percent of ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28198168

  1. Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Okazaki, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    A goal of the 21. century is for society to pursue 'sustainable economic development and prosperous life by recycling resources', thus rejecting 'development based on the waste of resources'. For Japan, which has limited energy resources, it is important to secure safe, inexpensive, environmentally friendly energy resources having long-term availability. To contribute to long-term energy security and solve global environmental issues, and to create advanced competitive science and technology, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established by integrating the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in October 2005. JAEA is endeavoring to establish nuclear fuel cycles, to contribute to social improvement through hydrogen production initiated by atomic energy, and to pursue research and development of thermonuclear fusion and quantum beam technology. This paper reviews the main R and D activities of JAEA. The structure of the paper is the following: 1. Introduction; 2. Japan Atomic Energy Agency; 3. Efforts to Commercialize the Fast Reactor Cycle; 4. Monju Progress; 5. Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste R and D; 6. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor System R and D; 7. Fusion Research and Development; 8. LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing Technology; 9. Quantum Beam Technologies; 10. Nuclear Safety Research and Regulatory Applications; 11. Basic Science and Engineering Research; 12. Contribution to the Enhanced International Nonproliferation Regimes; 13. Conclusions. To summarize, JAEA will promote the above R and D activities, addressing the following commitments: - On problems that atomic energy faces, we shall extend technical assistance in response to the government and the industrial sectors. - We shall produce technical options to attain political goals to secure medium to long-term stable energy supplies and to solve global environmental issues. - With the high potentials of atomic

  2. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Project Promotion Office; Kotake, Shoji [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  3. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  4. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  5. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  6. Proceedings of the Japan-USA Collaborative Workshops on the History of Particle Theory in Japan, 1935-1960

    Kawabe, Rokuo; Konuma, Michiji; Elementary particle theory in Japan, 1935-1960 : Japan-USA collaboration, second phase

    1988-01-01

    This volume consists mainly of papers presented at five "workshop", each of two or three days duration, held at various locations in Japan and the United States during 1984-5 by a USA-Japan collaboration for the study of the history of particle physics in Japan, together with some of the discussions and additional interviews.

  7. An overview of work, retirement, and pensions in Japan.

    Bass, S A

    1996-01-01

    Work to retirement in Japan is a sequential transition for the most part, and Japan permits mandatory retirement by firms at age 60. But many older people work beyond the age of 60, many more than in other industrialized countries. A number of hypotheses are examined, having to do with pensions, health, opportunity, interest in working, cultural attitudes (including the concept of ikigai), and public policy initiatives (such as employment policy and the Silver Human Resource Centers). Japan's cultural attitudes and existing policies appear to have set Japan on a unique course in considering the aging of its population. To what extent should other nations emulate Japan?

  8. The Early Overseas Activities of IBM in Japan

    吉沢, 正広; 田中, 雅章; Masahiro, YOSHIZAWA; Masaaki, TANAKA; 愛知学院大学; 鈴鹿短期大学; / SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how IBM entered into prewar Japan and ran its wholly-owned subsidiary thereafter. Before examining something noted above, this paper surveys the process of formation of IBM and then traces its early overseas activities. Turning to the initial contacts between Japan and IBM, at first IBM carried out its mere export trade to Japan through Morimura and then Kurosawa. IBM then established its wholly-owned subsidiary, Japan Watson,in Japan to expand the busi...

  9. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan

    2002-01-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  10. Factors associated with "Ikigai" among members of a public temporary employment agency for seniors (Silver Human Resources Centre) in Japan; gender differences.

    Shirai, Kokoro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Hideki; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Takatorige, Toshio; Tatara, Kozo

    2006-02-27

    "Ikigai" is culturally defined in the society of Japan as a comprehensive concept describing subjective well-being. It is considered to be related to life-satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, happiness as well as evaluation towards meaning of one's life. Although previous studies examined factors associated with Ikigai with smaller samples, consistent results have not been obtained, especially from the viewpoint of gender differences. Identification of gender-specific factors related with Ikigai among the elderly, may be of value to enhance subjective well-being. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 4,737 randomly selected members of the Silver Human Resources Centre (SHRC), a public temporary employment agency for seniors, in Osaka, Japan. This represents about 10% of all registered members (n = 41,593) in the 38 SHRC centres in Osaka. A total of 4,376 subjects (male: 2,913; female: 1,463) provided a satisfactory response to the questionnaire (response rate: 92%). The status whether they have "Ikigai" or not was evaluated by self-anchoring scale ranging from 0 to 5 (0 = lowest rate and 5 = highest rate of having "Ikigai"). Also, self-rated life-change score through work (-3 to 3) was evaluated by three items, i.e.) changes in (1) the number of friends through work, (2) social interests and (3) the quantity of conversation with others (1 = increase, 0 = no change, and -1 = decrease). The factors associated with "Ikigai" for total subjects were the number of rooms in one's residence, annual income, healthy life style score (Breslow), the number of working days through SHRC, satisfaction with one's life history and life-change sore through work. The multivariable odds ratio (95% CI) of having "Ikigai" was 1.9 (1.1-3.3) for persons with no change in life thorough work compared with subjects with a score of Ikigai" were the number of rooms in their residence, annual income, the number of working days through SHRC, subjective assessment of health

  11. Factors associated with "Ikigai" among members of a public temporary employment agency for seniors (Silver Human Resources Centre in Japan; gender differences

    Toyoda Yasuhiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Ikigai" is culturally defined in the society of Japan as a comprehensive concept describing subjective well-being. It is considered to be related to life-satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, happiness as well as evaluation towards meaning of one's life. Although previous studies examined factors associated with Ikigai with smaller samples, consistent results have not been obtained, especially from the viewpoint of gender differences. Identification of gender-specific factors related with Ikigai among the elderly, may be of value to enhance subjective well-being. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 4,737 randomly selected members of the Silver Human Resources Centre (SHRC, a public temporary employment agency for seniors, in Osaka, Japan. This represents about 10% of all registered members (n = 41,593 in the 38 SHRC centres in Osaka. A total of 4,376 subjects (male: 2,913; female: 1,463 provided a satisfactory response to the questionnaire (response rate: 92%. The status whether they have "Ikigai" or not was evaluated by self-anchoring scale ranging from 0 to 5 (0 = lowest rate and 5 = highest rate of having "Ikigai". Also, self-rated life-change score through work (-3 to 3 was evaluated by three items, i.e. changes in (1 the number of friends through work, (2 social interests and (3 the quantity of conversation with others (1 = increase, 0 = no change, and -1 = decrease. Results The factors associated with "Ikigai" for total subjects were the number of rooms in one's residence, annual income, healthy life style score (Breslow, the number of working days through SHRC, satisfaction with one's life history and life-change sore through work. The multivariable odds ratio (95%CI of having "Ikigai" was 1.9 (1.1–3.3 for persons with no change in life thorough work compared with subjects with a score of ≦-1. Moreover, the multivariable odds ratios were 3.5 (1.9–6.6 for a life-change score = 1, 3.1 (1

  12. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  13. Applications of shape memory alloys in Japan

    Asai, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, a first application of shape memory TiNi alloy was a moving flap in an air-conditioner which was developed as sensing function of shape memory alloy at Matsushista Electric Industrial Co. Then, shape memory utilized in a coffee maker, an electric rice-cooker, a thermal mixing valve and etc. were commercialized in Japan. And brassiere wires, a guide wire for medical treatment, an antenna for portable telephone and others were commercialized utilizing superelasticity. At the same time with these commercial products, there was not only progress in fabrication technology to effect accurate transformation temperature, but also the discovery of small hysteresis alloy such as R-phase or TiNiCu alloy and low transformation temperature alloy such as TiNiFe, TiNiV and TiNiCo alloys. Therefore the shape memory alloy market has expanded widely to electric appliances, automobile, residence, medical care and other field today. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear power in Japan in 1987

    Molodtsov, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the development level of nuclear power in Japan as of 1988 beginning are presented. Total registed electric power of 36 nuclear power units under operation constituted 28046 MW. 13 power units with 12268 MW total power are under construction. In 1987 188.4 TWH electric power was generated at the Japanese NPPs, it constituted 31.7% of total electric power generation. About 360 bil. yens were assigned from the state budget to further development of nuclear power engineering. Efforts to create the improved BWR type reactor, as well as, scientific and research efforts on the development of fast breeder reactors, improvement of uranium enrichment and radioactive waste storage are carried out. It is expected that share of nuclear power in electric power generation in Japan will reach 40% to the beginning of the 21-th century

  15. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  16. Progress of metallic superconductors in Japan

    Tachikawa, Kyoji, E-mail: tacsuper@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1, Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Japanese contributions on the R and D of different metallic superconductors are summarized. ► Nb–Ti wires have been developed for MRI, accelerator, MAGLEV train and other applications. ► Multifilamentary Nb{sub 3}Sn wires with excellent performance have been developed for high-field use. ► Long-length Nb{sub 3}Al wires with promising strain tolerance have been fabricated by a new process. -- Abstract: This article overviews the development of metallic superconductors in Japan covering different kinds of alloys and intermetallic compounds. Metallic superconductors have opened many new application areas in science and technology. Japan has been one of the leading countries in the world, both in the research and development and in large-scale manufacturing of metallic superconductors.

  17. Marriage and labor market discrimination in Japan.

    Anderson, K H; Hill, M A

    1983-04-01

    "Many Japanese firms have engaged in the practice of compulsory retirement upon a female employee's marriage. In 1966, this practice was ruled as being contrary to provisions in Japan's Civil Code. [The authors] have specified and estimated a model of the economic determinants of age at marriage in order to analyze the effect that this discrimination has had on nuptiality in Japan. [The] results indicate that on average, after accounting for an upward trend, women who married after the 1966 court decision married about one year younger than women who married before 1966." It is also found that age at marriage is influenced by several socioeconomic variables, including wife's wage and educational level, husband's income and educational level, and wife's family background. Data are from a 1975 survey of women aged 20-59 who were living in the Tokyo metropolitan area. excerpt

  18. Status reports of supercomputing astrophysics in Japan

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nagasawa, Mikio

    1990-01-01

    The Workshop on Supercomputing Astrophysics was held at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK, Tsukuba) from August 31 to September 2, 1989. More than 40 participants of physicists, astronomers were attendant and discussed many topics in the informal atmosphere. The main purpose of this workshop was focused on the theoretical activities in computational astrophysics in Japan. It was also aimed to promote effective collaboration between the numerical experimentists working on supercomputing technique. The various subjects of the presented papers of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, gravitating systems, radiative transfer and general relativity are all stimulating. In fact, these numerical calculations become possible now in Japan owing to the power of Japanese supercomputer such as HITAC S820, Fujitsu VP400E and NEC SX-2. (J.P.N.)

  19. Promotion of food irradiation in Japan

    Kondo, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Shunichi; Tada, Mikitaro; Furuta, Masakazu; Kume, Tamikazu; Hayashi, Toru; Yamamoto, Kazuko

    2007-01-01

    Atomic Energy Commission of Japan has organized special symposia inviting citizens and consumers on food irradiation based on the report presented by expert members meeting discussing about food irradiation in various countries as well as in Japan. This document summarizes the lectures and talks presented at the symposia: usefulness of food irradiation, one of the most effective means of sterilization to ensure sanitary supplies and to prevent loss from spoilage, activities of the subcommittee consisting of experts of this field, a report of the open forum with public participants on food irradiation, present status of detection techniques for the irradiated foods, the role of phyto-sanitary measures in plant protection, and how to realize the consumer's free choices for irradiated foods. (S. Ohno)

  20. Substitute energy resource policy in Japan

    Umehara, Katsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Japan depends 88% of energy resources and 99.8% of petroleum on imports. The solution of energy problems is now made internationally. As the means for Japan, there are the substitution of other resources for petroleum and its promotion. However, this involves the considerable funds for the development and utilization, which must be borne by the people in the form of tax. For governmental financing, a special account must be set up for the particular purpose. In the research and development of new energy resources, new institution is required. The following matters are described: petroleum shortage coming even in 1980s, the international need of substitute energy development, the need for establishing measures for substitute energy resources, acquisition of the funds, special-account governmental financing, and an institute of new energy development. (author)

  1. Beyond EFL : Globalizing Education in Japan

    Smith, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to education are not providing students in Japan with the skills necessary to become global human resources. How can skills such as effective communication, problem solving, cultural awareness, and leadership, all necessary in a rapidly globalizing world, be developed and nurtured in Japan’s schools? National public education must begin to play a more prominent role in the development of these important global skills. This paper will describe first year university students’...

  2. Nuclear power in Japan and the USA

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The development of the nuclear power industry in Japan and the USA is discussed. The author lists the number of nuclear power plants operating, under construction and planned and considers the contribution made by nuclear power stations to the total electricity generated. The advantages of nuclear power to both countries are outlined and forecasts are made of the role to be played by nuclear power in future years

  3. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  4. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu, E-mail: yamashita.kiyonobu@jaea.go.jp [Visiting Professor, at the Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); General Advisor Nuclear HRD Centre, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, TOKAI-mura, NAKA-gun, IBARAKI-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  5. Current status of VHTR development in Japan

    Aochi, A.; Kondo, T.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 950 0 . The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 1000 0 C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

  6. The Programs of Japan in the Philippines

    1944-07-29

    functions of theI U cii’?rsi:rity in tho follo,:ing way: : ’"The purposo an’d - fanc - tion of th Unive-rsiy o.f ti.e Phil) ippines shall be to provide for...to .. ;i :if Japan co to the P’hilippines very soon tor a, series of genes wv-h.:i t - local- players. The ( loa.ding) teoia is (T" ..:yo. Six - .3

  7. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-01-01

    The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activis...

  8. The Evolving Relations of Japan and India

    2014-12-01

    relations, domestic factors have the same potential. A variety of issues, some of which have no direct bearing on international relations, can and do...ajw.asahi.com/article/asia/around_asia/AJ201309300001. 220 Ibid.; Ankit Panda , “Vietnam to Acquire Japanese Maritime Surveillance Ships,” The Diplomat...Occasion of Official Visit.” 222 Ankit Panda , “India Will Buy 15 Amphibious Aircraft From Japan: So What?,” The Diplomat, January 29, 2014, http

  9. Core Indicators of Japan's Consumer Price Index

    Shigenori Shiratsuka

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the Bank of Japan (BOJ) in conducting monetary policy is to promote sustainable growth by achieving price stability. The price stability that needs to be achieved is regarded as not just short-term and temporary, but sustainable in the medium to long term, which is the common understanding among major central banks. To fulfill this mandate, the BOJ is required to identify the underlying trend of inflation by excluding various idiosyncratic disturbances from measured p...

  10. [Beginning Knowledge of Transfusion in Japan].

    Mazda, Toshio; Shimizu, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Blood components and plasma derivatives are two of the most useful tools in modern medicine. When the Portuguese opened the maritime routes to the Far East in the 16th century. Western medicine traveled to Japan on the trading vessels that carried physicians and barber-surgeons to care for the body and Christian missionaries to care for the soul. Skilled interpreters such as Kōgyū Yoshio translated and studied Dutch editions of early medical books, like Lorenz Heister's "Chirurgie" (Nürnberg, 1719), that illustrate the concept of transfusion. The oldest description of transfusion originating in Japan is a handwritten manuscript entitled "Bansui Sensi Chojutsu Shomoku" by Masamichi Nishijima, a student of Bansui Otsuki. It is a list of Otsuki's translated works. He described book names and chapter names in the manuscript, and when he finished translation of a chapter, he marked a circle on the chapter name. The transfusion chapter had a circle. That dates the earliest writing on transfusion in Japanese to 1804, shortly after the death of Kōgyū. Unfortunately, the manuscript translation no longer exists. In 1814, Shunzō Yoshio, grandson of Kōgyū, and in 1820, Tokki Koshimura, translated the figure legends of "Chirurgie." Soon afterwards, after the first report of transfusion from human-to-human by James Blundell in London in 1818, Western medical books published on the subject began to arrive. The works of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Georg Friedrich Most and Carl Canstatt all mentioning transfusion, albeit without details, were translated by Kōan Ogata and Shinryō Tsuboi. During the Edo period, Japan was a closed country; only open to the Dutch through a tiny island in Nagasaki. But Japanese doctors in the Edo period learned about blood transfusion through Dutch-translated versions of Western medical Books. Transfusion began being practiced in Japan in 1919, almost exactly 100 years after the concept was introduced

  11. Energy R and D in Japan; TOPICAL

    J.J. Dooley

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested$90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at$2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government

  12. Japan’s Emerging World Role.

    1974-06-30

    refusal of Japanese fishermen to let Japan’s first nuclear ship , the Mutsu , return to port after it suffered reactor problems on its maiden voyage...producing nuclear ships . The f Japanese Navy is highly trained and, with a one-to-four ratio between officers and enlisted men, is capable of very rapid...1946/3-RR 4 broad rearmament program, especially one including the development of nuclear weapons. Current Japanese economic relations with the PRC and

  13. High-speed railways in Japan

    Kyotani, Y.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of conventional railways in Japan, leading up to the Shinkansen line, which at present runs at speeds up to 210km/h, and will in the future be speeded up to 260km/h. It then goes on to review the development of a superconductive, magnetically levitated train, which will constitute the next generation of railways, running at speeds of up to 500km/h. (author)

  14. Education of nuclear engineering in Japan

    Ozawa, Yasutomo; Yamamuro, Nobuhiro

    1979-01-01

    The research Committee of Nuclear Engineering Education has two working groups. One group has carried out surveyes on the curriculums of nuclear engineering course of universities in Japan and the activities of graduates in the industrial worlds. The other group conducted an investigation on the present status of energy education in senior high schools. This is an interim report on the activity of the research committee. (author)

  15. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

  16. Prospect of heavy ion studies in Japan

    Sakai, M.

    1976-01-01

    The status and future developments of heavy ion facilities in Japan are presented. New tandem, linear accelerator and Mumatron for studies of nuclear matter are under construction. Mumatron which provides 500 MeV/nucleon with rather small intensity consists of four parts, namely, Wideroe-type linear accelerator, Alvarez-type linear accelerator, Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and synchrotron. Mumatron is expected not only to open an entirely new field of nuclear physics but for application to the cancer therapy

  17. Japan's prospects in the Shanghai cooperation organization

    Nurgaliev, Marat

    2009-01-01

    At the present stage, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is arousing great interest in the international community. The leading actors in international relations, such as the U.S., Japan, and the European countries, are keeping a careful watch over the organization's development. The interest of these countries is mainly related to the lack of information about the SCO's actual activity and the organization's real essence. The leaders of the SCO member states constantly assure everyo...

  18. Development of emission computed tomography in Japan

    Tanaka, E.

    1984-01-01

    Two positron emission computed tomography (PCT) devices developed in Japan are described. One is for head and the other for wholebody. The devices show fairly quantitative images with slight modifications of the existing algorithms because they were developed based on filtered back-projection. The PCT device seems to be better than the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) since it provides adequade compensation for photon attenuation in patients. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. [Actual conditions of occupational health activities in small-scale enterprises in Japan: system for occupational health, health management and demands by small-scale enterprises].

    Hirata, M; Kumagai, S; Tabuchi, T; Tainaka, H; Andoh, K; Oda, H

    1999-11-01

    In order to clarify the real conditions of occupational health services (OHS) in small-scale enterprises (SSEs) in Japan, we analyzed questionnaires recovered from 765 SSEs in the area of a city neighboring Osaka City (recovery rate, 69.3%). The SSEs included 358 SSEs with 1 to 4 workers (46.8% of total SSEs), 203 with 5 to 9 (26.5%), 163 with 10 to 29 (21.3%) and 41 with 30 to 49 (5.4%). The main types of businesses were manufacturing (374, 48.9% of total SSEs), wholesale/retail trade/restaurants (153, 20.0%), community, social and personal services (132, 17.3%) and construction (72, 9.4%). Health examinations were performed in 47.7% of SSEs. The reason for the lack of examinations were "shortage of time" (33.3% of SSEs lacking health examination) and "employees do not want to be examined" (28.1%). Some health promotion measures were conducted in 29.2% of SSEs. Health examination (59.0% of SSEs), health promotion (36.5%), measure of mental health (25.9%) and information service for employers and employees (25.5%) were demanded by SSEs as OHS. Financial subsidies and economical incentives were demanded by 46.4% and 28.8% of SSEs, respectively. Regional occupational health center in this area was poorly known among SSEs (8.2%), but health examination (48.4%), information service (37.5%), assessment of work method and advice to improve (19.8%) and environment measurement (12.4%) are demanded of the center by SSEs.

  20. Current prevention and control of health care-associated infections in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Japan.

    Kariya, Naoko; Sakon, Naomi; Komano, Jun; Tomono, Kazunori; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2018-05-01

    Residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly are vulnerable to health care-associated infections. However, compared to medical institutions, long-term care facilities for the elderly lag behind in health care-associated infection control and prevention. We conducted a epidemiologic study to clarify the current status of infection control in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Japan. A questionnaire survey on the aspects of infection prevention and control was developed according to SHEA/APIC guidelines and was distributed to 617 long-term care facilities for the elderly in the province of Osaka during November 2016 and January 2017. The response rate was 16.9%. The incidence rates of health care-associated infection outbreaks and residents with health care-associated infections were 23.4 per 100 facility-years and 0.18 per 1,000 resident-days, respectively. Influenza and acute gastroenteritis were reported most frequently. Active surveillance to identify the carrier of multiple drug-resistant organisms was not common. The overall compliance with 21 items selected from the SHEA/APIC guidelines was approximately 79.2%. All facilities had infection control manuals and an assigned infection control professional. The economic burdens of infection control were approximately US$ 182.6 per resident-year during fiscal year 2015. Importantly, these data implied that physicians and nurses were actively contributed to higher SHEA/APIC guideline compliance rates and the advancement of infection control measures in long-term care facilities for the elderly. Key factors are discussed to further improve the infection control in long-term care facilities for the elderly, particularly from economic and social structural standpoints. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinant factors of residential consumption and perception of energy conservation: Time-series analysis by large-scale questionnaire in Suita, Japan

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kishita, Yusuke; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined determinant factors associated with the residential consumption and perception of savings of electricity and city gas; this was based on data collected from a large-scale questionnaire sent to households in Suita, Osaka Prefecture, Japan, in two different years: 2009 and 2013. We applied an ordered logit model to determine the overall trend of the determinant factors, and then we performed a more detailed analysis in order to understand the reasons why the determinant factors changed between the two periods. Results from the ordered logit model reveal that electricity and gas consumption was primarily determined by such factors as household income, number of family members, the number of home appliances, and the perceptions of energy savings; there was not much difference between the two years, although in 2013, household income did not affect the perception of energy savings. Detailed analysis demonstrated that households with high energy consumption and those with moderate consumption are becoming polarized and that there was a growing gap between consumption behavior and the perception of conservation. The implications derived from the analyses provide an essential insight into the design of a municipal policy to induce lifestyle changes for an energy-saving society. - Highlights: • Questionnaire was conducted to households in two years for time-series analysis. • We analyzed residential energy consumption and perception of savings in households. • Determinant factors for consumption and perception of savings were identified. • Households being wasteful of energy are also found willing to cut consumption. • Policy intervention could affect consumption pattern and perception of savings.

  2. Correlation and stratigraphic eruption age of the pyroclastic flow deposits and wide spread volcanic ashes intercalated in the Pliocene-Pleistocene strata, central Japan

    Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Yoshikawa, Shusaku

    2000-01-01

    Three pyroclastic flow deposits in the Takayama and Omine area, central Honshu, are correlated to the distal widespread volcanic ashes intercalated in the Plio-Pleistocene boundary strata in central Japan. The correlation is based on these stratigraphic relationships, facies, magnetostratigraphy, petrographic properties such as mineral assemblage, refractive index and chemical composition of the volcanic glasses and orthopyroxene. As the result of these correlation, the eruption age of the proximal pyroclastic flow deposits have become clear. And precise correlation between proximal eruption units and distal depositional units is now possible. Ho-Kd 39 Tephra erupted at about 1.76 Ma, forming a co-ignimbrite ash, which deposited in the Kanto sedimentary basin. Eb-Fukuda Tephra erupted at about 1.75 Ma, and distal volcaniclastic deposit sedimented in the Kinki, Niigata and Kanto sedimentary basins. The eruptional and depositional phase are divided into the stage 1, stage 2 (early), stage 2 (late) and stage 3. Stage 1 is phreato-plinian type eruption phase, forming distal ash fall deposit. Stage 2 (early) is plinian pumice fall, intra-plinian pyroclastic flow and plinian pumice fall eruption phase, forming distal ash fall. Stage 2 (late) is final eruptional phase of the biggest pyroclastic flow of the Eb-Fukuda Tephra, forming a co-ignimbrite ash fall. Stage 3 is resedimented stage after the end of the explosive eruption. It is notable that resedimented volcaniclastic deposit reached Osaka sedimentary basin 300 km away from the eruption center. Om-SK110 Tephra erupted at about 1.65 Ma, divided into the stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3. Stage 1 is eruption phase of the plinian pumice fall and first pyroclastic flow. Stage 2 is pauses in eruption activity. Stage 3 is second pyroclastic flow phase, it is inferred that the pyroclastic flow of the stage 3 directly entered the Niigata sedimentary basin and simultaneously formed a co-ignimbrite ash. (author)

  3. Performance evaluation of four dominant anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) kits in Japan for preventing de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yoshioka, Nori; Kita, Mifumi; Asari, Seishi; Suehisa, Etsuji; Hidaka, Yoh; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    The determination of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) has become an important means of evaluating the risk factors of de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before starting intensive immunosuppressive drug therapies. Four dominant HBcAb determination reagents used in Japan were evaluated with HBcIgM, HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAb, and HBV DNA reagents in order to study their clinical utility. Four kinds of HBcAb reagent kits (HBcAb Total and HBcAb-IgG reagent) were evaluated with 526 clinical specimens, including 344 negative specimens, at Osaka University Hospital. The dynamic range of each kit was evaluated by testing serially diluted serum from pooled sera with high HBcAb concentration. The reagent that showed the largest dynamic range was the Lumipulse HBcAb-N (HBcAb-IgG reagent). Regarding clinical sensitivity and specificity, Centaur HBcAb (HBcAb Total reagent) gave several "doubtful negative" results and ARCHITECT HBcII (HBcAb Total reagent) had the most discrepant positive results. By comparing the cut-off-index distribution of negative specimens using a parameter of "distance from the mean to the cut-off divided by the SD", Centaur was determined to be the best (distance/SD = 12.65), with Lumipulse and Elecsys Anti-HBc (HBcAb Total reagent) in the second group (8.13 and 7.00, respectively), and ARCHITECT rated as the worst (3.25). In this evaluation, Elecsys and Lumipulse HBcAb kits showed good clinical sensitivity and specificity and were considered to be suitable for evaluating the risk factors of de novo HBV infection.

  4. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    M. Takaoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters. Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  5. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying. The paper attempts to integrate the research strengths of Japan with this new trend in bullying research, with the view of incorporating 'non-western' research traditions into mainstream discourse on bullying. It introduces a typology of school bullying: Types I and II, and discusses 1 hierarchical relationships in schools, focusing on corporal punishment and teacher-student bullying, and 2 group dynamics surrounding bullying. The paper illustrates how bullying among students is entwined with various aspects of schools as social institutions. It argues that school bullying may represent a state of anomie in both formal and informal power structures in schools, which have become dysfunctional communities unable to deal with bullying, while at the same time it can be students' way of compensating their sense of alienation and disconnectedness from school.

  6. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  7. Results of operation of BWRs in Japan

    Fueki, Kensuke

    1987-01-01

    It is considered that the development of BWR plants in Japan has been advanced relatively smoothly though sometimes there were complications. As of the end of fiscal year 1986, the BWR plants in operation were 16, and the total power output amounted to 12,917 MW, which was equivalent to 8 % of 153 GW of the total power source facilities in Japan. Reflecting the excellent operational result of BWR plants, the generated electric power in fiscal year 1986 reached 85.9 TWh and about 15 % of the total, exceeding hydroelectric power. This means that about 18 million tons of petroleum import was reduced. At the initial stage, BWR plants suffered the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel pipings in the reactor primary system. This trouble was successfully solved by the efforts of the government, electric power companies, plant manufacturers and research institutes. In fiscal year 1983, the capacity factor of all BWR plants in Japan recovered to more than 70 %, and in fiscal year 1986, it has reached 75.9 %. In order to improve the capacity factor further, it is necessary to prevent troubles by the development of diagnostic techniques and preventive maintenance, and to shorten regular inspection period. The change of accidents and troubles, the measures to reduce regular inspection period, the reduction of radiation exposure, and the reduction of wastes are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. English education for healthcare professionals in Japan.

    Moross, Janelle; Seki, Naoko; Morio, Ikuko

    2017-11-01

    In a global environment, education for healthcare professionals should include cultivating human resources who have the necessary skills to work in an international arena. This article will review the current status of English education for dental healthcare professionals in Japan. After conducting a literature search using the keywords: English education, Japan, and dental, only a few studies were found that investigated and proposed suggestions for dental professional English education. Even so, these were still in the early stages with outcomes yet to be fully evaluated. Even though English is thought indispensable for global professionals, and that increasing chances for communication skills is necessary, little attention has been addressed to English education for dental professionals or the implementation of such education in the Japanese undergraduate dental curricula. With the current reality of field expansion in dentistry, the need for not only improved English communication skills for Japanese dentists, but also the acquisition of essential expertise, psychomotor, teambuilding, critical thinking, and creative thinking skills in English as well as Japanese, is a definite probability. In order to reach this level of knowledge, further efforts and research would be necessary for the advancement and development of dental professional English education in Japan.

  9. Surrogacy: donor conception regulation in Japan.

    Semba, Yukari; Chang, Chiungfang; Hong, Hyunsoo; Kamisato, Ayako; Kokado, Minori; Muto, Kaori

    2010-09-01

    As of 2008, surrogacy is legal and openly practised in various places; Japan, however, has no regulations or laws regarding surrogacy. This paper reports the situation of surrogacy in Japan and in five other regions (the USA, the UK, Taiwan, Korea and France) to clarify the pros and cons of prohibiting surrogacy, along with the problems and issues relating to surrogacy compensation. Not only in a country such as France that completely prohibits surrogacy within the country, but also in a country such as the UK that allows non-commercial surrogacy, infertile couples travel overseas for the purpose of surrogacy. In addition, some couples might seek underground surrogacy if the government prohibits surrogacy. If an intended parent couple and a surrogate make an agreement among themselves and then a problem occurs, they cannot ask for support from professionals or bring a case to court, as can be observed in South Korea and Taiwan. We also conclude that there is little difference between commercial surrogacy and non-commercial surrogacy in the absence of a clear definition of 'reasonable expenses.' In the UK, the law does not allow surrogates to receive compensation. However, in reality, there may be little difference between the amounts paid to surrogates for profit in the US and those paid to surrogates for reasonable expenses in the UK. We conclude that the issue of surrogacy demands further discussion in Japan.

  10. Virtual laboratory for fusion research in Japan

    Tsuda, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Horiuchi, R.; Ishiguro, S.; Takami, S.

    2008-01-01

    A virtual laboratory system for nuclear fusion research in Japan has been developed using SuperSINET, which is a super high-speed network operated by National Institute of Informatics. Sixteen sites including major Japanese universities, Japan Atomic Energy Agency and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) are mutually connected to SuperSINET with the speed of 1 Gbps by the end of 2006 fiscal year. Collaboration categories in this virtual laboratory are as follows: the large helical device (LHD) remote participation; the remote use of supercomputer system; and the all Japan ST (Spherical Tokamak) research program. This virtual laboratory is a closed network system, and is connected to the Internet through the NIFS firewall in order to keep higher security. Collaborators in a remote station can control their diagnostic devices at LHD and analyze the LHD data as they were at the LHD control room. Researchers in a remote station can use the supercomputer of NIFS in the same environment as NIFS. In this paper, we will describe detail of technologies and the present status of the virtual laboratory. Furthermore, the items that should be developed in the near future are also described

  11. Japan, world leader of photovoltaic energy

    Strasser, F.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970's, the potentialities of photovoltaic energy has been recognized by the Japanese government which has sustained this technology in two ways. First, by the financing of R and D programs, and second, by giving subsidies to citizens for the installation of solar panels. Today, Japan is the world leader of photovoltaic energy, both for the installed power and for the production of solar cells. In 2003, the International Energy Agency was reporting 1.809 GW of worldwide installed capacity among which 48% was in Japan (0.86 GW) with respect to 0.4 GW in Germany, 0.275 GW in the USA and only 20 MW in France. This capacity would have exceeded 1.1 GW at the end of 2004. Half of the solar modules are manufactured in Japan. The ministry of economy, trade and industry (METI) has fixed ambitious goals for 2010: the overall new energy sources much represent 3% of the primary energy (with respect to 1% today) and the installed capacity must reach 4.8 GW. The road-map of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO) foresees 100 GW by 2030. (J.S.)

  12. FBR/VHTR deployment scenarios in Japan

    Richards, Matt; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Co-deployment of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) and Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) can be used as the nuclear technologies to meet a significant portion of Japan's future energy demands. The FBR provides the fissile fuel for energy security and sustainability, and can be used to provide a significant portion of the electricity demand. The VHTR can provide flexible energy outputs (electricity, hydrogen, and high-temperature heat) with high efficiency, can operate with a wide variety of fuel cycles, and can be sited at locations that have limited availability of cooling water. These features, combined with its passive safety and high degree of proliferation resistance, make the VHTR an ideal complement for co-deployment with the FBR in Japan and also a very low-risk technology of export to foreign countries. In addition to hydrogen production, the high-temperature thermal energy produced by the VHTR fleet can be used for a wide variety of process-heat applications, and the VHTR can play a key role for significantly reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. This paper describes assessments for deploying FBRs and VHTRs in Japan using a closed fuel cycle, with the FBRs supplying the fissile material to sustain the combined FBR/VHTR fleet. (author)

  13. [WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan].

    Yoshizawa, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment.

  14. Changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    Inoue, Manami

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is known as the most important cause of gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, and socioeconomic status. In Japan, H. pylori infection has been highly correlated with the incidence rate of gastric cancer, and a reduction in H. pylori infection is therefore crucial for decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer, especially at the population level. Infection occurs during childhood, commonly before 5 years of age. In Japan, where gastric cancer has ranked as the most common cancer by incidence and mortality for the last several decades, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has dramatically declined by birth cohort effect, mainly due to improvements in the general hygiene environment in childhood. Older generations born before around 1950 show a high prevalence of around 80-90 %, decreasing with age to reach around 10 % or less in those born around the 1990s, and less than 2 % for children born after the year 2000. This change will have generational effects on gastric cancer prevention strategies, both primary and secondary. The risk-stratified approach to gastric cancer prevention should be considered in Japan and other countries which have similarly experienced rapid economic development.

  15. Dynamic axes of informed consent in Japan.

    Specker Sullivan, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Scholarship in cross-cultural bioethics routinely frames Japanese informed consent in contrast to informed consent in North America. This contrastive analysis foregrounds cancer diagnosis disclosure and physician paternalism as unique aspects of Japanese informed consent that deviate from American practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 Japanese medical professionals obtained during fieldwork in Japan from 2013 to 15, this article complicates the informed consent discourse beyond East-West comparisons premised on Anglo-American ethical frameworks. It expands professional perspectives to include nurses, medical social workers, clinical psychologists, and ethicists and it addresses informed consent for a broad range of conditions in addition to cancer. The results suggest that division of affective labor is an under-theorized dimension of informed consent that is perceived as at odds with principled demands for universal informed consent. These practical tensions are conceptualized as cultural differences, with Japan identified in terms of omakase as practical and supportive and the United States identified in terms of jiko kettei as principled and self-determining. These results have implications for the methodology of cross-cultural bioethics as well as for theories and practices of informed consent in both Japan and the United States. I conclude that responsible cross-cultural work in bioethics must begin from the ground up, incorporating all relevant stakeholder perspectives, attitudes, and experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Status of cold fusion research in Japan

    Kitamura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS) works have been centering around the Japan CF-Research Society (JCFRS) established in 1999. Recently, about 10 research groups were actively working in the CMNS field, and have been exchanging information mainly in the annual meetings of JCFRS in addition to the International ICCF conferences. For many years efforts have been exclusively devoted to clarification of the underlying physics of excess heat phenomenon and isotopic composition change. Recently, however, an entrepreneur group, Clean Planet Inc., has entered into the CMNS field in Japan, and joined Mizuno to form the above-mentioned group and made a presentation at the LANR/CF Colloquium, at MIT in March 2014. In their work they used glow discharge to form surface nanostructures on nickel mesh wires that are to be subjected to deuterium exposure. They claimed excess power on the order of kilowatts with a coefficient of performance of 1.9. Confirmation of their claim by third parties is highly expected

  17. Statistics on the use of radiation in Japan. 1982 ed.

    1982-01-01

    In the recent several years, the establishments using radiation, i.e. radioisotopes and radiation generators, have continued to increase in number, and reached a total of 4,100 as of March, 1982. Such establishments are concentrated in major urban areas including Tokyo, Kanagawa, Osaka and Aichi, from which the utilization should spread across the country. The uses first started in the basic and applied studies in agriculture, sciences, medicine, etc., and are now extended to non-destructive testing, process measurement and therapies. Thus, the utilization of radiation has been increasingly diversified and complicated. The statistics thereon should contribute to both RI production and utilization and radiation injury prevention. The following data are given in tables: general aspects, the utilization of radiation by organizations (hospitals, educational institutions, research institutions, industries, etc.), the distribution of radioisotopes, the disposal of radioactive wastes, radiological protection supervisors and trainees. (Mori, K.)

  18. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  19. A Preliminary Analysis on Empirical Attenuation of Absolute Velocity Response Spectra (1 to 10s) in Japan

    Dhakal, Y. P.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Mw 9.1 Tohoku-oki earthquake caused strong shakings of super high rise and high rise buildings constructed on deep sedimentary basins in Japan. Many people felt difficulty in moving inside the high rise buildings even on the Osaka basin located at distances as far as 800 km from the epicentral area. Several empirical equations are proposed to estimate the peak ground motions and absolute acceleration response spectra applicable mainly within 300 to 500km from the source area. On the other hand, Japan Meteorological Agency has recently proposed four classes of absolute velocity response spectra as suitable indices to qualitatively describe the intensity of long-period ground motions based on the observed earthquake records, human experiences, and actual damages that occurred in the high rise and super high rise buildings. The empirical prediction equations have been used in disaster mitigation planning as well as earthquake early warning. In this study, we discuss the results of our preliminary analysis on attenuation relation of absolute velocity response spectra calculated from the observed strong motion records including those from the Mw 9.1 Tohoku-oki earthquake using simple regression models with various model parameters. We used earthquakes, having Mw 6.5 or greater, and focal depths shallower than 50km, which occurred in and around Japanese archipelago. We selected those earthquakes for which the good quality records are available over 50 observation sites combined from K-NET and KiK-net. After a visual inspection on approximately 21,000 three component records from 36 earthquakes, we used about 15,000 good quality records in the period range of 1 to 10s within the hypocentral distance (R) of 800km. We performed regression analyses assuming the following five regression models. (1) log10Y (T) = c+ aMw - log10R - bR (2) log10Y (T) = c+ aMw - log10R - bR +gS (3) log10Y (T) = c+ aMw - log10R - bR + hD (4) log10Y (T) = c+ aMw - log10R - bR +gS +hD (5) log10Y

  20. Japan-U.S. cooperation in transport of plutonium

    Takeda, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Japan's effort to utilize plutonium for peaceful purpose since 1950s was caught in a cross fire after the end of the Cold War. Maritime transport of plutonium from France to Japan in 1993, for instance, was criticized by U.S. Congress, nonproliferation specialists and environmental activists. U.S. government, however, compiled with Japan-US Nuclear Cooperation Agreement and cooperated to ship plutonium. This paper focuses on why Washington was supportive for the sealift of plutonium despite of opposition against it. By solving the puzzle, this research will contribute to studies of Japan's plutonium policy and Japan-U.S. nuclear relations. Based on newspaper articles, memoirs and official documents, this paper examines backgrounds and features of controversy surrounding the transport. The analyses show the causes of U.S. cooperation to the transport, such as Japan's efforts toward nuclear nonproliferation. (author)