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Sample records for osa basalt ultisol

  1. The utilization of ultisol soil for horticulture crops cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumono; Parinduri, SM; Huda, N.; Ichwan, N.

    2018-02-01

    Ultisol soil is a marginal soil commonly used for palm oil cultivation in Indonesia, its very potential for cultivation of horticulture crops. The utilization of ultisol soil can be done with adding compost with certain proportions. The research aimed to know best proportion of ultisol soil and compost, and proportion of water concentration, and its relationship with fresh and dry weight of horticulture crops . The research was divided 3 steps. The first, mixed ultisol soil and compost with certain proportion and flooding until steady. The second, watering with different concentration to soil mixture. The last, studied its relationship with fresh and dry weight of crops. The result show that physical properties and nutrient content of ultisol soil was increasing with adding compost. SC4 (70% soil and 30% compost) is the best composition to soil mixture. Watering with different concentration show that trend decreased from reference and the bulk density and porosity decreased not significantly at the significant level ∝ = 0.05. Watering affect mass of pakcoynot significantly at the significant level ∝ = 0.05. Hence, ultisol soil was a potential marginal soil to utilizing as a media for cultivating horticulture crops.

  2. KARAKTERISASI DAN KLASIFIKASI TANAH ULTISOL DI KECAMATAN INDRAJAYA KABUPATEN PIDIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handayani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available  This study aims to examine the characteristics of Ultisol soil and produce a system of naming Ultisol soil according to the USDA Land Taxonomy system in Indrajaya District, Pidie District. This research will be carried out in the villages of Gle Gapui, Tuha Suwiek and Masjid Suwiek Indrajaya sub-districts from June to November 2015. This study uses descriptive-quantitative method, which consists of the following stages: (1 Preparation, ie collecting secondary data such as climate data, maps etc. Then prepare the tools and materials for the field survey and establish the ground pedon (2 Field activities, including observation of soil profile, soil sampling, laboratory analysis. Subsequently classified the land based on the USDA Land Taxonomy SystemProfile Gle Gapui climber determinant (horate Bt textured clay where there is increasing clay so it is included into the horizontal horizon. Content weight value is inversely proportional to permeability and porosity. The soil reaction is directly proportional to the saturation of base which is equally low. The content of C- organic, P is available and N total is low. Moderate Cation Exchange Capacity, exchangeable acids (H and Al are high.The classification of Ultisol soil in the location of the Glealing Glean profile is Typic Hapludult, berliat, blend, isohipertermik.Keywords: characteristic, classification, ultisol soil,

  3. Security Analysis of Parlay/OSA Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.; Villain, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication protocol which is part of the Parlay/OSA Application Program Interfaces (APIs). Architectures based on Parlay/OSA APIs allow third party service providers to develop new services that can access,

  4. Security Analysis of Parlay/OSA Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.

    This paper analyzes the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication protocol which is part of the Parlay/OSA Application Program Interfaces (APIs). Architectures based on Parlay/OSA APIs allow third party service providers to develop new services that can access,

  5. Magnetic minerals from volcanic Ultisols as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, S.; Pizarro, C.; Rubio, M. A.; Cavalcante, L. C. D.; Garg, V. K.; Pereira, M. C.; Fabris, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    This study was devoted to the evaluation of the effectiveness of Fenton catalysts, based on magnetically-concentrated portions of iron oxide-rich sand fractions from two magnetic Ultisols, derived from volcanic materials of southern Chile. The samples were labeled according to the municipality where the sample sites are geographically located, namely Metrenco and Collipulli, and were characterized with Moessbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and saturation magnetization (σ) measurements. Moessbauer data revealed a complex magnetic hyperfine structure for these magnetic portions from both soil-sand materials, suggesting relatively complex mineral assemblages. The monitored rate of H 2 O 2 decomposition via heterogeneous Fenton reaction revealed that materials from the Collipulli soil are more efficient Fenton catalyst than are those from the Metrenco soil. The reasons for these differences are from now on being explored on basis of a more detailed chemical investigation of these samples.

  6. Effect of liquid amendments on sorghum growth in an ultisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, Manuel E.; Cabalceta-Aguilar, Gilberto; Molina-Rojas, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the application of liquid amendments was evaluated in a Ultisol cultivated with sorghum. The research was conducted between August and November 2011 at the Centro de Investigaciones Agronomicas, San Jose, Costa Rica. In 800 ml pots of Ultisol seeded with sorghum, the following treatments were applied: control were lime, calcium carbonate in doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, magnesium oxide in doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, carbonate calcium + magnesium oxide in doses of 5 + 5 and 10 + 10 l/ha, respectively. The plants were harvested at six weeks, which were determined leaf area, dry and fresh weight of aerial and root biomass, nutrient absorption and soil chemical characteristics. The treatments of calcium carbonate and in mixture with magnesium oxide obtained the best values of leaf area and the highest values of fresh and dry weight both for both root and aerial part of the sorghum. Little significant differences were found between treatments of liquid lime but there were important differences with respect to the control with no lime with the variables of weight of biomass. Liquid calcium carbonate increased the Ca uptake significantly, and the treatment of carbon + oxides in doses of 10 l/ha showed the highest absorption of Mg. An improvement in soil fertility was caused by all treatments of amendments, the most outstanding being the treatment of magnesium oxide in doses of 20 l/ha, which decreased the exchangeable acidity from 9.02 to 0.36 cmol (+)/l, the percentage of acid saturation was low from 95 to 3.3% and the pH increased from 5.0 to 5.7. The net amendments had a positive effect on the indicator crop and soil fertility. (author) [es

  7. Effect of liquid liming on sorghum growth in an Ultisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Camacho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of liquid lime on sorghum growth in an Ultisol. This research was conducted between August and November, 2011 at the Agricultural Research Center, San José, Costa Rica. In an Ultisol planted with sorghum, in pots of 800 ml, the following treatments where applied: control without lime, calcium carbonate at doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, magnesium oxide at doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide at doses of 5 + 5 and 10 + 10 l/ha, respectively. Six weeks after planting, sorghum was harvested, measuring leaf area, dry and fresh weight of the aerial and root biomass, nutrient absorption and the soil chemical characteristics. Treatments using calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide obtained the best values of leaf area and the higher weight of the aerial and root biomass of sorghum. Even though there were no significant differences between liquid lime treatments, there were regarding control without lime and weight biomass variables. Liquid calcium carbonate significantly increased Ca absorption, and the calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide treatment at doses of 10 l/h showed the highest Mg absorption. All amendment treatments caused an improvement of the soil fertility, the most notable being the application of 20 l/ha of magnesium oxide that dropped the exchangeable acidity from 9.02 to 0.36 cmol(+/l, acidity saturation dropped from 95 to 3.3%, and pH increased from 5 to 5.7. It was concluded that the liquid liming amendments had a positive effect over the crop and the soil fertility.

  8. Cognitive MAC designs for OSA networks

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents recent advances in the cognitive MAC designs for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) networks. It covers the basic MAC functionalities and MAC enhancements of IEEE 802.11. Later chapters discuss the existing MAC protocols for OSA and classify them based on characteristic features. The authors provide new research in adaptive carrier sensing-based MAC designs tailored for OSA, which optimize spectrum utilization and ensure a peaceful coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems. Analytically devised via optimization and game-theoretic approaches, these adaptive M

  9. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  10. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in three soil management systems: minimum tillage (MT, conventional tillage (CT, and no tillage (NT. In NT, four levels of plant residue on the soil surface were evaluated: 0, 3, 6, and 9 t ha-1. The models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton, and Philip were used to estimate the infiltration rate. In the MT system, the final infiltration rate was 54 mm h-1, whereas in the CT and NT systems with up to 3 t ha-1 of plant residue on the soil surface, the rate was near 17 mm h-1. In addition, the results indicated that in the NT system the infiltration rate increased with plant residue coverage greater than 6 t ha-1, i.e., there was a positive correlation between plant cover and the water infiltration rate. The Horton model was the most suitable in representing the water infiltration process in the soil. Therefore, this model can be recommended for estimation of this variable regardless of the soil tillage system used.

  11. Can you die from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, G

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest an independent association between Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and cardiovascular death. The purpose of our study is to examine doctors\\' awareness of this association and to determine whether this correlates with recording of OSAS on death certificates. We contacted the Central Statistics Office (CSO) and obtained relevant mention of OSAS on death certificates. We surveyed doctors on their view of OSAS-related deaths, CSO data from 2008-2011 reveal two deaths with OSAS documented as a direct cause and 52 deaths with OSAS as a contributory cause. Seventy-five doctors\\' surveyed (41%) believe OSAS can be a direct cause of death and 177 (96%) believe OSAS can be an indirect cause of death. Only 22 (12%) had putdown OSAS as a cause of death. OSAS is seldom recorded on death certificates. This is at odds with epidemiological forecasts and contrary to an opinion poll from a selection of doctors.

  12. Site Specific Nutrient Management for Maize on Ultisols Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andarias Makka Murni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lampung is the third major maize producing province in Indonesia after East Java and Central Java. In Lampungmaize is cultivated mainly in upland areas with ultisols and only some cultivated on paddy field as a secondary cropin the dry season. The average maize yield in Lampung is still 3.4 Mg ha-1 bellow yield potential of 7 - 10 Mg ha-1. Toincrease the productivity of maize through site-specific nutrient management (SSNM, on-farm trials were conductedin five locations in Lampung i.e. four locations in Central Lampung District (Sidowaras, Binjai Ngagung, Watu Agungand Balai Rejo and one location in South Lampung District (Trimulyo, Tegineneng Sub District during the 2004/2005,2005/2006 and 2006/2007 rainy seasons. The experimental setup followed a standard protocol at all sites and includednutrient omission plots (PK, NK, NP to estimate indigenous nutrient supplies, an NPK plot to measure yield responseto fertilizer application, and a farmers’ fertilizer practice (FFP plot in each farmer’s field. An SSNM treatment plot wasincluded in the second and third seasons. Each of the above treatments was paralleled by a plot with improved cropmanagement practice (ICM, i.e. higher planting density, addition of lime, and addition of magnesium. Results showedthat yield response to fertilizer N, P and K application in these sites were: N = 2.3 - 4.1 Mg ha-1; P = 0.6 - 2.0 Mg ha-1;K = 0.3-2.4 Mg ha-1. Attainable yield in the three seasons on average ranged from 7.6 Mg ha-1 to 10.6 Mg ha-1. Yield inthe SSNM treatment (with or without ICM was significantly higher than the FFP indicating great opportunities forfarmers to increase productivity and profitability with improved nutrient and crop management

  13. online-osa festivalil / Tiia Johannson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannson, Tiia, 1965-2002

    1998-01-01

    Prantsusmaa, Balti ja Põhjamaade video ja uue meedia festival "offline@online" Eesti Kunstiakadeemias. Ka eesti netikunstist, festivali korralduslikust küljest, tulevikuplaanidest. Erilist äramärkimist leidis sloveenia kunstniku Vuk Cosici töö "ascii history of moving images", online-presentatsioonide osas Lev Manovichi teoreetiline loeng "Uue meedia keel". Aadress festivali netikunsti vaatamiseks

  14. Serapan Fosfor dan Pertumbuhan Kedelai(Glycine max pada Tanah Ultisol dengan Pemberian Asam Humat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultisol merupakan salah satu jenis tanah asam yang memiliki kelarutan Al, Fe, dan Mn tinggi, serta kandungan P dan Moyang rendah. KelarutanAl dan Fe yangtinggiakan menjerap fosfat, sehingga ketersediaan dan serapan P bagi tanaman menjadi rendah. Salah satu upaya untuk mengatasi ketidaktersediaan P pada tanah Ultisol yaitu dengan penambahan asam humat. Asam humat merupakan makromolekul polielektrolit yang memiliki gugus fungsional seperti -COOH, -OH fenolat, maupun -OH alkoholat,sehingga asam humat memiliki kemampuan untuk membentuk kompleks dengan ion logam. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui pengaruh asam humat terhadap serapan P dan pertumbuhan tanaman kedelai (2 menentukan konsentrasi asam humat yang paling baikdalam meningkatkan serapan P dan pertumbuhan tanaman kedelai. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK. Pengelompokan didasarkan atas perbedaan intensitas cahaya yang ada di rumah kaca. Perlakuan berupa konsentrasi asam humat, dengan 5 konsentrasi yang berbeda yaitu 0 ppm, 400 ppm, 800 ppm, 1200 ppm dan 1600 ppm. Parameter yang diukur meliputi tinggi tanaman, luas daun, bobot basah, dan bobot kering, P tersedia serta P tanaman. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakananalisis ragam pada tingkat kepercayaan 95% dan 99%. Apabila hasil perlakuan berpengaruh nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa asam humat berpengaruh terhadap serapan P dan pertumbuhan kedelai pada tanah Ultisol. Asam humat 1200 ppm merupakan perlakuan paling baik dalam meningkatkan ketersediaan P, sehingga mampu meningkatkanpertumbuhan kedelai pada tanah Ultisol.

  15. CPAP increases bronchial reactivity in OSAS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Korczyski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP is a well known and safe method of treatment patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. The effects of CPAP administration on the upper respiratory tract are known. However its effects on the lower respiratory tract still needs to be determined. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity in patients treated by CPAP are contradictory. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a 3-week CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS and to evaluate associations between changes in bronchial reactivity and clinical features of OSAS and lung function tests (LFT. Patients with newly diagnosed OSAS and lack of infection or chronic illness of the respiratory tract or other conditions which could influence bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR were included. Investigations were performed in 101 patients. There were 88 males and 13 females, mean age 51.5±11.2 years and BMI 32.6±5.4 kg·m–2. Qualified patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 76 patients to CPAP treatment group, 25 control group. Both groups did not differ in anthropometrics features, severity of OSAS and LFT. Metacholine challenge test (MchCT was performed at baseline and repeated after 3 weeks. Analysis of the individual results showed that in 11 patients the MchCT was positive (6 in the CPAP and 5 in the control groups. After 3 weeks in the group of CPAP treated patients an increase of BHR was noted. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38±0.3 to 1.26±0.5 (p<0.05. The number of patients with a positive result in the MchCT increased from 6 to 16 patients. There was no significant change in BHR in the control group. It was found that CPAP treated patients with BHR were older, had less severe OSAS and lower FEV1 (p<0.05. In none of the patients positive result of BHR did no affect compliance to CPAP treatment. Conclusions: CPAP therapy increases bronchial reactivity, but does not affect compliance to treatment.

  16. Pengaruh Pemberian Vermikompos dan Biochar Jerami Padi terhadap Sifat Biologi Tanah dan Kapasitas Menyimpan Air pada Tanah Ultisol

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhan, Azhari

    2016-01-01

    Soil biology and soil water holding capacity is an important aspect in determining the health of the soil. Giving vermicompost and paddy straw biochar can affect the biological properties of the soil and ultisol soil water holding capacity. This study aimed to determine the effect of vermicompost and paddy straw biochar on biological properties of the soil and the ultisol water holding capacity. The research was conducted in the laboratory. This research used randomized block design with one ...

  17. Response of okra to sodium nutrition in an Ultisol | Aduayi | Moor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essentiality of Na to the growth of okra plants in an Ultisol grown in soil culture and treated with Na concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg of soils as NaCl. was studied. Sodium applied at 8mg/kg of soil increased leaf area and number, plant height, water content dry matter yield and tissue N and K when compared with ...

  18. Brain metabolic impairment of OSAS: evidence from MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jie; Long Miaomiao; Shen Wen; Qi Ji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on human cerebral metabolism by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Materials and methods: Twenty-one severe OSAS patients, 14 mild-moderate OSAS patients, and 15 healthy control subjects were included. All subjects underwent MRS using the point-resolved echo spin spectroscopy (PRESS). Proton volumes of interest were placed in the bilateral frontal lobes and left temporal -parietal-occipital cortex, and left hippocampus. Results: 1. Compared to the controls, the NAA/Cr ratio was significantly decreased in the left frontal lobe in the severe OSAS group (P=0.004), and in the right frontal lobe in the severe (P=0.002) and mild-moderate (P=0.007) OSAS patients. The NAA/Cr ratio trended to be decreased in the left hippocampus in the OSAS patients compared to controls. 2. A significant increase in the ml/Cr ratio was detected in the right frontal regions in the severe (P=0.008) and mild-moderate (P<0.001) OSAS groups. 3. Clx/Cr ratio values were significantly smaller than controls in the left (P=0.006) and right (P=0.027) frontal regions. Conclusion: Bilateral frontal lobes are the vulnerable location in patients with OSAS. MRS can be used to screen the brain metabolic impairment. (authors)

  19. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  20. Overlap syndrome of COPD and OSA in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Mee; Thomas, Robert J; Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Shin, Chol

    2017-07-01

    Overlap syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to increased morbidity and mortality. There have been no reports available on the overlap syndrome for Koreans. Our primary aim was to identify prevalence and predictors of the overlap syndrome in Koreans.This is a cross-sectional study with a community-based sample of 1298 participants (mean age, 59.7 ± 6.7) from the cohort of Korean Genomic and Epidemiologic Study during 2013 to 2014. OSA and COPD were assessed by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC syndrome. The prevalence of COPD remained the same as 10.8% regardless of the presence of OSA. The mean ratio of FEV1/FVC for those with COPD was 0.77, regardless of OSA. The OR increased for age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) and smokers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0-6.4), but decreased for body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9) and overweight state (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7). Risk factors of the overlap syndrome differed by OSA severity, that is, BMI in those with moderate-to-severe OSA, whereas sex (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-10.6) and age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) in those with mild OSA.In a population study from Korea, 10.8% of OSA patients had an overlap syndrome with COPD. Although BMI is a well-known risk factor of OSA, it is likely that being overweight may be protective for moderate-to-severe OSA patients from the risk of COPD (i.e., overlap syndrome).

  1. Kuninglikus õukonnateatris. I-IV osa / Jaanus Rohumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohumaa, Jaanus, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Jaanus Rohumaa Londonis Royal Court Theatre' poolt korraldatud residentuuris, mis on mõeldud tänapäeva näitekirjanikele ja lavastajatele. Muljeid kokkutulnud eri maade näitekirjanikest ja lavastajatest. Jaanus Rohumaa lavastab Londonis Royal Shakespeare Company teatris Jaan Tätte näidendit "Ristumine peateega"(II osa) Inglise näitekirjaniku Sarah Kane'i loomingust, Robert Lepage'i lavastusest "Imede geomeetria" (III osa)

  2. Digital Morphometrics: A New Upper Airway Phenotyping Paradigm in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Richard J; Leinwand, Sarah E; Bearn, Cary B; Maislin, Greg; Rao, Ramya Bhat; Nagaraja, Adithya; Wang, Stephen; Keenan, Brendan T

    2017-08-01

    OSA is associated with changes in pharyngeal anatomy. The goal of this study was to objectively and reproducibly quantify pharyngeal anatomy by using digital morphometrics based on a laser ruler and to assess differences between subjects with OSA and control subjects and associations with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use digital morphometrics to quantify intraoral risk factors for OSA. Digital photographs were obtained by using an intraoral laser ruler and digital camera in 318 control subjects (mean AHI, 4.2 events/hour) and 542 subjects with OSA (mean AHI, 39.2 events/hour). The digital morphometric paradigm was validated and reproducible over time and camera distances. A larger modified Mallampati score and having a nonvisible airway were associated with a higher AHI, both unadjusted (P digital morphometrics is an accurate, high-throughput, and noninvasive technique to identify anatomic OSA risk factors. Morphometrics may also provide a more reproducible and standardized measurement of the Mallampati score. Digital morphometrics represent an efficient and cost-effective method of examining intraoral crowding and tongue size when examining large populations, genetics, or screening for OSA. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How do we recognize the child with OSAS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen F; Larramona, Helena; Miano, Silvia; Van Waardenburg, Dick; Kaditis, Athanasios G; Vandenbussche, Nele; Ersu, Refika

    2017-02-01

    Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing includes a spectrum of clinical entities with variable severity ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The clinical suspicion for OSAS is most often raised by parental report of specific symptoms and/or abnormalities identified by the physical examination which predispose to upper airway obstruction (e.g., adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders). Symptoms and signs of OSAS are classified into those directly related to the intermittent pharyngeal airway obstruction (e.g., parental report of snoring, apneic events) and into morbidity resulting from the upper airway obstruction (e.g., increased daytime sleepiness, hyperactivity, poor school performance, inadequate somatic growth rate or enuresis). History of premature birth and a family history of OSAS as well as obesity and African American ethnicity are associated with increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing in childhood. Polysomnography is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of OSAS but may not be always feasible, especially in low-income countries or non-tertiary hospitals. Nocturnal oximetry and/or sleep questionnaires may be used to identify the child at high risk of OSAS when polysomnography is not an option. Endoscopy and MRI of the upper airway may help to identify the level(s) of upper airway obstruction and to evaluate the dynamic mechanics of the upper airway, especially in children with combined abnormalities. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:260-271. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The effect of CPAP treatment on EEG of OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Jun; Zhou, Junhong; Su, Li; Feng, Liping; Ma, Jing; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Jue

    2015-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the most effective treatment method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to compare the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) changes before and after the application of CPAP to OSAS patients. A retrospective study was conducted and 45 sequential patients who received both polysomnography (PSG) and CPAP titration were included. The raw data of sleep EEG were extracted and analyzed by engineers using two main factors: fractal dimension (FD) and the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD). FD was an effective indicator reflecting the EEG complexity and zDFD was useful to reflect the variability of the EEG complexity. The FD and zDFD indexes of sleep EEG of 45 OSAS patients before and after CPAP titration were analyzed. The age of 45 OSAS patients was 52.7 ± 5.6 years old and the patients include 12 females and 33 males. After CPAP treatment, FD of EEG in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep decreased significantly (P CPAP therapy (P CPAP therapy had a significant influence on sleep EEG in patients with OSAHS, which lead to a more stable EEG pattern. This may be one of the mechanisms that CPAP could improve sleep quality and brain function of OSAS patients.

  5. Moessbauer Studies of Volhynian Basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakun-Czubarow, N.; Milczarski, J.; Galazka-Friedman, J.; Szlachta, K.; Forder, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Volhynian basalts studied belong to the effusive-tuffogenic Volhynian Series (Slawatycze Series in Poland), being the large Ediacaran continental igneous province, that covers an area of 200 000 km 2 in the western margin of East European Craton. The series is underlain by the Cryogenian terrigenous Polesie Series with doleritic sills and dikes. The Volhynian Series consists of the rock beds belonging to the three volcanic cycles with different ratios of flood basalts to pyroclastics. The aim of the study was recognition of primary and secondary Fe-bearing minerals, particularly Fe- and Fe-Ti oxides as well as determination of iron oxidation state, that is an important tool in the search for native copper deposits in these rocks. For Moessbauer studies the following rock samples were chosen: the Polesie Series dolerites, the Volhynian Series basalts from the Ukrainian quarries and drill-holes, e.g. from the Volodymir Volhynskaya drilling hole; the Slawatycze Series basalts from Kaplonosy drill-hole in Poland. In the Kaplonosy basalts the content of magnetite decreases with depth, which may be caused by magma differentiation due to fractional crystallization, when Mg content decreases as Ti and Fe - increases in basic magma. In the Kaplonosy basalts the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio increases with depth, which points to the increase of iron oxidation with the progress of basaltic magma differentiation. (authors)

  6. The USC-OSA-EPS section activities in optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, María.; Cambronero-López, Ferran; Aragón, Ángel L.; Delgado, Tamara; Blanco, Manuel; Gómez Varela, Ana I.; Gargallo, Ana; Williamson, Sandra; Amorín, Adán.; Sánchez-García, Ángel; Bao-Varela, Carmen; Flores-Arias, M. Teresa

    2017-08-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter and USC-EPS Young Minds Section is a group financed by The Optical Society (OSA) and the European Physical Society (EPS). It is formed by PhD and degree students from the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC) and one supervisor of the Faculty of Physics. Its main goal is to promote and diffuse Optics in the society. For this purpose, the group carries out several activities in the academic and non-academic community. The group is also committed to the professional development of our members and motivates the exposition of our work into the scientific community.

  7. Autonomic and metabolic effects of OSA in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F M; Tran, W H; Lesser, D; Bhatia, R; Ortega, R; Mittelman, S D; Keens, T G; Davidson Ward, S L; Khoo, M C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of exposure to intermittent hypoxia on cardiovascular autonomic control and metabolic function in obese children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Each subject underwent: (1) a polysomnography; (2) morning fasting blood samples and a subsequent FSIVGTT; (3) noninvasive measurement of respiration, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate during supine and standing postures. Assessment of adiposity was performed using a DEXA scan. From these measurements, we deduced the pertinent sleep parameters, Bergman minimal model parameters and the parameters characterizing a minimal model of cardiovascular variability. Results suggest that intermittent hypoxia in OSA contributes independently to insulin resistance and autonomic dysfunction in overweight children.

  8. EFEKTIFITAS KOMPOS LIMBAH MEDIA TANAM JAMUR TIRAM SEBAGAI PUPUK ORGANIK PADA BUDIDAYA BAWANG MERAH DI TANAH ULTISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Mulyadi Purnawanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land resources is one of the critical success factors of farming systems. One of the potential land is Ultisol with an area of 47.5 million hectares, but has low soil fertility. So it needs to be studied regarding the use of compost of oyster mushroom growing media waste in Ultisol in onion cultivation. The research is based on a randomized block design with eight replications. Factors studied were oyster mushroom growing media waste consists of three levels ie without waste (L0, given the fresh waste as much as 20 t ha-1 (L1 and given compost waste as much as 20 t ha-1 (L2. The results showed that giving zeolite as much as 1 t ha-1 in Ultisol did not significantly affect onion crop, whereas giving of waste oyster mushroom growing medium as much as 20 t ha-1 significantly affected the onion crop, although there is no difference between waste fresh or composted. There is no interaction between the zeolite and the giving waste oyster mushroom growing media on growth and yield of onion.

  9. WBFSH aastakoosolek Varssavis. I-II osa / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2013-01-01

    Poolas 7.-9. oktoobrini Maailma Sporthobuste Kasvatajate Föderatsiooni peaassambleel toimunust ning loengutest ja aruteludest: Hobuste "genoomilisest aretusest", Jõudluskontrolli ja terviseandmete kasutamisest Rootsi aretuses, Hobuste lineaarse kirjeldamise meetodist, tõuraamatute tulevikust. Teises osas: Hobusekasvatuse seisust Poolas, Janow Podlaski hobusekasvatusest ja üldisest eluolust

  10. Determination of critical pH and Al concentration of acidic Ultisols for wheat and canola crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaha-Al Baquy, M.; Li, Jiu-Yu; Xu, Chen-Yang; Mehmood, Khalid; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2017-02-01

    Soil acidity has become a principal constraint in dry land crop production systems of acidic Ultisols in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, where winter wheat and canola are cultivated as important rotational crops. There is little information on the determination of critical soil pH as well as aluminium (Al) concentration for wheat and canola crops. The objective of this study is to determine the critical soil pH and exchangeable aluminium concentration (AlKCl) for wheat and canola production. Two pot cultures with two Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui (SE China) were conducted for wheat and canola crops in a controlled growth chamber. Aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) were used to obtain the target soil pH levels from 3.7 (Hunan) and 3.97 (Anhui) to 6.5. Plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of wheat and canola were adversely affected by soil acidity in both locations. The critical soil pH and AlKCl of the Ultisol from Hunan for wheat were 5.29 and 0.56 cmol kg-1, respectively. At Anhui, the threshold soil pH and AlKCl for wheat were 4.66 and 1.72 cmol kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the critical soil pH for canola was 5.65 and 4.87 for the Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui, respectively. The critical soil exchangeable Al for canola cannot be determined from the experiment of this study. The results suggested that the critical soil pH and AlKCl varied between different locations for the same variety of crop, due to the different soil types and their other soil chemical properties. The critical soil pH for canola was higher than that for wheat for both Ultisols, and thus canola was more sensitive to soil acidity. Therefore, we recommend that liming should be undertaken to increase soil pH if it falls below these critical soil pH levels for wheat and canola production.

  11. El calcio es un nutriente limitante en cafetales bajo manejo intensivo de fertilizantes en Ultisoles

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    Sebastián Castro-Tanzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción intensiva de café (Coffea arabica demanda cantidades considerables de potasio (K y nitrógeno (N. En agroecosistemas fertilizados con N, K y P, es razonable prever que el calcio (Ca ó el magnesio (Mg resulten limitantes. Se exploró la relación entre la fertilidad de K, Ca y Mg en el suelo y su efecto nutritivo en hojas de café cultivado en Ultisoles; también se analizaron asociaciones entre la variación de estos macronutrientes en el tejido foliar y la productividad del cultivo. Se tomaron 6 muestras de suelo y de tejido foliar durante 2 años en 26 fincas cafetaleras del cantón de Tarrazú, Costa Rica. Para cada nutriente se construyeron modelos de regresión lineal y para desarrollarlos se relacionaron el contenido de los mismos en tejido foliar y en la solución intercambiable del suelo. A partir del modelo se establecieron asociaciones entre Ca, Mg y K en las hojas y el suelo. Adicionalmente, se caracterizaron el estatus nutricional del follaje, la estructura y la producción de las plantas de café en 2 parcelas en cada uno de 39 lotes (12 plantas por parcela; 78 parcelas. Mediante indicadores de productividad, se clasificó post-hoc cada par de parcelas en una de 2 categorías, definidas entre menor y mayor productividad, lo que generó así, un quasiexperimento de bloques al azar. El contraste entre productividades se utilizó para analizar la variación de los macronutrientes en el tejido foliar. El análisis de variancia reveló que las hojas de las parcelas de alta productividad contenían más Ca que aquellas con menor rendimiento. Igualmente, el contenido de K y las relaciones Ca/K y Ca/N en estas últimas muestras fue relativamente menor (valor-p<0,05. Esto corrobora la importancia del Ca en la productividad de café sobre Ultisoles.

  12. PROCESOS ESPECÍFICOS DE FORMACIÓN EN ANDISOLES, ALFISOLES Y ULTISOLES EN COLOMBIA

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    Jorge Alberto Sánchez Espinosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se revisan las principales relaciones entre la génesis y la mineralogía de Andisoles, Alfisoles y Ultisoles en Colombia, con el fin de entender su evolución y clasificación y proponer alternativas técnicas para la utilización y el manejo sostenible de este importante recurso de suelos en Colombia. De igual manera, se analizó la relación entre la mineralogía de estos suelos y su fertilidad, de acuerdo con las especies presentes en sus fracciones gruesa (arena y limo y fina (arcilla; teniendo en cuenta que la fracción gruesa constituye una reserva potencial de nutrientes, en tanto que la arcillosa determina el comportamiento físico-químico del suelo (Mejía 1980. El artículo es producto de la respuesta al examen escrito de candidatura, presentado por el autor en el marco de sus estudios doctorales. Para ello se hizo una revisión bibliográfica del estado del arte sobre el conocimiento de la génesis y evolución de estos Órdenes de suelos en el país.

  13. Effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols for the Growth and Yield of Caisim

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    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on the growth and yield of caisim (Brassica sp. was examined in the greenhouse of Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor. The completely randomized design (CRD was performed to examine the effects of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols. The treatments were consists of 10 combinations between NPK-recommendation (NPK-rec and CBF1, with six replications. The experiment was conducted from August to October 2009. The result showed that CBF I increased the yields of caisim when combining by fertilizer NPK-rec, while giving CBF1 alone did not significantly increases yields compare to control (without fertilizer. Giving ¾ dosage NPK-rec. + CBF1 had RAE value 163%, indicating the effectiveness of CBF1 was optimum, that it reduce the need of NPK fertilizer by 25% by providing the increasing of yield 63% compared to NPK rec. The higher the level of NPK-rec. the lower the efficiency of fertilization. CBF1 had given effectives on yields when it was combined by inorganic fertilizer. However, when it was not combined with inorganic fertilizers, it would harm plants and decreased the soil nutrients. The influence of biofertilizer in plants were predictable unpredictable, while the influent of inorganic fertilizers were predictable.

  14. Omal jalal maailma : 1.-5.osa / Paul Salopek ; fotografeerinud John Stanmeyer

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    Salopek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Artikli 2. osa räägib autori rännakust läbi Saudi Araabias asuva Al-Hijāzi kõrbe, 3. osa rännakust piki Jordaania piiri ja Iisraelis, 4. osa rännakust Ida-Türgis ning kohtumistest Süüria sõjapõgenikega, 5. osa Armeeniast ja Türgist

  15. Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Or is it OSA and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    32–44. 66] A.K. Al-Shukaili, A.A. Al-Jabri, Rheumatoid arthritis , cytokines and hypoxia. What is the link? Saudi Med. J. 27 (2006) 1642–1649. 67...OSA. OSA appears to increase secretion of and/or lter responsiveness to the adipocyte hormone leptin and the rexigenic hormone ghrelin , and these...diabetes, dementia, arthritis , nd OSA itself [65–69]. Sequelae of obesity and OSA cross all organ systems. or example, chronic excessive

  16. Uus äriseadustik lihtsustab osaühingu asutamist ja juhtimist / Karina Paatsi

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    Paatsi, Karina

    2010-01-01

    Osaühingut puudutavatest äriseadustiku muudatustest (sissemakseta osaühing, osa võõrandamise võimaluste laienemine, juhatuse liikme valimine tähtajatuks perioodiks, nõukogu nõude kaotamine, elukoha piirangu kaotamine, mitterahalise sissemakse hindamine, reservkapitali nõude kadumine)

  17. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2005-12-01

    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  18. RESPON BIBIT SURIAN (Toona sinensis (Juss, M. Roem. TERHADAP INOKULASI BEBERAPA DOSIS FUNGI MIKORIZA ARBUSKULA PADA MEDIA TANAH ULTISOL YANG DICAMPUR PUPUK KOMPOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feby Zulya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenelitian tentang pertumbuhan bibit surian (Toona sinensis (Juss, M. Roem pada tanah ultisol yang dicampur pupuk kompos dengan penambahan Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula (FMA telah dilakukan pada bulan November 2014 sampai April 2015 di Rumah Kaca dan Laboratorium Fisiologi Tumbuhan, Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Andalas, Padang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan bibit surian pada media tanah ultisol yang dicampur pupuk kompos dengan penambahan FMA. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 4 perlakuan dan 6 ulangan. Perlakuannya adalah tanpa inokulasi (hanya pupuk organik, 5 g inokulan per tanaman, 10 g inokulan per tanaman, 15 g inokulan per tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan bibit surian pada media tanah ultisol yang dicampur pupuk kompos dengan penambahan FMA memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap pertambahan diameter batang.Abstract Study on the seedling growth of surian inoculated with some doses of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF on ultisol mixed compost has been conducted from November 2014 until February 2015 in the Greenhouse and Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Andalas University, Padang. The aim of this study was to find the growth of surian seedling that inoculated with some dosages of AMF on ultisol mixed compost. The study used a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and six replications. The treatments were done without inoculation, 5 g inoculants/ plant, 10 g inoculants/ plant, 15 g inoculants/ plant. Result of this study indicated that AMF given on ultisol soil gave significant effect on increasing stem diameter of surian seedlings.

  19. Effects of application of groundnut biomass compost on uptake of phosphorus by maize grown on an Ultisol of South Sulawesi

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    Kasifah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Low crop production is acid dryland area of South Sulawesi is due to low availability of P in the soils. One of alternatives that can be performed to overcome the problems of acid soils having high level of exchangeable Al, is through the addition of organic material. In the upland areas in South Sulawesi, crop rice, maize and groundnut crop residues are readily available, but the crop residues are generally only used as animal feed or even burned. This study was aimed to elucidate the effects of groundnut compost on P uptake by maize in Ultisol of Moncongloe, South Sulawesi. Eight kilograms of air dried soil was mixed with compost according to the following treatments; 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 t compost/ha. All pots received 200 kg/ha KCl and 300 kg Urea/ha as basal fertilizers. Two maize seeds were planted in each pot and thinned to one plant per pot after one week. At harvest maize shoot dry weight and maize root dry weight, length of maize cop, cob weight, cob diameter, weight grains per cob, P uptake by maize, P content in maize grain, soil available P were measured. Results of the study showed that groundnut compost has the ability to improve the availability of P in the soil and increase P uptake by maize grown on an Ultisol of South Sulawesi. Application of 25 t groundnut compost/ha was the optimal rate that can be used to increase P availability in an Ultisol of South Sulawesi.

  20. Effects of urea and (NH4)2SO4 on nitrification and acidification of Ultisols from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Deli; Xu, Renkou

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms for the effects of ammonium-based fertilizers on soil acidification in subtropical regions are not well understood. Two Ultisols collected from cropland and a tea garden in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces in subtropical southern China, respectively, were used to study the effects of urea and (NH4)2SO4 on the nitrification and acidification of soils with incubation experiments. Nitrification occurred at very low pH with no N fertilizer added and led to lowering of the soil pH by 0.53 and 0.30 units for the soils from Jiangxi and Anhui, respectively. Addition of urea accelerated nitrification and soil acidification in both Ultisols; while nitrification was inhibited by the addition of (NH4)2SO4, and greater input of (NH4)2SO4 led to greater inhibition of nitrification. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) played an important role in nitrification in cropland soil under acidic conditions. Addition of urea increased the soil pH at the early stages of incubation due to hydrolysis and stimulated the increase in the AOB population, and thus accelerated nitrification and soil acidification. At the end of incubation, the pH of Ultisol from Jiangxi had decreased by 1.25, 1.54 and 1.84 units compared to maximum values for the treatments with 150, 300 and 400 mg/kg of urea-N added, respectively; the corresponding figures were 0.95, 1.25 and 1.69 for the Ultisol from Anhui. However, addition of (N-H4)2SO4 inhibited the increase in the AOB population and thus inhibited nitrification and soil acidification. Soil pH for the treatments with 300 and 400 mg/kg of (NH4)2SO4-N remained almost constant during the incubation. AOB played an important role in nitrification of the cropland soil under acidic conditions. Addition of urea stimulated the increase in the AOB population and thus accelerated nitrification and soil acidification; while addition of (NH4)2SO4 inhibited the increase in the AOB population and thus inhibited nitrification.

  1. Grassland soil tillage by three implements in an Ultisol and its physical and hydropedological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Camacho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to test the effects of soil tillage with 3 different implements on compaction, physical and hydropedological properties of an Ultisol under cattle production, located in San Mateo, Alajuela. An area of approximately 10 000 m2 was selected and divided into 16 plots (650 m2 each and was tilled with 3 different implements corresponding to the treatments, following an unrestricted random experimental design, with a plot as experimental unit. Soil without tillage (T, tillage by spader plow (PM, tillage by chisel plow (C or tillage by subsoiler (S were established as treatments. Forty days after tillage treatments, soil penetration resistance every 5 cm up to 50 cm deep was assessed, and gravimetric moisture content, bulk and particle density, water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, all of them up to the first 10 cm deep, all of them were measured. Soil compaction, expressed as soil penetration resistance, was reduced by tillage treatments; the lowest values for soil compaction were found in the spader plow treatment (PM. This same treatment enhanced cumulated infiltration (38.70±3.60 mm at 150 min significantly, comparing with those obtained in T treatment (0.09±0.02 mm at 150 min. No significant differences were found among tillage treatments for bulk density, total porosity and airspace, but comparing with control treatment (T they were found. Subsoiler treatment (S favored the highest values for hydraulic conductivity, but no significant differences with the other treatments were found (p>0.05.

  2. Wheat nitrogen fertilizer residues on an ultisol from the IX Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouanet M, Juan Luis; Pino N, Ines; Nario M, Adriana; Jobet, Claudio; Parada V, Ana Maria; Videla L, Ximena

    2005-01-01

    The soil nitrogen fertilizer residue is a relevant issue on a wheat production system at the IX Region of Chile, due to the high level of yield and use of resources, having an environmental impact from the use of fertilizer economy. The N-soil residue, not absorb by the plant, can be leach and contaminate the groundwater with nitrates or be redistributed by erosion. The application of isotopic techniques, using fertilizer labeled with 15 N, providing the quantitative information of the fate of this nutrient in the plant-soil system, important in the rate formulation based on the nitrogen use efficiency and in the benefit/cost relation. An assay was carried out in an Ultisol Metrenco Soil (Family fine, mixed, mesic, Typic Paleudults) at Pumalal locality. A Kumpa wheat variety was used, with a control treatment and five N rates applied as Urea labeled with 10% 15 N a.e., split in four times during the crop growth cycle. Total N (Kjeldhal) and 15 N optical emission spectrometer were determined in grain and straw samples harvested in February. Before to the next sow on may, soil sample were taken with an 3 cm diameter hugger (0-20; 20-40 and 40-60 cm depth). The samples were air dried, sieved and analyzed for total N and 15 N. The parameters determined for each depth were: N total (%), 15 N a.e. to obtain the plant-soil system N fertilizer recovery and its N residues in the soil profile. The wheat yield obtained was related with a cubic model using the N fertilizer rate applied (R 2 =0.75). The highest yield for the grain, 9.8 Mg ha -1 , was obtained applying 197 k ha -1 of N, with 45% of 15 N recovered by the grain. Nevertheless, the soil-crop system obtained a high 15 N recovery (>88%), in the soil remained 32-60% as N residue, being not used by the plant during the growth period. Between 27-54% of the 15 N total residue was found at the 0-20 cm soil depth, portion that is susceptible of distribution by erosion, implied in the use of fertilizer economy. Around 4

  3. Contribution of Eucalyptus Harvest Residues and Nitrogen Fertilization to Carbon Stabilization in Ultisols of Southern Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Caparelli Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Eucalyptus forests in southern Bahia (BA are planted in soils with a sandy surface layer and humid tropical climate, conditions that lead to soil carbon (C decomposition. Recent studies have shown that nitrogen (N may be important for soil C stabilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Eucalyptus harvest residues and nitrogen fertilization to C stabilization in Ultisols of southern BA. The experiment was conducted in Eucalyptus clonal plantations cultivated in two regions of Eunápolis, BA, Brazil, with different clay content: southern region (140 g kg-1 of clay and western region (310 g kg-1 of clay. Five treatments were evaluated: one control (CTR, without Eucalyptus harvest residues and N fertilization, and four treatments with harvest residues combined with four rates of N fertilization: 0, 25, 50, and 100 kg ha-1. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.40-0.60 m layers at the beginning and the end of the experiment (36 months. The amount of C and N and the C and N isotopic ratio (δ13C and δ15N of particulate organic matter (POM and mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM were determined. In the southern region after 36 months, the C-MAOM stocks in the 0.00-0.10 m layer of the CTR decreased by 33 %. The addition of harvest residue followed by 100 kg ha-1 N increased C-POM and N-POM stocks (0.00-0.10 m compared to the CTR, and the final N-POM stocks and residue-C recovery in the surface soil layer were positively correlated with the increase in N fertilization rates. In the western region, residue maintenance resulted in increased C-MAOM stocks (0.00-0.10 m compared to the CTR, but an increase in N availability reduced this increment. The increase in N fertilization rates did not alter C stocks, but reduced N stocks of POM and MAOM in the upper soil layer. At the end of the experiment, N fertilizer recovery (0.00-0.60 m was similar among the regions evaluated. In

  4. Low morning serum cortisol levels in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and moderate-to-severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Varlami, Vasiliki; Chaidas, Konstantinos; Liakos, Nikolaos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-09-01

    Hypertrophic tonsillar tissue in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has enhanced expression of glucocorticoid receptors, which may reflect low endogenous cortisol levels. We have evaluated the effect of the interaction between tonsillar hypertrophy and OSA severity on morning serum cortisol levels. Children with and without snoring underwent polysomnography, tonsillar size grading, and measurement of morning serum cortisol. Seventy children (2-13 years old) were recruited: 30 with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5 episodes/h), 26 with mild OSA (AHI > 1 and ≤ 5), and 14 controls (no snoring; AHI ≤ 1). Tonsillar hypertrophy was present in 56.7%, 53.8%, and 42.9% of participants in each group, respectively. Application of a general linear model demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between severity of OSA and tonsillar hypertrophy on cortisol levels (P = 0.04), after adjustment for obesity, gender, and age. Among children with tonsillar hypertrophy, subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (n = 17; AHI 14.7 ± 10.6), mild OSA (n = 14; AHI 2.3 ± 1.2), and control participants (n = 6; AHI 0.7 ± 0.2) were significantly different regarding cortisol levels (P = 0.02). Subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA had lower cortisol (16.9 ± 8.7 mcg/dL) than those with mild OSA (23.3 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and those without OSA (controls) (23.6 ± 5.3 mcg/dL; P = 0.04). In contrast, children with normal-size tonsils and moderate-to-severe OSA, mild OSA, and controls did not differ in cortisol levels. Children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and the phenotype of hypertrophic tonsils have reduced morning serum cortisol levels and potentially decreased glucocorticoid inhibitory effects on tonsillar growth.

  5. Analysis of OSAS incidence and influential factors in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Niu, Xinqing; Zhang, Peipei; Su, Dexing; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-24

    To investigate the detection rate and influencing factors of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension. A total of 440 patients with hypertension were selected as the research objects, all of them participated in the Berlin questionnaire survey, and the polysomnography (PSG) was performed on the patients with a high risk of OSAS. The detection rate of OSAS was analyzed, the clinical data between non-OSAS group and OSAS group were compared and stepwise linear regression and Logistic regression were used to analyze the related influencing factors to apnea hyponea index (AHI) and OSAS in hypertensive patients. A total of 235 patients completed PSG and 196 patients were diagnosed as OSAS with the detection rate of 83.40%. The detection rate of OSAS in male patients was higher than that in females (89.04% vs.74.16%, x²=8.025, P=0.006). The detection rates of OSAS in normal BMI group, overweight group and obesity group were 56.52%, 92.37% and 100%, respectively (x²=36.438, P<0.001). The detection rates of OSAS in normal waistline group and central obesity group were 74.42% and 88.59% (x²=7.539, P=0.016). The detection rates of OSAS in grade1, grade 2 and grade 3 hypertension groups were 57.47%, 98.23% and 100%, respectively (x²=44.623, P<0.001). BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and waist circumference of OSAS group were all higher than those in non-OSAS group (P<0.05). BMI, SBP and DBP were positively correlated with AHI (p<0.05), which were independent risk factors of OSAS [OR value (95%CI) = 2.548 (1.449-4.327), 1.342 (1.214-1.965) and 1.169 (1.025-1.622), respectively, P<0.05]. The incidence of OSAS in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension is high. High BMI, SBP, and DBP are independent risk factors of OSAS.

  6. Evaluation of degree of lacunar infarction and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with different severity of OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Du

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the degree of lacunar infarction and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with different severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Methods: A total of 198 patients with OSAS were retrospectively studied from case information and test results, and were divided into mild group 84 cases, medium group 70 cases and severe group 44 cases according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, and 176 cases of non-OSAS people who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. Differences in the values of serum lacunar infarction-related indexes, blood viscosity and hemocyte-related indexes, carotid structure and function parameters, serum arteriosclerosis-related indexes and so on were compared among groups. Results: t-PA value of healthy control group was higher than those of OSAS group while vWF, PAI-1 and Fg values were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, t-PA value decreased while vWF, PAI-1 and Fg values increased (P<0.05; blood viscosity, Hct, PDW, RDW and EFR values of healthy control group were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, blood viscosity, Hct, PDW, RDW and EFR values increased (P<0.05; FMD, NID and DC values of healthy control group were higher than those of OSAS group while Dis, CC and PWV values were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, FMD, NID and DC values decreased while Dis, CC and PWV values increased (P<0.05; blood uric acid and EF-1 values of healthy control group were lower than those of OSAS group while CGRP and fetuin A levels were higher than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the aggravation of OSAS, blood uric acid and EF-1 levels increased while CGRP and fetuin A levels decreased, and differences among groups were significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: With the aggravation of OSAS, patients’ microcirculation

  7. Assessment of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S; Skinner, Timothy C; Starkstein, Sergio; Hillman, David; James, Alan; Hunter, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also physiological symptoms of OSA) produced lower severity scores in the OSA sample compared with the non-OSA sample. However, the degree of DIF for each of the subscales is not sufficient to cause concern when using the DASS-21; therefore, the total DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. Interestingly, the impact of symptom overlap in anxiety symptoms may be reducing anxiety scores because of DIF, which contrasts with the proposed effect of symptom overlap in depression, where it leads to the inflation of depression scores in OSA. This deserves greater consideration in relation to OSA and other clinical disorders or chronic illness conditions with different patterns of overlapping symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  9. Preparation And Physicochemical Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA) Modified Sago Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Farhana Zainal Abiddin; Anida Yusoff; Noorlaila Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Starch from sago (Metroxylon sagu) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) in order to regulate its shortcoming by adding amphiphilic properties. The objective of this work is to determine the physicochemical properties of native sago and OSA sago starches. The OSA sago starch was produced according to the optimum condition generated via response surface methodology (RSM) with 5.00 % OSA at pH 7.20 and a reaction time of 9.65 hours. The esterified sago starch gives a degree of substitution (DS) value of 0.012. The physicochemical properties of OSA sago starch was determined by measuring the amylose content, laser diffraction particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The amylose content for OSA sago starch was found to be reduced after esterification reaction. The particle size of OSA sago starch was found to increase significantly (p<0.05) compared to their native starches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that OSA starch developed slightly rough surface and their edges lost some definition. FT-IR spectroscopy shows that there was appearance of new absorption correspond to ester carbonyl group (1717 cm -1 ) and carboxylate RCOO- (1569 cm -1 ). This study showed that the physicochemical properties of modified starches were influenced not only by DS but also on the botanical origin of the starches. (author)

  10. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  11. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) in three wheat varieties in an andisol and in an ultisol, IX region. 1. Effect of yield, absorption and N efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrelongue, A.; Pino, Y.; Buneder, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: During 1988/1989 the effect of nitrate and ammoniacal fertilization was studied on yield, yield components, absorption and efficiency of N according the conventional methods in three wheat varieties. The field evaluation was done in an Ultisol and Andisol of the IX Region of Chile. In both soils the statistical design was completely randomized blocks where the sources of N were the treatment: sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium nitrate. In the Andisol the wheat variety used was Laurel and in the Ultisol Dalcahue and Perquenco varieties were used. The rate of N was 160 kg N ha -1 . The application of N had a significant effect on yield in the three environments. For Dalcahue this effect was obtained with sodium nitrate and for Perquenco and Laurel there was not significant differences between nitrogen sources. The results in Ultisol show different behavior between varieties, with a better response of Perquenco according N application but a lower yield in relationship with Dalcahue. The best yield was obtained with Laurel in the Andisol, also with the higher total N absorption, AE and FUE, according with the yield obtained

  12. P USE EFFICIENCY BY CORN (Zea mays L. IN ULTISOL DUE TO APPLICATION OF COAL FLY ASH-CHICKEN MANURE MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hermawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low P availability is the main constraint for crops on acidic soil such as an Ultisols due to high soil P sorption. The objective of current research was to determine the effect of coal fly ash-chicken manure mixture application on P use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. in Ultisols. The research were arranged according to Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three replicates. The treatments tested were the rates of FA-CM mixture (w/w of 1:1 that consisted of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 tons ha-1, and P fertilizer rates that consisted of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times of P requirement to achieve of 0.2 μg P mL-1 in soil solution (equivalence to 0, 87, 174, 261 and 348 kg P2O5 ha-1. Results of current research showed that P use efficiency by corn on Ultisols had been increased through the addition of FA-CM in combination with P fertilization at the rate of 87 kg P2O5 ha-1. The optimum rate of FA-CM in combination with P fertilizer at the rate of 87 kg P2O5 ha-1 is 28.60 tons ha-1, with P uptake efficiency of 42.41 % and agronomic P efficiency of 82.53 mg shoot dry weight/mg P from fertilizer.

  13. Coal Waste Powder Amendment and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhance the Growth of Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq Seedling in Ultisol Soil Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wilarso Budi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal powder waste application on low nutrient media is expected to be able to increase plant growth and to improve Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF development. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of coal waste powder on the growth of Anthocephallus cadamba Jack and AMF development grown on ultisol soil. Two factors in a completely randomised experimental design was conducted under greenhouse conditions and Duncan Multiple Range Test was used to analyse of the effect the treatment. The first factor was ultisol soil ammended with coal waste powder (control, soil amanded with coal waste 5%, soil amanded with coal waste 10% and soil amanded with coal waste 15% and the second factor was AMF inoculation (uninoculated control, inoculated with Gigaspora margarita. Plant height, diameter, shoot dry weight, percentage of AMF colonization and nutrient uptake were measured in this experiment. Results of this study showed that coal amendment and AMF when applied separately significantly increased height, diameter, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and nutrient uptake of 12 weeks A. cadamba seedling, but when the coal waste powder and AMF were combined the plant growth parameters were lower than those applied separately but significantly higher than control. The application of coal waste powder or AMF in ultisol soil could increase A. cadamba growth and development.

  14. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  15. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matos

    Full Text Available The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

  16. Network science meets respiratory medicine for OSAS phenotyping and severity prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihaicuta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common clinical condition. The way that OSAS risk factors associate and converge is not a random process. As such, defining OSAS phenotypes fosters personalized patient management and population screening. In this paper, we present a network-based observational, retrospective study on a cohort of 1,371 consecutive OSAS patients and 611 non-OSAS control patients in order to explore the risk factor associations and their correlation with OSAS comorbidities. To this end, we construct the Apnea Patients Network (APN using patient compatibility relationships according to six objective parameters: age, gender, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, neck circumference (NC and the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS. By running targeted network clustering algorithms, we identify eight patient phenotypes and corroborate them with the co-morbidity types. Also, by employing machine learning on the uncovered phenotypes, we derive a classification tree and introduce a computational framework which render the Sleep Apnea Syndrome Score (SASScore; our OSAS score is implemented as an easy-to-use, web-based computer program which requires less than one minute for processing one individual. Our evaluation, performed on a distinct validation database with 231 consecutive patients, reveals that OSAS prediction with SASScore has a significant specificity improvement (an increase of 234% for only 8.2% sensitivity decrease in comparison with the state-of-the-art score STOP-BANG. The fact that SASScore has bigger specificity makes it appropriate for OSAS screening and risk prediction in big, general populations.

  17. Assessment of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2017-01-01

    compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning...... (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also...

  18. Fading positive effect of biochar on crop yield and soil acidity during five growth seasons in an Indonesian Ultisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Jubaedah; Nurida, Neneng L; Hale, Sarah E; Martinsen, Vegard; Silvani, Ludovica; Mulder, Jan

    2018-09-01

    Low fertility limits crop production on acidic soils dominating much of the humid tropics. Biochar may be used as a soil enhancer, but little consensus exists on its effect on crop yield. Here we use a controlled, replicated and long-term field study in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the longevity and mechanism of the effects of two contrasting biochars (produced from rice husk and cacao shell, and applied at dosages of 5 and 15tha -1 ) on maize production in a highly acidic Ultisol (pH KCl 3.6). Compared to rice husk biochar, cacao shell biochar exhibited a higher pH (9.8 vs. 8.4), CEC (197 vs. 20cmol c kg -1 ) and acid neutralizing capacity (217 vs. 45cmol c kg -1 ) and thus had a greater liming potential. Crop yield effects of cacao shell biochar (15tha -1 ) were also much stronger than those of rice husk biochar, and could be related to more favorable Ca/Al ratios in response to cacao shell biochar (1.0 to 1.5) compared to rice husk biochar (0.3 to 0.6) and nonamended plots (0.15 to 0.6). The maize yield obtained with the cacao shell biochar peaked in season 2, continued to have a good effect in seasons 3-4, and faded in season 5. The yield effect of the rice husk biochar was less pronounced and already faded from season 2 onwards. Crop yields were correlated with the pH-related parameters Ca/Al ratio, base saturation and exchangeable K. The positive effects of cocoa shell biochar on crop yield in this Ultisol were at least in part related to alleviation of soil acidity. The fading effectiveness after multiple growth seasons, possibly due to leaching of the biochar-associated alkalinity, indicates that 15tha -1 of cocoa shell biochar needs to be applied approximately every third season in order to maintain positive effects on yield. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental research on continuous basalt fiber and basalt-fibers-reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyi; Zou, Guangping; Shen, Zhiqiang

    2008-11-01

    The interest for continuous basalt fibers and reinforced polymers has recently grown because of its low price and rich natural resource. Basalt fiber was one type of high performance inorganic fibers which were made from natural basalt by the method of melt extraction. This paper discusses basic mechanical properties of basalt fiber. The other work in this paper was to conduct tensile testing of continuous basalt fiber-reinforced polymer rod. Tensile strength and stress-strain curve were obtained in this testing. The strength of rod was fairly equal to rod of E-glass fibers and weaker than rod of carbon fibers. Surface of crack of rod was studied. An investigation of fracture mechanism between matrix and fiber was analyzed by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) method. A poor adhesion between the matrix and fibers was also shown for composites analyzing SEM photos. The promising tensile properties of the presented basalt fibers composites have shown their great potential as alternative classical composites.

  20. Determinants of Unintentional Leaks During CPAP Treatment in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Marius; Arnol, Nathalie; Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Lambert, Loïc; Tamisier, Renaud; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Borel, Jean-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Unintentional leakage from the mouth or around the mask may lead to cessation of CPAP treatment; however, the causes of unintentional leaks are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify determining factors of unintentional leakage and (2) to determine the effect of the type of mask (nasal/oronasal) used on unintentional leakage. Seventy-four polysomnograms from patients with OSA syndrome treated with auto-CPAP were analyzed (23 women; 56 ± 13 years; BMI, 32.9 kg/m 2 (range, 29.0-38.0 kg/m 2 ). Polysomnographic recordings were obtained under auto-CPAP, and mandibular behavior was measured with a magnetic sensor. After sleep and respiratory scoring, polysomnographic signals were computed as mean values over nonoverlapping 10-s intervals. The presence/absence of unintentional leakage was dichotomized for each 10-s interval (yes/no). Univariate and multivariate conditional regression models estimated the risk of unintentional leaks during an interval "T" based on the explanatory variables from the previous interval "T-1." A sensitivity analysis for the type of mask was then conducted. The univariate analysis showed that mandibular lowering (mouth opening), a high level of CPAP, body position (other than supine), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased the risk of unintentional leaks and microarousal decreased it. In the multivariate analysis, the same variables remained independently associated with an increased risk of unintentional leakage. The sensitivity analysis showed that oronasal masks reduced the risk of unintentional leaks in cases of mouth opening and REM sleep. Mouth opening, CPAP level, sleep position, and REM sleep independently contribute to unintentional leakage. These results provide a strong rationale for the definition of phenotypes and the individual management of leaks during CPAP treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Geologic structure of the eastern mare basins. [lunar basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The thickness of mare basalts in the eastern maria are estimated and isopachs of the basalts are constructed. Sub-basalt basin floor topography is determined, and correlations of topographic variations of the surface with variations in basalt thickness or basin floor topography are investigated.

  2. The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.

    2001-01-01

    Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic basalts,Ocean island Basalt (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Teadusseltside osa rahvuskultuuris ja Õpetatud Eesti Selts / Tiit Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenberg, Tiit, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Seltsid said alguse 17. sajandil ja levisid Baltimaadesse 19. sajandiks. Ettekanne Eesti Teaduste Akadeemiaga assotsieerunud teadusseltside ühiskonverentsil (21.05.2003. a.) "Teadusseltside osa Eesti rahvusliku identiteedi kujunemisel ja säilimisel"

  4. The utility of the elbow sign in the diagnosis of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham Samy Diab

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The elbow sign questionnaire is a simple and quick screening tool for OSA with good sensitivity and specificity in comparison to other questionnaires, further studies are needed in other populations to determine its reliability and predictive utility.

  5. Migrantide raha hoiab vee peal suurt osa endisest NL-ist / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Brüsselis tutvustatud Maailmapanga uuringust, mille kohaselt on suure osa endise NSVL-i vabariikide jaoks arvestatav sissetulekuallikas migrantide kojusaadetud raha. Lisa: Lääne-Euroopasse ja Venemaale

  6. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  7. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  8. Remote sensing of methane emissions by combining optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS and lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galtier Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the emission of gases is difficult to achieve in industrial sites and in environments presenting poor infrastructures. Hence, robust methodologies should be developed and coupled to Lidar technology to allow remote sensing of gas emission. OSAS is a new methodology to evaluate gas concentration emission from spectrally integrated differential absorption measurements. Proof of concept of OSAS-Lidar for CH4 emission monitoring is here presented.

  9. Remote sensing of methane emissions by combining optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS) and lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, Sandrine; Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Sivignon, Jean-François; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring the emission of gases is difficult to achieve in industrial sites and in environments presenting poor infrastructures. Hence, robust methodologies should be developed and coupled to Lidar technology to allow remote sensing of gas emission. OSAS is a new methodology to evaluate gas concentration emission from spectrally integrated differential absorption measurements. Proof of concept of OSAS-Lidar for CH4 emission monitoring is here presented.

  10. Asthma Control and Its Relationship with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodorescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Asthma in older individuals is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the older asthma phenotype and test its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Pulmonary and Asthma/Allergy clinics. Participants. 659 asthma subjects aged 18–59 years (younger and 154 aged 60–75 (older. Measurements. Sleep Apnea scale of Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ, asthma severity step (1–4, severe if step 3 or 4, established OSA diagnosis, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP use, and comorbidities. Results. Older versus younger had worse control, as assessed by asthma step, lung function, and inhaled corticosteroid use. Among older subjects, after controlling for known asthma aggravators, OSA diagnosis was the only factor robustly associated with severe asthma: on average, OSA was associated with nearly 7 times greater likelihood of severe asthma in an older individual (OR=6.67. This relationship was of greater magnitude than in younger subjects (OR=2.16. CPAP use attenuated the likelihood of severe asthma in older subjects by 91% (P=0.005, much more than in the younger asthmatics. Conclusion. Diagnosed OSA increases the risk for worse asthma control in older patients, while CPAP therapy may have greater impact on asthma outcomes. Unrecognized OSA may be a reason for poor asthma control, particularly among older patients.

  11. Hydrothermal evolution of repository groundwaters in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters in the near field of a radioactive waste repository in basalt will change their chemical composition in response to reactions with the basalt. These reactions will be promoted by the heat generated by the decaying waste. It is important to predict both the rate and the extent of these reactions, and the secondary minerals produced, because the alteration process controls the chemical environment affecting the corrosion of the canister, the solubility and complexation of migrating radionuclides, the reactivity of the alteration products to radionuclides sorption, and the porosity and permeability of the host rock. A comprehensive review of the literature leads to the preliminary finding that hydrothermally altering basalts in geothermal regions such as Iceland lead to a secondary mineralogy and groundwater composition similar to that expected to surround a repository. Furthermore, laboratory experiments replicating the alteration conditions approximate those observed in the field and expected in a repository. Preliminary estimates were made of the rate of hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass and the zero-order dissolution rate of basaltic materials. The rates were compared with those for rhyolitic glasses and silicate minerals. Preliminary calculations made of mixed process alteration kinetics, involving pore diffusion and surface reaction suggest that at temperatures greater than 150 0 C, alteration proceeds so rapidly as to become pervasive in normally fractured basalt exposed to higher temperatures in the field. 70 references

  12. Effect of CPAP Therapy in Improving Daytime Sleepiness in Indian Patients with Moderate and Severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battan, Gulshan; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Atam, Virendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Gangwar, Anil; Roy, Ujjawal

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease and a major public health issue in India. Excessive daytime sleepiness is an almost ubiquitous symptom of OSA. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score is a validated objective score to measure the degree of daytime sleepiness. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy has been established as the gold standard treatment modality for OSA patients. A few Indian studies have reported the effectiveness of CPAP therapy in improving ESS scores after 1 st month of CPAP use. To observe both, short-term (one month) and long-term (three month) effects of CPAP therapy on ESS scores in moderate to severe OSA patients. The patients complaining of excessive day-time sleepiness, snoring and choking episodes during sleep, consecutively presenting to medicine OPD over a period of 2 years, were subjected to Polysomnography (PSG). Seventy-three patients with apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 were categorised as having moderate to severe forms of OSA (moderate OSA with AHI=15-30 and severe OSA with AHI >30), and were scheduled for an initial trial of CPAP therapy. Forty-seven patients reported good tolerance to CPAP therapy after a trial period of 2 weeks and comprised the final study group. ESS scores in these patients were recorded at the baseline, and after 1 st and 3 rd month of CPAP therapy, and statistically analysed for significance. Mean ESS score at the baseline among moderate and severe OSA patients were 13.67±2.29 and 16.56 ±1.87, respectively. ESS score in both these subgroups improved significantly to 11.63±3.79, p=0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106)} and 14.13 ±3.74, p CPAP therapy. Likewise, mean ESS scores among moderate and severe OSA patients improved significantly to 9.84 ±2.97, p = 0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106) and 12.29 ±3.97, p CPAP therapy. The result of the present study shows that CPAP therapy is significantly effective in improving ESS scores in Indian patients having moderate to severe OSA. Benefits

  13. Quality of Life in Youth With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) Treated With Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary K; Elliott, Lindsey C; Avis, Kristin T; Schwebel, David C; Goodin, Burel R

    2017-05-30

    Improvement is sought for youth with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) who have poor quality of life (QoL), which resolves somewhat following treatment. One mitigating factor in improved QoL following treatment may be adherence to the CPAP protocol, which presents a barrier to most youth. This study explored relations between CPAP adherence and QoL in youth with OSAS. We recruited 42 youth-caregiver dyads in which youth between the ages of 8 and 16 years were diagnosed with OSAS and required CPAP use as part of their treatment plan. Following diagnosis of OSAS requiring treatment with CPAP therapy, caregivers completed baseline measures of OSAS-specific QoL. The OSAS-specific QoL domains assessed included sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional distress, daytime function, and caregiver concern. Families received routine CPAP care for three months, after which caregivers again completed measures of OSAS-specific QoL. Adherence data were collected from smartcards within the CPAP machine after three months of treatment. Fifteen youth were adherent to CPAP therapy and 10 were not adherent. CPAP-adherent youth demonstrated significant changes in two domains of OSAS-specific QoL when compared to nonadherent youth: decreased sleep disturbance and decreased caregiver concern. CPAP adherence appears to be associated with positive changes in OSAS-specific QoL domains. It will be important for future research and clinical work to examine strategies for improving CPAP adherence in youth with OSAS.

  14. The effect of allergic rhinitis on the degree of stress, fatigue and quality of life in OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Eon; Shin, Seung Youp; Lee, Kun Hee; Cho, Joong Saeng; Kim, Sung Wan

    2012-09-01

    Both allergic rhinitis (AR) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are known to increase stress and fatigue, but the result of their coexistence has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of stress and fatigue when AR is combined with OSA. One hundred and twelve patients diagnosed with OSA by polysomnography were enrolled. Among them, 37 patients were diagnosed with AR by a skin prick test and symptoms (OSA-AR group) and 75 patients were classified into the OSA group since they tested negative for allergies. We evaluated the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), stress score, fatigue score, ability to cope with stress, and rhinosinusitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) with questionnaires and statistically compared the scores of both groups. There were no significant differences in BMI and sleep parameters such as LSAT, AHI, and RERA between the two groups. However, the OSA-AR group showed a significantly higher ESS score compared to the OSA group (13.7 ± 4.7 vs. 9.3 ± 4.8). Fatigue scores were also significantly higher in the OSA-AR group than in the OSA group (39.8 ± 11.0 vs. 30.6 ± 5.4). The OSA-AR group had a significantly higher stress score (60.4 ± 18.6 vs. 51.2 ± 10.4). The ability to cope with stress was higher in the OSA group, although this difference was not statistically significant. RQLQ scores were higher in the OSA-AR group (60.2 ± 16.7 compared to 25.1 ± 13.9). In conclusion, management of allergic rhinitis is very important in treating OSA patients in order to eliminate stress and fatigue and to minimize daytime sleepiness and quality of life.

  15. Recuperación de la calidad de Ultisoles mediterráneos degradados, mediante la aplicación de enmiendas y formas alternativas de uso

    OpenAIRE

    Mariscal Sancho, Ignacio de Loyola

    2011-01-01

    Los Ultisoles (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) de las plataformas de las formaciones de raña de Extremadura central, guardan la impronta de climas del Plioceno medio-superior de características subtropicales, con veranos calidos y húmedos, por lo que presentan un grado de alteración y lavado muy intenso y unas propiedades químicas caracterizadas por un pH muy ácido que disminuye con la profundidad, contenidos en bases de cambio y fósforo muy deficientes y complejo de cambio dominado por el aluminio....

  16. Disturbance of Ultisol soil based on interactions between furrow openers and coulters for the no-tillage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francetto, T.R.; Alonço, A. dos S.; Brandelero, C.; Machado, O.D. da C.; Veit, A.A.; Carpes, D.P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of different associations between coulters and fertilizer furrow openers on soil disturbance, furrow depth and width, according to forward speed. The study was conducted on a farm in Santa Maria (Brazil/RS), in soil classified as sandy loam Ultisol. The experiment consisted of 24 combinations of treatments with three replications in a 2×3×4 factorial experiment. The combinations were formed by the interaction of the factors including: two types of furrow openers (hoe and double-disc), three types of coulters (no-coulter, smooth and offset fluted) and four levels of forward speed (1.11, 1.67, 2.22 and 2.78 m/s). Soil elevation and soil disturbance area profiles were obtained with the use of a micro profilometer, and disturbance values were calculated with the aid of computer software program Auto Cad. The disturbance area was not affected by speed; it was greater when using the hoe opener, and in association with the offset fluted coulter. Speed was inversely proportional to the depth of the furrows made by the hoe opener. Furthermore, the hoe caused the greatest furrow width (0.26 m) in comparison with the double-disc (0.24 m). The use of different coulters associated with furrow openers increased this variable (0.23 m for the no-coulter condition, 0.25 m with smooth and 0.26 m with offset fluted). The use of coulters combined with furrow openers reduces soil swelling, in approximately 8% for the smooth and 20% for the offset fluted. (Author)

  17. Converting a manned LCU into an unmanned surface vehicle (USV): an open systems architecture (OSA) case study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Montrell F.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis demonstrates the process by which the concepts of open systems architecture (OSA) might be applied within the context of an existing systems engineering methodology to result in a flexible system. This is accomplished by combining an existing systems engineering process model with OSA management and business principles to execute a successful asset-repurposing program. To demonstrate utility of this OSA approach to systems ...

  18. Implications of one-year basalt weathering/reactivity study for a basalt repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is testing the performance of the Defense Waste Processing Facility glass under conditions representing potential repository environments. For a basalt repository, one of the important issues is how rapidly reducing conditions are re-established after placement of the waste. The objective of this study was to examine the factors affecting the reactivity of the basalt. Construction of a nuclear waste repository in basalt will temporarily perturb the groundwater conditions, creating more oxidizing (air-saturated) conditions than an undisturbed repository system. Reducing conditions can be beneficial to the performance of waste glass and canisters, and may limit the transport of certain radionuclides. The Basalt Waste Isolation Project intends to use a backfill containing crushed basalt to re-establish the reducing conditions of the groundwater. The reactivity of the basalt has been found to be minimal once the fresh crushed surfaces have been weathered and the reactive intergranular glass component has been leached, e.g., by long-term surface storage. Crushing of the basalt for pneumatic emplacement of the backfill should, therefore, occur shortly before placement in the repository. This backfill must contain a minimum of 5 percent reactive fines (<100 mesh), to rapidly achieve reducing conditions. 23 refs., 21 figs., 18 tabs

  19. Vapor deposition in basaltic stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.

    Basaltic stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common basalt. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No sulfide-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.

  20. Hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Estrup, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their degree of crystallisation has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses were achieved...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass was identified as augite. It was found that the hardness of the glass phase decreased slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreased....

  1. Isotopic signature of Madeira basaltic magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogarko, L.N.; Karpenko, S.F.; Bibikova, E.V.; Mato, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical composition of the basalts of Madeira Island is studied. To assess the isotopic sources of magmatism the Pb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Th-Pb systems were investigated in a number of basalts. It is shown that the island's rocks are characterized by the mostly deplet sources in relation to Pb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr - 0.70282-0.70292, 143 Nd/ 144 Nd - 0.52303-0.51314). Isotopic composition of lead testifies that the magmatism reservoir is some enriched. It is concluded that the magmatism of Madeira Island is a new example of world ocean island's volcanism [ru

  2. Antifriction basalt-plastics based on polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtannik, P. I.; Ovcharenko, V. G.

    1997-05-01

    A study is made of the dependence of the mechanical and friction-engineering properties of polypropylene reinforced with basalt fibers on the viscosity of the polymer matrix. It is established that the main factors that determine the mechanical properties of the plastics are the quality of impregnation of the fibers by the binder and the residual length of the reinforcing filler in the composite after extrusion and injection molding. The material that was developed has a low friction coefficient and low rate of wear within a relatively brood range of friction conditions. The basalt-plastics can be used in the rubbing parts of machines and mechanisms subjected to dry friction.

  3. Increased MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients and under intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Pang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Lin, Yuling; Ko, Wen-Shan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2016-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be a risk factor of coronary artery disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as a critical factor for monocyte infiltration, is known to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSA, on the MCP-1 expression of monocytes. Peripheral blood was sampled from 61 adults enrolled for suspected OSA. RNA was prepared from the isolated monocytes for the analysis of MCP-1. The effect of in vitro intermittent hypoxia on the regulation and function of MCP-1 was investigated on THP-1 monocytic cells and human monocytes. The mRNA and secreted protein levels were investigated by RT/real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Monocytic MCP-1 gene expression was found to be increased significantly in severe OSA patients. In vitro intermittent hypoxia was demonstrated to increase the mRNA and protein expression levels of MCP-1 dose- and time-dependently in THP-1 monocytic cells. The MCP-1 mRNA expression in monocytes isolated from OSA patient was induced to a much higher level compared to that from normal control. Pre-treatment with inhibitor for p42/44 MAPK or p38 MAPK suppressed the activation of MCP-1 expression by intermittent hypoxia. This is the first study to demonstrate the increase of MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients. In addition, monocytic MCP-1 gene expression can be induced under intermittent hypoxia.

  4. OSA screening with the pediatric sleep questionnaire for adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery in teen-LABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Stacey; Heubi, Christine; Jenkins, Todd; Michalsky, Marc; Simakajornboon, Narong; Inge, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is reported in 70% of adolescents who present for bariatric surgery. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to identify children at risk for OSA but is not validated in adolescents with obesity. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess validity of the PSQ to detect OSA and (2) to determine the correlation between anthropometric and polysomnography measurements. A cross-sectional assessment of Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery participants at high risk for OSA was performed. Participants completed an overnight polysomnography, and caregivers completed the PSQ. Forty-five participants (84% female, 78% Caucasian, mean age = 16.7 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated. Mean BMI was 51.3 ± 7.7 kg/m 2 and mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) was 6.1 ± 5.9 events/h. For diagnosis of OSA (oAHI ≥5), the total PSQ score sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were 86%, 38%, and 55%, respectively. For snoring >50% of the time, PPV was 84%, sensitivity was 64%, and specificity was 43%. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.027), whereas BMI, neck, and waist circumference correlated with neither. The PSQ demonstrated low specificity, and PPV and the question regarding snoring >50% of the time did not effectively identify OSA. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) on three wheat varieties in an andisol and an ultisol in the IX Region. II: Isotopic parameters and fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, Ines; Buneder B, Mirta; Peyrelongue C, Amelia

    1996-01-01

    A field study was carried out in order to evaluate different N fertilizers sources in three wheat varieties considering an Andisol and an Ultisol soils, in the IX Region of the country. The dilution isotopic techniques was used, with AS, 10% at rates of 20 kg ha -1 of N. The isotopic parameters such as N in the plant derived from the nitrogen sources, the N in the plant derived from the soil, the fertilizer use efficiencies and the agronomic evaluation between them were determined. The Nddfu (%) was associated to the varieties and to the soils. In the Ultisol, Dalcahue variety had a better behaviour with SS and, in the Andisol, Laurel variety showed an special affinity with U. In three varieties, the higher % of N derived from the sources it was in the grain, showing Dalcahue variety a better translocation.The fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and the physiological efficiency, determined according the isotopic parameters, were higher than the values determined according the conventional methodology. (author)

  6. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) on three wheat varieties in an andisol and an ultisol, in the IX region. 2. Isotopic parameters and fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, Ines; Peyrelongue C, A.; Buneder B, Mirta

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A field study was carried out in order to evaluate different N fertilizers sources un three wheat varieties, considering an Andisol and Ultisol soils, in the IX Region of the country. The dilution isotopic techniques was used, with As, 10% at rates of 20 kg ha -1 of N. The isotopic parameters such as N in the plant derived from the nitrogen sources, the N in the plant derived from the soil, the fertilizer use efficiencies and the agronomic evaluation between them were determined. The Nddfu (%) was associated to the varieties and to the soils. In the Ultisol, Dalcahue variety had a better behaviour with SS and, in the Andisol, Laurel variety showed an special affinity with U. In the three varieties, the higher % of N derived from the sources it was in the grain, showing Dalcahue variety a better translocation. The fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and the physiological efficiency, determined according the isotopic parameters, were higher than the values determined according the conventional methodology

  7. Soil Erodibility under Natural Rainfall Conditions as the K Factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation and Application of the Nomograph for a Subtropical Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemar Antonino Cassol

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Erodibility represents the intrinsic susceptibility of the soil to the erosion process, represented by the K factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. In Brazil, there are few field experiments determined with a series larger than ten years of data, which are the most reliable for quantifying the K factor. The aim of this study was to determine the K factor of the USLE by the direct method, relating soil losses determined in the field under standard conditions to erosivity of rains, and by the analytic method, applying the Wischmeier nomograph. The data on soil loss by water erosion were obtained in a field experiment under natural rainfall conditions from 1976 to 1989 in an Ultisol at the Agronomic Experimental Station in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. The value of the K factor by the direct method was 0.0338 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1, which is high, showing considerable susceptibility of the soil to erosion. From the analytical method, the K factor obtained was 0.0325 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1, a value very close to that determined experimentally. Thus, the Wischmeier nomograph proved to be valid for determination of the K factor of the Ultisol under study. This method proved to be valid for this type of soil. These results can be used for calibration models based on the USLE.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): a complication of acute infectious mononucleosis infection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Independently, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and infectious mononucleosis are not uncommon in the pediatric population, but acute onset of OSA, as a respiratory complication in the setting of acute EBV infection is extremely uncommon. Previous reports of this clinical entity are sparse and from nearly two decades ago. Urgent adenotonsillectomy was commonly advocated. This complication may be managed medically with systemic corticosteroids and non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a case is presented to highlight an updated management approach to this rarely encountered clinical problem in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  10. Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy; McNeil, Lindsay; Olaithe, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    diagnosed with OSA. Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were administered at time of sleep study. These, patient demographics and sleep study variables were used to determine factors predicting patient......Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which...

  11. Increased corrosion resistance of basalt reinforced cement compositions with nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URKHANOVA Larisa Alekseevna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Disperse fiber reinforcement is used to improve deformation and shrinkage characteristics, flexural strength of concrete. Basalt roving and thin staple fiber are often used as mineral fibers. The paper considers the problems of using thin basalt fiber produced by centrifugal-blow method. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of basalt fiber as part of the cement matrix was performed. Nanodispersed silica produced by electron beam accelerator was used to increase corrosion resistance of basalt fiber.

  12. Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    investigates the use of basalt fibers in a composite along with SC-15 epoxy resin for ballistic protection. Basalt fibers are not known as a ballistic...material but rather as a structural one. Even though basalt fibers are not expected to outperform some of the higher ballistic performing materials...such as the aramid and polyethylene fibers ; however, due to the lower manufacturing costs, basalt fibers are an interesting alternative. The objective

  13. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of basalt can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material

  14. Site identification presentation: Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The final step in the site identification process for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project is described. The candidate sites are identified. The site identification methodology is presented. The general objectives which must be met in selecting the final site are listed. Considerations used in the screening process are also listed. Summary tables of the guidelines used are included

  15. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    I found the GPB lavas to be very interest- ing because in some ... by Venkatesan et al (1993) and thus in a way validates my approach. ... and age calculation of lavas from phenocrysts. Keywords. Deccan Trap; Giant Plagioclase Basalts; eruption duration. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.), 111, No. 4, December ...

  16. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of basalt can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material.

  17. Petrography of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Petrographic characteristics of basalts collected from a segment of the Carlsberg Ridge (lat. 3 degrees 35'N to 3 degrees 41'N; long. 64 degrees 05'E to 64 degrees 09'E) show typical pillow lava zonations with variable concentrations of plagioclase...

  18. Effects of Basalt Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gelani A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental program carried out to investigate the effects of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymers (BFRP on some fundamental mechanical properties of concrete. Basalt fibres are formed by heating crushed basalt rocks and funnelling the molten basalt through a spinneret to form basalt filaments. This type of fibres have not been widely used till recently. Two commercially available chopped basalt fibres products with different aspect ratios were investigated, which are dry basalt (GeoTech Fibre and basalt pre-soaked in an epoxy resin (GeoTech Matrix .The experimental work included compression tests on 96 cylinders made of multiple batches of concrete with varying amounts of basalt fibre additives of the two mentioned types, along with control batches containing no fibres. Furthermore, flexural tests on 24 prisms were carries out to measure the modulus of rupture, in addition to 30 prisms for average residual strength test. Results of the research indicated that use of basalt fibres has insignificant effects on compressive strength of plain concrete, where the increase in strength did not exceed about 5%. On the other hand, results suggest that the use of basalt fibres may increase the compressive strength of concrete containing fly as up top 40%. The rupture strength was increased also by 8% to 28% depending on mix and fibre types and contents. Finally, there was no clear correlation between the average residual strength and ratios of basalt fibres mixed with the different concrete batches.

  19. Geochemical characteristics of the Jos-Plateau Basalts, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jos Plateau basalts, present Zr/Nb ratios (2.4-3.0) comparable to those of the alkali basalts of the lower Benue valley, and of the Cameroon volcanic line, suggesting that they were possibly derived from the same mantle source. Keywords: Jos Plateau, alkali basalt, mantle, partial melting, incompatible elements.

  20. Petrology of basalts from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, James; Melchior, John

    1983-12-01

    Loihi Seamount is the southeasternmost active volcano of the Emperor-Hawaii linear volcanic chain. It comprises a spectrum of basalt compositional varieties including basanite, alkali basalt, transitional basalt and tholeiite. Samples from four dredge collections made on Scripps Institution of Oceanography Benthic Expedition in October 1982 are tholeiite. The samples include highly vesicular, olivine-rich basalt and dense glass-rich pillow fragments containing olivine and augite phenocrysts. Both quartz-normative and olivine-normative tholeiites are present. Minor and trace element data indicate relatively high abundances of low partition coefficient elements (e.g., Ti, K, P. Rb, Ba, Zr) and suggest that the samples were derived by relatively small to moderate extent of partial melting, of an undepleted mantle source. Olivine composition, MgO, Cr and Ni abundances, and Mg/(Mg+Fe), are typical of moderately fractionated to relatively unfractionated "primary" magmas. The variations in chemistry between samples cannot be adequately explained by low-pressure fractional crystallization but can be satisfied by minor variations in extent of melting if a homogeneous source is postulated. Alternatively, a heterogeneous source with variable abundances of certain trace elements, or mixing of liquids, may have been involved. Data for 3He/ 4He, presented in a separate paper, implies a mantle plume origin for the helium composition of the Loihi samples. There is little variation in the helium isotope ratio for samples having different compositions and textures. The helium data are not distinctive enough to unequivocally separate the magma sources for the tholeiitic rocks from the other rock types such as Loihi alkalic basalts and the whole source region for Loihi may have a nearly uniform helium compositions even though other element abundances may be variable. Complex petrologic processes including variable melting, fractional crystallization and magma mixing may have blurred

  1. Age, gender, neck circumference, and Epworth sleepiness scale do not predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: The challenge to predict OSA in advanced COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Soler

    Full Text Available The combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that predictors of OSA among patients with COPD may be distinct from OSA in the general population. Therefore, we investigated associations between traditional OSA risk factors (e.g. age, and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Epworth Sleepiness Scale] in 44 patients with advanced COPD. As a second aim we proposed a pilot, simplified screening test for OSA in patients with COPD. In a prospective, observational study of patients enrolled in the UCSD Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program we collected baseline characteristics, cardiovascular events (e.g. atrial fibrillation, and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI]. For the pilot questionnaire, a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and the presence of cardiovascular disease were used to construct the pilot screening test. Male: 59%; OSA 66%. FEV1 (mean ± SD = 41.0±18.2% pred., FEV1/FVC = 41.5±12.7%]. Male gender, older age, and large neck circumference were not associated with OSA. Also, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the STOP-Bang questionnaire were not associated with OSA in univariate logistic regression. In contrast, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 3.94, p = 0.04 and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (OR = 5.06, p = 0.03 were significantly associated with OSA [area under curve (AUC = 0.74]. The pilot COPD-OSA test (OR = 5.28, p = 0.05 and STOP-Bang questionnaire (OR = 5.13, p = 0.03 were both associated with OSA in Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis. The COPD-OSA test had the best AUC (0.74, sensitivity (92%, and specificity (83%. A ten-fold cross-validation validated our results. We found that traditional OSA predictors (e.g. gender, Epworth score did not perform well in patients with more advanced COPD. Our pilot test may be an easy to implement instrument to screen for OSA. However, a larger validation study is necessary

  2. Age, gender, neck circumference, and Epworth sleepiness scale do not predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): The challenge to predict OSA in advanced COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Xavier; Liao, Shu-Yi; Marin, Jose Maria; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Jen, Rachel; DeYoung, Pamela; Owens, Robert L; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul

    2017-01-01

    The combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that predictors of OSA among patients with COPD may be distinct from OSA in the general population. Therefore, we investigated associations between traditional OSA risk factors (e.g. age), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Epworth Sleepiness Scale] in 44 patients with advanced COPD. As a second aim we proposed a pilot, simplified screening test for OSA in patients with COPD. In a prospective, observational study of patients enrolled in the UCSD Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program we collected baseline characteristics, cardiovascular events (e.g. atrial fibrillation), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. For the pilot questionnaire, a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and the presence of cardiovascular disease were used to construct the pilot screening test. Male: 59%; OSA 66%. FEV1 (mean ± SD) = 41.0±18.2% pred., FEV1/FVC = 41.5±12.7%]. Male gender, older age, and large neck circumference were not associated with OSA. Also, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the STOP-Bang questionnaire were not associated with OSA in univariate logistic regression. In contrast, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 3.94, p = 0.04) and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (OR = 5.06, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with OSA [area under curve (AUC) = 0.74]. The pilot COPD-OSA test (OR = 5.28, p = 0.05) and STOP-Bang questionnaire (OR = 5.13, p = 0.03) were both associated with OSA in Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. The COPD-OSA test had the best AUC (0.74), sensitivity (92%), and specificity (83%). A ten-fold cross-validation validated our results. We found that traditional OSA predictors (e.g. gender, Epworth score) did not perform well in patients with more advanced COPD. Our pilot test may be an easy to implement instrument to screen for OSA. However, a larger validation study is necessary before

  3. Determination of organic carbon (%) y δ13 C(0/00) in a Typic Paleudult (Ultisol) of the Araucania Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, Ines; Rouanet M, Juan Luis; Parada C, Ana Maria; Videla C, Ximena; Nario M, Adriana; Schuller L, Paulina

    2005-01-01

    The use of isotopic techniques had resulted in a great utility for the quantification of the quantity and the origin of the organic C and N that are accumulated in the soil annually. In the same way, its possible to establish the single and complex substrates decomposition rates under natural and controlled conditions, for longer periods after the initial substrate are being metabolized. The relation 13 C/ 12 C is measure as δ 13 C. The C4 species as maize have a δ 13 C value of -12 0/00 approximately, whilst the C3 species as wheat and rice have a -26 0/00 value, approximately. The MOS δ 13 C relates with the crop type and with the plant C3 to C4 changes, reflecting on a change of the MOS δ 13 C values. This principle have been used by Balesdent, Mariotti and Guillet, and Accode et al. To investigate and quantification the soil organic matter changes. The objective of this study was to quantify the Oc and delta 13 C in a soil Serie Metrenco, Family fine, mesica mixed of the Typic Paleudult (Ultisol) of the IX Region. The δ 13 C analysis were done in a mass spectrometer (OPTIMA) at the Seibersdorf Laboratories, Vienna, Austria. The OC and particle size fractionation analysis were done at the Agriculture Section of the CCHEN. The research studied the OC amount and the δ 13 C datas obtained on soil samples in three profiles (up, middle, down) in a slope direction, under a 50 year burn residues traditional management system, to verify the C4 plants presence or absence in the crop rotation. The results showed a big decreased of the δ 13 C in the profile, meaning that an increase of the 12 C in depth, specially in the <50μm fraction has the highest proportion of soil OC. These results indicate the absence of C4 plants in the crop rotation and a high OC percentage in the recalcitrant fraction (AN)

  4. LABRANZA MECANIZADA DE PASTURAS MEDIANTE TRES IMPLEMENTOS EN UN ULTISOL Y SUS IMPLICACIONES FÍSICAS E HIDROPEDOLÓGICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un estudio en el campo, se determinó el efecto de la labranza mecanizada con 3 implementos sobre la compactación, las variables físicas e hidropedológicas de un Ultisol dedicado a la ganadería, ubicado en San Mateo, Alajuela. Se seleccionó un lote de aproximadamente 10 000 m2, se dividió en 16 parcelas iguales (650 m2 cada una, y se aleatorizó la mecanización con 3 diferentes implementos correspondientes a los tratamientos, a partir de una parcela y un diseño experimental irrestricto al azar. Como tratamientos se estableció un área sin labranza (T, y labranza mediante un palín mecánico (PM, un arado de cincel (AC o un subsolador (S. Cuarenta días después de la aplicación de los tratamientos se determinó la resistencia a la penetración cada 5 cm hasta los 50 cm de profundidad, y la humedad gravimétrica, densidad aparente y de partículas, infiltración y conductividad hidráulica fueron evaluadas, todas ellas en los primeros 10 cm de profundidad. Se encontró un descenso en la compactación del suelo, expresada como resistencia a la penetración, para los tratamientos de mecanización, y reportó el tratamiento palín mecánico (PM con los valores más bajos. Este mismo tratamiento incrementó la infiltración acumulada (38,70±3,60 mm a los 150 min de manera significativa, al comparar con la obtenida en el tratamiento testigo (0,09±0,02 mm a los 150 min. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos de mecanización para densidad aparente, porosidad y espacio aéreo, pero sí con respecto al tratamiento T. El tratamiento subsolador (S propició los valores más elevados de conductividad hidráulica, sin diferencias estadísticas del resto de tratamientos (p>0,05.

  5. Remote sensing of methane with OSAS-lidar on the 2ν3 band Q-branch: Experimental proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, Sandrine; Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Sivignon, J. F.; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    Optical sensors based on absorption spectroscopy play a central role in the detection and monitoring of atmospheric trace gases. We here present for the first time the experimental demonstration of OSAS-Lidar on the remote sensing of CH4 in the atmosphere. This new methodology, the OSAS-Lidar, couples the Optical Similitude Absorption Spectroscopy (OSAS) methodology with a light detection and ranging device. It is based on the differential absorption of spectrally integrated signals following Beer Lambert-Bouguer law, which are range-resolved. Its novelty originates from the use of broadband laser spectroscopy and from the mathematical approach used to retrieve the trace gas concentration. We previously applied the OSAS methodology in laboratory on the 2ν3 methane absorption band, centered at the 1665 nm wavelength and demonstrated that the OSAS-methodology is almost independent from atmospheric temperature and pressure. In this paper, we achieve an OSAS-Lidar device capable of observing large concentrations of CH4 released from a methane source directly into the atmosphere. Comparison with a standard in-situ measurement device shows that the path-integrated concentrations retrieved from OSAS-Lidar methodology exhibit sufficient sensitivity (2 000 ppm m) and observational time resolution (1 s) to remotely sense methane leaks in the atmosphere. The coupling of OSAS-lidar with a wind measurement device opens the way to monitor time-resolved methane flux emissions, which is important in regards to future climate mitigation involving regional reduction of CH4 flux emissions.

  6. Lack of effect of sleep apnea on oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients.

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    M Simiakakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in subjects with and without OSAS in order to investigate the most important factors that determine the oxidant-antioxidant status. METHODS: A total of 66 subjects referred to our Sleep laboratory were examined by full polysomnography. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were assessed by measurement of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs and the biological antioxidant capacity (BAP in blood samples taken in the morning after the sleep study. Known risk factors for oxidative stress, such as age, sex, obesity, smoking, hypelipidemia, and hypertension, were investigated as possible confounding factors. RESULTS: 42 patients with OSAS (Apnea-Hypopnea index >15 events/hour were compared with 24 controls (AHI<5. The levels of d-ROMS were significantly higher (p = 0.005 in the control group but the levels of antioxidant capacity were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in OSAS patients. The most important factors predicting the variance of oxidative stress were obesity, smoking habit, and sex. Parameters of sleep apnea severity were not associated with oxidative stress. Minimal oxygen desaturation and smoking habit were the most important predicting factors of BAP levels. CONCLUSION: Obesity, smoking, and sex are the most important determinants of oxidative stress in OSAS subjects. Sleep apnea might enhance oxidative stress by the reduction of antioxidant capacity of blood due to nocturnal hypoxia.

  7. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gasparini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery and phase II (orthognathic surgery procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP and those who accepted phase II (IIP. To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation.

  8. Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux, asthma and symptoms of OSA: a longitudinal, general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilsson, Össur I; Bengtsson, Anna; Franklin, Karl A; Torén, Kjell; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Farkhooy, Amir; Weyler, Joost; Dom, Sandra; De Backer, Wilfried; Gislason, Thorarinn; Janson, Christer

    2013-06-01

    Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux (nGOR) is associated with asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Our aim was to investigate whether nGOR is a risk factor for onset of asthma and onset of respiratory and OSA symptoms in a prospective population-based study. We invited 2640 subjects from Iceland, Sweden and Belgium for two evaluations over a 9-year interval. They participated in structured interviews, answered questionnaires, and underwent spirometries and methacholine challenge testing. nGOR was defined by reported symptoms. Subjects with persistent nGOR (n=123) had an independent increased risk of new asthma at follow-up (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9). Persistent nGOR was independently related to onset of respiratory symptoms (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.6). The risk of developing symptoms of OSA was increased in subjects with new and persistent nGOR (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-1.6, and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7, respectively). No significant association was found between nGOR and lung function or bronchial responsiveness. Persistent symptoms of nGOR contribute to the development of asthma and respiratory symptoms. New onset of OSA symptoms is higher among subjects with symptoms of nGOR. These findings provide evidence that nGOR may play a role in the genesis of respiratory symptoms and diseases.

  9. Particle size and cholesterol content of a mayonnaise formulated by OSA-modified potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ghazaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Egg yolk was partially replaced (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA-modified potato starch in a reduced-fat mayonnaise formulation to curtail the problems associated with high cholesterol and induced allergic reactions. The physicochemical properties included parameters such as: pH, fat content, and emulsion stability of the formulations analyzed. The samples with 75% and 100% egg yolk substitute showed the maximum emulsion stability (>95% after two of months storage, and they were selected according to cholesterol content, particle size distributions, dynamic rheological properties, microstructure, and sensory characteristic. A significant reduction (84-97% in the cholesterol content was observed in the selected samples. Particle size analysis showed that by increasing the amount of OSA starch, the oil droplets with the peak size of 70 µm engulfed by this compound became larger. The rheological tests elucidated that in the absence of egg yolk, OSA starch may not result in a final product with consistent texture and that the best ratio of the two emulsifiers (OSA starch/egg yolk to produce stable reduced-fat, low cholesterol mayonnaise is 75/25. The microscopic images confirmed the formation of a stable cohesive layer of starch surrounding the oil droplets emulsified in the samples selected.

  10. A Formal Security Analysis of an OSA/Parlay Authentication Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an experience in analyzing the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication procedure within the OSA/Parlay Application Program Interfaces (APIs) of the Open Service Access and Parlay Group. The experience has been conducted jointly by research

  11. Osa Pärnu poliitikuid saab ärimeestelt igakuist tasu / Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosaar, Teet, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Kuigi Pärnu uus linnavalitsus kärpis volikogu liikmete äriühingute nõukogudest makstavat tasu poole väiksemaks, saab osa poliitikuid endiselt lisasissetulekut, teiste seas linnakassast doteeritavalt Pärnu ATP-lt

  12. Nasal vs Oronasal CPAP for OSA Treatment: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela G S; Viana, Fernanda M; Nascimento, Juliana A; Drager, Luciano F; Moffa, Adriano; Brunoni, André R; Genta, Pedro R; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2018-03-01

    Nasal CPAP is the "gold standard" treatment for OSA. However, oronasal masks are frequently used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all randomized and nonrandomized trials that compared nasal vs oronasal masks on CPAP level, residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and CPAP adherence to treat OSA. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies in any language with the following terms: "sleep apnea" and "CPAP" or "sleep apnea" and "oronasal mask" or "OSA" and "oronasal CPAP" or "oronasal mask" and "adherence." Studies on CPAP treatment for OSA were included, based on the following criteria: (1) original article; (2) randomized or nonrandomized trials; and (3) comparison between nasal and oronasal CPAP including pressure level, and/or residual AHI, and/or CPAP adherence. We identified five randomized and eight nonrandomized trials (4,563 patients) that reported CPAP level and/or residual AHI and/or CPAP adherence. Overall, the random-effects meta-analysis revealed that as compared with nasal, oronasal masks were associated with a significantly higher CPAP level (Hedges' g, -0.59; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.37; P CPAP level, higher residual AHI, and poorer adherence than nasal masks. PROSPERO database; No.: CRD42017064584; URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Driving simulator and neuropsychological [corrected] testing in OSAS before and under CPAP therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, M; Duchna, H-W; Leidag, M; Widdig, W; Rasche, K; Bauer, T T; Walther, J W; de Zeeuw, J; Malin, J-P; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Kotterba, S

    2005-11-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) have an increased car accident rate. Investigations on accident frequency are based on case history, insurance reports and driving simulator studies. The present study combines neuropsychological testing of different attention aspects engaged in driving a car and driving simulation to evaluate a suitable instrument for assessing therapeutic effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Driving simulator investigation and neuropsychological testing of alertness, vigilance and divided attention were performed in 31 patients with polysomnographically confirmed OSAS (apnoea-hypopnoea index 24.8+/-21.5.h(-1)) before, and 2 and 42 days after initiation of CPAP. Divided attention and alertness improved significantly during CPAP, whereas vigilance remained unchanged. However, accident frequency (OSAS before therapy: 2.7+/-2.0; 2 days after CPAP: 1.5+/-1.4; 42 days after CPAP: 0.9+/-1.3) and frequency of concentration faults (OSAS before therapy: 12.4+/-5.1; 2 days after CPAP: 6.5+/-3.9; 42 days after CPAP: 4.9+/-3.3) decreased in the simulated driving situation after 2 and 42 days of therapy. There was no relation between accident frequency, concentration faults and daytime sleepiness, as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and polysomnographic or neuropsychological findings, respectively. In conclusion, the present results suggest that driving simulation is a possible benchmark parameter of driving performance in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients.

  14. Marcadores de estrés oxidativo en placentas de gestantes añosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Suárez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Un factor de riesgo alto ginecoobstétrico que contribuye a la morbimortalidad materna perinatal es la edad materna mayor de 35 años. Es posible que el estado oxidativo en la placenta de la gestante añosa sea mayor a la de la gestante no añosa. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado oxidativo de la placenta en gestantes mayores de 35 años. Diseño: Estudio observacional y transversal. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Docente Materno Infantil San Bartolomé y Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: 28 placentas de gestantes de 35 años o más y 28 placentas de gestantes de menos de 35 años, obtenidas de partos vaginales a término. Intervenciones: La muestra de placenta se homogenizó al 10% con buffer fosfato 10 mM, pH 7,4, se centrifugó a 2000 rpm por 5’. Parte del sobrenadante se usó para analizar lipoperoxidación y glutatión (GSH; el sobrenadante restante fue centrifugado a 42 000 rpm por 1 hora, para medir actividad de superóxido dismutasa (SOD. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado oxidativo de placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas y no añosas. Resultados: La actividad de la SOD y el contenido de GSH placentarios en añosas fue 43,52 U/g de tejido y 4,67 µmol/mL x 10-²; para el grupo control fueron 54,13 U/g de tejido y 6,02 µmol/mL x 10-², respectivamente; en ambos hubo significancia estadística (p < 0,05. La medición de TBARS (lipoperoxidación no mostró diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: Las placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas muestran menor capacidad de defensa antioxidante frente a las placentas obtenidas de mujeres no añosas.

  15. The USC-OSA Student Chapter: goals and benefits for the optics community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Varela, A. I.; Gargallo, Ana; González Núñez, Héctor; Delgado-García, Tamara; Almaguer-Gómez, Citlalli; Cambronero-López, F.; Flores-Arias, M. T.

    2014-07-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter has been constituted in March 2013 by members of the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) in Spain and sponsored by The Optical Society of America (OSA). It is formed by five graduate and one undergraduate students with the common interest in Optics and Photonics research and a professor of the USC is also involved as a faculty advisor. We decided to start this group with the aim of involving kids, precollege and undergraduate students in the world of Optics and Photonics. The activities that the USC-OSA Student Chapter members intend to realize are mainly educational tasks for the spreading of knowledge in Photonics by means of basic experiments, demonstrations and lectures by leading researchers and teachers. Most of the needed resources to accomplish these activities are provided by the OSA, such as educational posters and a portable kit for demonstrating Optics to students. At this moment the USC-OSA Student Chapter is carrying out several activities, as educational journeys at the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital Complex (CHUS), where hospitalized children can approach to Optics through some simple experiments and games. A teaching program is also being organized in collaboration with Galician secondary schools in order to show students the importance and uses of Optics and Photonics and to arouse their interest in this field, as well as encouraging them to develop their scientific thinking. Another activity will take place in November during the Science Week, which includes a program of lectures targeted to undergraduate students and an exposition of several demonstrations

  16. Does CPAP treatment lead to gastroesophageal reflux in patients with moderate and severe OSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Hatice; Kayar, Yusuf; Danalioglu, Ahmet; Arabaci, Elif; Uysal, Omer; Yakar, Fatih; Kart, Levent

    2017-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to upper respiratory tract obstruction, causing increased abdominal-gastric pressure and decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and thus gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is known to be an effective method for OSA treatment, but its effect on GER is still controversial. There are a very few studies investigating CPAP and GER relationship and performed based on pre- and post-treatment objective parameters of GER in patients with OSA. The study investigated the effect of CPAP treatment in patients with moderate and severe OSA without GER complaints on pre- and post-treatment objective GER parameters. The study included 25 patients with respiratory disturbance indices >15 without reflux symptoms who had undergone polysomnography at sleep laboratory. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist, and neck circumference of the patients were documented. DeMeester score, LES pressure, and polysomnography parameters were evaluated pre- and post-CPAP. The results were statistically evaluated, and p value CPAP phase, mean sphincter pressure was 22.2 ± 1.2 (range 8-73), and mean DeMeester score was 18 ± 15.5 (range 0.2-57). At the post-CPAP, mean sphincter pressure was 22.9 ± 1.6 (range 9-95), and mean DeMeester score was 16.3 ± 14.8 (range 0.2-55). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found comparing pre-CPAP and post-CPAP measurements. Objective criteria show that CPAP treatment does not cause reflux in patients with OSA. Unlike studies reported in the literature, this conclusion has been reached by pre- and post-CPAP assessments.

  17. Influencing factors on CPAP adherence and anatomic characteristics of upper airway in OSA subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pona; Kim, Jinil; Song, Yoon Jae; Lim, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Woo; Won, Tae-Bin; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Rhee, Chae Seo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-12-01

    Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective treatment modality, poor adherence still remains a problem for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment and there is little evidence regarding how this might be improved. This study aims to analyze the anatomic and clinical factors of OSA subjects who failed to comply with CPAP therapy.The medical records of 47 OSA subjects who received CPAP therapy as a first-line treatment modality were retrospectively reviewed. The medical records were reviewed for demographic and polysomnographic data and anatomic findings of the nasal cavity and oropharynx.24 patients who adhered to CPAP therapy and 23 patients who were nonadherent were enrolled in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in sleep parameters between CPAP-adherent patients and CPAP nonadherent subjects. Mean body mass index of CPAP nonadherent group was significantly higher than CPAP adherent group. Higher grades of septal deviation and hypertrophic change of the inferior turbinate were observed more in the CPAP nonadherent group. In addition, CPAP nonadherent subjects showed considerably bigger tonsils and higher grade palatal position comparing with the CPAP adherent subjects. Subjective discomfort including inconvenience, mouth dryness, and chest discomfort were the main problems for OSA subjects who did not comply with CPAP therapy.Excessive upper airway blockage in the nasal cavity and oropharynx was predominant in CPAP nonadherent subjects, which might cause the reported subjective discomfort that reduces CPAP compliance. Therefore, resolution of these issues is needed to enhance CPAP compliance for control of OSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  19. Basalts of the Khodzhirbulak Suite and Assessment their Feasibility for Basalt Fiber (Surkhantau Mountains, Southwestern Shoots of the Hissar Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Khakberdyev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of preliminary assessment of basalt of the Khodzhirbulakskoy Suite of Surkhantau Mountains for the basalt fiber production are presented. According to petrographic study, the rocks are described as basalts of amygdaloidal structure. On the base of content of the amount of glassy form and nodular calcite, three groups of basalts were identified. The inverse relationship between the bulk content of the volcanic rock and the content of calcite: the greater volume of volcanic rocks, the less content of calcite, and vice versa. The basalt material demonstrates average pH module of 3.52.

  20. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.

    2012-01-01

    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses....

  1. Technical program plan, Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) program as administered by the DOE's Richland Operations Office and Rockwell Hanford Operations is described. The objectives, scope and scientific technologies are discussed. The work breakdown structure of the project includes: project management and support, systems integration, geosciences, hydrology, engineered barriers, test facility design and construction, engineering testing, repository studies, and schedules. The budget of the program including operating and capital cost control is also included

  2. Gamma radiolysis effects on basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    Gamma radiolysis of basalt groundwater containing 700 ppM methane produces a milky liquid that is a suspension of fine particles of a high molecular weight hydrocarbon somewhat like polyethylene. The ability of these polymers to chelate with, or otherwise sorb, metal ions from aqueous solution was measured using Cu +2 as a representative cation. Values in the range 0.3 to 0.8 millimoles of Cu per liter of solution were found. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Iron isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Marty, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    The iron isotopic compositions of 93 well-characterized basalts from geochemically and geologically diverse mid-ocean ridge segments, oceanic islands and back arc basins were measured. Forty-three MORBs have homogeneous Fe isotopic composition, with δ56Fe ranging from +0.07‰ to +0.14‰ and an average of +0.105 ± 0.006‰ (2SD/√n, n = 43, MSWD = 1.9). Three back arc basin basalts have similar δ56Fe to MORBs. By contrast, OIBs are slightly heterogeneous with δ56Fe ranging from +0.05‰ to +0.14‰ in samples from Koolau and Loihi, Hawaii, and from +0.09‰ to +0.18‰ in samples from the Society Islands and Cook-Austral chain, French Polynesia. Overall, oceanic basalts are isotopically heavier than mantle peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths, reflecting Fe isotope fractionation during partial melting of the mantle. Iron isotopic variations in OIBs mainly reflect Fe isotope fractionation during fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene, enhanced by source heterogeneity in Koolau samples.

  4. AEGIS methodology demonstration: case example in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The AEGIS technology has been successfully demonstrated. For the same data, similar unpublished results have been obtained by RHO and INTERA Environmental Consultants, Inc. for contaminant transport. In addition to establishing the utility of computer codes and assessment methodology, the AEGIS technology demonstration in basalt has also produced some practical guidance for future field data gathering programs. The results of this basalt demonstration indicate that the geohydrologic systems separating the nuclear waste from the natural biosphere discharge site mitigate the consequences of the postulated fault intersection event. This analysis suggests that the basalt system satisfies the 1000- and 10,000-yr proposed standards for release to the accessible environment (limited release of 129 I and 14 C). The reader should be cautioned, however, that the results are valid only for one particular set of parameters and one postulated release scenario. A complete sensitivity analysis must be performed to evaluate the range of effects that might be observed under different release conditions and for the different range in parameters

  5. Hydrologic modeling of the Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin

  6. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Lal, Madan; D'Souza, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Frequency of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Shaker

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: (1 A high risk for OSA development is more frequent in GERD patients especially NERD ones and who experience nighttime symptoms, (2 there is a mutual relationship between OSA and GERD reinforcing each other, and (3 CPAP therapy has a good role in the treatment of both OSA and GERD symptoms.

  8. Effects of Combined Application of Biogas Slurry and Chemical Fertilizer on Soil Aggregation and C/N Distribution in an Ultisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuebo; Fan, Jianbo; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Unreasonable use of chemical fertilizer (CF) on agricultural soil leads to massive losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in tropical and subtropical areas, where soil conditions are unfavorable for aggregate formation. This study evaluated the effects of combined application of biogas slurry (BS) plus CF on soil aggregation and aggregate—associated C/N concentration and storage in an Ultisol. Six treatments included: no fertilizer (T1), CF only (T2), partial (15% (T3), 30% (T4) and 45% (T5)) substitution of TN with BS and BS only (T6). Soil mechanical—stable aggregates (MSAs) formation and stability as well as MSAs—associated C/N concentration and storage were observed in different aggregate sizes (>5, 5–2, 2–1, 1.0–0.5, 0.50–0.25 and 5 mm significantly increased with BS substitution (T5), while the proportions of MSAs 1.0–0.5 mm, MSAs 0.50–0.25 mm and MSAs 0.5 mm that constituted 72–82% of MSAs. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MSAs >5 mm, SOC in MSAs >5 mm and TN in MSAs >5 mm were the dominant variables affecting aggregate stability. Meanwhile SOC in MSAs <0.25 mm and TN in MSAs 2–1 mm were independent variables affecting SOC and TN concentrations in bulk soils. Therefore, certain rate of combined application of BS plus CF is an effective, eco—friendly way to improve soil quality in an Ultisol. PMID:28125647

  9. Making rhyolite in a basalt crucible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, John

    2016-04-01

    Iceland has long attracted the attention of those concerned with the origin of rhyolitic magmas and indeed of granitic continental crust, because it presents no alternative for such magmas other than deriving them from a basaltic source. Hydrothermally altered basalt has been identified as the progenitor. The fact that rhyolite erupts as pure liquid requires a process of melt-crustal separation that is highly efficient despite the high viscosity of rhyolite melt. Volcanoes in Iceland are foci of basaltic magma injection along the divergent plate boundary. Repeated injection produces remelting, digestion, and sometimes expulsion or lateral withdrawal of material resulting in a caldera, a "crucible" holding down-dropped and interlayered lava flows, tephras, and injected sills. Once melting of this charge begins, a great deal of heat is absorbed in the phase change. Just 1% change in crystallinity per degree gives a melt-present body an effective heat capacity >5 times the subsolidus case. Temperature is thus buffered at the solidus and melt composition at rhyolite. Basalt inputs are episodic ("fires") so likely the resulting generation of rhyolite by melting is too. If frequent enough to offset cooling between events, rhyolite melt extractions will accumulate as a rhyolite magma reservoir rather than as discrete crystallized sills. Evidently, such magma bodies can survive multiple firings without themselves erupting, as the 1875 eruption of Askja Caldera of 0.3 km3 of rhyolite equilibrated at 2-km depth without previous leakage over a ten-millennium period and the surprise discovery of rhyolite magma at 2-km depth in Krafla suggest. Water is required for melting; otherwise melting cannot begin at a temperature lower than that of the heat source. Because the solubility of water in melt is pressure-dependent and almost zero at surface pressure, there must be a minimum depth at which basalt-induced melting can occur and a rhyolite reservoir sustained. In practice, the

  10. Cognition and nocturnal disturbance in OSA: the importance of accounting for age and premorbid intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaithe, Michelle; Skinner, Timothy C.; Hillman, David

    2015-01-01

    and a tertiary hospital sleep clinic. All underwent comprehensive, laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and completed assessments of cognition including attention, short- and long-term memory and executive function. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to construct a theoretically-driven model......© 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with impaired attention, memory and executive function. However, the mechanisms underlying such dysfunction are unclear. To determine the influence of sleep fragmentation...... these significant relationships. No significant predictors of memory function were found. Conclusions: The mechanisms underlying the effects of OSA on cognition remain to be defined. Implications are discussed in light of these findings....

  11. Olulist pärimisseadusest. [1.-3. osa] / Albert Paltser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paltser, Albert, 1931-2007

    1998-01-01

    Pärandamise ja pärimise liikidest, esimese, teise ja kolmanda järjekorra seadusjärgsetest pärijatest ning abikaasa õigusest eelosale. Testamendi liikidest (notariaalne testament, notari hoiule antud testament, kodune testament), pärija pärandi osa määramisest testamendis, annakust, ase- ja järelpärijast, testamendi tühistamisest ja abikaasade vastastikusest testamendist. Pärimislepingust ja pärandi sundosast

  12. Effect of CPAP Withdrawal on BP in OSA: Data from Three Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Esther I; Schlatzer, Christian; Rossi, Valentina A; Stradling, John R; Kohler, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    Based on meta-analyses, the BP-lowering effect of CPAP therapy in patients with OSA is reported to be approximately 2 to 3 mm Hg. This figure is derived from heterogeneous trials, which are often limited by poor CPAP adherence, and thus the treatment effect may possibly be underestimated. We analyzed morning BP data from three randomized controlled CPAP withdrawal trials, which included only patients with optimal CPAP compliance. Within the three trials, 149 patients with OSA who were receiving CPAP were randomized to continue therapeutic CPAP (n = 65) or to withdraw CPAP (n = 84) for 2 weeks. Morning BP was measured at home before and after sleep studies in the hospital. CPAP withdrawal was associated with a return of OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] at a baseline of 2.8/h and at follow-up of 33.2/h). Office systolic BP (SBP) increased in the CPAP withdrawal group compared with the CPAP continuation group by +5.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.8-8.9 mm Hg; P = .003) and in the home SBP group by +9.0 mm Hg (95% CI, 5.7-12.3 mm Hg; P CPAP withdrawal results in a clinically relevant increase in BP, which is considerably higher than in conventional CPAP trials; it is also underestimated when office BP is used. Greater OSA severity is associated with a higher BP rise in response to CPAP withdrawal. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01332175 and NCT01797653) URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov and ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN 93153804) URL: http://www.isrctn.com/. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of OSA with CPAP Is Associated with Improvement in PTSD Symptoms among Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeremy E.; Smales, Carolina; Alexander, Thomas H.; Stepnowsky, Carl; Pillar, Giora; Malhotra, Atul; Sarmiento, Kathleen F.

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among veterans of the military, with sleep disturbance as a hallmark manifestation. A growing body of research has suggested a link between obstructive sleep apnea and PTSD, potentially due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) related sleep disruption, or via other mechanisms. We examined the hypothesis that treatment of OSA with positive airway pressure would reduce PTSD symptoms over 6 months. Methods: A prospective study of Veterans with confirmed PTSD and new diagnosis of OSA not yet using PAP therapy were recruited from a Veteran's Affairs sleep medicine clinic. All subjects were instructed to use PAP each night. Assessments were performed at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome was a reduction in PTSD symptoms at 6 months. Results: Fifty-nine subjects were enrolled; 32 remained in the study at 6 months. A significant reduction in PTSD symptoms, measured by PCL-S score was observed over the course of the study (60.6 ± 2.7 versus 52.3 ± 3.2 points; p J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(1):57–63. PMID:27707436

  14. The comparison of nasal surgery and CPAP on daytime sleepiness in patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaya, M; Otake, H; Suzuki, K; Yasuma, F; Yamamoto, H; Noda, A; Nishimura, Y; Sone, M; Nakashima, T; Nakata, S

    2017-09-01

    Residual sleepiness after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a critical problem in some patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, nasal surgery is likely to reduce daytime sleepiness and feelings of unrefreshed sleep. The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of nasal surgery and CPAP on daytime sleepiness. This is a retrospective and matched-case control study. The participants were consecutive 40 patients with OSAS who underwent nasal surgery (Surgery group) and 40 matched patients who were treated with CPAP (CPAP group). In the Surgery group, although the nasal surgery did not decrease either apnea or hypopnea, it improved oxygenation, the quality of sleep. In the CPAP Group, the CPAP treatment reduced apnea and hypopnea, and improved oxygenation, quality of sleep. The degree of relief from daytime sleepiness was different between the two groups. The improvement of Epworth Sleepiness Scale was more significant in the Surgery Group than those in the CPAP Group (Surgery from 11.0 to 5.1, CPAP from 10.0 to 6.2). These findings suggest that the results of the nasal surgery is more satisfactory for some patients with OSAS than CPAP on daytime sleepiness.

  15. Magnetostratigraphy of the Grande Ronde Basalt Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, D.R.; Petty, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the holes sampled have shown that there are four magnetic correlation lines, between adjacent flows in holes that have distinctly different mean stratigraphic inclinations, and two magnetic polarity boundaries that can be used for magnetic correlation in the Grande Ronde Basalt in the Pasco Basin. The results of paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the Wanapum Basalt and Saddle Mountains Basalt indicate that the potential for magnetostratigraphic correlation in these sequences is also good

  16. Increased corrosion resistance of basalt reinforced cement compositions with nanosilica

    OpenAIRE

    URKHANOVA Larisa Alekseevna; LKHASARANOV Solbon Aleksandrovich; ROZINA Victoria Yevgenievna; BUYANTUEV Sergey Lubsanovich; BARDAKHANOV Sergey Prokopievich

    2014-01-01

    Disperse fiber reinforcement is used to improve deformation and shrinkage characteristics, flexural strength of concrete. Basalt roving and thin staple fiber are often used as mineral fibers. The paper considers the problems of using thin basalt fiber produced by centrifugal-blow method. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of basalt fiber as part of the cement matrix was performed. Nanodispersed silica produced by electron beam accelerator was used to increase corrosion resistance of ba...

  17. Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

  18. FOAM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT BY BASALT FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  19. Descriptive summary of the Grande Ronde Basalt type section, Columbia River Basalt Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, V.E.; Price, S.M.; Reidel, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    The Grande Ronde Basalt type section, located in extreme southeastern Washington, was measured, sampled, and characterized. The section is 800 meters thick and is comprised of 35 Grande Ronde Basalt flows. These flows are divisible into 3 magnetostratiographic units termed, in ascending order, the R 1 , the N 1 , and the R 2 . The R 1 unit is represented by 13 reversely polarized flows; the N 1 unit, by 13 normally polarized flows; and the R 2 , by 9 reversely polarized flows. Chemically, the Grande Ronde Basalt flows are divided into 2 major groups, termed A and B. The compositions of the lower 9 flows, members of Group A, are similar to either the high-Mg Grande Ronde chemical type, the high-Ti Grande Ronde chemical type, or the Pomona chemical type. The compositions of the upper 25 flows, members of Group B, are predominantly similar to the low-Mg Grande Ronde chemical type. Petrographically, the Grande Ronde Basalt flows are generally fine grained and aphyric, and have a intergranular or intersertal micro-texture. Major mineral phases include plagioclase (An/sub 40-60/) and augite; minor mineral phases include pigeonite, orthopyroxene, ilmenite, titanomagnetite, and olivine. Group A flows generally contain more olivine and less pigeonite than do Group B flows. 6 figures, 6 tables

  20. Crystal Stratigraphy of Two Basalts from Apollo 16: Unique Crystallization of Picritic Basalt 606063,10-16 and Very-Low-Titanium Basalt 65703,9-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, P. H.; Neal, C. R.; Stevens, R. E.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical survey of Apollo 16 regolith fragments found five basaltic samples from among hundreds of 2-4 mm regolith fragments of the Apollo 16 site. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric basalt (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline basalt (65703,9-13). Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria (approx. 200 km). Identification of basaltic samples at the site not from the ancient regolith breccia indicates input of material via lateral transport by post-basin impacts. The presence of basaltic rocklets and glass at the site is not unprecedented and is required to satisfy mass-balance constraints of regolith compositions. However, preliminary characterization of olivine and plagioclase crystal size distributions indicated the sample textures were distinct from other known mare basalts, and instead had affinities to impact melt textures. Impact melt textures can appear qualitatively similar to pristine basalts, and quantitative analysis is required to distinguish between the two in thin section. The crystal stratigraphy method is a powerful tool in studying of igneous systems, utilizing geochemical analyses across minerals and textural analyses of phases. In particular, trace element signatures can aid in determining the ultimate origin of these samples and variations document subtle changes occurring during their petrogenesis.

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS, metabolic syndrome and mental health in small enterprise workers. feasibility of an Action for Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Garbarino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, metabolic syndrome and common mental disorders in the working population of 11 small enterprises and the feasibility of a program of action for health. METHOD: The clinical risk of OSAS, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and the level of psychological disorders were assessed during routine medical examination at the workplace in 2012. The response to medical advice was assessed in 2013. RESULTS: 12.3% of the workers were suspected of being affected by OSAS. One or more components of metabolic syndrome were present in 24.5% of cases. OSAS in "healthy" workers was significantly associated with the presence of one or more components of metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.83; 95%CI 1.45-10.13 and with a psychological disorders score in the highest quartile (OR = 4.67; 95%CI = 1.72-12.64. Workers with suspected OSAS were reluctant to follow advice about undergoing further tests under the NHS. However, in some cases, confirmation of the OSAS diagnosis and subsequent treatment led to an improvement in metabolic condition. CONCLUSION: Although participation in treatment was limited, anecdotal cases support the idea that prevention of obstructive sleep apnea in the workplace might be useful for workers' health.

  2. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    1998-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  3. Commercial nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Patricio, J.G.; Heley, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is an ongoing research and engineering effort being conducted by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell), which is under contract to the US Department of Energy. The objectives of this program are to assess the feasibility of and to provide the technology needed to design and construct a licensed commercial nuclear waste repository in the deep basalt formations underlying the Hanford Site. An extensive preconceptual design effort was undertaken during 1979 to develop a feasible concept that could serve as a reference design for both surface and underground facilities. The preconceptual design utilized existing technology to the greatest extent possible to offer a system design that could be utilized in establishing schedule and cost baseline data, recommend alternatives that require additional study, and develop basic design requirements that would allow evolution of the design process prior to the existence of legislated criteria. This paper provides a description of the concept developed for the subsurface aspects of this nuclear waste repository

  4. Preparation of basalt-based glass ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHOVIL LOGAR

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Local and conventional raw materials–massive basalt from the Vrelo locality on Kopaonik mountain–have been used as starting materials to test their suitability for the production of glass-ceramics. Crystallization phenomena of glasses of the fused basalt rocks were studied by X-ray phase analysis, optical microscopy and other techniques. Various heat treatments were used, and their influences, on controlling the microstructures and properties of the products were studied with the aim of developing high strength glass-ceramic materials. Diopside CaMg(SiO32 and hypersthene ((Mg,FeSiO3 were identifies as the crystalline phases. The final products contained considerable amounts of a glassy phase. The crystalline size was in range of 8–480 mm with plate or needle shape. Microhardness, crashing strength and wears resistence of the glass-ceramics ranged from 6.5–7.5, from 2000–6300 kg/cm2 and from 0.1–0.2 g/cm, respectively.

  5. Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Diane T; Rutherford, Malcolm J; Jacobsen, Steven D; Hauri, Erik H; Saal, Alberto E

    2013-05-14

    Degassing of planetary interiors through surface volcanism plays an important role in the evolution of planetary bodies and atmospheres. On Earth, carbon dioxide and water are the primary volatile species in magmas. However, little is known about the speciation and degassing of carbon in magmas formed on other planets (i.e., Moon, Mars, Mercury), where the mantle oxidation state [oxygen fugacity (fO2)] is different from that of the Earth. Using experiments on a lunar basalt composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0.55 relative to the iron wustite oxygen buffer (IW-0.55), whereas at a lower fO2, we discover that carbon is present mainly as iron pentacarbonyl and in smaller amounts as methane in the melt. The transition of carbon speciation in mantle-derived melts at fO2 less than IW-0.55 is associated with a decrease in carbon solubility by a factor of 2. Thus, the fO2 controls carbon speciation and solubility in mantle-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of reduced carbon from Fe-rich basalts on planetary bodies would produce methane-bearing, CO-rich early atmospheres with a strong greenhouse potential.

  6. Petrology of offshore basalts of Bombay harbour area, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    glass are conspicuous. The chemical data indicate that the basalts are tholeiitic. Secondary minerals encountered support the view that the basalts are spilitised. Basalts of this area show affinities to both continental and oceanic types especially...

  7. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1967-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  8. Influence of basalt/groundwater interactions on radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    The work presented here is a partial summary of the experimental results obtained in the Laboratory Analog Program. Two aspects of this effort are (1) the interaction between simulated basaltic groundwater and basalt fissures that were either freshly cleaved or laboratory altered by hydrothermal treatment with the simulated groundwater and (2) the effect of this interaction on radionuclide migration through these basalt fissures. The following conclusions of this study bear heavily on the predicted safety of a basalt repository: Sorption properties of freshly fissured basalt and naturally aged basalt are quite different for different chemical species. Analog experiments predict that aged basalt would be an effective retarder of cesium, but would be much less so for actinide elements. Distribution ratios measured from batch experiments with finely ground rock samples (presenting unaltered rock surfaces) are not a reliable means of predicting radionuclide migration in geological repositories. As the near-repository area is resaturated by groundwater, its ability to retard actinide migration will be degraded with time. Disturbing the natural flow of groundwater through the repository area by constructing and backfilling the repository will modify the composition of groundwater. This modified groundwater is likely to interact with and to modify naturally aged basalt surfaces downstream from the repository

  9. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  10. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with basalt phases and basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the basalt formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated basalt phases or bulk-rock basalt, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO 3 , which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs 2 MoO 4 , Cs 2 U 2 O 7 ) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of basalt and/or basalt minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO 4 , with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO 4 . Dissolution of β-Cs 2 U 2 O 7 implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO 3 .3H 2 O) during some experiments containing basalt phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U 4+ to U 6+ . When diopside (nominally CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) and β-Cs 2 U 2 O 7 were hydrothermally reacted, at 300 0 C both UO 2 and UO 3 .3H 2 O were produced. Experiments on SrZrO 3 show it to be an unreactive phase

  12. Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with basalt phases and basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the basalt formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated basalt phases or bulk-rock basalt, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO/sub 3/, which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of basalt and/or basalt minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO/sub 4/, with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO/sub 4/. Dissolution of ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O) during some experiments containing basalt phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U/sup 4 +/ to U/sup 6 +/. When diopside (nominally CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ were hydrothermally reacted, at 300/sup 0/C both UO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O were produced. Results of experiments on SrZrO/sub 3/ show it to be

  13. [Determination of Total Iron and Fe2+ in Basalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-xun; Chen, Mei-rong; Jian, Zheng-guo; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhi-shen

    2015-08-01

    Basalt is the raw material of basalt fiber. The content of FeO and Fe2O3 has a great impact on the properties of basalt fibers. ICP-OES and dichromate method were used to test total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. Suitable instrument parameters and analysis lines of Fe were chosen for ICP-OES. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ICP-OES is 2.2%, and the recovery is in the range of 98%~101%. The method shows simple, rapid and highly accurate for determination of total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. The RSD of ICP-OES and dichromate method is 0.42% and 1.4%, respectively.

  14. Recognition of upper airway and surrounding structures at MRI in pediatric PCOS and OSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, J. K.; Odhner, D.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is common in obese children with risk being 4.5 fold compared to normal control subjects. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has recently been shown to be associated with OSAS that may further lead to significant cardiovascular and neuro-cognitive deficits. We are investigating image-based biomarkers to understand the architectural and dynamic changes in the upper airway and the surrounding hard and soft tissue structures via MRI in obese teenage children to study OSAS. At the previous SPIE conferences, we presented methods underlying Fuzzy Object Models (FOMs) for Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) based on CT images of the thorax and the abdomen. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the AAR approach is applicable to a different body region and image modality combination, namely in the study of upper airway structures via MRI. FOMs were built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. FOMs encode the uncertainty and variability present in the form and relationships among the objects over a study population. Totally 11 basic objects (17 including composite) were modeled. Automatic recognition for the best pose of FOMs in a given image was implemented by using four methods - a one-shot method that does not require search, another three searching methods that include Fisher Linear Discriminate (FLD), a b-scale energy optimization strategy, and optimum threshold recognition method. In all, 30 multi-fold cross validation experiments based on 15 patient MRI data sets were carried out to assess the accuracy of recognition. The results indicate that the objects can be recognized with an average location error of less than 5 mm or 2-3 voxels. Then the iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was adopted for delineation of the target organs based on the recognized results. The delineation results showed an overall FP and TP volume fraction of 0.02 and 0.93.

  15. Topical nasal steroid treatment does not improve CPAP compliance in unselected patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Werner; Schlageter, Manuel; Andersson, Morgan; Miedinger, David; Chhajed, Prashant N; Tamm, Michael; Leuppi, Jörg D

    2011-02-01

    Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can produce troublesome nasal symptoms (i.e. congestion, rhinorrhea) that may reduce the compliance of CPAP. Topical nasal steroids are often prescribed to reduce these side effects, although scientific data are scarce supporting any benefits of this treatment for CPAP-induced nasal side effects. To study whether a topical nasal steroid can reduce CPAP-induced nasal symptoms and improve CPAP adherence during the initial phase of OSA treatment. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with fluticasone propionate 100 μg/nasal cavity twice daily Treatment was started 10 days prior to and continued throughout the first 4 weeks of CPAP. 63 patients who were selected for CPAP treatment participated. Nasal symptoms were recorded, nasal patency was assessed and lung function was measured with a peak flow meter. The patients' adherence to CPAP was recorded by the CPAP device. Total nasal symptoms increased from baseline to 4 wks after CPAP use for both nasal treatments (p < 0.05). No differences in total nasal symptoms between treatments were seen (p = 1), and no differences in nasal peak flow values after treatment were seen (p = 0.11). Moreover, there were no differences in CPAP use between the treatments. Fluticasone propionate as a nasal topical steroid does not reduce CPAP-induced unwanted nasal side effects, and has no beneficial effect on CPAP compliance during the first four weeks of treatment in unselected patients with OSAS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Basalt alteration and basalt-waste interaction in the Pasco Basin of Washington State. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Carnahan, C.L.; Apps, J.A.; Mouton, C.A.; Corrigan, D.J.; Frisch, C.J.; Shomura, L.K.

    1978-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the nature of the minerals which coat vesicle and fracture surfaces in the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation, simulate the mass transfer which led to their precipitation, and predict the mass transfer associated with the dissolution of spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), petrographic, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microprobe (EMP) analyses have been made on a series of samples taken from 1100 ft (335.3 m) of core from core hole DC2. Preliminary simulations of the mass transfer associated with basalt dissolution in a thermodynamically closed system have been accomplished. In addition two mass transfer codes have been modified to facilitate data base changes. Thermochemical data for uranium and plutonium have been collected and converted to standard state conditions. These data will be critically evaluated and input to the mass transfer data base in the near future

  17. Association of Type D personality to perceived side effects and adherence in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Mårtensson, Jan; Ulander, Martin; Harder, Lena; Svanborg, Eva

    2007-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side effects are common and long-term adherence low. The Type D (distressed) personality is defined as a combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The association of Type D personality with adherence has not been studied in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of Type D personality in OSAS patients with CPAP treatment longer than 6 months and the association with self-reported side effects and adherence. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 247 OSAS patients with a mean use of CPAP treatment for 55 months (6-182 months) were included. Data collection was achieved by two questionnaires; the Type D scale 14 (DS14) (Type D personality), SECI (side effects of CPAP), as well as from medical records (clinical variables and objective adherence to CPAP treatment). Type D personality occurred in 30% of the patients with OSAS and significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) increased the perceived frequency and severity of a broad range of side effects. The objective adherence was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for OSAS patients with Type D compared to OSAS patients without Type D, both with regard to a mean use of 4 h per night and 85% of the self-rated sleep time per night. The additional effect of a Type D personality on perceived side effects and adherence to CPAP treatment found in this study could be used by healthcare personnel when evaluating patients waiting for treatment.

  18. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  19. BASALT A: Basaltic Terrains in Idaho and Hawaii as Planetary Analogs for Mars Geology and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Scott S.; Haberle, Christopher W.; Nawotniak, Shannon E. Kobs; Sehlke, Alexander; Garry, W. Brent; Elphic, Richard C.; Payler, Sam J.; Stevens, Adam H.; Cockell, Charles S.; Brady, Allyson L.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Assessments of field research target regions are described within two notably basaltic geologic provinces as Earth analogs to Mars. Regions within the eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho and the Big Island of Hawaii, USA, provinces that represent analogs of present-day and early Mars, respectively, were evaluated on the basis of geologic settings, rock lithology and geochemistry, rock alteration, and climate. Each of these factors provide rationale for the selection of specific targets for field research in five analog target regions: (1) Big Craters and (2) Highway lava flows at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, Idaho; and (3) Mauna Ulu low shield, (4) Kilauea Iki lava lake and (5) Kilauea caldera in the Kilauea Volcano summit region and the East Rift Zone of Hawaii. Our evaluation of compositional and textural differences, as well as the effects of syn- and post-eruptive rock alteration, shows that the basaltic terrains in Idaho and Hawaii provide a way to characterize the geology and major geologic substrates that host biological activity of relevance to Mars exploration. This work provides the foundation to better understand the scientific questions related to the habitability of basaltic terrains, the rationale behind selecting analog field targets, and their applicability as analogs to Mars.

  20. Sorption behavior of bensulfuron-methyl on andisols and ultisols volcanic ash-derived soils: Contribution of humic fractions and mineral-organic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Jeannette; Fuentes, Edwar [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Olivos 1007, Casilla 233, Santiago (Chile); Baez, Maria E., E-mail: mbaez@ciq.uchile.c [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Olivos 1007, Casilla 233, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-15

    Bensulfuron-methyl sorption was studied in Andisol and Ultisol soils in view of their characteristic physical and chemical properties, presenting acidic pH and variable charge. Humic and fulvic acids (HA and FA) and humin (HUM) contributions were established. Sorption was studied by using two synthetic sorbents, an aluminum-silicate with iron oxide coverage and the same sorbent coated with humic acid. Freundlich model described Bensulfuron-methyl behavior in all sorbents (R{sup 2} 0.969-0.998). K{sub f} for soils (8.3-20.7 mug{sup 1-1/n} mL{sup 1/n} g{sup -1}) were higher than those reported in the literature. Organic matter, halloysite or kaolinite, and specific surface area contributed to the global process. The highest K{sub f} for HA, FA and HUM were 539.5, 82.9, and 98.7 mug{sup 1-1/n} mL{sup 1/n} g{sup -1}. Model sorbents described the participation of variable charge materials with high adsorption capacity. The constant capacitance model was used to assess effects of Bensulfuron-methyl adsorption on the distribution of SOH, SOH{sub 2}{sup +} and SO{sup -} sites of sorbents. - Organic matter, phyllosilicates, variable charge minerals and organo-mineral complexes contribute to bensulfuron-methyl sorption on volcanic ash-derived soils.

  1. Effects of mulch on soil properties and on the performance of late season cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz on an acid ultisol in Southwestern Zaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutaladio, NB.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulch effects on soil temperature, soil moisture content, soil chemical properties, growth and development, yield and yield components of late season cassava were investigated for three years on an acid ultisol in the tropical sa vanna zone of Southwestern Zaire. Diurnal soil temperature and soil moisture content were recorded at 30-day intervals during the first 4 months of growth. Cassava growth and development were monitored a t3, 6 and 9 months after planting while yield and yield components were noted at 12 months after planting. After each cropping year, changes in soil chemical constituents were recorded. Mulching significantly reduced soil temperature by about 3.5°C and increased soil moisture content by 6.1 % under late season cassava. Soil pH, soil organic carbon content, total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus and soil exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K increased as a result of increase in organic matter with continuous application of mulch for 3 years. Plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weights of cassava plants given mulch were significantly increased as compared to the plants in unmulched plots. Cassava plants given mulch produced more and bigger storage roots than unmulched plants. Storage root yield increased by 16.7, 28.1 and 57.7 % respectively in the first, the second and the third years of mulch application. The beneficiai effect of mulching over no-mulching increased from year to year, irrespective of cassava cultivars.

  2. Marine mud and manure treatment in Ultisols increase pH and phosphate availability and affectCapsicum annum L. grows and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Matulessy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine mud and manure has potentially to improve ultisol soil condition, especially in soil acidity, CEC, base saturation, neutralizing organic acid, improving soil structure, soil nutrient retention, aeration, soil humidity, capacity of water holding capacity and infiltration and enhance the rapid supply of phosphate for plant grows and development. Two treatments, namely planting media with 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure and 400 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure were able to increase pH from 4.6 to 5.6.Significant decrease of Alexcsolubility about 0.03 meq.100 g-1 was found in M1O3; M2O1; M2O3 and M3O1 treatment about. Increase of phosphate about 5.02 ppm was found at treatment 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure. There are significant interaction in plant high about 62.42 cm in the media without marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1manure treatments. The amount of 30 ton,ha-1manure produce plant with leaf size about 95,52 cm2.tan-1and produce fresh fruit about 9.81 ton.ha-1.

  3. Correlación de la productividad de un forraje con las propiedades físicas de un Ultisol en Aquidauana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Montanari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción de ganadería y de manejo de pastos alteran las propiedades físicas del suelo, reflejados en la productividad y la composición vegetal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue indicar las propiedades físicas del suelo con mejores correlaciones lineales y espaciales para obtener sitios específicos de manejo del suelo. Se analizaron las correlaciones lineales y espaciales entre la productividad de la materia seca del forraje de Brachiaria decumbens (Stapf y algunas propiedades físicas de un Ultisol en dos profundidades (0,00-0,10 m y 0,10-0,20 m. Para la colecta de los datos fue instalada una red geoestadística con 121 puntos de muestreo. La productividad del forraje varió aleatoriamente y no siguió patrones espaciales, presentando el efecto pepita puro. La resistencia mecánica del suelo a la penetración y la humedad del suelo en la capa de 0,10-0,20 m, son importantes indicadores de la calidad física del suelo. El aumento de estas propiedades en el cultivo del forraje, promovió la reducción de la materia seca del forraje. Por lo tanto, estos indicadores representan confiabilidad para estimar la productividad del forraje.

  4. AMINO ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CALDA VIÇOSA IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fontebasso Pelizari Pinto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose a mixture of micronutrients with amino acid-based foliar fertilizer as an alternative to calda viçosa for application in organic agriculture. The study was conducted in two simultaneous trials in an experimental field in Ipeúna, SP, Brazil. The test plant was carioca type dry edible bean cv. Pérola. The treatments in trial 1 were: Control 1 = water; FA = JK® amino acid-based foliar fertilizer; and FA+Mi = FA + CuSO4 + ZnSO4 + MnSO4 + H3BO3. In trial 2, the FA treatment was substituted by calda viçosa (CVi. The treatments were through spray application three times. Dry edible bean leaves were sampled for determination of macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations. Platings of the application rates used in the treatments were performed in the laboratory in a mixture with Bacillus thuringiensis and with Beauveria bassiana to compare the degree of compatibility by means of colony forming units (CFU. The FA+Mi and CVi treatments raised the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn in the leaves. The FA+Mi was compatible, the FA was a stimulant, and the CVi was noxious to B. bassiana and to B. thuringiensis when integrated in the spray mixture.

  5. Functional MRI of the pharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with rapid 2-D flash sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.; Guenther, E.; Gauger, J.; Nitz, W.; Kastenbauer, E.; Reiser, M.

    1996-01-01

    Functional imaging of the pharynx used to be the domain of cineradiography, CT and ultrafast CT. The development of modern MRI techniques led to new access to functional disorders of the pharynx. The aim of this study was to implement a new MRI technique to examine oropharyngeal obstructive mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients suffering from OSA and 6 healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body imager ('Vision', Siemens, Erlangen Medical Engineering, Germany) using a circular polarized head coil. Imaging was performed with 2D flash sequences in midsagittal and axial planes. Patients and volunteers were asked to breathe normally through the nose and to simulate snoring and the Mueller maneuver during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all patients underwent an ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, functional fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and polysomnography. A temporal resolution of 6 images/s and an in-plane resolution of 2.67x1.8 mm were achieved. The mobility of the tongue, soft palate and pharyngeal surface could be clearly delineated. The MRI findings correlated well with the clinical examinations. We propose ultrafast MRI as a reliable and non-invasive method of evaluating pharyngeal obstruction and their levels. (orig.) [de

  6. Specific insomnia symptoms and self-efficacy explain CPAP compliance in a sample of OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Altena, Elemarije; Morin, Charles M; Ghorayeb, Imad; Coste, Olivier; Monteyrol, Pierre-Jean; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the association between specific insomnia symptoms (sleep onset, sleep maintenance and early morning awakenings symptoms) and self-efficacy (perceived self-confidence in the ability to use CPAP) with CPAP compliance in French patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of CPAP compliance in a cohort of 404 patients diagnosed with OSAS. Patients completed mailed questionnaires on sleepiness (ESS), insomnia (ISI) and self-efficacy in sleep apnea (SEMSA). Linear regression modeling analyses were performed to explore the impact of measured variables on the number of hours of CPAP use. Of the initial pool of 404 patients, 288 returned the questionnaires (71% response rate). Their mean age was 63.16±12.73 yrs, 31% were females, mean BMI was 30.39±6.31 kg/m2, mean daily CPAP use was 6.19±2.03 h, mean number of years of use was 6.58±6.03 yrs, and mean initial AHI before CPAP use was 34.61±20.71 /h. Age (pCPAP use. We found that specific insomnia symptoms and self-efficacy were associated with CPAP compliance. Our findings underline the need to demonstrate that interventions that reduce insomnia symptoms and improve self-efficacy will increase CPAP compliance.

  7. The Thickness and Volume of Young Basalts Within Mare Imbrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Chunlai; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Wu, Yunzhao; Lu, Yu; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Xunyu

    2018-02-01

    Basaltic volcanism is one of the most important geologic processes of the Moon. Research on the thickness and volume of late-stage basalts of Mare Imbrium helps better understand the source of lunar volcanism and eruption styles. Based on whether apparent flow fronts exist or not, the late-stage basalts within Mare Imbrium were divided into two groups, namely, Upper Eratosthenian basalts (UEm) and Lower Eratosthenian basalts (LEm). Employing the topographic profile analysis method for UEm and the crater excavation technique for LEm, we studied the thickness and distribution of Eratosthenian basalts in Mare Imbrium. For the UEm units, their thicknesses were estimated to be 16-34 (±2) m with several layers of individual lava ( 8-13 m) inside. The estimated thickness of LEm units was 14-45(±1) m, with a trend of reducing thickness from north to south. The measured thickness of late-stage basalts around the Chang'E-3 landing site ( 37 ± 1 m) was quite close to the results acquired by the lunar penetrating radar carried on board the Yutu Rover ( 35 m). The total volume of the late-stage basalts in Mare Imbrium was calculated to be 8,671 (±320) km3, which is 4 times lower than that of Schaber's estimation ( 4 × 104 km3). Our results indicate that the actual volume is much lower than previous estimates of the final stage of the late basaltic eruption of Mare Imbrium. Together, the area flux and transport distance of the lava flows gradually decreased with time. These results suggest that late-stage volcanic evolution of the Moon might be revised.

  8. Simulating the structure of gypsum composites using pulverized basalt waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryanov Аleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of simulating the structure of gypsum composite modified with basalt dust waste to make materials and products based on it. Structural simulating of the topological space in gypsum modified composite by optimizing its grain-size composition highly improves its physical and mechanical properties. Strength and density tests have confirmed the results of the simulation. The properties of modified gypsum materials are improved by obtaining of denser particle packing in the presence of hemihydrate of finely dispersed basalt and plasticizer particles in the system, and by engaging basalt waste in the structuring process of modified gypsum stone.

  9. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs

  10. Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-05-01

    Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

  11. The rheological properties of blood and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Pierzchała

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an important public health concern, which affects around 2–4% of the population. Left untreated, it causes a decrease not only in quality of life, but also of life expectancy. Despite the fact that knowledge about the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA is still incomplete, observations confirm a relationship between sleep disordered breathing and the rheological properties of blood. One possible consequence of an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease may be a rise in mortality in OSA patients. Continuously improved research methods are allowing for an increasingly more accurate understanding of the significance of observed changes. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 2, 206–210

  12. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    The BWIP Engineered Barrier Program has been developed to provide an integrated approach to the development of site-specific Engineered Barrier assemblages for a repository located in basalt. The goal of this program is to specify engineered and natural barriers which will ensure that nuclear and non-radioactive hazardous materials emplaced in a repository in basalt do not exceed acceptable rates of release to the biosphere. A wide range of analytical and experimental activities related to the basalt repository environment, waste package environment, waste/barrier/rock interactions, and barrier performance assessment provide the basis for selection of systems capable of meeting licensing requirements. Work has concentrated on specifying and testing natural and man-made materials which can be used to plug boreholes in basalt and which can be used as multiple barriers to surround nuclear waste forms and containers. The Engineered Barriers Program is divided into two major activities: multiple barrier studies and borehole plugging. 8 figures, 4 tables

  13. Geochemical characterization of oceanic basalts using artificial neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, P.; Iyer, S.D.

    method is specifically needed to identify the OFB as normal (N-MORB), enriched (E-MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB). Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique as a supervised Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) is applied to identify the inherent...

  14. Alteration of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    Textural, mineralogical and compositional characteristics of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean show them to be altered to varying extents through their interaction with the seawater, resulting in the formation of palagonite. The major...

  15. A note on incipient spilitisation of central Indian basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Iyer, S.D.

    Rocks dredged in the vicinity of the 79 degrees E fracture zone, in the Central Indian Basin, are sub-alkaline basalts, which are regarded as precursors to spilites. The minerals identified are mainly albitic plagioclase, augite, olivine, and less...

  16. [Comparative carcinogenic properties of basalt fiber and chrysotile-asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, O V; Kogan, F M; Vanchugova, N N; Frash, V N

    1989-01-01

    In order to eliminate asbestos adverse effect on workers' health it was necessary to use mineral rayon, primarily basalt fibre, instead of asbestos. During a chronic experiment on animals the oncogenicity of 2 kinds of basalt fibre was studied compared to chrysotile asbestos. The dust dose of 25 mg was twice administered by intraperitonial route. All types of dust induced the onset of intraperitonial mesotheliomas but neoplasm rates were significantly lower in the groups exposed to basalt fibre. There was no credible data on the differences between the groups exposed to various types of basalt fibre. Since the latter produced some oncogenic effect, it was necessary to develop a complex of antidust measures, fully corresponding to the measures adopted for carcinogenic dusts.

  17. Trace Element Abundances in Eucrite Basalts: Enrichment or Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, N. R.

    2018-05-01

    It is not clear how incompatible trace element (ITE) variation in eucrite basalts originated. Here, mechanisms for relative ITE enrichment or depletion are experimentally evaluated in an attempt to reconcile the Stannern and main group eucrites.

  18. Comparability of pulse oximeters used in sleep medicine for the screening of OSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhning, N; Schultheiß, B; Eilers, S; Schmittendorf, E; Penzel, T; Böhning, W

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a frequent clinical picture. It is characterized by repetitive respiratory arrest with a consecutive decrease in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ). In clinical practice, the number of desaturations per hour, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), is used as an important diagnostic criterion. Medical literature, however, mentions different threshold values that are defined as pathological. By means of systematic comparative measurements, the study presented here will examine to what extent the diagnosis and the quantification of OSA severity are affected by the device-specific measurement technique, thus impacting the predictive value of nighttime pulse oximetry in outpatient OSA screening. Different pulse oximeters commonly used in clinical practice were analyzed comparatively regarding technical parameters, temporal dynamics and the reproducibility of measuring results. The measurements were executed simultaneously and time synchronized in a reference group of five test subjects (four males, one female, average age 33.0 ± 9.4 years), in a group of five patients (all males, average age 51.8 ± 18.4 years) and using a simulator (pulse oximeter simulator index 2). All devices underestimate the simulator's predetermined oxygen desaturation of 10%. The dispersion of values is high. The device-specific characteristics have a significant influence on the collected data. The fundamental weakness of the systems lies in the reproducibility of measuring results (this only seems adequate at a signal resolution in steps of 0.1%) as well as the differing temporal dynamics. In the synchronous use of different systems on patients for the purpose of a direct comparison of devices, the dispersion of values is serious, reaching a fluctuation range of up to factor 1.42. In measuring dynamic events (apneas), different pulse oximeters do not record identical values. This is due to the different internal signal processing of the devices

  19. Chemical magnetization when determining Thellier paleointensity experiments in oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselebrovskiy, Alexey; Maksimochkin, Valery

    2017-04-01

    The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of oceanic basalts selected in the rift zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Red Sea has been explored. Laboratory simulation shows that the thermoremanent magnetization and chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) in oceanic basalts may be separated by using Tellier-Coe experiment. It was found that the rate of CRM destruction is about four times lower than the rate of the partial thermoremanent magnetization formation in Thellier cycles. The blocking temperatures spectrum of chemical component shifted toward higher temperatures in comparison with the spectrum of primary thermoremanent magnetization. It was revealed that the contribution of the chemical components in the NRM increases with the age of oceanic basalts determined with the analysis of the anomalous geomagnetic field (AGF) and spreading theory. CRM is less than 10% at the basalts aged 0.2 million years, less than 50% at basalts aged 0.35 million years, from 60 to 80% at basalts aged 1 million years [1]. Geomagnetic field paleointensity (Hpl) has been determined through the remanent magnetization of basalt samples of different ages related to Brunhes, Matuyama and Gauss periods of the geomagnetic field polarity. The value of the Hpl determined by basalts of the southern segment of MAR is ranged from 17.5 to 42.5 A/m, by the Reykjanes Ridge basalts — from 20.3 to 44 A/m, by the Bouvet Ridge basalts — from 21.7 to 34.1 A/m. VADM values calculated from these data are in good agreement with the international paleointensity database [2] and PISO-1500 model [3]. Literature 1. Maksimochkin V., Tselebrovskiy A., (2015) The influence of the chemical magnetization of oceanic basalts on determining the geomagnetic field paleointensity by the thellier method, moscow university physics bulletin, 70(6):566-576, 2. Perrin, M., E. Schnepp, and V. Shcherbakov (1998), Update of the paleointensity database, Eos Trans. AGU, 79, 198. 3. Channell JET, Xuan C, Hodell DA (2009

  20. Diversity of life in ocean floor basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.; Torsvik, V.; Daae, F. L.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2001-12-01

    Electron microscopy and biomolecular methods have been used to describe and identify microbial communities inhabiting the glassy margins of ocean floor basalts. The investigated samples were collected from a neovolcanic ridge and from older, sediment-covered lava flows in the rift valley of the Knipovich Ridge at a water depth around 3500 m and an ambient seawater temperature of -0.7°C. Successive stages from incipient microbial colonisation, to well-developed biofilms occur on fracture surfaces in the glassy margins. Observed microbial morphologies are various filamentous, coccoidal, oval, rod-shaped and stalked forms. Etch marks in the fresh glass, with form and size resembling the attached microbes, are common. Precipitation of alteration products around microbes has developed hollow subspherical and filamentous structures. These precipitates are often enriched in Fe and Mn. The presence of branching and twisted stalks that resemble those of the iron-oxidising Gallionella, indicate that reduced iron may be utilised in an energy metabolic process. Analysis of 16S-rRNA gene sequences from microbes present in the rock samples, show that the bacterial population inhabiting these samples cluster within the γ- and ɛ-Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides subdivision of the Bacteria, while the Archaea all belong to the Crenarchaeota kingdom. This microbial population appears to be characteristic for the rock and their closest relatives have previously been reported from cold marine waters in the Arctic and Antarctic, deep-sea sediments and hydrothermal environments.

  1. Magnesium-rich Basalts on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2013-05-01

    X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers on NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft are making key measurements regarding the composition and properties of the surface of Mercury, allowing researchers to more clearly decipher the planet's formation and geologic history. The origin of the igneous rocks in the crust of Mercury is the focus of recent research by Karen Stockstill-Cahill and Tim McCoy (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution), along with Larry Nittler and Shoshana Weider (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and Steven Hauck II (Case Western Reserve University). Using the well-known MELTS computer code Stockstill-Cahill and coauthors worked with MESSENGER-derived and rock-analog compositions to constrain petrologic models of the lavas that erupted on the surface of Mercury. Rock analogs included a partial melt of the Indarch meteorite and a range of Mg-rich terrestrial rocks. Their work shows the lavas on Mercury are most similar to terrestrial magnesian basalt (with lowered FeO content). The implications of the modeling are that Mg-rich lavas came from high-temperature sources in Mercury's mantle and erupted at high temperature with exceptionally low viscosity into thinly bedded and laterally extensive flows, concepts open to further evaluation by laboratory experiments and by geologic mapping of Mercury's surface using MESSENGER's imaging system and laser altimeter to document flow features and dimensions.

  2. Basalt FRP Spike Repairing of Wood Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Righetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes aspects within an experimental program aimed at improving the structural performance of cracked solid fir-wood beams repaired with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP spikes. Fir wood is characterized by its low density, low compression strength, and high level of defects, and it is likely to distort when dried and tends to fail under tension due to the presence of cracks, knots, or grain deviation. The proposed repair technique consists of the insertion of BFRP spikes into timber beams to restore the continuity of cracked sections. The experimental efforts deal with the evaluation of the bending strength and deformation properties of 24 timber beams. An artificially simulated cracking was produced by cutting the wood beams in half or notching. The obtained results for the repaired beams were compared with those of solid undamaged and damaged beams, and increases of beam capacity, bending strength and of modulus of elasticity, and analysis of failure modes was discussed. For notched beams, the application of the BFRP spikes was able to restore the original bending capacity of undamaged beams, while only a small part of the original capacity was recovered for beams that were cut in half.

  3. Radiolytic hydrogen production in the subseafloor basaltic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Dzaugis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2 is produced in geological settings by dissociation of water due to radiation from radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium (238U, 235U, thorium (232Th and potassium (40K. To quantify the potential significance of radiolytic H2 as an electron donor for microbes within the South Pacific subseafloor basaltic aquifer, we use radionuclide concentrations of 43 basalt samples from IODP Expedition 329 to calculate radiolytic H2 production rates in basement fractures. The samples are from three sites with very different basement ages and a wide range of alteration types. U, Th and K concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude from sample to sample at each site. Comparison of our samples to each other and to the results of previous studies of unaltered East Pacific Rise basalt suggests that significant variations in radionuclide concentrations are due to differences in initial (unaltered basalt concentrations (which can vary between eruptive events and post-emplacement alteration. In our samples, there is no clear relationship between alteration type and calculated radiolytic yields. Local maxima in U, Th, and K produce hotspots of H2 production, causing calculated radiolytic rates to differ by up to a factor of 80 from sample to sample. Fracture width also greatly influences H2 production, where microfractures are hotspots for radiolytic H2 production. For example, H2 production rates normalized to water volume are 190 times higher in 1 μm wide fractures than in fractures that are 10 cm wide. To assess the importance of water radiolysis for microbial communities in subseafloor basaltic aquifers, we compare electron transfer rates from radiolysis to rates from iron oxidation in subseafloor basalt. Radiolysis appears likely to be a more important electron donor source than iron oxidation in old (>10 Ma basement basalt. Radiolytic H2 production in the volume of water adjacent to a square cm of the most radioactive SPG basalt may

  4. Geochemistry of the Potassic Basalts from the Bufumbira Volcanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various basalts are low in SiO2 wt %, Al2O3 wt % and Na2O wt % but high in MgO wt %, TiO2 wt %, CaO wt %, K2O wt % with K2O/Na2O = 1.08 to 2.07. These are potassic belonging to the kamafugite series. Plots discriminate two geochemical trends corresponding to the picritic and clinopyroxene rich basalts.

  5. Mechanical Characterization of Basalt and Glass Fiber Epoxy Composite Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Lapena, Mauro Henrique; Marinucci, Gerson

    2017-01-01

    The application of basalt fibers are possible in many areas thanks to its multiple and good properties. It exhibits excellent resistance to alkalis, similar to glass fiber, at a much lower cost than carbon and aramid fibers. In the present paper, a comparative study on mechanical properties of basalt and E-glass fiber composites was performed. Results of apparent hoop tensile strength test of ring specimens cut from tubes and the interlaminar shear stress (ILSS) test are presented. Tensile te...

  6. Análise da atividade florestal no município de Viçosa-MG Analysis of forest activity in Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Albino Fontes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a atividade florestal no município de Viçosa-MG, a partir de questionário aplicado aos agricultores cujas propriedades rurais possuíam florestas plantadas. Foi amostrado um total de 63 propriedades rurais, abrangendo uma área de 2.096,95 ha. As áreas de floresta nativa e plantada, na amostra, foram de 372,00 e 260,17 ha, o que corresponde, respectivamente, a 17,74 e 12,41% da área amostrada. O tipo de floresta nativa predominante foi a capoeira (67,55%, e a espécie preferida para o reflorestamento foi o eucalipto (92,68%. O uso médio da mão-de-obra nas fases de implantação, manutenção e colheita dos plantios florestais foi estimado em 30,21, 13,64 e 61,25 dias-homem/ha, respectivamente, totalizando 105,10 dias-homem/ha, sendo a participação da mão-de-obra familiar de 25,24%. Os custos inerentes à atividade florestal foram estimados em R$419,30/ha para implantação; R$146,49/ha e R$80,34/ha para manutenção no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente; e R$2,11/m³ para colheita da madeira. Os plantios florestais concentram-se nas áreas de encostas, e o número médio de empregos gerados pelo reflorestamento (eucalipto foi 0,042 emprego/ha. Concluiu-se, de modo geral, que o reflorestamento é considerado atividade pouco atrativa, não identificando propriedades tipicamente florestais, sendo recomendada a elaboração de políticas públicas de incentivo ao reflorestamento.Forest activity was studied in Viçosa-MG, through a questionnaire applied to farmers who planted forests. A total of 63 farms were sampled, comprising an area of 2,096.95 ha. The natural and planted forest areas sampled were of 372.00 ha and 260.17 ha, corresponding to 17.74% and 12.41%, respectively. The predominant natural forest was the secondary forest (capoeira (67.55%, and the species chosen for reforestation was eucalypt (92.68%. Average labor use in the phases of implementation, maintenance and harvest of the forest plantations was

  7. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  8. High alkali-resistant basalt fiber for reinforcing concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, Ya.V.; Gutnikov, S.I.; Manylov, M.S.; Zhukovskaya, E.S.; Lazoryak, B.I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Doping of basalt fiber with ZrSiO 4 increased its alkali resistance. • Alkali treatment results in formation of protective surface layer on fibers. • Morphology and chemical composition of surface layer were investigated. • Mechanical properties of fibers were analyzed by a Weibull distribution. • Zirconia doped basalt fibers demonstrate high performance in concrete. - Abstract: Basalt glasses and fibers with zirconia content in the range from 0 to 7 wt% were obtained using ZrSiO 4 as a zirconium source. Weight loss and tensile strength loss of fibers after refluxing in alkali solution were determined. Basalt fiber with 5.7 wt% ZrO 2 had the best alkali resistance properties. Alkali treatment results in formation of protective surface layer on fibers. Morphology and chemical composition of surface layer were investigated. It was shown that alkali resistance of zirconia doped basalt fibers is caused by insoluble compounds of Zr 4+ , Fe 3+ and Mg 2+ in corrosion layer. Mechanical properties of initial and leached fibers were evaluated by a Weibull distribution. The properties of basalt fibers with ZrSiO 4 were compared with AR-glass fibers. The performance of concrete with obtained fibers was investigated

  9. Epidemiological analysis of structural alterations of the nasal cavity associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhitarian Neto, Levon; Fava, Antonio Sérgio; Lopes, Hugo Canhete; Stamm, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that structural alterations of the nasal cavity, e.g. septal deviation and conchal hypertrophy have high incidence in patients with sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome and must be addressed with associated specific procedures of the syndrome. Clinical retrospective. A retrospective study of 200 patients was performed, with 196 male and 4 female, attended at the otorhinolaryngology ambulatory of Hospital Prof. Edmundo Vasconcelos and Unidade Paulista de Otorrinolaringologia, all of them subjected to polysomnography, otorhinolaryngological physical exam, endoscopy exam, and surgical treatment with nasal and pharyngeal procedures. All of them were subjected to pharyngeal procedure: uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or uvulopalatoplasty and nose procedure: 176 septoplasty with partial turbinectomy (88%) and 24 isolated turbinectomy, with satisfactory results. We can see that structural alterations of the nasal cavity have high incidence in patients with OSA.

  10. 5-years APAP adherence in OSA patients--do first impressions matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeller, Mafalda; Severo, Milton; Santos, Ana Cristina; Drummond, Marta

    2013-12-01

    Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective in treating obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), inadequate adherence remains a major cause of treatment failure. This study aimed to determine long term adherence to auto adjusting-CPAP (APAP) and its influencing factors including the role of initial compliance. Eighty-eight male patients with newly diagnosed moderate/severe OSA were included. After initiation of APAP treatment, patients had periodic follow-up appointments at 2 weeks, 6 months and then annually for at least 5 years. Patient's compliance to therapy was assessed in each appointment and predictors to treatment abandonment and poor compliance were evaluated. The studied population had a mean age of 53.8 years and mean apnoea-hypopnoea index of 52.71/h. The mean time of follow-up was 5.2 (± 1.6) years, during that time 22 (25%) patients abandoned APAP, those who maintained treatment had good compliance to it since 94% of them used it more than 4 h/day for at least 70% of days. A significant negative association was found between age, % of days and mean time of APAP use on 12th day and 6th month and the risk of abandoning. APAP use lower than 33% and 57% of days at 12th day and 6th month, respectively had high specificity (≈ 100%) to detect treatment abandonment. the majority of patients adheres to long term APAP treatment and has good compliance after 5-years of follow-up. Age and initial compliance (% days of use and mean hour/day) have the ability to predict future adherence, as soon as 12 days and 6 months after initiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of CPAP on activity patterns and diet in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L; Drescher, Amy A; Baldwin, Carol M; Simon, Richard D; Smith, Terry W; Quan, Stuart F

    2014-05-15

    Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m(2), and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p increase in recreational activity in women, OSA patients treated with CPAP do not substantially change their diet or physical activity habits after treatment. .

  12. Sleep fragmentation: comparison of two definitions of short arousals during sleep in OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smurra, M V; Dury, M; Aubert, G; Rodenstein, D O; Liistro, G

    2001-04-01

    The measurement of arousals during sleep is useful to quantify sleep fragmentation. The criteria for electroencephalography (EEG) arousals defined by the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) have recently been criticized because of lack of interobserver agreement. The authors have adopted a scoring method that associates the increase in chin electromyography (EMG) with the occurrence of an alpha-rhythm in all sleep stages (Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL) definition of arousals). The aim of the present study was to compare the two scoring definitions in terms of agreement and repeatability and the time taken for scoring in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) of varying severity. Two readers using both ASDA and UCL definitions scored twenty polysomnographies (PSGs) each on two occasions. The PSGs were chosen retrospectively to represent a wide range of arousal index (from 6-82) in OSAS patients. There was no difference in the arousal indices between readers and between scoring methods. The mean+/-SD difference between the two definitions (the bias) was 1.1+/-3.76 (95% confidence interval: -0.66-2.86). There was a strong linear relationship between the arousal index scored with the two definitions (r=0.981, pASDA definitions (18.5+/-5.4 versus 25.3+/-6.6 min, p<0.001). In conclusion, it has been found that in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients, the American Sleep Disorders Association and Université Catholique de Louvain definitions were comparable in terms of agreement and repeatability.

  13. Icelandic basaltic geothermal field: A natural analog for nuclear waste isolation in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Analog studies of Icelandic geothermal fields have shown that the design of nuclear waste repositories in basalt can benefit by comparison to the data base already available from the development of these geothermal fields. A high degree of similarity exists between these two systems: their petrology, groundwater geochemistry, mineral solubilities, hydrologic parameters, temperature ranges, water-rock redox equilibria, hydrothermal pH values, and secondary mineralogies all show considerable overlap in the range of values. The experimentally-simulated hydrothermal studies of the basaltic nuclear waste repository rocks have, at this time, produced a data base that receives a strong confirmation from the Icelandic analog. Furthermore, the Icelandic analog should eventually be employed to extrapolate into higher and lower temperatures, into longer time-base chemical comparisons, and into more realistic mineral deposition studies, than have been possible in the laboratory evaluations of the nuclear waste repository designs. This eventual use of the Icelandic analog will require cooperative work with the Icelandic Geological Survey. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Aluminum Exchangeable and Phosphorous Availability on Ultisol Using Humic Substance and Synthetic ……………..…. Sugeng Winarso and Abdullah Taufiq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Winarso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Humic substance (HS extracted from composted agricultural waste contains organic acids that potential for an acid soil amandement. Functional group of COOH and OH in synthetically organic acid is higher than in HS originated from composted agricultural waste. Addition of synthetically organic acid to the HS may increase its functional group and therefore it will increase effectiveness in detoxifying aluminum (Al and desorpting phosphorus (P from an acid soil. Objective of reseach was to determine effect of synthetic organic acid addition to HS extracted from composted organic matter in desorpting P and detoxify Al. Research was conducted at Soil Laboratory of Agricultural Faculty of Jember University from February to May 2010. Treatment consisted of combination of four levels of HS concentration extracted from composted rice straw (0; 1,000; 2,000; and 5,000 mg kg-1 with two kind of synthetic organic acid: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and acetic acid (CH3COOH at concentration of 5 mM. The treatment laid out in a randomized complete by design with three replications. Ultisol collected from Kentrong Banten was used in this research. Observation consisted of pH, Al and P concentration in the suspension at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after incubation. The result showed that EDTA or acetic acid treatment at concentration of 5 mM effectively increased soil pH and decreased exchangeable Al (exch-Al. However, EDTA was more reactive and having higher capability in increasing pH and detoxifying exch-Al than acetic acid. Humic substance extracted from composted rice straw at concentration of 1,000 to 5,000 mg kg-1 also effectively increased soil pH, decreased exch-Al, and increased P availability during a 4 weeks incubation period. The HS effect in Al detoxification and P desorption in acid soil could be boosted by addition of EDTA or acetic acid synthetic

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA FUENTE DE ENMIENDA LÍQUIDA EN EL RENDIMIENTO DEL ARROZ EN UN ULTISOL DE LA ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de una enmienda calcárea líquida sobre el rendimiento del arroz y la fertilidad del suelo. El ensayo se realizó en un Ultisol de Los Chiles, Alajuela. Se utilizó una enmienda líquida que contiene 40% de Ca en forma de CaCO3 y 6,9% de N en forma de urea (Cal 56®. Los tratamientos fueron: testigo sin cal; Cal 56 8 l.ha-1; Cal 56 10 l.ha-1; y Cal 56 6 l.ha-1 + Nitro LL 4 l.ha-1. El Nitro LL es un fertilizante líquido de liberación controlada, que contiene 33% de N. Los productos fueron aplicados con bomba de espalda, con un volumen de caldo de 200 l.ha-1, en forma de aspersión al suelo 8 días después de germinado el arroz. Se utilizaron parcelas de 10x10 m, con un diseño experimental de Bloques Completos al Azar, con 4 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. No hubo diferencias significativas con las variables tamaño de panícula en cm, número de espigas por panícula, número total de granos por panícula, número de granos llenos, número de granos vanos y peso de 1000 granos, aunque la mayoría de estas variables presentaron valores más altos que el testigo con la aplicación de enmienda líquida. Hubo diferencias significativas (p<0,01 en la variable de rendimiento de arroz en ranza.

  16. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  17. The efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement education program on CPAP adherence in OSA: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y K; Fong, Daniel Y T; Lam, Jamie C M; Weaver, Terri E; Ip, Mary S M

    2014-09-01

    Poor adherence to CPAP treatment in OSA adversely affects the effectiveness of this therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement education program in improving adherence to CPAP treatment in subjects with OSA. Subjects with newly diagnosed OSA were recruited into this RCT. The control group received usual advice on the importance of CPAP therapy and its care. The intervention group received usual care plus a brief motivational enhancement education program directed at enhancing the subjects' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy to use CPAP through the use of a 25-min video, a 20-min patient-centered interview, and a 10-min telephone follow-up. Self-reported daytime sleepiness adherence-related cognitions and quality of life were assessed at 1 month and 3 months. CPAP usage data were downloaded at the completion of this 3-month study. One hundred subjects with OSA (mean ± SD, age 52 ± 10 years; Epworth Sleepiness Scales [ESS], 9 ± 5; median [interquartile range] apnea-hypopnea index, 29 [20, 53] events/h) prescribed CPAP treatment were recruited. The intervention group had better CPAP use (higher daily CPAP usage by 2 h/d [Cohen d = 1.33, P motivational enhancement education in addition to usual care were more likely to show better adherence to CPAP treatment, with greater improvements in treatment self-efficacy and daytime sleepiness. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01173406; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  18. Detection of Secondary Causes and Coexisting Diseases in Hypertensive Patients: OSA and PA Are the Common Causes Associated with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Nanfang; Yao, Xiaoguang; Chang, Guijuan; Zhang, Delian; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Wang, Menghui; Luo, Qin; Kong, Jianqiong

    2017-01-01

    Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients. Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Diseases were detected using an established strict screening protocol. Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was 39.5% among 3003 hypertensive patients. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was the most common, accounting for 24.7% of patients, followed by primary aldosteronism (PA) (5.8%) and PA + OSA (4.9%). Endocrine hypertension accounted for 12.1% of patients, including 10.7% of patients with PA, 1.1% with hypothyroidism, 0.1% with pheochromocytoma, 0.1% with Cushing's syndrome, and 0.1% with hyperthyroidism, respectively. Those who smoke, those who are obese, and those who have diabetes accounted for 31.3%, 27.5%, and 16.6% of total patients, respectively. There were overlapping conditions in secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension. OSA was the most common in each age- and BMI-stratified group. Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients.

  19. Detection of Secondary Causes and Coexisting Diseases in Hypertensive Patients: OSA and PA Are the Common Causes Associated with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients. Methods. Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Diseases were detected using an established strict screening protocol. Results. Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was 39.5% among 3003 hypertensive patients. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA was the most common, accounting for 24.7% of patients, followed by primary aldosteronism (PA (5.8% and PA + OSA (4.9%. Endocrine hypertension accounted for 12.1% of patients, including 10.7% of patients with PA, 1.1% with hypothyroidism, 0.1% with pheochromocytoma, 0.1% with Cushing’s syndrome, and 0.1% with hyperthyroidism, respectively. Those who smoke, those who are obese, and those who have diabetes accounted for 31.3%, 27.5%, and 16.6% of total patients, respectively. There were overlapping conditions in secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension. OSA was the most common in each age- and BMI-stratified group. Conclusion. Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients.

  20. CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine does not improve blood pressure in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Tamisier, Renaud; Laplaud, David; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Laurent; Koltes, Christian; Chavez, Léonidas; De Lamberterie, Gilles; Herengt, Frédéric; Levy, Patrick; Flore, Patrice; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2014-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with hypertension, which is one of the intermediary mechanisms leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of a combination of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and telemedicine support on blood pressure (BP) reduction in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. A multi-center randomized controlled trial that compared standard CPAP care and CPAP care and a telemedicine intervention. Sleep clinics in France. 107 adult (18-65 years old) OSA patients (AHI > 15 events/h) with a high cardiovascular risk (cardiovascular SCORE > 5% or secondary prevention). Patients were randomized to either standard care CPAP (n = 53) or CPAP and telemedicine (n = 54). Patients assigned to telemedicine were equipped with a smartphone for uploading BP measurements, CPAP adherence, sleepiness, and quality of life data; in return, they received pictograms containing health-related messages. The main outcome was home self-measured BP and secondary outcomes were cardiovascular risk evolution, objective physical activity, CPAP adherence, sleepiness and quality of life. Self-measured BP did not improve in either group (telemedicine or standard care). Patients in primary prevention showed greater BP reduction with CPAP treatment than those in secondary prevention. CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine alone did not improve blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. This study emphasizes the need for diet and physical activity training programs in addition to CPAP when aiming at decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors in these patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01226641.

  1. Complex layering of the Orange Mountain Basalt: New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, John H.; Block, Karin A.; Steiner, Jeffrey C.; Laskowich, Chris

    2018-06-01

    The Orange Mountain Basalt of New Jersey is a Mesozoic formation consisting of three units: a single lower inflated sheet lobe about 70 m thick (OMB1), a middle pillow basalt about 10 to 20 m thick (OMB2), and an upper compound pahoehoe flow about 20 to 40 m thick (OMB3). The Orange Mountain Basalt is part of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Quarry and road-cut exposures of OMB1 near Paterson, New Jersey, display some unusual layering that is the focus of this study. OMB1 exposures displays the typical upper crust, core, and basal crust layers of sheet lobes but throughout the Patterson area also display distinct light gray layers of microvesicular basalt mineralized with albite directly over the basal crust and under the upper crust. The lower microvesicular layer is associated with mega-vesicular diapirs. We propose that the upper and lower microvesicular layers were composed of viscous crust that was suddenly quenched before it could devolatilize immediately before the solidification of the core. During initial cooling, the bottom of the basal layer was mineralized with high concentrations of calcite and albite during a high-temperature hydrothermal event. Subsequent albitization, as well as zeolite, prehnite, and calcite precipitation events, occurred during burial and circulation of basin brine heated by recurring Palisades magmatism below the Orange Mountain Basalt. Some of the events experienced by the Orange Mountain Basalt are unusual and place constraints on the fluid dynamics of thick flood basalt flows in general. The late penetration of vesicular diapirs through the entire thickness of the flow interior constrains its viscosity and solidification history.

  2. Surface oxidization-reduction reactions in Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.F.; Yee, A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented which define principal oxidation-reduction reactions expected between ground water and iron in the Umtanum and Cohassett basalt flows of south central Washington. Data include kinetics of aqueous iron speciation, rates of O 2 uptake and nature of oxyhydroxide precipitates. Such data are important in predicting behavior of radionuclides in basalt aquifers including determination of valence states, speciation, solubility, sorption, and coprecipitation on iron oxyhydroxide substrates and colloids. Analyses of the basalt by XPS indicates that ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron on the surface and that the total iron decreases as a function of pH during experimental weathering. Iron oxyhydroxide phases did not form surface coating on basalt surfaces but rather nucleated as separate plases in solution. No significant increases in Cs or Sr sorption were observed with increased weathering of the basalt. Concurrent increases in Fe(II) and decreases in Fe(III) in slightly to moderately acid solutions indicated continued oxidization of ferrous iron in the basalt. At neutral to basic pH, Fe(II) was strongly sorbed onto the basalt surface (Kd = 6.5 x 10 -3 1 x m 2 ) resulting in low dissolved concentrations even under anoxic conditions. The rate of O 2 uptake increased with decreasing pH. Diffusion rates (-- 10 -14 cm 2 x s -1 ), calculated using a one-dimensional analytical model, indicate grain boundary diffusion. Comparisons of Eh values calculated by Pt electrode, dissolved O 2 and Fe(II)/Fe(III) measurements showed considerable divergence, with the ferric-ferrous couple being the preferred method of estimating Eh

  3. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  4. Diffusion of hydrous species in model basaltic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Qinxia; Ding, Jiale; Ni, Huaiwei

    2017-10-01

    Water diffusion in Fe-free model basaltic melt with up to 2 wt% H2O was investigated at 1658-1846 K and 1 GPa in piston-cylinder apparatus using both hydration and diffusion couple techniques. Diffusion profiles measured by FTIR are consistent with a model in which both molecular H2O (H2Om) and hydroxyl (OH) contribute to water diffusion. OH diffusivity is roughly 13% of H2Om diffusivity, showing little dependence on temperature or water concentration. Water diffusion is dominated by the motion of OH until total H2O (H2Ot) concentration reaches 1 wt%. The dependence of apparent H2Ot diffusivity on H2Ot concentration appears to be overestimated by a previous study on MORB melt, but H2Ot diffusivity at 1 wt% H2Ot in basaltic melt is still greater than those in rhyolitic to andesitic melts. The appreciable contribution of OH to water diffusion in basaltic melt can be explained by enhanced mobility of OH, probably associated with the development of free hydroxyl bonded with network-modifying cations, as well as higher OH concentration. Calculation based on the Nernst-Einstein equation demonstrates that OH may serve as an effective charge carrier in hydrous basaltic melt, which could partly account for the previously observed strong influence of water on electrical conductivity of basaltic melt.

  5. Stratigraphy of Oceanus Procellarum basalts - Sources and styles of emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.; Head, J. W., III

    1980-01-01

    The basaltic fill of Oceanus Procellarum has been formally subdivided into four lithostratigraphic formations: The Repsold Formation, the Telemann Formation, the Hermann Formation, and the Sharp Formation. The Repsold Formation is composed of high-Ti basalts and pyroclastic deposits with an estimated age of 3.75 + or - 0.05 b.y. and an estimated volume of about 2.1 x 10 to the 5th cu km. This is overlain by the Telemann Formation composed of very low-Ti basalts and pyroclastic deposits with an estimated age of 3.6 + or - 0.2 b.y. and a volume of 4.2 x 10 to the 5th cu km. The Hermann Formation, composed of intermediate basalts with an estimated age of 3.3 + or - 0.3 b.y., represents the next youngest unit with an estimated volume of 2.2 x 10 to the 5th cu km. The youngest materials in Procellarum are the medium-to-high-Ti basalts comprising the Sharp Formation with an estimated age of 2.7 + or - 0.7 b.y. and a volume of 1.8 x 10 to the 4th cu km.

  6. Similar microbial communities found on two distant seafloor basalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eSinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust forms two thirds of the Earth’s surface and hosts a large phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms. While advances have been made in the sedimentary realm, our understanding of the igneous rock portion as a microbial habitat has remained limited. We present the first comparative metagenomic microbial community analysis from ocean floor basalt environments at the Lō’ihi Seamount, Hawai’i, and the East Pacific Rise (EPR (9˚N. Phylogenetic analysis indicates the presence of a total of 43 bacterial and archaeal mono-phyletic groups, dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, as well as Thaumarchaeota. Functional gene analysis suggests that these Thaumarchaeota play an important role in ammonium oxidation on seafloor basalts. In addition to ammonium oxidation, the seafloor basalt habitat reveals a wide spectrum of other metabolic potentials, including CO2 fixation, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and sulfur oxidation. Basalt communities from Lō’ihi and the EPR show considerable metabolic and phylogenetic overlap down to the genus level despite geographic distance and slightly different seafloor basalt mineralogy.

  7. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  8. Corrosion phase formation on container alloys in basalt repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lutton, J.M.; Rivera, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is evaluating the suitability of basalt in southeastern Washington State as a possible location for a nuclear waste repository. The performance of the waste package, which includes the waste form, container, and surrounding packing material, will be affected by the stability of container alloys in the repository environment. Primary corrosion phases and altered packing material containing metals leached from the container may also influence subsequent reactions between the waste form and repository environment. Copper- and iron-based alloys were tested at 50 0 to 300 0 C in an air/steam environment and in pressure vessels in ground-water-saturated basalt-bentonite packing material. Reaction phases formed on the alloys were identified and corrosion rates were measured. Changes in adhering packing material were also evaluated. The observed reactions and their possible effects on container alloy durability in the repository are discussed

  9. Regional basalt hydrology of the Columbia Plateau in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Barrett, G.; Wildrick, L.

    1979-10-01

    This study is part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, operated for the US Department of Energy by Rockwell Hanford Operations. The overall purpose of the study is to assess locations within the Columbia River Basalt Group beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington suitable for a geologic repository for radioactive waste. This hydrologic study was made to describe the hydrologic characteristics of the basalt units of the Columbia Plateau. This was done by comprehensive data compilation, data interpretation and analysis. Data are presented in the form of maps and tables suitable as input information about the regional hydrology for possible future analysis by computer models. The report includes: an introduction; basic data; interpretation which covers stratigraphic trend surface, water levels, transmissivity and storage of aquifers, recharge, discharge, flow, subbasins, cross sections, references and appendix of record of wells

  10. Basalt woven fiber reinforced vinylester composites: Flexural and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmisciano, Salvatore; Rosa, Igor Maria De; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Tamburrano, Alessio; Valente, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study of basalt and E-glass woven fabric reinforced composites was performed. The fabrics were characterized by the same weave pattern and the laminates tested by the same fiber volume fraction. Results of the flexural and interlaminar characterization are reported. Basalt fiber composites showed higher flexural modulus and apparent interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) in comparison with E-glass ones but also a lower flexural strength and similar electrical properties. With this fiber volume fraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured surfaces enabled a better understanding both of the failure modes involved and of points of concern. Nevertheless, the results of this study seem promising in view of a full exploitation of basalt fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites (PMCs).

  11. Corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin Cheol; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    This experiment has examined the corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials. There were slight changes of weight after the occurring of corrosion based on time and H2SO4 concentration, but in general, the weight increased. It is assumed that this happens due to the basalt fiber precipitate. Prior to the corrosion, friction-wear behavior showed irregular patterns compared to metallic materials, and when it was compared with the behavior after the corrosion, the coefficient of friction was 2 to 3 times greater. The coefficient of friction of all test specimen ranged from 0.1 to 0.2. Such a result has proven that the basalt fiber, similar to the resin rubber, shows regular patterns regardless of time and H2SO4 concentration because of the space made between resins and reinforced materials.

  12. On causal links between flood basalts and continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V.; Jaupart, C.; Manighetti, I.; Tapponnier, P.; Besse, J.

    1999-03-01

    Temporal coincidence between continental flood basalts and breakup has been noted for almost three decades. Eight major continental flood basalts have been produced over the last 300 Ma. The most recent, the Ethiopian traps, erupted in about 1 Myr at 30 Ma. Rifting in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and possibly East African rift started at about the same time. A second trap-like episode occurred around 2 Ma and formation of true oceanic crust is due in the next few Myr. We find similar relationships for the 60 Ma Greenland traps and opening of the North Atlantic, 65 Ma Deccan traps and opening of the NW Indian Ocean, 132 Ma Parana traps and South Atlantic, 184 Ma Karoo traps and SW Indian Ocean, and 200 Ma Central Atlantic Margin flood basalts and opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The 250 Ma Siberian and 258 Ma Emeishan traps seem to correlate with major, if aborted, phases of rifting. Rifting asymmetry, apparent triple junctions and rift propagation (towards the flood basalt area) are common features that may, together with the relative timings of flood basalt, seaward dipping reflector and oceanic crust production, depend on a number of plume- and lithosphere- related factors. We propose a mixed scenario of `active/passive' rifting to account for these observations. In all cases, an active component (a plume and resulting flood basalt) is a pre-requisite for the breakup of a major oceanic basin. But rifting must be allowed by plate-boundary forces and is influenced by pre-existing heterogeneities in lithospheric structure. The best example is the Atlantic Ocean, whose large-scale geometry with three large basins was imposed by the impact points of three mantle plumes.

  13. Technetium and neptunium reactions in basalt/groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kessler, J.H.; Clark, R.J.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Young, G.C.; Case, F.I.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms and apparent concentration limits for Tc(VII) and Np(V) for a variety of groundwater/basalt systems were determined using Grande Ronde basalt samples representative of the Hanford Site candidate high-level waste repository. Under oxic redox conditions (air present), little or no sorption of technetium was observed; neptunium exhibited low to moderate sorption ratios. Under anoxic redox conditions (oxygen-free), low to moderate sorption of technetium was often observed, but the extent of sorption was highly dependent upon the groundwater composition and the method of pretreatment (if any) of the basalt. Sorption isotherms for technetium under reducing redox conditions (hydrazine added) indicate an apparent concentration limit of approximately 10 -6 mol/l Tc. No apparent concentration limit was found for neptunium for concentrations in groundwater up to 10 -6 mol/l and 8 x 10 -7 mol/l under oxic and reducing (hydrazine added) redox conditions, respectively. Valence control and valence analysis experiments suggest that the sorption or precipitation of Tc and Np from groundwater in the presence of basalt may result from a heterogeneous reaction occurring on the surface of the basalt. One of the critical factors of this reduction reaction appears to be the accessibility of the reactive ferrous iron component of the basalt. The laboratory simulation of groundwater redox conditions representative of the repository environment through the use of solution phase redox reagents is of questionable validity, and information obtained by such experimental methods may not be defensible for site performance assessment calculations. Anoxic experiments conducted in an argon-filled glove box appear better suited for the laboratory simulation of in situ redox conditions. 15 references, 6 figures

  14. Technetium and neptunium reactions in basalt/groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kessler, J.H.; Clark, R.J.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Young, G.C.; Case, F.I.; Westmoreland, C.G.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee)

    1984-01-01

    Sorption isotherms and apparent concentration limits for Tc(VII) and Np(V) for a variety of groundwater/basalt systems were determined using Grande Ronde basalt samples representative of the Hanford Site candidate high-level waste repository. Under oxic redox conditions (air present), little or no sorption of technetium was observed; neptunium exhibited low to moderate sorption ratios. Under anoxic redox conditions (oxygen-free), low to moderate sorption of technetium was often observed, but the extent of sorption was highly dependent upon the groundwater composition and the method of pretreatment (if any) of the basalt. Sorption isotherms for technetium under reducing redox conditions (hydrazine added) indicate an apparent concentration limit of approximately 10 -6 mol/L Tc. No apparent concentration limit was found for neptunium for concentrations in groundwater up to approx. 10 -6 mol/L and 8 x 10 -7 mol/L under oxic and reducing (hydrazine added) redox conditions, respectively. Valence control and valence analysis experiments suggest that the sorption or precipitation of Tc and Np from groundwater in the presence of basalt may result from a heterogeneous reaction occurring on the surface of the basalt. One of the critical factors of this reduction reaction appears to be the accessibility of the reactive ferrous iron component of the basalt. The laboratory simulation of groundwater redox conditions representative of the repository environment through the use of solution phase redox reagents is of questionable validity, and information obtained by such experimental methods may not be defensible for site performance assessment calculations. Anoxic experiments conducted in an argon-filled glove box appear better suited for the laboratory simulation of in situ redox conditions. 15 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  16. Distribution and stratigraphy of basaltic units in Maria Tranquillitatis and Fecunditatis: A Clementine perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmon, D.; Spudis, P.

    2004-01-01

    Maria Tranquillitatis and Fecunditatis have been mapped based on Clementine image mosaics and derived iron and titanium maps. Impact craters served as stratigraphic probes enabling better delineation of compositionally different basaltic units, determining the distribution of subsurface basalts, and providing estimates of total basalt thickness and the thickness of the surface units. Collected data indicate that volcanism in these maria started with the eruption of low-Ti basalts and evolved toward medium- and high-Ti basalts. Some of the high-Ti basalts in Mare Tranquillitatis began erupting early and were contemporaneous with the low- and medium-Ti basalts; these units form the oldest units exposed on the mare surface. Mare Tranquillitatis is mostly covered with high- Ti basalts. In Mare Fecunditatis, the volume of erupting basalts clearly decreased as the Ti content increased, and the high-Ti basalts occur as a few patches on the mare surface. The basalt in both maria is on the order of several hundred meters thick and locally may be as thick as 1600 m. The new basalt thickness estimates generally fall within the range set by earlier studies, although locally differ. The medium- to high-Ti basalts exposed at the surfaces of both maria are meters to tens of meters thick.

  17. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests were conducted with a mixture of crushed glass, basalt, and steel in methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater. In the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane was found to have little influence on the corrosion behavior of the waste package constituents. Under gamma radiolysis, methane was found to significantly lower the solution oxidation potential when compared to identical tests without methane. In addition, colloidal hydrocarbon polymers that have been produced under the irradiation conditions of these experiments were not formed. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers. However, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  18. Feasibility of storing radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In 1968 Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company initiated a study to assess the feasibility of final geologic storage of Hanford defense, radioactive waste in deep caverns constructed in the Columbia River flood basalts. The project, which included geologic studies, hydrologic tests, heat flow analysis, compatibility analysis, and tectonic studies, was suspended in 1972 before completion of interpretive work. In 1976 the interpretation and documentation were completed. These data may be valuable in qualifying the Columbia River flood basalts as a viable medium for final geologic storage of commercial radioactive waste. The findings to date are summarized, and the proposed future work is presented

  19. Friction Joint Between Basalt-Reinforced Composite and Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Glejbøl, Kristian; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor basalt-reinforced polymers in an aluminum grip using dry friction. Dry friction clamping is considered the optimal solution for post-mounting of load-bearing terminations on composite structures. A new test method is presented for characterizing the frictio......The purpose of this study was to anchor basalt-reinforced polymers in an aluminum grip using dry friction. Dry friction clamping is considered the optimal solution for post-mounting of load-bearing terminations on composite structures. A new test method is presented for characterizing...

  20. The predictive value of drug-induced sleep endoscopy for CPAP titration in OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Lan, Ming-Ying; Huang, Yun-Chen; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chiu, Tsan-Jen; Yang, Mei-Chen

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to identify possible upper airway obstructions causing a higher continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level, utilizing drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). A total of 76 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) underwent CPAP titration and DISE. DISE findings were recorded using the VOTE classification system. Polysomnographic (PSG) data, anthropometric variables, and patterns of airway collapse during DISE were analyzed with CPAP titration levels. A significant association was found between the CPAP titration level and BMI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and neck circumference (NC) (P CPAP titration level (P CPAP titration level and any other collapse at the tongue base or epiglottis. By analyzing PSG data, anthropometric variables, and DISE results with CPAP titration levels, we can better understand possible mechanisms resulting in a higher CPAP titration level. We believe that the role of DISE can be expanded as a tool to identify the possible anatomical structures that may be corrected by oral appliance therapy or surgical intervention to improve CPAP compliance.

  1. Piperaceae C. Agardh da Estação Experimental Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG Piperaceae C. Agardh from the Experimental Station of "Mata do Paraíso", Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria de Carvalho-Okano

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento dos representantes de Piperaceae na Estação Experimental Mata do Paraíso, no município de Viçosa, MG (20º42'S e 42º55'W, coberta por Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual Montana. No período de março/97 a junho/98 foram realizadas 30 visitas quinzenais à Estação para coleta de material botânico que se encontra depositado no herbário VIC da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram reconhecidos 18 táxons distribuídos nos gêneros Piper L. com 14 espécies, Ottonia Spreng. com três e Pothomorphe Miq. com uma espécie. As espécies mais abundantes foram Piper caldense C.DC., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper vicosanum Yunck. São apresentadas chaves para identificação dos gêneros e espécies, descrições, ilustrações e comentários.An inventory of the Piperaceae species was made at the Experimental Station of "Mata do Paraíso" in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State (20º42'S and 42º55'W, an area covered by the Semideciduous Mesophytic Montana Forest. Thirty visits were made fortnightly to the station, from March/1997 to June/1998, in order to collect botanical material which was deposited in the VIC herbarium (Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Eighteen taxa, represented by the genera Piper L. (14 species, Ottonia Spreng (3 species, and Potliotnorplie Miq. (1 species were recognized. The most abundant species were Piper caldense CDC, Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper vicosanum Yunck. Identification keys for the genera and species as well as species descriptions, illustrations and comments are presented.

  2. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1976-11-01

    Volume II comprises four appendices: analytical data and sample locations for basalt flow type localities; Analytical data and sample locations for measured field sections in Yakima basalts; core hole lithology and analytical data; and geophysical logs. (LK)

  3. Mobilization of manganese by basalt associated Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from the Indian Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; Mourya, B.S.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Meena, R.M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The Indian Ridge System basalt bearing Mn-oxide coatings had todorokite as the major and birnesite as the minor mineral. We posit that microorganisms associated with these basalts participate in the oxidation of Mn and contribute to mineral...

  4. Petrographical indicators of petrogenesis: Examples from Central Indian Ocean Basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    Petrographical features of the Central Indian Basin (CIOB) basalts were studied to understand their genetic significance. The fresh basaltic pillows show three textural zones from the top glassy (zone A) through the intermediate (zone B...

  5. Use of solar power for the production of basalt-based mineral fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamova, D. D.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Tokunov, S. G.; Kim, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining basalt mineral fibers using concentrating solar power and melt-quench technique is shown. The microstructure and physicochemical properties of basalt fibers are analyzed. (author)

  6. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang

    2015-01-01

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber?s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then th...

  7. SEA LEVEL RISE AND ITS POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON COASTAL URBAN AREA: A CASE OF ETI-OSA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Michael AGBOOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial extent of coastal urban development and its potential sensitivity to sea-level rise. The main aim of the study is to critically examine the extent of growth in Eti-Osa over time, and the potential impacts of sea leve rise. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imageries of years 2000 and 2015 were used to evaluate the different land use type identified. Post-classification change detection method was used to evaluate the output of the maximum likelihood supervised classification analysis done. This was also used to estimate the changes induces through urban development on the environment which accounts for the biodiversity loss. ASTER GDEM 2 imagery of 2011 was used to generate the elevation data used for the inundation analysis. Thus, both Land use map of Eti-Osa in 2015 and the down scaled Sea-level rise scenarios (at 0.5 to 15 meters were used for the inundation mapping. Results obtained from this research affirms that indeed EtiOsa has been subjected to gross urban expansion giving room for diverse forms of environmental degradation among which are huge replacement of natural land cover with built-up, reclamation of wetlands and sand filling of water bodies. This basically illustrates growth but also the risk that accompanies the advent of excessive alteration of natural ecosystem as Sea-level rise projections imply in this research.

  8. Flame-resistant pure and hybrid woven fabrics from basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshaid, H.; Mishra, R.; Militky, J.

    2017-10-01

    This work has been formulated to investigate the burning behavior of different type of fabrics. The main concentration is to see how long the fabric resists after it catches the fire and the propagation of fire can be reduced by using flame resistant fiber i.e basalt. Basalt fiber is an environmental friendly material with low input, high output, low energy consumption and less emission. The goal of present investigations is to show the dependence of fabric flammability on its structure parameters i.e weave type, blend type etc. Fabric weaves have strong effect on flammability properties. Plain weave has the lowest burning rate as the density of the plain weave fabric is more and the structure is tight which gives less chances of flame passing through the fabric. Thermal stability is evaluated with TGA of all hybrid and nonhybrid fabrics and compared. The thermal stability of the basalt fiber is excellent. When comparing thermal analysis curves for hybrid samples it demonstrates that thermal stability of the samples containing basalt is much higher than the non- hybrid samples. Percentage weight loss is less in hybrid samples as compared to non-hybrid samples. The effectiveness of hybridization on samples may be indicated by substantial lowering of the decomposition mass. Correlation was made between flammability with the infrared radiations (IR)

  9. Age of the youngest Palaeogene flood basalts in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Piasecki, Stefan; Abrahamsen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    results, this constrains the termination of the East Greenland Paleogene Igneous Province to the Early-Middle Eocene transition (nannoplankton chronozones NP13-NP14/earliest NP15). This is 6-8 Ma younger than according to previous biostratigraphic age assignments. The new data show that flood basalt...

  10. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test

  11. Genetic aspects of basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    of the CR rocks are sparse. The bulk chemical, mineral chemical and ore mineralization aspects of the dredged basalts from a segment of the CR (at 3°37¢N, 64°57¢E) are synthesized to indicate the influence of fractional crystallization coupled with magma...

  12. Gas adsorption on crushed quartz and basalt. [in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.; Torkelson, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The new surfaces generated by crushing rocks and minerals adsorb gases. Different gases are adsorbed to different extents so that both the total amount and composition of the released gases are changed. This affects the interpretation of the composition of the gases obtained by vacuum crushing lunar basalts, meteorites and minerals with fluid inclusions.

  13. Petrology of spinel lherzolite xenoliths in alkali basalts from Liri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Al2O3), and Al-rich spinel occur in alkali basalts from Liri, South of the ... these spinel lherzolite xenoliths are reported, along with the analyses of ...... erupted in the Liri region. .... and temperatures with controlled activities of water, carbon.

  14. Petrography and chemistry of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    interior through a variolitic zone. The silica-alkalies relation show these basalts to be of sub-alkaline nature. Variable normative compositions and Mg number, increase in alkali index, differences in Al2O3/CaO and FeO/MgO ratios, variable trace element...

  15. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Swaidani Aref M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction. Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289 and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260 have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida’a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  16. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This project is aimed at examining the feasibility and providing the technology to design and construct a radwaste repository in basalt formations beneath and within the Hanford Site. The project is divided into seven areas: systems integration, geosciences, hydrologic studies, engineered barriers, near-surface test facility, engineering testing, and repository engineering. This annual report summarizes key investigations in these seven areas

  17. Evaluation of basalt flows as a waste isolation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Activities in basalt waste isolation programs in the Columbia River basin are reported. Work during the period is summarized for the overall program which is divided into systems integration, geology, hydrology, engineered barriers studies, engineering testing, and the construction of a near-surface test facility

  18. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in the

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 2. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in the ~52–50 Ma Vastan lignite sequence, western India: Implication for Early Eocene MORB volcanism offshore Arabian Sea. Sarajit Sensarma Hukam Singh R S Rana Debajyoti Paul ...

  19. Fire performance of basalt FRP mesh reinforced HPC thin plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out to investigate the influence of basalt FRP (BFRP) reinforcing mesh on the fire behaviour of thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates applied to sandwich elements. Samples with BFRP mesh were compared to samples with no mesh, samples with steel mesh...

  20. Hydrologic testing methodology and results from deep basalt boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, S.R.; Spane, F.A.; Jackson, R.L.; Pidcoe, W.W.

    1982-05-01

    The objective of the hydrologic field-testing program is to provide data for characterization of the groundwater systems wihin the Pasco Basin that are significant to understanding waste isolation. The effort is directed toward characterizing the areal and vertical distributions of hydraulic head, hydraulic properties, and hydrochemistry. Data obtained from these studies provide input for numerical modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport. These models are then used for evaluating potential waste migration as a function of space and time. The groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site and surrounding area consists of a thick, accordantly layered sequence of basalt flows and associated sedimentary interbed that primarily occur in the upper part of the Columbia River basalt. Permeable horizons of the sequence are associated with the interbeds and the interflow zones within the basalt. The columnar interiors of a flow act as low-permeability aquitards, separating the more-permeable interflows or interbeds. This paper discusses the hydrologic field-gathering activities, specifically, field-testing methodology and test results from deep basalt boreholes

  1. Heat resistance study of basalt fiber material via mechanical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. Q.; Jia, C.; Meng, L.; Li, X. H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the relationship between the fracture strength of basalt rovings and temperature. Strong stretching performance of the rovings has been tested after the treatment at fixed temperatures but different heating time and then the fracture strength of the rovings exposed to the heating at different temperatures and cooled in different modes investigated. Finally, the fracture strength of the basalt material after the heat treatment was studied. The results showed that the room-temperature strength tends to decrease with an increase of the heat treatment time at 250 °C, but it has the local maximum after 2h heating. And the basalt rovings strength increased after the heat treatment up to 200 °C. It was 16.7 percent higher than the original strength. The strength depends not only on the temperature and duration of the heating, but also on the cooling mode. The value of the strength measured after cold water cooling was less by 6.3% compared with an ambient air cooling mode. The room-temperature breaking strength of the rovings heated at 200 °C and 100 °C for 2 hours each increased by about 14.6% with respect to unpretreated basalt rovings.

  2. Depleted basaltic lavas from the proto-Iceland plume, Central East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Baker, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    New geochemical and isotopic data are presented for volumetrically minor, depleted low-Ti basalts that occur in the Plateau Basalt succession of central East Greenland (CEG), formed during the initial stages of opening of the North Atlantic at 55 Ma. The basalts have MORB-like geochemistry (e.g. ...

  3. Geochemical study of young basalts in East Azerbaijan (Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Amel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The young basalts in East Azerbaijan are placed in West Alborz – Azerbaijan zone. Volcanic activities have extended from the Pliocene to the Quaternary by eruption from fracture systems and faults. Rocks under study are olivine-basalt and trachybasalts. The main minerals are olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase set in glassy or microcrystalline matrix and olivine are present as phenocryst. The textures in the studied rocks are mainly hyaloporphyric, hyalomicrolitic and porphyritic. Trace elements and rare earth elements on spider diagrams have high LREE/HREE ratio. Rare earth elements on diagram display negative slope indicating alkaline nature for the basalts under study. As it may be observed, on tectonic diagrams, the Marand basalts are placed on Island Arc basalt (IAB field, whereas the Ahar, Heris, Kalaibar and Miyaneh basalts are classified as Ocean Island Basalts (OIB and finally the basalts of Sohrol area are plotted on continental rift Basalt (CRB field. The Marand and Sohrol basalts were likely originated from lithospheric - astenospheric mantle with 2 to 5 % partial melting whereas, the Ahar, Heris and Kalaibar basalts having same source experienced 1-2% partial melting rate and the Miyaneh basalts possibly produced from lithospheric mantle with 10-20% partial melting rate pointing to shallow depth of mantle and the higher rate of melting. Based on tectonic setting diagrams, all the rocks studied are plotted in post collisional environments.

  4. Behaviour of rare earth elements, as natural analogues of transuranium elements, during weathering of basaltic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daux, V.; Crovisier, J.L.; Petit, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Subglacial basaltic glasses from Iceland have been studied in order to investigate REE behaviour low-temperature weathering. Just as actinides accumulate in the hydrated superficial corrosion layer of borosilicate glasses, REEs are found to be enriched in the natural corrosion layer of basaltic glasses (palagonite). However, this enrichment is only relative for basaltic glasses [fr

  5. The importance of neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio (NC/TM as a predictor of difficult intubation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ezzat Abdel Naim

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Difficult intubation in OSA obese patients was independently associated with a Mallampati score of III or IV, and NC/TM ⩾5.15. Moreover, NC/TM yielded a high sensitivity, specificity and a negative predictive value.

  6. High Adherence to CPAP Treatment Does Not Prevent the Continuation of Weight Gain among Severely Obese OSAS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Minna; Kurki, Samu; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja; Laitinen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients benefit from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in a dose-response manner. We determined adherence and weight control, as well as their predictors, among long-term CPAP users. Methods: Cohort of 1,023 OSAS patients had used CPAP on average of 6.6 ± 1.2 years. BMI was determined at baseline and at follow-up visits. There were 7.4 ± 1.7 BMI and 6.5 ± 1.8 CPAP usage measurements per patient on average. Using the Bayesian hierarchical model, we determined the patients' individual trends of BMI and adherence development. Patients with significantly increasing or decreasing trends were identified at the posterior probability level of > 90%. Results: The mean age in the cohort was 55.6 ± 9.8 years, BMI 33.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2, apnea-hypopnea index 33.7 ± 23.1, and CPAP usage 6.0 ± 1.8 h/day. The majority of patients had no significant change in BMI (mean annual weight gain 0.04 ± 0.29 kg/m2) or CPAP adherence (mean annual increase 11.4 ± 7.0 min/day). However, at the individual level, 10% of the patients showed significant annual weight gain (0.63 ± 0.35 kg/m2) during the 5-year follow-up period. At baseline these patients were already more severely obese (mean BMI 40.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) despite being younger (mean 50.9 ± 9.5 years) than the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: In the majority of CPAP-treated OSAS patients, weight did not significantly change but gained slightly slower than in age-matched population in general. However, in 10% of patients, high adherence to CPAP treatment did not prevent the continuation of weight gain. These patients present a high-risk group for OSAS-related multimorbidity later in life. Citation: Myllylä M, Kurki S, Anttalainen U, Saaresranta T, Laitinen T. High adherence to CPAP treatment does not prevent the continuation of weight gain among severely obese OSAS patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):519–528. PMID:26888588

  7. Architecture and emplacement of flood basalt flow fields: case studies from the Columbia River Basalt Group, NW USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Self, S.; Barry, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    The physical features and morphologies of collections of lava bodies emplaced during single eruptions (known as flow fields) can be used to understand flood basalt emplacement mechanisms. Characteristics and internal features of lava lobes and whole flow field morphologies result from the forward propagation, radial spread, and cooling of individual lobes and are used as a tool to understand the architecture of extensive flood basalt lavas. The features of three flood basalt flow fields from the Columbia River Basalt Group are presented, including the Palouse Falls flow field, a small (8,890 km2, ˜190 km3) unit by common flood basalt proportions, and visualized in three dimensions. The architecture of the Palouse Falls flow field is compared to the complex Ginkgo and more extensive Sand Hollow flow fields to investigate the degree to which simple emplacement models represent the style, as well as the spatial and temporal developments, of flow fields. Evidence from each flow field supports emplacement by inflation as the predominant mechanism producing thick lobes. Inflation enables existing lobes to transmit lava to form new lobes, thus extending the advance and spread of lava flow fields. Minimum emplacement timescales calculated for each flow field are 19.3 years for Palouse Falls, 8.3 years for Ginkgo, and 16.9 years for Sand Hollow. Simple flow fields can be traced from vent to distal areas and an emplacement sequence visualized, but those with multiple-layered lobes present a degree of complexity that make lava pathways and emplacement sequences more difficult to identify.

  8. Miocene Basaltic Lava Flows and Dikes of the Intervening Area Between Picture Gorge and Steens Basalt of the CRBG, Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E. B.; Streck, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mid-Miocene basaltic lavas and dikes are exposed in the area between the southern extent of the Picture Gorge Basalt (PGB) and the northern extent of Steens Basalt in a wide corridor of the Malheur National Forest, eastern Oregon. An approximate mid-Miocene age of sampled basaltic units is indicated by stratigraphic relationships to the 16 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff. Lavas provide an opportunity to extend and/or revise distribution areas of either CRBG unit and explore the petrologic transition between them. The PGB and the Steens Basalt largely represent geochemically distinct tholeiitic units of the CRBG; although each unit displays internal complexity. Lavas of PGB are relatively primitive (MgO 5-9 wt.%) while Steens Basalt ranges in MgO from >9 to 3 wt.% but both units are commonly coarsely porphyritic. Conversely, Steens Basalt compositions are on average more enriched in highly incompatible elements (e.g. Rb, Th) and relatively enriched in the lesser incompatible elements (e.g. Y, Yb) compared to the Picture Gorge basalts. These compositional signatures produce inclined and flat patterns on mantle-normalized incompatible trace element plots but with similar troughs and spikes, respectively. New compositional data from our study area indicate basaltic lavas can be assigned as PGB lava flows and dikes, and also to a compositional group chemically distinct between Steens Basalt and PGB. Distribution of lava flows with PGB composition extend this CRBG unit significantly south/southeast closing the exposure gap between PGB and Steens Basalt. We await data that match Steens Basalt compositions but basaltic lavas with petrographic features akin to Steens Basalt have been identified in the study area. Lavas of the transitional unit share characteristics with Upper Steens and Picture Gorge basalt types, but identify a new seemingly unique composition. This composition is slightly more depleted in the lesser incompatible elements (i.e. steeper pattern) on mantle normalized

  9. Surface modification of basalt with silane coupling agent on asphalt mixture moisture damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Yahong; Fang, Ying; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Yinhui; Li, Wensheng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Yuan, Jianmin [College of Materials Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Tan, Ligang [College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wang, Shuangyin [State Key Laboratory of Chem/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wu, Zhenjun, E-mail: wooawt@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on KH570. • Basalt surface was modified using the new silane coupling agent. • Chemical bond between basalt and the new silane coupling agent was formed. • Asphalt mixture which used modified basalt show superior water stability. - Abstract: A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on γ-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane (KH570). The surface of basalt rocks was modified by KH570 and the new silane coupling agent (NSCA), and the interfacial interaction between silane coupling agent and basalt was also studied. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the silane coupling agent molecule bound strongly with basalt rocks. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observation showed that a thin layer of coupling agent was formed on the surface of modified basalt. The boiling test and immersion Marshall test confirmed that the moisture sensitivity of basalt modified with the new silane coupling agent increased more significantly than that untreated and treated with KH570. The Retained Marshall Strength of basalt modified with the new coupling agent increased from 71.74% to 87.79% compared with untreated basalt. The results indicated that the new silane coupling agent played an important role in improving the interfacial performance between basalt and asphalt.

  10. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi, H.; Zamani, H.

    2010-06-01

    To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced and mechanical behaviors of this material investigated from view point of testing. For this study two type of fabric with different thickness used. Comparison between this composite reinforcement with popular reinforcement as carbon, glass, kevlar performed. To determine mechanical properties of epoxy based basalt fabric following test procedure performed : 1). Tensile testing according to ASTM D3039 in 0° and 90° direction to find ultimate strength in tension and shear, modulus of elasticity, elangation and ultimate strain. 2). Compression testing according to EN 2850 ultimate compression strength and maximum deformation under compression loading. 3). Shear testing according to ASTM D3518-94 to find in plane shear response of polymer matrix composites materials. 4). Predict flexural properties of sandwich construction which manufactured from basalt facing with PVC foam core according to ASTM C393-94. Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material to meet the test procedure specifications [1]. For this reason six specimens were manufactured for testing and the tests were performed on them using an INSTRON machine model 5582. In the study, the effect of percent of resin in basalt reinforced composite was investigated. Also the weights of the ballast based composites with different percent of resin were measured with conventional composites. As the weight is an important parameter in aerospace industry when the designer wants to replace one material with

  11. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced and mechanical behaviors of this material investigated from view point of testing. For this study two type of fabric with different thickness used. Comparison between this composite reinforcement with popular reinforcement as carbon, glass, kevlar performed. To determine mechanical properties of epoxy based basalt fabric following test procedure performed : 1. Tensile testing according to ASTM D3039 in 0° and 90° direction to find ultimate strength in tension and shear, modulus of elasticity, elangation and ultimate strain. 2. Compression testing according to EN 2850 ultimate compression strength and maximum deformation under compression loading. 3. Shear testing according to ASTM D3518-94 to find in plane shear response of polymer matrix composites materials. 4. Predict flexural properties of sandwich construction which manufactured from basalt facing with PVC foam core according to ASTM C393-94. Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material to meet the test procedure specifications [1]. For this reason six specimens were manufactured for testing and the tests were performed on them using an INSTRON machine model 5582. In the study, the effect of percent of resin in basalt reinforced composite was investigated. Also the weights of the ballast based composites with different percent of resin were measured with conventional composites. As the weight is an important parameter in aerospace industry when the designer wants to replace one

  12. Basalt characterization by means of nuclear and electrical well logging techniques. Case study from Southern Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density, and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques to characterize the basaltic areas largely extended in Southern Syria. Statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept has been adapted for such characterization, where four kinds of basalt have been identified: very hard basalt, hard basalt, fractured basalt, and basalt alteration products. The spectrometric gamma technique has also been applied on the retrieved rock samples in order to determine the radioactive content (eU, eTh, and K%) of the basaltic section in the study area. No radioactive anomalies have been detected, the radioactive values are normal and in the expected range.

  13. Algunas plantas leñosas del Trapecio Amazónico Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1956-09-01

    Full Text Available La lista de plantas que compone este breve artículo fue confeccionada extrayendo los datos respectivos de la obra "Woods of Northeastern Peru" de Llewelyn Williams, publicada en FIELD MUSEUMOF NATURAL, HISTORY,BOTANICALSERIES, Vol. 15, pp. 1-509; 1936. En dicha obra el señor Williams cataloga -entre muchas otras de distintas regiones de la Amazonia peruana-- un buen numero de plantas leñosas coleccionadas por él en la hacienda "La Victoria", muy cerca de Leticia, haciéndolas figurar como del Perú. Esto se debe a que en la época que Williams visito aquella región hoy colombiana -a mediados de 1929- no se había perfeccionado todavía, o mejor dicho, no se había puesto en práctica (aunque ya estaba promulgado solemnemente el tratado de fronteras entre Colombia y el Perú que puso fin al litigio que estos dos países sostuvieron por más de un siglo sobre una gran parte del territorio selvoso que se extiende entre los ríos Caquetá y Amazonas. Digo que no se había puesto en practica dicho tratado porque, si bien se firmó el 24 de marzo de 1922 y se promulgo el 31 de marzo de 1938, sólo vino a ejecutarse in situ el 17 de agosto de 1930, después de localizada y amojonada la frontera, mediante la formalidad del acto de entrega y de recibo de los territorios que les tocó definitivamente a un país y al otro. Fue, pues, un año después de la visita de Williams a dicha región cuando la bandera y las autoridades colombianas reemplazaron efectivamente a las peruanas en el llamado "Trapecio Amazónico", cuya población principal es Leticia, sobre el rio Amazonas.

  14. Calidad nutricional y digestibilidad in situ de ensilajes de cuatro leñosas forrajeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ligia Roa

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tiempo de conservación en la calidad nutricional y la digestibilidad in situ de ensilajes de cuatro plantas leñosas forrajeras: Cratylia argentea (T1, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (T2, Trichanthera gigantea (T3 y Tithonia diversifolia (T4. Las plantas fueron podadas a los seis meses de establecidas y a los tres meses de rebrote, y se utilizaron las hojas y ramas tiernas pequeñas para confeccionar 64 silos de 10 kg, en bolsas plásticas. Cada tiempo de conservación (0, 30, 60 y 90 días tuvo cuatro repeticiones. Para calcular la digestibilidad de la MS, el NT y la FDN y los parámetros de la digestibilidad efectiva (DE, se utilizaron cuatro bovinos fistulados en el rumen, distribuidos en un diseño cuadrado latino 4 x 4. Los ensilajes presentaron aspecto y olor agradables, con pH entre 4,2 y 4,6 y nitrógeno amoniacal menor que 1 %. El porcentaje de NT fue mayor para T1 (2,52 y T2 (2,43, y este nutriente se redujo hasta los 90 días. La DE de la MS, el NT y la FDN fue superior (p < 0,05 en T2, con tendencia a disminuir con el tiempo de conservación (90 días. Este mismo comportamiento presentaron las fracciones A, B y c. El mayor contenido de lignina se resentó en T3 (5,45 % y T4 (5,60 %, indicador que afectó de manera negativa la cinética ruminal. La disminución de la calidad nutricional y la digestibilidad por el tiempo de conservación fue menor para T2 y T3. Se concluye que las propiedades órganolepticas de los ensilajes fueron óptimas, el nitrógeno amoniacal no superó el 1% y el ácido láctico varió entre 1,0 y 3,6 %; mientras que el tiempo afectó en menor grado la composición nutricional del ensilaje de H. rosa-sinensis, con respecto a las otras forrajeras. Se recomienda ensilar para la época de seca y utilizar los ensilajes antes de los 60 días de conservación.

  15. STUDY OF THE SITUATION OF MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE URBAN AREA OF VIÇOSA (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucci Resende de Souza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the relief goes by something larger than the observation at the way, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetable covering. However, the forms of the relief interfere as one of the main components of the atmosphere,being necessary its knowledge for the understanding of the dynamics of the area research object.The agreement of the relief passes for something more important that the comment of its form, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetal covering. However, the forms of the relief are inserting as the one of the main components of theenvironment, being necessary its knowledge for the agreement of the dynamic of the area research object.This knowledge is indispensable, because it is impossible to repress the occupation expansion of the spaces and much less to restraint environmental impacts caused by the men and the nature is not capable to regenerate all of the damaged spaces in a short space of time.Many of the inhabited spaces are fruits of segregation, which would be consequence of the exclusion that the effective economical system imposes to the people and spaces. On the other hand, the environmental problems are not correlated only with outlying neighborhoods, but they come very visible in places where constructions of high purchasing power prevail. But, one thing we can do is to prevent, the areas that are not busy, because it is viable naturally,environmentally and less expensive economically speaking. It is in this context, which the study of the mass movements can be of vital importance. The present work seeks to characterize the mass movements that happen in the urban area of Viçosa, with the objective to relate and to compare the rising done in the urban area of the municipal district at the scale 1: 5000 for Vieira in the year of 2000, in order to verify the evolution of the areas studied by the referred author, being analyzed these progressed or some

  16. Desenvolvimento dos frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense LAM, em Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monteiro Matarazzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O lulo é um fruto tropical e exótico, originário dos Andes, tem cor laranja quando maduro, e é uma baga globosa, assemelha- se a um tomate, o epicarpo é grosso e coriáceo, sua polpa é verde-clara, pegajosa, ácida e suculenta, contendo muitas sementes. Objetivou-se acompanhar as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento do fruto de lulo, da antese ao amadurecimento completo, em Viçosa-MG. Os frutos apresentaram um padrão de crescimento sigmoidal simples em resposta à variação do tempo. O desenvolvimento do fruto foi dividido em três fases. A primeira foi até os 7,39 dias após a antese (DAA, sendo caracterizada pela alta taxa respiratória, provavelmente devido à intensa multiplicação celular, e o pericarpo apresentava coloração verde-clara. A segunda fase estendeu-se a partir dos 7,39 até os 57,63 DAA, sendo caracterizada pelas taxas máximas das características estudadas. A taxa respiratória cresceu até 45 DAA, mantendo-se estável até os 52 DAA. A última fase estendeu-se a partir dos 57,63 DAA até os 95,00 DAA. Essa fase foi caracterizada pela estabilização nas dimensões e no acúmulo de massa fresca. Nesse período, ocorreu a ascensão climatérica (dos 52 aos 59 DAA. O climatério respiratório ocorreu aos 66 DAA, com pico de produção de CO2 de 110,99 mg de CO2 kg-1h-1. O pós-climatério ocorreu dos 73 aos 95 DAA, quando houve aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis e queda da acidez titulável e vitamina C da polpa. Nessa fase, o pericarpo dos frutos apresentava-se com coloração alaranjada.

  17. Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Des Marias, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Gorevan, S.; Graff, T.; Grant, J.; Haskin, L.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.; Milam, K.A.; Moersch, J.E.; Morris, R.V.; Rieder, R.; Ruff, S.W.; De Souza, P.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.; Wang, A.; Wyatt, M.B.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater on Mars contains dark, fine-grained, vesicular rocks interpreted as lavas. Pancam and Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) spectra suggest that all of these rocks are similar but have variable coatings and dust mantles. Magnified images of brushed and abraded rock surfaces show alteration rinds and veins. Rock interiors contain ???25% megacrysts. Chemical analyses of rocks by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer are consistent with picritic basalts, containing normative olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclase, and accessory FeTi oxides. Mo??ssbauer, Pancam, and Mini-TES spectra confirm the presence of olivine, magnetite, and probably pyroxene. These basalts extend the known range of rock compositions composing the martian crust.

  18. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  19. Petrogeochemistry of Mesozoic basaltic volcanics in Daqingshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoguang; Li Ziying; Wei Sanyuan; Qi Da'neng

    2009-01-01

    Through the discussion on petrogeochemistry of Later Mesozoic basaltic volcanics in Daqingshan Basin in Manzhouli area, combined with field observation and the predecessors' study, its magma evolution,genesis and diagenetic structural environment are discussed, and some suggestion are provided for the further work. Basaltic magma in this area is believed to be derived from mantle with incompatible elements which were later participated by some crustal materials. It is a partially melting product of mantle by early metasomatized fluid under lithosphere extension. Through petrogeochemical analysis of the volcanics and the contrast to the adjacent uranium-producing volcanics, it is concluded that this region has structural environment to form magma evolution series which are more favorable for volcanic hydrothermal-type uranium and polymetallic mineralization. (authors)

  20. Americium migration in basalt and implications to repository risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickert, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed with americium as a minor component in groundwater. Batch adsorption, migration through column, and filtration experiments were performed. It was determined in batch experiments that americium is strongly adsorbed from solution. It was determined with filtration experiments that large percentages of the americium concentrations suspended by the contact solutions in batch experiments and suspended by the infiltrating groundwater in migration experiments were associated with particulate. Filtration was determined to be the primary mode of removal of americium from infiltrating groundwater in a column of granulated basalt (20 to 50 mesh) and an intact core of permeable basalt. Fractionally, 0.46 and 0.22 of the americium component in the infiltrating groundwater was transported through the column and core respectively. In view of these filtration and migration experiment results, the concept of K/sub d/ in the chromatographic sense is meaningless for predicting americium migration in bedrock by groundwater transport at near neutral pH

  1. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  2. Environmental resistance and mechanical performance of basalt and glass fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Bin; Cao Hailin; Song Shenhua

    2010-01-01

    The treated basalt and glass fibers with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solutions for different times were analyzed, respectively. This paper summarized the mass loss ratio and the strength maintenance ratios of the fibers after treatment. The fibers' surface corrosion morphologies were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were detected using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The acid resistance was much better than the alkali resistance for the basalt fibers. Nevertheless, for the glass fibers the situation is different: the acid resistance was almost the same as the alkali resistance. Among the two types of aqueous environments evaluated, the alkali solution is the most aggressive to the fibers' surface. The possible corrosion mechanisms are revealed.

  3. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  4. Basalt-trachybasalt samples in Gale Crater, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Peter H.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Dyar, Darby

    2017-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, observed numerous igneous float rocks and conglomerate clasts, reported previously. A new statistical analysis of single-laser-shot spectra of igneous targets observed by ChemCam shows a strong peak at ~55 wt% SiO 2 and 6 wt% total alkalis, with a minor secondary maximum at 47–51 wt% SiO 2 and lower alkali content. The centers of these distributions, together with the rock textures, indicate that many of the ChemCam igneous targets are trachybasalts, Mg# = 27 but with a secondary concentration of basaltic material, with a focus of compositions around Mg# = 54. We suggest that all of these igneous rocks resulted from low-pressure, olivine-dominated fractionation of Adirondack (MER) class-type basalt compositions. This magmatism has subalkaline, tholeiitic affinities. The similarity of the basalt endmember to much of the Gale sediment compositions in the first 1000 sols of the MSL mission suggests that this type of Fe-rich, relatively low-Mg#, olivine tholeiite is the dominant constituent of the Gale catchment that is the source material for the fine-grained sediments in Gale. The similarity to many Gusev igneous compositions suggests that it is a major constituent of ancient Martian magmas, and distinct from the shergottite parental melts thought to be associated with Tharsis and the Northern Lowlands. Finally, the Gale Crater catchment sampled a mixture of this tholeiitic basalt along with alkaline igneous material, together giving some analogies to terrestrial intraplate magmatic provinces.

  5. Basaltic Shergottite NWA 856: Differentiation of a Martian Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.; Pirotte, Z.

    2016-01-01

    NWA 856 or Djel Ibone, is a basaltic shergottite discovered as a single stone of 320 g in South Morocco in April, 2001. This meteorite is fresh, i.e. shows minimal terrestrial weathering for a desert find. No shergottite discovered in North Africa can be paired with NWA 856. The purpose of this study is to constrain its crystallization history using textural observations, crystallization sequence modeling and in-situ trace element analysis in order to understand differentiation in shergottite magmatic systems.

  6. Rock mass deformation properties of closely jointed basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Cramer, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    The deformational behavior of the Columbia River basalt is being investigated as part of a comprehensive site characterization program intended to determine the feasibility of constructing a nuclear waste repository in basalt at Hanford, Washington. Direct field measurements were conducted in a 2-m cube of basalt to obtain truly representative rock mass deformation properties. Load was applied to the test block in three orthogonal directions through the use of flat jacks in two perpendicular planes and a cable anchor system in the third. This configuration allowed the block to be placed in a simulated triaxial stress state at stress levels up to 12.5 MPa. The deformation at the center of the test block was monitored through the use of an optical measurement system developed for this project. The results indicate that the vertically oriented columnar joints have a significant influence on the deformation behavior of the basalt. The modulus in the direction parallel to the column axis was approx. 30 GPa, while the modulus value perpendicular to the columns was approx. 20 GPa. Laboratory measurements of intact specimens taken from this area yielded a value of 80 GPa with no indication of anisotropy. Hysteresis was observed in all loading cycles, but was distinctly more pronounced perpendicular to the column axis, indicative of significant joint displacement in this direction. The results of this test represent the first true rock mass modulus data obtained in closely jointed rock on a large scale. These measurement methods have eliminated many of the ambiguities associated with borehole jacking and surface measurement techniques

  7. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs

  8. The Age of Rift-Related Basalts in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitchenkov, G. L.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Kaminsky, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    The Lambert Rift, which is a large intracontinental rift zone in East Antarctica, developed over a long period of geological time, beginning from the Late Paleozoic, and its evolution was accompanied by magmatic activity. The latest manifestation of magmatism is eruption of alkaline olivine-leucite basalts on the western side of the Lambert Rift; Rb-Sr dating referred its time to the Middle Eocene, although its genesis remained vague. In order to solve this problem, we found geochronometer minerals in basaltic samples and 68 apatite grains appeared to be suitable for analysis. Their ages and ages of host basalts, determined by the U-Pb local method on the SIMS SHRIMP-II, were significantly different (323 ± 31 Ma) from those assumed earlier. This age corresponds to the earliest stage of crustal extension in East Antarctica and to most of Gondwana. The new data crucially change the ideas about the evolution of Lambert Rift and demonstrate the ambiguity of K-Ar dates of the alkali effusive formed under long-term rifting.

  9. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    During this fiscal year the information available in the fields of geology and hydrology of the Columbia Plateau was consolidated and two reports were issued summarizing this information. In addition, the information on engineered barriers was consolidated and a report summarizing the research to date on waste package development and design of borehole seals was prepared. The waste package studies, when combined with the hydrologic integration, revealed that even under extreme disruptive conditions, a repository in basalt with appropriately designed waste packages can serve as an excellent barrier for containment of radionuclides for the long periods of time required for waste isolation. On July 1, 1980, the first two heater tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility were started and have been successfully operated to this date. The papers on the Near-Surface Test Facility section of this report present the results of the equipment installed and the preliminary results of the testing. In October 1979, the US Department of Energy selected the joint venture of Kaiser Engineers/Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., to be the architect-engineer to produce a conceptual design of a repository in basalt. During the year, this design has progressed and concept selection has now been completed. This annual report presents a summary of the highlights of the work completed during fiscal year 1980. It is intended to supplement and summarize the nearly 200 papers and reports that have been distributed to date as a part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project studies

  10. Dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater: Mechanism and rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.L.; Honnorez, J.; Eberhart, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Basaltic glasses are considered as natural analogues for nuclear waste glasses. Thermodynamic computer codes used to evaluate long term behavior of both nuclear waste and basaltic glasses require the knowledge of the dissolution mechanism of the glass network. The paper presents the results of a series of experiments designed to study the structure and chemical composition of alteration layers formed on the surface of artificial tholeiitic glass altered in artificial seawater. Experiments were performed at 60 degree C, 1 bar and 350 bars in non-renewed conditions. A natural sample from Palagonia (Sicily) has been studied by electron microscopy and comparison between natural and experimental palagonitic layers is made. The behavior of dissolved silica during experiments, and both the structure and the chemical composition of the palagonitic layers, indicate that they form by precipitation of secondary minerals from solution after a total breakdown of the glassy network, i.e., congruent dissolution of the glass. Hence the dissolution equation necessary for thermodynamic modelling of basaltic glass dissolution in seawater at low temperature must be written as a simple stoichiometric process. These experiments indicate that the transformation of glass to palagonitic material is not isovolumetric. Hence it is preferable to use Fe or Ti as conservative elements for chemical budget calculations

  11. Characterization of iron-enriched synthetic basalt for transuranic containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinn, J.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Kelsey, P.V.; Tallman, R.L.; Welch, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the slagging pyrolytic incineration process, combustibles are burned and noncombustibles, including metals, are oxidized into a molten , an electromelter, where the molten slag, with further processing conducted in a heated tundish, e.g. is allowed to homogenize (within a reasonable time period) and then cast into large, cylindrical metal containers. Analyses of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste slags show them similar in composition and appearance to natural basalts, but rich in iron. The electromelt process and the resulting iron-rich castings offer great promise for rendering nuclear waste into a stable form. The process offers great flexibility with regard to both compositional variation of the incoming waste and the high rates at which the waste can be introduced and cast. The cast product, a fine-grained basalt-like material, shows excellent homogeneity with little or no reaction to the steel containment. The preliminary mechanical and chemical durability data show the form to have adequate containment properties for TRU waste. However, work presently underway to improve these properties through additives and controlled cooling cycles has greatly enhanced the durability of the waste form. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that divalent iron (Fe 2+ ) included in the crystalline phases of granites and basalts imparts a resistance to leaching of uranium and other actinide ions

  12. CPAP Adherence is Associated With Attentional Improvements in a Group of Primarily Male Patients With Moderate to Severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Sean; Liu, Lin; Zamora, Tania; Hamilton, Joanne; Stepnowsky, Carl

    2017-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a widespread condition that adversely affects physical health and cognitive functioning. The prevailing treatment for OSA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but therapeutic benefits are dependent on consistent use. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between CPAP adherence and measures of sustained attention in patients with OSA. Our hypothesis was that the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) would be sensitive to attention-related improvements resulting from CPAP use. This study was a secondary analysis of a larger clinical trial. Treatment adherence was determined from CPAP use data. Validated sleep-related questionnaires and a sustained-attention and alertness test (PVT) were administered to participants at baseline and at the 6-month time point. Over a 6-month time period, the average CPAP adherence was 3.32 h/night (standard deviation [SD] = 2.53), average improvement in PVT minor lapses was -4.77 (SD = 13.2), and average improvement in PVT reaction time was -73.1 milliseconds (standard deviation = 211). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher CPAP adherence was significantly associated with a greater reduction in minor lapses in attention after 6 months of continuous treatment with CPAP therapy (β = -0.72, standard error = 0.34, P = .037). The results of this study showed that higher levels of CPAP adherence were associated with significant improvements in vigilance. Because the PVT is a performance-based measure that is not influenced by prior learning and is not subjective, it may be an important supplement to patient self-reported assessments. Name: Effect of Self-Management on Improving Sleep Apnea Outcomes, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00310310, Identifier: NCT00310310. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  13. Strontium isotopic and trace element geochemistry of the saddle mountains and Grande Ronde Basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt (CRB) group displays significant variations in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions. These compositions reflect complex and variable origins for the CRB magmas. Among the most varied is the Saddle Mountains Basalt (SMB) in which Sr ratios vary from 0.7078 to 0.7147 +- 0.002. The higher ratios reflect contamination through consistent correlations with major element compositions. Modeling suggests contamination by assimilation of 4.4 to 9.4 wt % of radiogenic crustal rocks. High delta 18 O values (up to +7.68 per mil) support the model. Age and field relations suggest that the contamination flowrocks are not the result of progressive contamination of a single magma, but rather reflect the contamination of independent magmas during this ascent

  14. Prokaryotic diversity, distribution, and insights into their role in biogeochemical cycling in marine basalts and gabbros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, O. U.; di Meo-Savoie, C. A.; Nakagawa, T.; van Nostrand, J. D.; Rosner, M.; Maruyama, A.; Zhou, J.; Fisk, M. R.; Giovannoni, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Oceanic crust covers nearly 70% of the Earth's surface, of which, the upper, sediment layer is estimated to harbor substantial microbial biomass. Marine crust, however, extends several kilometers beyond this surficial layer, and includes the basalt and gabbro layers. The microbial diversity in basalts is well characterized, yet metabolic diversity is unknown. To date, the microflora associated with gabbros, including microbial and metabolic diversity has not been reported. In our analyses basaltic and gabbroic endoliths were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, and microarray analysis of functional genes. Our results suggest that despite nearly identical chemical compositions of basalt and gabbro the associated microflora did not overlap. Basalt samples harbor a surprising diversity of seemingly cosmopolitan microorganisms, some of which appear to be basalt specialists. Conversely, gabbros have a low diversity of endoliths, none of which appear to be specifically adapted to the gabbroic environment. Microarray analysis (GeoChip) was used to assay for functional gene diversity in basalts and gabbros. In basalt genes coding for previously unreported processes such as carbon fixation, methane-oxidation, methanogenesis, and nitrogen fixation were present, suggesting that basalts harbor previously unrecognized metabolic diversity. Similar processes were observed in gabbroic samples, yet metabolic inference from phylogenetic relationships of gabbroic endoliths with other microorganisms, suggests that hydrocarbon oxidation is the prevailing metabolism in this environment. Our analyses revealed that the basalt and gabbro layers harbor microorganisms with the genetic potential to significantly impact biogeochemical cycling in the lithosphere and overlying hydrosphere.

  15. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  16. UTILIZATION OF BASALT FIBERS AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR CLAY CERAMIC PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawan Vichaphund

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the possibility of utilization basalt fibers as a raw material for ceramic production. Both quartz and feldspar were replaced partially or entirely by basalt fiber in the range of 10-25 wt%. The mixture of ceramic powders and basalt fibers were uniaxially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 1000 and 1200°C for 1 h. The substitution of basalt fibers in ceramic compositions demonstrated the positive effect on the physical and mechanical properties. The addition of basalt fibers in an appropriate amount enhance the densification and reduce sintering temperature of clay-based ceramics (CB-0 from 1200 to 1150°C. The highest density and strength were 2.40 g/cm³ and 116 MPa, respectively, when replacing feldspar and quartz with basalt up to 20 wt% (CB-20 and sintering at 1150°C.

  17. [Treatment compliance with continuous positive airway pressure device among adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): how many adhere to treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Chomsky, Ofer; Shechter, Dalia

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) afflicts approximately 5% of the adult population and increases with age. The gold standard treatment is with the Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) machine. Well-designed prospective trials to elucidate long term compliance with CPAP machine are rare. Assessing compliance and long-term use of CPAP machines among patients with OSA who were referred for treatment with this machine. A 4 years prospective cohort observational study was conducted using telephone interviews of 371 newly diagnosed patients with moderate to severe OSA, who received a specialist recommendation to use the CPAP machine which was bought and adjusted to their use. At the end of the first year, 126 (34%) of the OSA patients used the CPAP machine on a nightly basis (regular users), 120 (32.3%) had not used it at all, and 125 (33.7%) had used it only intermittently. The number of regular users increased between the 1st and 2nd year from 126 (34%), to 163 (44%) (p < 0.07) due to additions from the intermittent users group. The non-users group grew from 120 (32.3%) in the first year, and every year afterwards, up to 221 (59.6%) in the fourth year (p < 0.02). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the intermittent users group, which declined from 125 (33.7%) in the first year to only 18 (4.8%) in the 4th year (p < 0.005). Most of the patients (92.9%) were males. The average age of the regular users was 59.6 years (+/- 11), which was higher in comparison to 55.9 years (+/- 10.3) for the non-users or 58.9 years (+/- 12.6) among the intermittent users (p = 0.064). There were no statistical differences in co-morbidities or demographics between the three groups. However, the regular users were found to have a higher score in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a minimal arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) level lower than the patients in the non-users and intermittent users groups (p = 0.019 and p = 0.03 respectively). Four years follow

  18. Improving PTSD Symptoms and Preventing Progression of Subclinical PTSD to an Overt Disorder by Treating Comorbid OSA With CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M I; Campbell, Douglas G; Bhagat, Rajesh; Lyons, Judith A; Tamanna, Sadeka

    2017-10-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in United States veterans. These conditions often coexist and symptoms overlap. Previous studies reported improvement in PTSD symptoms with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for comorbid OSA but its effect has not been assessed in a non-PTSD cohort. We have prospectively assessed the effect of CPAP therapy on clinical symptom improvement as a function of CPAP compliance levels among PTSD and non-PTSD veterans. Veterans in whom OSA was newly diagnosed were enrolled in our study (n = 192). Assignment to PTSD and non-PTSD cohorts was determined by chart review. Each patient completed the military version of the PTSD Checklist (PCL), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and reported nightmare frequency (NMF) at baseline and 6 months after CPAP therapy. CPAP adherence was objectively documented from machine compliance data. We had complete data for 177 veterans (PTSD n = 59, non-PTSD n = 118) for analysis. The mean ages were 51.24 years in the PTSD cohort and 52.36 years in the non-PTSD cohort ( P = .30). In the PTSD cohort, the mean total PCL score (baseline = 66.06, post-CPAP = 61.27, P = .004, d = -0.34) and NMF (baseline = 4.61, post-CPAP = 1.49, P = .0001, d = -0.51) decreased after 6 months of CPAP treatment. Linear regression analysis showed that the CPAP compliance was the only significant predictor for these changes among veterans with PTSD (PCL score: P = .033, R 2 = .65; NMF; P = .03, R 2 = .61). Further analysis by CPAP compliance quartiles in this cohort (Q1 = 0% to 25%, Q2 = 26% to 50%, Q3 = 51% to 75%, Q4 > 75%) revealed that mean total PCL score declined in Q2 (change = -3.91, P = .045, d = 0.43), Q3 (change = -6.6, P = .002, d = 0.59), and Q4 (change = -7.94, P = .037, d = 0.49). In the non-PTSD cohort, the PCL score increased despite CPAP therapy in lower CPAP compliance quartiles Q1 (change = 8.71, P = .0001, d = 0.46) and Q2 (change = 4.51, P = .046, d = 0

  19. Methods of simulating low redox potential (Eh) for a basalt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Basalt groundwaters have inherently low redox potentials, approximately -0.4V, which can be measured with platinum electrodes, but are difficult to reproduce during leaching experiments. In the presence of deionized water, crushed basalt reaches the measured Eh-pH values of a basalt repository. Other waste package components, such as iron, will interact with groundwater in different ways under oxic or anoxic conditions since the presence of any redox active solid will affect the groundwater Eh. 26 references, 4 figures

  20. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed

  1. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  2. The hardness of synthetic products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts (in Romanian)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Ogrean

    2001-01-01

    The Hardness of Synthetic Products Obtained from Cooled and Crystallized Basaltic Melts. Hardness is one of the main properties of the products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts under a controlled thermal regime. It influences the abrasion tear resistance of the resulted material. The microhardness measurements on the samples (bricks, boards, gutters, armour plates, tubes) indicated Vickers hardness value between 757–926 for the materials obtained from Şanovita basalts (Tim...

  3. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  4. A Brillouin scattering study of hydrous basaltic glasses: the effect of H2O on their elastic behavior and implications for the densities of basaltic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Yang, De-Bin; Liu, Jun-Xiu; Hu, Bo; Xie, Hong-Sen; Li, Fang-Fei; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gao, Chun-Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Hydrous basalt glasses with water contents of 0-6.82% were synthesized using a multi-anvil press at 1.0-2.0 GPa and 1200-1400 °C. The starting materials were natural Mesozoic basalts from the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Their sound velocities and elastic properties were measured by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The longitudinal ( V P) and shear ( V S) wave velocities decreased with increasing water content. Increasing the synthesis pressure resulted in the glass becoming denser, and finally led to an increase in V P. As the degree of depolymerization increased, the V P, V S, and shear and bulk moduli of the hydrous basalt glasses decreased, whereas the adiabatic compressibility increased. The partial molar volumes of water (ν) under ambient conditions were independent of composition, having values of 11.6 ± 0.8, 10.9 ± 0.6 and 11.5 ± 0.5 cm3/mol for the FX (Feixian), FW (Fuxin), and SHT (Sihetun) basalt glasses, respectively. However, the {{V}_{{{{H}}_{{2}}}{O}}} values measured at elevated temperatures and pressures are increasing with increasing temperature or decreasing pressure. The contrasting densities of these hydrous basalt melts with those previously reported for mid-ocean ridge basalt and preliminary reference Earth model data indicate that hydrous basalt melts may not maintain gravitational stability at the base of the upper mantle.

  5. Geology of the Sabie River Basalt Formation in the Southern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Sweeney

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sabie River Basalt Formation (SRBF in the central Lebombo is a virtually continuous sequence of basaltic lavas some 2 500 m thick that was erupted 200 - 179 Ma ago. Flows are dominantly pahoehoe in character and vary from 2 m to 20 m in thickness. Dolerite dykes cross-cutting the basalt sequence probably represent feeders to this considerable volcanic event. Volcanological features observed within the SRBF are described. Two chemically distinct basaltic magma types are recognised, the simultaneous eruption of which presents an intriguing geochemical problem as to their origins.

  6. Radiation shielding properties of a novel cement–basalt mixture for nuclear energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipbüker, Cagatay; Nulk, Helena; Gulik, Volodymyr [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Biland, Alex [HHK Technologies, Houston (United States); Tkaczyk, Alan Henry, E-mail: alan@ut.ee [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Basalt fiber is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Neutron attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Cement–basalt mixture has a good potential for use in nuclear energy applications. - Abstract: The radiation shielding properties of a new proposed building material, a novel cement–basalt fiber mixture (CBM), are investigated. The authors analyze the possibility of this material to be a viable substitute to outgoing materials in nuclear energy applications, which will lead to a further sustained development of nuclear energy in the future. This computational study involves four types of concrete with various amounts of basalt fiber in them. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics of proposed CBM material are investigated with the help of WinXCom program, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are computed by the Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, we find that the attenuation coefficients of concretes with basalt fibers are not notably influenced by the addition of fibers. For neutron shielding, additional basalt fiber in mixture presents negligible effect on neutron radiation shielding. With respect to radiation shielding, it can be concluded that basalt fibers have good potential as an addition to heavyweight concrete for nuclear energy applications.

  7. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaeva, E; Rogozhnikov, A; Nikitin, V; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A

    2015-01-01

    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice. (paper)

  8. Basalt Fiber for Volcanic Slag Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Research on the Impact of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-guang; Li, Gen-zhuang

    2018-03-01

    In order to study the effect of basalt fiber on the mechanical properties and durability of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete, the experimental study on the flexural strength, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of volcanic slag concrete with different basalt fiber content were carried out, the basalt fiber was surface treated with NaOH and water glass, the results show that the surface treatment of basalt fiber can significantly improve the mechanical properties, durability and other properties of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete.

  9. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, E.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Nikitin, V.; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice.

  10. Radiation shielding properties of a novel cement–basalt mixture for nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipbüker, Cagatay; Nulk, Helena; Gulik, Volodymyr; Biland, Alex; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Basalt fiber is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Neutron attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Cement–basalt mixture has a good potential for use in nuclear energy applications. - Abstract: The radiation shielding properties of a new proposed building material, a novel cement–basalt fiber mixture (CBM), are investigated. The authors analyze the possibility of this material to be a viable substitute to outgoing materials in nuclear energy applications, which will lead to a further sustained development of nuclear energy in the future. This computational study involves four types of concrete with various amounts of basalt fiber in them. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics of proposed CBM material are investigated with the help of WinXCom program, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are computed by the Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, we find that the attenuation coefficients of concretes with basalt fibers are not notably influenced by the addition of fibers. For neutron shielding, additional basalt fiber in mixture presents negligible effect on neutron radiation shielding. With respect to radiation shielding, it can be concluded that basalt fibers have good potential as an addition to heavyweight concrete for nuclear energy applications

  11. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation

  12. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation.

  13. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well

  14. Mineralização de carbono e de nitrogênio provenientes de composto de lixo urbano em argissolo Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in an ultisol fertilized with urban waste compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos da mineralização do C e do N em solos que receberam aplicação de composto de lixo urbano são importantes para avaliar o comportamento desse resíduo no solo e dar subsídios para definir as doses adequadas às culturas, com vistas em atender à necessidade de N das plantas. Foram realizados dois experimentos em condições de laboratório com o objetivo de avaliar a mineralização de C e de N em um Argissolo textura média adubado com composto de lixo urbano. No primeiro experimento, utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com os tratamentos constituídos de cinco doses de composto de lixo urbano, equivalentes a 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 t ha-1. No segundo experimento, empregou-se esquema fatorial, com delineamento inteiramente ao acaso e três repetições, combinando as mesmas cinco doses de composto de lixo urbano utilizadas no primeiro experimento e 11 tempos de incubação (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 e 126 dias. Os maiores aumentos de N-NO3- no solo foram obtidos até os 42 dias de incubação, independentemente da dose de composto de lixo aplicada, percebendo-se, a partir dos 70 dias, tendência de estabilização. A fração de mineralização de C-orgânico em C-CO2 menor do que 2 % em 168 dias indica que o composto de lixo urbano é material que contribui para aumentar os estoques de matéria orgânica do solo. Na ausência de adubação nitrogenada complementar, a fração de mineralização de N-orgânico de 12 % em 126 dias evidencia que o composto de lixo urbano apresenta potencial fertilizante de liberação lenta de N para as plantas.Studies about nitrogen and carbon mineralization in soils amended with urban waste compost are important to evaluate the reactions of this waste in soil and to define the best rates for crops. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate carbon and nitrogen mineralization in an Ultisol fertilized with

  15. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms were centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure was 1/3 kbar. All prisms showed large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration reacted readily to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms were coated with a calcium smectite, and the last two prisms were covered with discrete patches of potassium-rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The results indicated that clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  16. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms are centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure is 1/3 kbar. All prisms show large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration readily reacts to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms are coated with a Ca-smectite while the last two prisms are covered with discrete patches of K rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  17. Environmental issue identification for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrell, D.J.; Jones, K.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of environmental issues is provided in this report. It contains summary of the thought process that was used during the area characterization studies for a geological repository for high-level radioactive wastes. Environmental issues are discussed separately for construction, operation, and long term isolation aspects of a repository in basalt. During construction the primary environmental concerns are public perception and water resources; intermediate concerns are air quality, ecosystems, physical resources, and cultural and social resources. During operation, the primary environmental issues concern the transport of radioactive materials and physical resources. Long term environmental issues envolve water resources and borehole plugging

  18. Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site: Final reclamation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  19. Penetration of molten core materials into basaltic and limestone concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    In conjunction with the small-scale, melt-concrete interaction tests being conducted at Sandia Laboratories, an acoustic technique has been used to monitor the penetration of molten core materials into basaltic and limestone concrete. Real time plots of the position of the melt/concrete interface have been obtained, and they illustrate that the initial penetration rate of the melt may be of the order of 80 mm/min. Phenomena deduced by the technique include a non-wetted melt/concrete interface

  20. Hydrologic bibliography of the Columbia River basalts in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.H.; Wildrick, L.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is part of the hydrologic data compilation effort of the Columbia Plateau Hydrology Study, Rockwell Hanford Operations' Waste Isolation Program. It includes references on both surface and subsurface hydrology directly or indirectly related to the Washington State portion of the Columbia River basalts. A comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the Pasco Basin (including the Hanford site) hydrology has been prepared for Rockwell Hanford Operations under the Pasco Basin Hydrology Study. In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, no effort was made to include a complete list of bibliographic references on Hanford in this volume

  1. Structural Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengal Ali Nawaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP wind turbine blade was analyzed and compared with Glass fiber reinforced plastic blade (GFRP. Finite element analysis (FEA of blade was carried out using ANSYS. Data for FEA was obtained by using rule of mixture. The shell element in ANSYS was used to simulate the wind turbine blade and to conduct its strength analysis. The structural analysis and comparison of blade deformations proved that BFRP wind turbine blade has better strength compared to GFRP wind turbine blade.

  2. Melt density and the average composition of basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, E.; Walker, D.

    1980-01-01

    Densities of residual liquids produced by low pressure fractionation of olivine-rich melts pass through a minimum when pyroxene and plagioclase joint the crystallization sequence. The observation that erupted basalt compositions cluster around the degree of fractionation from picritic liquids corresponding to the density minimum in the liquid line of descent may thus suggest that the earth's crust imposes a density fiber on the liquids that pass through it, favoring the eruption of the light liquids at the density minimum over the eruption of denser more fractionated and less fractionated liquids.

  3. Assessment and characterization of joineries in the city of Viçosa, MG/ Diagnóstico e caracterização das marcenarias na cidade de Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The forestry sector is not only formed by large companies, such as pulp and paper or reconstituted panels, but also by small businesses, and often strictly family businesses, as joineries. This study aimed to identify, assess and characterize joineries in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The object of study was limited to the city’s joinery businesses, mainly the ones belonging to the former Joiner’s Association. A questionnaire was drawn up to obtain information on the used wood, internal management and employee training, machinery, products, market, product advertising and prospects for the sector. It was found that both entrepreneurs and workers have low educational level and lack their own product design. They were producing only ordered products with intensive use of solid wood particularly from native forests. Products were heterogeneous, ranging from furniture to farm utilities. Competition, mainly the informal, represented the biggest obstacle to sector development, as well as serialized products from other locations sold in shops at lower prices. It was concluded that the joinery sector in Viçosa needs greater skill levels, both technical and managerial, to improve the activity. Moreover, the sector needs better organization through associations and support of agencies such as local Sebrae, and wider product advertising targeting consumers in the region.O setor florestal não é constituído apenas por grandes empresas, como as de celulose e papel ou de painéis reconstituídos, mas também por pequenas empresas, muitas das vezes estritamente familiares, como as marcenarias. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a identificação, diagnóstico e caracterização das marcenarias de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais. Delimitaram-se, como objeto de estudo, as empresas de marcenaria da cidade, principalmente, pertencentes ao antigo Núcleo de Marceneiros. Elaborou-se um questionário para buscar informações sobre a madeira utilizada

  4. Lime and gypsum to improve root depth of orange crop in an Ultisol of the Coastal Tablelands Calcário e gesso no aprofundamento radicular da laranjeira em um Argissolo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafayette F. Sobral

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal Tableland is a landscape unit in the North East of Brazil in which the main soils are Ultisols. In these soils, a compacted layer denominated "cohesive horizon" occurs and root growth is limited by it. An experiment with five treatments and six replications was set up in order to study how liming and gypsum could improve root depth of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck crop in an Ultisol in which a compacted layer was found at 0.3 m. Treatments were: A - No liming and no gypsum; B - Liming to achieve 60% base saturation; C - B + 1 t of gypsum ha-1 ; D - B + 2 t of gypsum ha-1 and E - B + 3 t of gypsum ha-1. Gypsum increased calcium and sulfate in the cohesive horizon. Surface application of lime and gypsum did not cause changes in soil density and total porosity in the cohesive horizon. An improvement of root length was observed at the cohesive horizon.Os tabuleiros costeiros são uma unidade de paisagem em que um dos principais solos são os Argissolos, nos quais, uma camada compactada, denominada "horizonte coeso" ocorre e o crescimento radicular é por ela limitado. Um experimento com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições foi implantado para se estudar os efeitos da calagem e do gesso no aprofundamento radicular da laranjeira (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck em um Argissolo onde o horizonte coeso está a 0,3 m de profundidade. Os tratamentos foram: A - Sem gesso e sem calagem; B - Calagem para atingir 60% de saturação por bases; C - B + 1 t ha-1 de gesso ; D - B + 2 t ha-1 de gesso; e E - B + 3 t ha-1 de gesso. A calagem e o gesso aumentaram significativamente os teores de sulfato e de calcio no solo até a profundidade de 0,40 m. A aplicação a lanço de calcário e gesso não causaram modificações na densidade do solo e na porosidade total da camada compactada "horizonte coeso". Foi observado um aumento do comprimento das raízes da laranjeira na camada compactada.

  5. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug

  6. The Disruption of Tephra Fall Deposits by Basaltic Lava Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Blake, S.

    2010-12-01

    Complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents of the Roza Member in the Columbia River Basalt Province, (CRBP), USA, illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter tephra fall deposits. Thin pahoehoe lobes and sheet lobes occur intercalated with tephra deposits and provide evidence for synchronous effusive and explosive activity. Tephra that accumulated on the tops of inflating pahoehoe flows became disrupted by tumuli, which dissected the overlying sheet into a series of mounds. During inflation of subjacent tumuli tephra percolated down into the clefts and rubble at the top of the lava, and in some cases came into contact with lava hot enough to thermally alter it. Lava breakouts from the tumuli intruded up through the overlying tephra deposit and fed pahoehoe flows that spread across the surface of the aggrading tephra fall deposit. Non-welded scoria fall deposits were compacted and welded to a depth of ~50 cm underneath thick sheet lobes. These processes, deduced from the field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in proximal regions. We also demonstrate that, when the advance of lava and the fallout of tephra are synchronous, the contacts of some tephra sheets can be diachronous across their extent. The net effect is to reduce the usefulness of pyroclastic deposits in reconstructing eruption dynamics.

  7. Network topology of olivine-basalt partial melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Philip; Chaney, Molly M.; Emmerich, Adrienne L.; Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu

    2017-07-01

    The microstructural relationship between melt and solid grains in partially molten rocks influences many physical properties, including permeability, rheology, electrical conductivity and seismic wave speeds. In this study, the connectivity of melt networks in the olivine-basalt system is explored using a systematic survey of 3-D X-ray microtomographic data. Experimentally synthesized samples with 2 and 5 vol.% melt are analysed as a series of melt tubules intersecting at nodes. Each node is characterized by a coordination number (CN), which is the number of melt tubules that intersect at that location. Statistically representative volumes are described by coordination number distributions (CND). Polyhedral grains can be packed in many configurations yielding different CNDs, however widely accepted theory predicts that systems with small dihedral angles, such as olivine-basalt, should exhibit a predominant CN of four. In this study, melt objects are identified with CN = 2-8, however more than 50 per cent are CN = 4, providing experimental verification of this theoretical prediction. A conceptual model that considers the role of heterogeneity in local grain size and melt fraction is proposed to explain the formation of nodes with CN ≠ 4. Correctly identifying the melt network topology is essential to understanding the relationship between permeability and porosity, and hence the transport properties of partial molten mantle rocks.

  8. Smectite Formation from Basaltic Glass Under Acidic Conditions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Sutter, B.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Le, L.; Ming, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Massive deposits of phyllosilicates of the smectite group, including Mg/Fe-smectite, have been identified in Mars's ancient Noachian terrain. The observed smectite is hypothesized to form through aqueous alteration of basaltic crust under neutral to alkaline pH conditions. These pH conditions and the presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere suggested for ancient Mars were favorable for the formation of large carbonate deposits. However, the detection of large-scale carbonate deposits is limited on Mars. We hypothesized that smectite deposits may have formed under acidic conditions that prevented carbonate precipitation. In this work we investigated formation of saponite at a pH of approximately 4 from Mars-analogue synthetic Adirondack basaltic glass of composition similar to Adirondack class rocks located at Gusev crater. Hydrothermal (200º Centigrade) 14 day experiments were performed with and without 10 millimoles Fe(II) or Mg under anoxic condition [hereafter denoted as anoxic_Fe, anoxic_Mg and anoxic (no addition of Fe(II) or Mg)] and under oxic condition [hereafter denoted as oxic (no addition of Fe(II) or Mg)]. Characterization and formation conditions of the synthesized saponite provided insight into the possible geochemical conditions required for saponite formation on Mars.

  9. Characterization and recognition of intraflow structures, Grande Ronde Basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This investigation was carried out as part of a feasibility study for long-term storage of nuclear waste at depth in the Pasco Basin. Three general types of intraflow structures were found at Sentinel Gap: flows with stubby, irregular columns that lack a well-developed entablature; flows consisting of multiple tiers of largely entablature-type columns; and flows with a well-developed colonnade and entablature showing a sharp break between the two. Certain features occur locally in all three types of intraflow structures: variations in fracture morphology, primary platey fracture zones, pillow-palagonite zones, and tectonically induced zones of closely spaced fractures. Fractures in each of the three types of flows were logged both at the surface and in core from Core Hole DH-5, and petrographic textures of basalt sampled from surface exposures were examined. The textures of the basalt correlate with the intraflow structures and provide a technique for identifying flows as to their general type of intraflow structure, locating internal contacts between intraflow structures and possibly estimating fracture density within flows. Fracture logging, on the other hand, does not accurately delimit intraflow structures

  10. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Jambon, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishio, Y.; Sano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R atm of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4±0.3 R atm ), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06±0.35 R atm in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of 20 Ne and 21 Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between 3 He/ 4 He and 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess 129 Xe is observed in the sample which also shows 20 Ne and 21 Ne excesses. Observed δ 13 C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO 2 / 3 He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Design approaches for access plugs in a basalt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, J.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes research, laboratory testing, and analytical approaches taken toward the development of designs for sealing boreholes, shafts, and tunnels penetrating from ground surface to a deep, mined nuclear waste repository in basalt. A material selection process leading to identification of preferred sealing materials is discussed, and the laboratory testing program to define the geochemical and geotechnical performance of these materials is described. Analysis of the environmental conditions in the Columbia Plateau basalt flows leads to identification of tentative design criteria for plug systems. These design criteria include performance of the plug as a hydraulic barrier and as a radionuclide barrier. An important problem for effective performance of a plug system as a hydraulic barrier is shown to be a potentially disturbed zone surrounding the excavation in the stressed and jointed host rock. An idealized one-dimensional numerical model is described for analyzing the performance of the plug as a barrier to radionuclide transport. The preliminary analyses led to the conclusion that the composition and dimensions of practical candidate plugs can satisfy both hydraulic and radionuclide barrier criteria. Examples of candidate designs are shown for boreholes, shafts, and tunnels. 9 references, 6 figures, 6 tables

  12. Genetics of Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera in fragments of the Atlantic Forest in the region of Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Waldschmidt

    Full Text Available With uncontrolled deforestation, forest fragments remain, which in most cases are in different stages of regeneration and present isolated populations. In the present study we analyzed the genetic patterns of Eulaema nigrita populations in seven Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes and successional stages in the region of Viçosa, MG. This was done by RAPD molecular markers. We observed that the area of the fragments had no effect on the genetic variability of E. nigrita in the direction predicted by meta-population models. Medium-sized well-preserved woods presented the lowest variability, whereas large and small woods were statistically identical. The evidence supports the notion that rural areas present greater dispersal among fragments, implying greater similarity between the populations of fragments located in rural areas when compared to fragments in urban areas.

  13. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuenta

  14. Evaluation of thermobarometry for spinel lherzolite fragments in alkali basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; McKenzie, Dan; Nagahara, Hiroko

    2017-04-01

    Geothermobarometry of solid fragments in kimberlite and alkali basalts, generally called "xenoliths", provides information on thermal and chemical structure of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle, based on which various chemical, thermal, and rheological models of lithosphere have been constructed (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003; McKenzie et al., 2005; Ave Lallemant et al., 1980). Geothermobarometry for spinel-bearing peridotite fragments, which are frequently sampled from Phanerozoic provinces in various tectonic environments (Nixon and Davies, 1987), has essential difficulties, and it is usually believed that appropriated barometers do not exist for them (O'Reilly et al., 1997; Medaris et al., 1999). Ozawa et al. (2016; EGU) proposed a method of geothermobarometry for spinel lherzolite fragments. They applied the method to mantle fragments in alkali basalts from Bou Ibalhatene maars in the Middle Atlas in Morocco (Raffone et al. 2009; El Azzouzi et al., 2010; Witting et al., 2010; El Messbahi et al., 2015). Ozawa et al. (2016) obtained 0.5GPa pressure difference (1.5-2.0GPa) for 100°C variation in temperatures (950-1050°C). However, it is imperative to verify the results on the basis of completely independent data. There are three types of independent information: (1) time scale of solid fragment extraction, which may be provided by kinetics of reactions induced by heating and/or decompression during their entrapment in the host magma and transportation to the Earth's surface (Smith, 1999), (2) depth of the host basalt formation, which may be provided by the petrological and geochemical studies of the host basalts, and (3) lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depths, which may be estimated by geophysical observations. Among which, (3) is shown to be consistent with the result in Ozawa et al. (2016). We here present that the estimated thermal structure just before the fragment extraction is fully supported by the information of (1) and (2). Spera (1984) reviewed

  15. Efecto de la humedad y compactación de un Ultisol de la sabana del estado Monagas sobre la concentración de clorofila y carotenoides, lavado de electrolitos y contenido relativo de agua en plantas de soya Efecto de la humedad y compactación de un Ultisol de la sabana del estado Monagas sobre la concentración de clorofila y carotenoides, lavado de electrolitos y contenido relativo de agua en plantas de soya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Parra D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In late 2008, a greenhouse trial was conducted with soybeans to determine the behavior ofchlorophyll a, b, a+b and carotenoid concentration , electrolyte leakage, and relative watercontent with respect to moisture and ultisol soil compaction, because these two factors are acommon limiting factor of agricultural soil in the state of Monagas. A randomized block designwith factorial arrangement (4x4 was used, and the interaction of four levels of compactionproduced by different number of blows per layer (0, 12, 24, 36 and four levels of moistureproduced by varying the irrigation frequency (daily, every two days, every three days and fourdays was studied. Analysis of variance and regression analysis indicated that the most influentialfactor in the variables assessed was the frequency of irrigation.A finales del año 2008, se realizó un ensayo a nivel de invernadero para determinar el comportamiento de la concentración de clorofila a, b, a+b y carotenoides, el lavado de electrolitos y contenido relativo de agua en el cultivo de Soya, con respecto a la humedad y compactación de un suelo Ultisol, debido a que estos dos factores son una limitante muy común en los suelos agrícolas del estado Monagas. Se trabajó bajo un diseño de bloques al azar en arreglo factorial (4 x 4 donde se estudió la interacción de cuatro niveles de compactación a través de diferentes número de golpes por capa (0, 12, 24, 36 y cuatro niveles de humedad a través de la variación de las frecuencias de riego (todos los días, cada dos días, cada tres días y cada cuatro días, luego del análisis de varianza y posterior análisis de regresión se concluyó que el factor más influyente en las variables evaluadas fue la frecuencia de riego.

  16. Initiation of CPAP therapy for OSA: does prophylactic humidification during CPAP pressure titration improve initial patient acceptance and comfort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, G H; Harsch, I A; Fuchs, F S; Kitzbichler, S; Bogner, K; Brueckl, W M; Hahn, E G; Ficker, J H

    2002-01-01

    Heated humidifiers (HH) enable effective treatment of upper airway dryness during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), but the role of prophylactic use of HH during the initiation of nCPAP treatment has not been studied so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether prophylactic HH during the initiation of CPAP would result in improved initial patient comfort and acceptance. In 44 consecutive, previously untreated OSA patients with no history of upper airway dryness, CPAP titration with and without HH was performed on two consecutive nights in a randomised order. The patients were interviewed after each treatment night in order to establish the comfort of the treatment, and, after the second treatment, they were asked which of the two nights they considered more pleasant, and which treatment they would prefer for long-term use. Following CPAP titration with HH, 32 patients (73%) claimed to have had a better night's sleep than usual (i.e. without CPAP treatment) compared with 33 patients (75%) saying the same following CPAP treatment without HH. For 21 patients (47.7%) treatment with HH was more pleasant, 23 (52.3%) saw no difference or said that treatment without HH was more pleasant. Nineteen patients (43.2%) gave preference to treatment with HH for long-term use, while 25 patients (56.8%) had no preference or said they would prefer treatment without HH. The use of HH during the initiation phase of CPAP treatment was associated neither with an initial improvement in comfort nor with greater initial treatment acceptance. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  18. Translation of Berlin Questionnaire to Portuguese language and its application in OSA identification in a sleep disordered breathing clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Vaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Berlin Questionnaire (BQ, an English language screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in primary care, has been applied in tertiary settings, with variable results. Aims: Development of BQ Portuguese version and evaluation of its utility in a sleep disordered breathing clinic (SDBC. Material and methods: BQ was translated using back translation methodology and prospectively applied, previously to cardiorespiratory sleep study, to 95 consecutive subjects, referred to a SDBC, with OSA suspicion. OSA risk assessment was based on responses in 10 items, organized in 3 categories: snoring and witnessed apneas (category 1, daytime sleepiness (category 2, high blood pressure (HBP/obesity (category 3. Results: In the studied sample, 67.4% were males, with a mean age of 51 ± 13 years. Categories 1, 2 and 3 were positive in 91.6, 24.2 and 66.3%, respectively. BQ identified 68.4% of the patients as being in the high risk group for OSA and the remaining 31.6% in the low risk. BQ sensitivity and specificity were 72.1 and 50%, respectively, for an apnea-hipopnea index (AHI > 5, 82.6 and 44.8% for AHI > 15, 88.4 and 39.1% for AHI > 30. Being in the high risk group for OSA did not infl uence significantly the probability of having the disease (positive likelihood ratio [LR] between 1.44-1.49. Only the items related to snoring loudness, witnessed apneas and HBP/obesity presented a statistically positive association with AHI, with the model constituted by their association presenting a greater discrimination capability, especially for an AHI > 5 (sensitivity 65.2%, specificity 80%, positive LR 3.26. Conclusions: The BQ is not an appropriate screening tool for OSA in a SDBC, although snoring loudness, witnessed apneas, HBP/obesity have demonstrated being significant questionnaire elements in this population. Resumo: Introdução: O Questionário de Berlim (QB, originalmente desenvolvido em língua inglesa como um instrumento de

  19. Derivation of Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts at Discrete Times: Rb-Sr Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui. Hejiu; Neal, Clive, R.; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2012-01-01

    Pristine Apollo 14 (A-14) high-Al basalts represent the oldest volcanic deposits returned from the Moon [1,2] and are relatively enriched in Al2O3 (>11 wt%) compared to other mare basalts (7-11 wt%). Literature Rb-Sr isotopic data suggest there are at least three different eruption episodes for the A-14 high-Al basalts spanning the age range approx.4.3 Ga to approx.3.95 Ga [1,3]. Therefore, the high-Al basalts may record lunar mantle evolution between the formation of lunar crust (approx.4.4 Ga) and the main basin-filling mare volcanism (groups [5,6], and then regrouped into three with a possible fourth comprising 14072 based on the whole-rock incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios and Rb-Sr radiometric ages [7]. However, Rb-Sr ages of these basalts from different laboratories may not be consistent with each other because of the use of different 87Rb decay constants [8] and different isochron derivation methods over the last four decades. This study involved a literature search for Rb-Sr isotopic data previously reported for the high-Al basalts. With the re-calculated Rb-Sr radiometric ages, eruption episodes of A-14 high-Al basalts were determined, and their petrogenesis was investigated in light of the "new" Rb-Sr isotopic data and published trace element abundances of these basalts.

  20. Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

  1. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-05-23

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive.

  2. Prokaryotic diversity, distribution, and insights into their role in biogeochemical cycling in marine basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Di Meo-Savoie, Carol A.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Fisk, Martin R.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2008-09-30

    We used molecular techniques to analyze basalts of varying ages that were collected from the East Pacific Rise, 9 oN, from the rift axis of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and from neighboring seamounts. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Polymorphism data revealed that basalt endoliths are distinct from seawater and that communities clustered, to some degree, based on the age of the host rock. This age-based clustering suggests that alteration processes may affect community structure. Cloning and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes revealed twelve different phyla and sub-phyla associated with basalts. These include the Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, the candidate phylum SBR1093 in the c, andin the Archaea Marine Benthic Group B, none of which have been previously reported in basalts. We delineated novel ocean crust clades in the gamma-Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria that are composed entirely of basalt associated microflora, and may represent basalt ecotypes. Finally, microarray analysis of functional genes in basalt revealed that genes coding for previously unreported processes such as carbon fixation, methane-oxidation, methanogenesis, and nitrogen fixation are present, suggesting that basalts harbor previously unrecognized metabolic diversity. These novel processes could exert a profound influence on ocean chemistry.

  3. High-Ti type N-MORB parentage of basalts from the south Andaman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    by Irvine and Baragar (1971) or MacDonald and. Katsura (1964) were not included here because of the considerable uncertainty that exists in such a classification scheme (see Sheth et al 2002 for more explanation). The Andaman ophiolite samples are mainly basalts (20 samples), with some basaltic andesites.

  4. Effect of basalt, silica sand and fly ash on the mechanical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-17

    May 17, 2018 ... For this, we first manufactured binary PCs of epoxy/basalt ... Keywords. Polymer concrete; mechanical strength; mixture design; fly ash; silica sand; basalt. 1. .... To reduce the production cost of PCs, it is necessary to minimize ...

  5. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive

  6. From mantle roots to surface eruptions: Cenozoic and Mesozoic continental basaltic magmatism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kämpf, H.; Németh, K.; Puziewicz, J.; Mrlina, Jan; Geissler, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2015), s. 1909-1912 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : continental basaltic volcanism * BASALT 2013 conference * Cenozoic * Mesozoic Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  7. Post-Columbia River Basalt Group stratigraphy and map compilation of the Columbia Plateau, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqui, S.M.; Bunker, R.C.; Thoms, R.E.; Clayton, D.C.; Bela, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of reconnaissance mapping of sedimentary deposits and volcanic rocks overlying the Columbia River Basalt. The project area covers parts of the Dalles, Pendleton, Grangeville, Baker, Canyon City, and Bend. The mapping was done to provide stratigraphic data on the sedimentary deposits and volcanic rocks overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group. 160 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  8. Glass and mineral chemistry of northern central Indian ridge basalts: Compositional diversity and petrogenetic significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Basavalingu, B.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    -88)), diopside (Wo sub(45-51), En sub(25-37), Fs sub14-24)), and titanomagnetite (FeO sub(t) approx. 63.5 wt% and Ti0 sub(2) approx. 22.69 wt%). The whole-rock composition of these basalts has similar Mg [mole Mg/mole(Mg+Fe sup(2+))] (VT basalt: approx. 0...

  9. Magmatic evolution of the fresh basalts from the Ridge axis near Egaria Fracture Zone, Central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.

    was run through a computer programme of the least square and mass balance calculations for understanding the evolutionary path by differentiating minerals present in these basalts. The results indicate that the basalts under study represent a set...

  10. Correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of high strength concrete incorporating chopped basalt fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Nasir; Fadhilnuruddin, Muhd; Elshekh, Ali Elheber Ahmed; Fathi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), is considered as the most important test for non-destructive techniques that are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of high strength concrete (HSC). The relationship between the compressive strength of HSC containing chopped basalt fibre stands (CBSF) and UPV was investigated. The concrete specimens were prepared using a different ratio of CBSF as internal strengthening materials. The compressive strength measurements were conducted at the sample ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days; whilst, the ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured at 28 days. The result of HSC's compressive strength with the chopped basalt fibre did not show any improvement; instead, it was decreased. The UPV of the chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be less than that of the control mix for each addition ratio of the basalt fibre. A relationship plot is gained between the cube compressive strength for HSC and UPV with various amounts of chopped basalt fibres.

  11. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  12. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables

  13. Influence of surface modified basalt fiber on strength of cinder lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Li, Jiheng; Liu, Qingshun

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve the bonding and bridging effect between volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete cement and basalt fiber, The basalt fiber was subjected to etching and roughening treatment by NaOH solution, and the surface of the basalt fiber was treated with a mixture of sodium silicate and micro-silica powder. The influence of modified basalt fiber on the strength of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete was systematically studied. The experimental results show that the modified basalt fiber volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete has a flexural strength increased by 47%, the compressive strength is improved by 16% and the toughness is increased by 27% compared with that of the non-fiber.

  14. Using ESEM to analyze the microscopic property of basalt fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Gao

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The basalt fiber staggered distribution in the asphalt concrete matrix and the bonding situation between asphalt are analyzed by images collected using field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM test equipment. The results show that bonding of the fiber and the asphalt binder is very good and there is a strong binding force of chemical bonding connections between the two; the lipophilicity of basalt fiber is very good, the wrapped cover ability of asphalt for fiber is very strong; basalt fiber forms the local space network structure in the asphalt concrete matrix, effectively overcome the relative slip between the particles, connect the damaged parts into a whole; basalt fiber across internal micropores, and the internal defects in material can be remedied. At the same time, crack resistance mechanism of the fiber to internal micro cracks is qualitatively explained according to the magnitude of the stress intensity factor Kf. Keywords: Road engineering, Asphalt concrete, Basalt fiber, Microscopic analysis

  15. Changes of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels after CPAP treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhuo; Wang Liangxing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods: Plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 60 patients with OSAS both before and after CPAS therapy as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before CPAP therapy, the plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with OSAS were significantly higher than those in controls (25.92 ± 4.48pg/ ml and 11.27 ± 2.60pg/ml vs 13.21 ± 1.97pg/ml and 5.83±0.99pg/mi, P 2 level (r=-0.495, 0.483, P<0.05). After treatment with CPAP for three months, the plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased (15.37±1.78pg/ml and 6.79±0.87pg/ml, vs pre-treatment levels, P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: CPAP therapy could effectively decrease the plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with OSAS. (authors)

  16. Oronasal mask may compromise the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure on OSA treatment: is there evidence for avoiding the oronasal route?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela Garcia Santos; Madeiro, Fernanda; Genta, Pedro Rodrigues; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2016-11-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered by nasal mask is the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, oral and oronasal masks are also available. We considered experimental evidence and reviewed clinical trials that evaluated the impact of oral and oronasal mask on OSA treatment. One recent study in 18 OSA patients that slept with a customized oronasal mask with two sealed compartments showed that the change of CPAP flow from nasal to oronasal and oral caused upper airway obstruction because of posterior displacement of the tongue demonstrated by nasoendoscopy. Oral masks use a mouthpiece that may stabilize the jaw and the tongue and have shown to be effective. However, oral masks are not widely used in clinical practice. Four out of five observational studies and all five reviewed randomized studies showed a worse performance of oronasal when compared with nasal masks. Oronasal masks were associated with higher residual apnea-hypopnea index, lower adherence, more leaks, and less satisfaction than nasal mask in the majority of the studies. Nasal CPAP must be the first choice to treat OSA. Patients on oronasal mask should be carefully followed. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  17. Indicadores de campo para solos hidromórficos na região de Viçosa (MG Field indicators for the identification of hydromorphic soils in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. B. Campos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicadores locais são úteis para a identificação de ambientes. Na região de Viçosa, embora os solos encharcados ocorram sob vegetação de taboa (Thypha dominguensis, Gleissolos, de coloração típica acinzentada, são incomuns. A maioria dos solos com lençol freático alto é coberta pela taboa e as características gleizadas do solo são pouco pronunciadas, especialmente nos solos com mais altos teores de ferro. Não há clara conexão entre altura do lençol freático e deficiência de oxigênio. Como as relações entre altura do lençol freático, deficiência de oxigênio e cor do solo não são claras o bastante, hipotetizou-se que outros indicadores para as condições de redução poderiam ser encontrados nesses ambientes. Neste propósito, caracterizou-se o solo e trabalhou-se na sua relação com a vegetação. Estudaram-se os solos com várias intensidades de condições de drenagem em três áreas: Cajuri (Área 1, Viçosa (Área 2 e Coimbra (Área 3, todas pertencentes ao Planalto de Viçosa. Na avaliação das condições de redox dos solos (pH e pE a campo, utilizou-se um medidor digital adaptado a uma sonda de aço. Conquanto importante na identificação de indicadores de ambientes, a caracterização morfológica não se mostrou precisa o bastante para evidenciar o que os solos encharcados têm mais em comum: a deficiência de oxigênio por longos períodos. A cor, embora seja um bom e útil indicador para muitas das condições de drenagem do solo, não se mostrou também eficiente nessas áreas. De modo geral, os Gleissolos estudados apresentaram cromas maiores do que dois, o que supera o limite do critério para identificar horizonte glei no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, embora o teste indicador da presença de Fe2+ com alfa,alfa'-dipiridil tenha sido positivo. Por outro lado, a presença da taboa foi um bom indicador das condições de má drenagem. Nos locais dos povoamentos puros de taboa, os

  18. Potential for microbial oxidation of ferrous iron in basaltic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mai Yia; Shelobolina, Evgenya S; Roden, Eric E

    2015-05-01

    Basaltic glass (BG) is an amorphous ferrous iron [Fe(II)]-containing material present in basaltic rocks, which are abundant on rocky planets such as Earth and Mars. Previous research has suggested that Fe(II) in BG can serve as an energy source for chemolithotrophic microbial metabolism, which has important ramifications for potential past and present microbial life on Mars. However, to date there has been no direct demonstration of microbially catalyzed oxidation of Fe(II) in BG. In this study, three different culture systems were used to investigate the potential for microbial oxidation of Fe(II) in BG, including (1) the chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing "Straub culture"; (2) the mixotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organism Desulfitobacterium frappieri strain G2; and (3) indigenous microorganisms from a streambed Fe seep in Wisconsin. The BG employed consisted of clay and silt-sized particles of freshly quenched lava from the TEB flow in Kilauea, Hawaii. Soluble Fe(II) or chemically reduced NAu-2 smectite (RS) were employed as positive controls to verify Fe(II) oxidation activity in the culture systems. All three systems demonstrated oxidation of soluble Fe(II) and/or structural Fe(II) in RS, whereas no oxidation of Fe(II) in BG material was observed. The inability of the Straub culture to oxidize Fe(II) in BG was particularly surprising, as this culture can oxidize other insoluble Fe(II)-bearing minerals such as biotite, magnetite, and siderite. Although the reason for the resistance of the BG toward enzymatic oxidation remains unknown, it seems possible that the absence of distinct crystal faces or edge sites in the amorphous glass renders the material resistant to such attack. These findings have implications with regard to the idea that Fe(II)-Si-rich phases in basalt rocks could provide a basis for chemolithotrophic microbial life on Mars, specifically in neutral-pH environments where acid-promoted mineral dissolution and

  19. Short-circuiting magma differentiation from basalt straight to rhyolite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, P.; Winslow, H.

    2017-12-01

    Silicic magmas are the product of varying degrees of crystal fractionation and crustal assimilation/melting. Both processes lead to differentiation that is step-wise rather than continuous for example during melt separation from a crystal mush (Dufek and Bachmann, 2010). However, differentiation is rarely efficient enough to evolve directly from a basaltic to a rhyolitic magma. At Volcán Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile, the magma series is dominated by crystal fractionation where mixing trends between primitive and felsic end members in the bulk rock compositions are almost absent (e.g. P, FeO, TiO2 vs. SiO2). How effective fraction is in this magmatic system is not well-known. The 2011-12 eruption at Cordón Caulle provides new constraints that rhyolitic melts may be derived directly from a basaltic mush. Minor, but ubiquitous mafic, crystal-rich enclaves co-erupted with the predominantly rhyolitic near-aphyric magma. These enclaves are among the most primitive compositions erupted at Puyehue-Cordón Caulle and geochemically resemble closely basaltic magmas that are >10 ka old (Singer et al. 2008) and that have been identified as a parental tholeiitic mantle-derived magma (Schmidt and Jagoutz, 2017) for the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone. The vesiculated nature, the presence of a microlite-rich groundmass, and a lack of a Eu anomaly in these encalves suggest that they represent recharge magma/mush rather than sub-solidus cumulates and therefore have potentially a direct petrogenetic link to the erupted rhyolites. Our results indicate that under some conditions crystal fractionation can be very effective and the presence of rhyolitic magmas does not require an extensive polybaric plumbing system. Instead, primitive mantle-derived magmas source directly evolved magmas. In the case, of the magma system beneath Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, which had three historic rhyolitic eruptions (1921-22, 1960, 2011-12) these results raise the question whether rhyolite magma extraction

  20. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-11-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests with methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater have shown that in the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane has little influence on the glass dissolution rate. Gamma radiolysis tests at fluxes of 5.5 x 10 5 and 4.4 x 10 4 R/hr showed that methane-saturated groundwater was more reducing than identical experiments where Ar was substituted for CH 4 . Dissolved methane, therefore, may be beneficial to the waste package in limiting the solubility of redox sensitive radionuclides such a 99 Tc. Hydrocarbon polymers known to form under the irradiation conditions of these tests were not produced. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers, however, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  2. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Continental crustal formation and recycling: Evidence from oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. D.; Tarney, J.; Norry, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the wealth of geochemical data for subduction-related magma types, and the clear importance of such magmas in the creation of continental crust, there is still no concensus about the relative magnitudes of crustal creation versus crustal destruction (i.e., recycling of crust into the mantle). The role of subducted sediment in the formation of the arc magmas is now well documented; but what proportion of sediment is taken into the deeper mantle? Integrated isotopic and trace element studies of magmas erupted far from presently active subduction zones, in particular basaltic rocks erupted in the ocean basins, are providing important information about the role of crustal recycling. By identifying potential chemical tracers, it is impossible to monitor the effects of crustal recycling, and produce models predicting the mass of material recycled into the mantle throughout long periods of geological time.

  4. Geoscience parameter data base handbook: granites and basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Department of Energy has the responsibility for selecting and constructing Federal repositories for radioactive waste. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission must license such repositories prior to construction. The basic requirement in the geologic disposal of radioactive waste is stated as: placement in a geologic host whereby the radioactive waste is not in mechanical, thermal or chemical equilibrium with the object of preventing physical or chemical migration of radionuclides into the biosphere or hydrosphere in hazardous concentration (USGS, 1977). The object of this report is to document the known geologic parameters of large granite and basalt occurrences in the coterminous United States, for future evaluation in the selection and licensing of radioactive waste repositories. The description of the characteristics of certain potential igneous hosts has been limited to existing data pertaining to the general geologic character, geomechanics, and hydrology of identified occurrences. A description of the geochemistry is the subject of a separate report.

  5. Geoscience parameter data base handbook: granites and basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Department of Energy has the responsibility for selecting and constructing Federal repositories for radioactive waste. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission must license such repositories prior to construction. The basic requirement in the geologic disposal of radioactive waste is stated as: placement in a geologic host whereby the radioactive waste is not in mechanical, thermal or chemical equilibrium with the object of preventing physical or chemical migration of radionuclides into the biosphere or hydrosphere in hazardous concentration (USGS, 1977). The object of this report is to document the known geologic parameters of large granite and basalt occurrences in the coterminous United States, for future evaluation in the selection and licensing of radioactive waste repositories. The description of the characteristics of certain potential igneous hosts has been limited to existing data pertaining to the general geologic character, geomechanics, and hydrology of identified occurrences. A description of the geochemistry is the subject of a separate report

  6. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: a design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.S.; Schmidt, B.

    1982-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear waste repository in basalt is described. Nuclear waste packages are placed in holes drilled into the floor of tunnels at a depth of 3700 ft. About 100 miles of tunnels are required to receive 35,000 packages. Five shafts bring waste packages, ventilation air, excavated rock, personnel, material, and services to and from the subsurface. The most important surface facility is the waste handling building, located over the waste handling shaft, where waste is received and packaged for storage. Two independent ventilation systems are provided to avoid potential contamination of spaces that do not contain nuclear waste. Because of the high temperatures at depth, an elaborate air chilling system is provided. Because the waste packages deliver a considerable amount of heat energy to the rock mass, particular attention is paid to heat transfer and thermal stress studies. 3 references, 31 figures, 3 tables

  7. Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Xu, Jin-Yu; Li, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material (BFRPGCM) was prepared. The stress-strain curve has been worked out. The ideal energy-absorbing efficiency has been analyzed and the application prospect has been explored. The results show the following: fiber reinforced cellular material has successively sized pore structures; the stress-strain curve has two stages: elastic stage and yielding plateau stage; the greatest value of the ideal energy-absorbing efficiency of BFRPGCM is 89.11%, which suggests BFRPGCM has excellent energy-absorbing property. Thus, it can be seen that BFRPGCM is easy and simple to make, has high plasticity, low density and excellent energy-absorbing features. So, BFRPGCM is a promising energy-absorbing material used especially in civil defense engineering.

  8. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  9. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi 2 (5180 km 2 ) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process

  10. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi/sup 2/ (5180 km/sup 2/) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process.

  11. The Influence of Topographic Obstacles on Basaltic Lava Flow Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.; Samuels, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smooth pāhoehoe and jagged ´áā represent two end-members of a textural spectrum that reflects the emplacement characteristics of basaltic lava flows. However, many additional textures (e.g., rubbly and slabby pāhoehoe) reflect a range of different process due to lava flow dynamics or interaction with topography. Unfortunately the influence of topography on the distribution of textures in basaltic lava flows is not well-understood. The 18 ± 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera field (New Mexico, USA) provides an excellent site to study the morphological changes of a lava flow that encountered topographic obstacles. The flow field is 0.2-3.8 km wide with a prominent central tube system that intersects and wraps around a 1000 m long ridge, oriented perpendicular to flow. Upstream of the ridge, the flow has low-relief inflation features extending out and around the ridge. This area includes mildly to heavily disrupted pāhoehoe with interdispersed agglutinated masses, irregularly shaped rubble and lava balls. Breakouts of ´áā and collapse features are also common. These observations suggest crustal disruption due to flow-thickening upstream from the ridge and the movement of lava out and around the obstacle. While the ridge influenced the path of the tube, which wraps around the southern end of the ridge, the series of collapse features and breakouts of ´áā along the tube system are more likely a result of changes in flux throughout the tube system because these features are found both upstream and downstream of the obstacle. This work demonstrates that topography can significantly influence the formation history and surface disruption of a flow field, and in some cases the influence of topography can be separated from the influences of changes in flux along a tube system.

  12. Sulfur degassing due to contact metamorphism during flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallup, Christine; Edmonds, Marie; Turchyn, Alexandra V.

    2013-11-01

    We present a study aimed at quantifying the potential for generating sulfur-rich gas emissions from the devolatilization of sediments accompanying sill emplacement during flood basalt eruptions. The potential contribution of sulfur-rich gases from sediments might augment substantially the magma-derived sulfur gases and hence impact regional and global climate. We demonstrate, from a detailed outcrop-scale study, that sulfur and total organic carbon have been devolatilized from shales immediately surrounding a 3-m thick dolerite sill on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Localized partial melting occurred within a few centimetres of the contact in the shale, generating melt-filled cracks. Pyrite decomposed on heating within 80 cm of the contact, generating sulfur-rich gases (a mixture of H2S and SO2) and pyrrhotite. The pyrrhotite shows 32S enrichment, due to loss of 34S-enriched SO2. Further decomposition and oxidation of pyrrhotite resulted in hematite and/or magnetite within a few cm of the contact. Iron sulfates were produced during retrogressive cooling and oxidation within 20 cm of the contact. Decarbonation of the sediments due to heating is also observed, particularly along the upper contact of the sill, where increasing δ13C is consistent with loss of methane gas. The geochemical and mineralogical features observed in the shales are consistent with a short-lived intrusion, emplaced in desulfurization, as well as decarbonation, of shales adjacent to an igneous intrusion. The liberated fluids, rich in sulfur and carbon, are likely to be focused along regions of low pore fluid pressure along the margins of the sill. The sulfur gases liberated from the sediments would have augmented the sulfur dioxide (and hydrogen sulfide) yield of the eruption substantially, had they reached the surface. This enhancement of the magmatic sulfur budget has important implications for the climate impact of large flood basalt eruptions that erupt through thick, volatile-rich sedimentary

  13. Tracking Hadean processes in modern basalts with 142-Neodymium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, M. F.; Carlson, R. W.; Walker, R. J.; Jackson, M.; Garçon, M.; Norman, M.

    2018-02-01

    The short-lived 146Sm→142 Nd isotope system (t1/2 = 103 Ma) provides constraints on the timing and processes of terrestrial silicate fractionation during the early Hadean. Although some Archean terranes preserve variability in 142Nd/144Nd, no anomalies have been resolved previously in young rocks. This study provides high precision 142Nd/144Nd data on a suite of ocean island basalts from Samoa and Hawaii previously shown to have variable depletions in 182W/184W that are inversely correlated with 3He/4He ratios. Improved analytical techniques and multiple replicate analyses of Nd show a variation in μ142 Nd values between -1.3 and +2.7 in the suite, relative to the JNdi standard. Given the reproducibility of the standard (±2.9 ppm, 2 SD), two Samoan samples exhibit resolved variability in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios outside of their 95% confidence intervals, suggesting minor variability in the Samoan hotspot. One sample from Samoa has a higher μ142 Nd of +2.7, outside the 95% confidence interval (±1.0 ppm) of the average of the JNdi standard. Limited, but resolved, variation in 142Nd/144Nd within the suite suggests the preservation of early Hadean silicate differentiation in the sources of at least some basalts from Samoa. Larger variations of 182W/184W and 3He/4He ratios in the same samples suggest that metal-silicate separation and mantle outgassing left a more persistent imprint on the accessible mantle compared to 142Nd/144Nd ratios which are impacted by early silicate differentiation.

  14. Estado nutricional e fatores associados em idosos do Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil Nutritional status and associated factors among the elderly in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa de Matos Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se as prevalências de baixo peso e excesso de peso, bem como os fatores associados em idosos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com 621 idosos residentes no Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, realizado em 2009. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas domiciliares e se referiam à avaliação do estado nutricional, condições sociodemográficas e de saúde. Do total de pessoas estudadas, 53,3% eram do gênero feminino. A mediana do IMC foi de 26,40kg/m² (mínima 15,20 e máxima 46,82 e foi menor para os homens do que para as mulheres. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi elevada (45%; IC95%: 40%-49%, diminuiu com a idade, associou-se positivamente ao gênero feminino e história de artrite/artrose, e negativamente à faixa etária de 80 anos ou mais e ao tabagismo. A prevalência de baixo peso foi maior no gênero masculino (18,2%, aumentou com o avanço da idade e associou-se positivamente à pior percepção de saúde. O conjunto dos resultados salientam a importância de estratégias em saúde que favoreçam mudanças no estilo de vida e hábitos alimentares saudáveis.This cross-sectional study in 2009 focused on the prevalence of underweight and overweight and associated factors in a sample of 621 elderly individuals in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data were obtained through home interviews on nutritional status and socio-demographic and health conditions. Of the total sample, 53.3% were females. Median BMI was 26.40kg/m² (range = 15.20-46.82 and was lower for men than for women. Prevalence of overweight was high (45%; 95%CI: 40%-49%, decreased with age, was positively associated with female gender and history of arthritis/arthrosis, and was negatively associated with age 80 years or older and smoking. Prevalence of underweight was high in men (18.2%, increased with age, and was positively associated with worse self-rated health. The findings highlight the importance of health strategies

  15. Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of three basalt waste isolation project staff hydrologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The present study implemented a probability encoding method to estimate the probability distributions of selected hydrologic variables for the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior, and the anisotropy ratio of the interior of the Cohassett basalt flow beneath the Hanford Site. Site-speciic data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. However, this information is required to complete preliminary performance assessment studies. Rockwell chose a probability encoding method developed by SRI International to generate credible and auditable estimates of the probability distributions of effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity anisotropy. The results indicate significant differences of opinion among the experts. This was especially true of the values of the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow interior for which estimates differ by more than five orders of magnitude. The experts are in greater agreement about the values of effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top; their estimates for this variable are generally within one to two orders of magnitiude of each other. For anisotropy ratio, the expert estimates are generally within two or three orders of magnitude of each other. Based on this study, the Rockwell hydrologists estimate the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top to be generally higher than do the independent experts. For the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a smaller uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts. On the other hand, for the effective porosity and anisotropy ratio of the Cohassett basalt flow interior, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a larger uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts

  16. Application of the iron-enriched basalt waste form for immobilizing commercial transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.

    1981-08-01

    The principal sources of commercial transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States are identified. The physical and chemical nature of the wastes from these sources are discussed. The fabrication technique and properties of iron-enriched basalt, a rock-like waste form developed for immobilizing defense TRU wastes, are discussed. The application of iron-enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes is discussed. Review of commercial TRU wastes from mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, light water reactor fuel reprocessing, and miscellaneous medical, research, and industrial sources, indicates that iron-enriched basalt is suitable for most types of commercial TRU wastes. Noncombustible TRU wastes are dissolved in the high temperature, oxidizing iron-enriched basalt melt. Combustible TRU wastes are immobilized in iron-enriched basalt by incinerating the wastes and adding the TRU-bearing ash to the melt. Casting and controlled cooling of the melt produces a devitrified, rock-like iron-enriched basalt monolith. Recommendations are given for testing the applicability of iron-enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes

  17. Stratigraphic imaging of sub-basalt sediments using waveform tomography of wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, K.; Gao, F.; Pratt, G.; Zelt, C. A.

    2003-12-01

    The oil industry is interested in imaging the fine structures of sedimentary formations masked below basalt flows for commercial exploration of hydrocarbons. Seismic exploration of sediments hidden below high-velocity basalt cover is a difficult problem because near-vertical reflection data are contaminated with multiples, converted waves and scattering noise generated by interbeds, breccia and vesicles within the basalt. The noise becomes less prominent as the source-receiver offset increases, and the signals carrying sub-surface information stand out at the wide-angle range. The tomography of first arrival traveltime data can provide little information about the underlying low-velocity sediments. Traveltime inversion of wide-angle seismic data including both first arrivals and identifiable wide-angle reflected phases has been an important tool in the delineation of the large-scale velocity structure of sub-basalt sediments, although it lacks the small-scale velocity details. Here we apply 2-D full-waveform inversion ("waveform tomography") to wide-angle seismic data with a view to extracting the small-scale stratigraphic features of sedimentary formations. Results from both synthetic data, generated for a realistic earth model, and field dataset from the basalt covered Saurashtra peninsula, India, will be presented. This approach has potential to delineate thin sedimentary layers hidden below thick basalt cover also, and may serve as a powerful tool to image sedimentary basins, where they are covered by high-velocity materials like basalts, salts, carbonates, etc. in various parts of the world.

  18. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  19. Elevation of surficial sediment/basalt contact in the Subsurface Disposal Area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The elevation of the surficial sediment/basalt contact at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is presented to provide a data base for future remedial actions at this site. About 1,300 elevation data from published and unpublished reports, maps, and surveyors notes were compiled to generate maps and cross-sections of the surficial sediment/basalt contact. In general, an east to west trending depression exists in the south central portion of the SDA with basalt closer to land surface on the northern and southern boundaries of the SDA. The lowest elevation of the surficial sediment/basalt contact is 4,979 ft and the greatest is land surface at 5,012 ft. The median elevation of the sediment/basalt interface is 4,994 ft. The median depth to basalt in the SDA is 16 ft if land surface elevation is assumed to be 5,010 ft. The depth from land surface to the sediment/basalt interface ranges from 24 ft in the southeast corner of the SDA to less than 3 ft at the north-central boundary of the SDA

  20. Petrochemistry and origin of basalt breccia from Ban Sap Sawat area, Wichian Buri, Phetchabun, central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Limtrakun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is usually considered to be controlled by escape tectonics associated with India-Asia collision during theLate Cenozoic, and basaltic volcanism took place in this extensional period. This volcanism generated both subaqueous andsubaerial lava flows with tholeiitic to alkalic basaltic magma. The subaqueous eruptions represented by the studied WichianBuri basalts, Ban Sap Sawat in particular, are constituted by two main types of volcanic lithofacies, including lava flows andbasalt breccias. The lava flows are commonly porphyritic with olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and microphenocrysts,and are uncommonly seriate textured. The basalt breccias are strongly vitrophyric texture with olivine and plagioclasephenocrysts and microphenocrysts. Chemical analyses indicate that both lava flows and basalt breccias have similar geochemical compositions, signifying that they were solidified from the same magma. Their chondrite normalized REE patternsand N-MORB normalized patterns are closely analogous to the Early to Middle Miocene tholeiites from central Sinkhote-Alinand Sakhalin, northeastern margin of the Eurasian continent which were erupted in a continental rift environment. The originfor the Wichian Buri basalts show similarity of lava flows and basalt breccias, in terms of petrography and chemical compositions, signifying that they have been formed from the same continental within-plate, transitional tholeiitic magma.

  1. Radionuclide sorption kinetics and column sorption studies with Columbia River basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The kinetics of radionuclide sorption and desorption reactions in basalt-groundwater systems were evaluated at 60 degrees C using a batch equilibration method. It was found that many sorption reactions on surfaces of fresh (unaltered) basalt from the Umtanum and Cohassett flows are slow. Some reactions require more than 50 days to reach a steady state. Sorption of neptunium and uranium in oxidizing (air saturated) groundwater appears to be controlled by slow reduction of these elements by the basalt surfaces. The resulting lower oxidation states are more strongly sorbed. Technetium and selenium, which are anionic under oxidizing conditions, are not measurably sorbed on fresh basalt surfaces, but are slightly sorbed on the altered surfaces of flow top basalt. Under reducing conditions, where the groundwater contains dilute hydrazine, sorption is faster for neptunium, uranium, technetium, selenium, and lead. Plutonium sorption rates were not affected by the groundwater Eh. It was shown that radium was precipitated rather than sorbed under the conditions of these experiments. Umtanum flow top material sorbed radionuclides much faster than fresh basalt surfaces due to its greater surface area and cation exchange capacity. Desorption rates for plutonium, uranium, neptunium, technetium, and selenium were generally much less than sorption rates (especially for reducing conditions). These radionuclides are irreversibly sorbed on the basalts. 25 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs

  2. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Il Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber’s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  3. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2015-09-30

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber's suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  4. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E; Sicard, Michelle N; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and treatment

  5. Carotene and provitamin A content of vegetables sold in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, during spring and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Costa Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the α- and β-carotene content and provitamin A value of four leafy vegetables sold at local and street markets in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, in the spring and winter of 2002. Carotenoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. α-Carotene was detected in all samples sold during spring, but was only present in a few samples of smooth and curly lettuce and kale in winter. β-Carotene was found in marked quantities in all leafy vegetables analyzed. Duncan's test (α = 5% showed significantly higher α-carotene content in curly lettuce and vitamin A value in large-leaved watercress in the spring. Mean β-carotene content and vitamin A value were 7544, 8751, 2584, 2792, 8193, and 5338 μg/100 g and 666, 760, 227, 238, 698, and 460 μg RAE/100 g in large-leaved and hydroponic watercress, smooth and curly lettuce, kale and spinach, respectively. All leafy vegetables analyzed represent important sources of provitamin A and supply an important part of the daily requirements of children and adults.Investigou-se o conteúdo de α e β-caroteno e avaliou-se o valor pro-vitamínico A de quatro hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em mercados locais e feira- livre de Viçosa, MG durante a primavera e o inverno de 2002. Os carotenóides foram analisados por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O α-caroteno foi detectado em todas as amostras analisadas na primavera, porém no inverno, somente algumas amostras de alface crespa e lisa, e couve apresentaram tal carotenóide. O β-caroteno foi encontrado, em quantidades apreciáveis, em todas as hortaliças folhosas analisadas. O teste de Duncan (α=5% detectou que o conteúdo de α-caroteno em alface crespa e o valor de vitamina A em agrião de folha larga foram estatisticamente superiores na primavera. Os teores médios de β-caroteno e de valor de vitamina A para agrião de folha larga e hidropônico, alface crespa e lisa, couve e espinafre foram: 7544; 8751

  6. Survey report. New energy vision formulation project for Osa Town, Okayama Prefecture; 2001 nendo Osa cho shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo chosa hokokusho. Chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    A New Energy Vision was formulated for Osa Town after investigations about energy demand, new energy reserves, and their available amounts. The town consumes approximately 50.6-billion kcal in total, with automobiles consuming a half thereof as fuel. Studies were made about new energy reserves and recoverable amounts in the town, and then an estimation was made that 16.2 times 10{sup 5} kWh/year would be recoverable from photovoltaic energy, 1.58 times 10{sup 5} kWh from small-scale hydropower, 8.79 times 10{sup 6} kWh from ligneous biomass, and 1.96 times 10{sup 5} kWh from livestock biomass, and that 40 MW, for example, would come from wind power, subject to change depending on the wind power generator system to be built. Projects for new energy introduction were discussed, which involved the use of biodiesel fuel for official vehicles, installation of solar hot water showers in primary and junior high schools, application of photovoltaic/wind power to crime prevention lights and street lamps, snow melting systems for roads utilizing geothermal energy, use of heat from thinnings and ligneous waste, wind power facilities, small-scale hydropower facilities, introduction of new energy appliances into sightseeing facilities, and the introduction of photovoltaic power or the like into public facilities. (NEDO)

  7. Contaminación fecal en varios ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana y la Península de Osa Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación en los ríos de Costa Rica es un problema que merece especial atención. El concepto “contaminación del agua” implica la incorporación de materias extrañas a esta, tales como microorganis- mos (coliformes totales y fecales, productos quími- cos (jabones, fer tilizantes, pesticidas, metales pesados (cromo, plomo, mercurio, etc. o materia orgánica proveniente de los suelos a través de la escorrentía superficial y de las aguas residuales domésticas. Estas materias deterioran la calidad del agua y reducen los diferentes usos que podría tener un río. El recurso hídrico es importante tanto para la preservación de la vida humana como para la conservación de la flora y fauna. Costa Rica se ha caracterizado por ser un país poseedor de una rica biodiversidad. Sin embargo, muchos de los ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana ya presentan una contaminación severa, según el Índice holandés de clasificación de la calidad del agua. En este estudio se analizó el contenido de colifor- mes fecales en 10 ríos de las provincias de San José, Alajuela, Heredia y Car tago, así como de la Península de Osa. Para correlacionar el contenido de colifor- mes fecales con la densidad poblacional, además, se muestrearon tres puntos en cada río: la zona alta cercana a la naciente, la zona media y la zona baja cercana a su desembocadura. Se encontró que los puntos de muestreo con densi- dades poblacionales medias o altas están altamente contaminados con coliformes fecales.Varios de ellos superan el límite máximo permisible en el contenido de coliformes fecales establecido por los reglamen- tos nacionales para el uso de los ríos en actividades de recreación de contacto primario. También se determinó que las zonas con menor pobla- ción, tales como los ríos Tigre y Rincón en la Península de Osa, el río Poás en Alajuela en todo su recorrido y los ríos Purires y Birrís en Cartago, en sus zonas medias y altas, están menos

  8. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  9. The compatibility of basalt and MgO with liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.; Runge, H.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of commercially available basalt and MgO-ceramics with liquid sodium has been investigated up to 900 0 C. The two basalt qualities even reacted with sodium at low temperatures and short exposure times. Some inserted MgO-ceramics exhibited the expected good sodium compatibility even at 900 0 C for 100 hours. The reaction mechanisms, the volume changes and the mass balance are discussed. In the thermal shock experiments, the basaltic materials were totally disintegrated while the MgO-qualities remained compact. (author)

  10. Chemical differences between small subsamples of Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Vetter, S. K.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the chemical and petrological characterization of nine samples of an Apollo 15 mare basalt suite. The results show that all nine samples are low-silica olivine normative basalts (ONBs) similar to those described earlier for low-silica ONBs from Apollo 15 site. The samples were found to vary in texture and grain size, from fine-grained intergranular or subophitic basalts to coarse-grained granular 'microgabbros'. Several displayed macroscopic heterogeneity. Variation diagrams show that the overall trend of the data is consistent with the fractionation of olivine (plus minor Cr-spinel) from a high-MgO parent magma.

  11. Experimental Study on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Clay Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lei; Hu, Guohui; Xu, Nan; Fu, Junyi; Xiang, Chao; Yang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism and effect of basalt fiber reinforced clay soil, a series of unconfined compressive strength tests conducted on clay soil reinforced with basalt fiber have been performed under the condition of optimum water content and maximum dry density. Both the content and length of basalt fiber are considered in this paper. When the effect of content is studied, the 12 mm long fibers are dispersed into clay soil at different contents of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0...

  12. Comparison of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE reinforced with basalt fibers and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Alexenko, V. O.; Qitao, Huang; Ivanova, L. R.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE composites reinforced with basalt fibers and particles under dry sliding friction and abrasion were investigated. It is shown that adding of the basalt particles provides higher wear resistance under the dry sliding friction while at abrasion filling by the basalt fibers is more efficient since the wear resistance of the reinforced UHMWPE composites is by 3.7 times higher in contrast with the neat polymer. Wear mechanisms of the polymeric UHMWPE composites under various types of wear are discussed.

  13. O tratamento dos doentes insanos de Vila Viçosa no hospital de Rilhafoles (segunda metade do século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo de Araújo, Maria Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined the procedural requirements related to the sending of insane patients of Vila Viçosa to the hospital of Rilhafoles, in the second half of the 19th century, and the relationships established with the hospital of this Alentejo town relating to the payment of treatment. Faced with a severe financial crisis, the hospital of Vila Viçosa systematically refused the responsibility to send the insane patients to the Rilhafoles hospital in an attempt to pass this burden on the administration of the county, being very reluctant to pay the bills that came to him from the hospital of São José. The conflict between the two institutions came to the monarch with no other alternative than the payment, the hospital of village of the Alentejo region proceeded to sending parcels of money, albeit way too late. For the realization of this work we use the books of the Misericórdia and the documents of the Civil Governor found of the city of Évora under the custody of the Distrital Archive of the same city. This documents results, basically, from the correspondence between the Misericórdia of Vila Viçosa, the council administrator and the civil governor of Évora.[pt] Neste trabalho analisamos os trâmites processuais respeitantes ao envio de doentes insanos de Vila Viçosa para o hospital de Rilhafoles, na segunda metade do século XIX, e as relações estabelecidas com o hospital desta vila alentejana relativamente ao pagamento do tratamento. A braços com uma grave crise financeira, o hospital de Vila Viçosa recusava sistematicamente a responsabilidade de enviar os alienados para Rilhafoles, numa tentativa de passar esse ónus para a administração do concelho, mostrando-se muito renitente no pagamento das faturas que lhe chegavam do hospital de São José. O conflito entre as duas instituições chegou ao monarca e sem outra alternativa que a do pagamento, o hospital da vila alentejana procedeu ao envio de parcelas de dinheiro

  14. Petrological, magnetic and chemical properties of basalt dredged from an abyssal hill in the North-east pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyendyk, B.P.; Engel, C.G.

    1969-01-01

    OVER the years, samples of basalt from the oceanic crust have been taken mainly from seamounts, fracture zones and ridge and rise crests1-6, and rarely from the vast fields of abyssal hills which cover a large part of the deep-sea floor. The basalt sampled from the deeper regions of the oceanic crust (for example, on fault scarps) is a distinct variety of tholeiitic basalt, while alkali basalt is restricted to the volcanic edifices4. Oceanic tholeiitic basalt differs from alkali basalt and continental tholeiite chiefly in having a relatively low percentage of K2O (0.2 weight per cent)4. Some authors have speculated that this type of tholeiitic basalt is the major extrusion from the upper mantle and constitutes the predominant rock type in the upper oceanic crust. ?? 1969 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  16. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Guittar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica’s only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals, remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%, Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%, Ceiba pentandra (n=7, 14.0% and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%. We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw’s long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 387-393. Epub 2009 June 30.

  17. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; p<0.05. Nevertheless, the families on the investigated farms did apply several appropriate measures to control this disease, such as the virtual lack of open sewers and the consumption of well-cooked meat. The presence of bovine cysticercosis cases, and the factors favoring its persistence, point to the need for constant epidemiological and sanitary surveillance in this county.

  18. Circumventing shallow air contamination in Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Parai, Rita; Tucker, Jonathan; Middleton, Jennifer; Langmuir, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Noble gases in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. However, the ubiquity of shallow-level air contamination frequently obscures the mantle noble gas signal. In a majority of samples, shallow air contamination dominates the noble gas budget. As a result, reconstructing the variability in heavy noble gas mantle source compositions and inferring the history of deep recycling of atmospheric noble gases is difficult. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Here, we present results from experiments designed to elucidate the source of shallow air contamination in MORBs. Step-crushes were carried out to measure He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions on two aliquots of a depleted popping glass that was dredged from between the Kane and Atlantis Fracture Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. One aliquot was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval, while the other aliquot was left exposed to air for 3.5 years. The bulk 20Ne/22Ne and 129Xe/130Xe ratios measured in the aliquot bottled in ultrapure N2 are 12.3 and 7.6, respectively, and are nearly identical to the estimated mantle source values. On the other hand, step crushes in the aliquot left exposed to air for several years show Ne isotopic compositions that are shifted towards air, with a bulk 20Ne/22Ne of 11.5; the bulk 129Xe/130Xe, however, was close to 7.6. These results indicate that lighter noble gases exchange more efficiently between the bubbles trapped in basalt glass and air, suggesting a diffusive or kinetic mechanism for the incorporation of the shallow air contamination. Importantly, in Ne-Ar or Ar-Xe space, step-crushes from the bottled aliquot display a trend that can be easily fit with a simple two-component hyperbolic mixing between mantle and atmosphere noble gases. Step

  19. Rice microRNA osa-miR1848 targets the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene OsCYP51G3 and mediates the biosynthesis of phytosterols and brassinosteroids during development and in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojing; Tang, Huadan; Wang, Ren; Wu, Ping; Jia, Yongxia; Wei, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xinlan; Kang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Seong-Ki; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-11-01

    Phytosterols are membrane components or precursors for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. As they cannot be transported long distances, their homeostasis is tightly controlled through their biosynthesis and metabolism. However, it is unknown whether microRNAs are involved in their homeostatic regulation. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants transformed with microRNA osa-miR1848 and its target, the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene, OsCYP51G3, were used to investigate the role of osa-miR1848 in the regulation of phytosterol biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 directs OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage to regulate phytosterol and BR biosynthesis in rice. The role of OsCYP51G3 as one of the osa-miR1848 targets is supported by the opposite expression patterns of osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 in transgenic rice plants, and by the identification of OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage sites. Increased osa-miR1848 and decreased OsCYP51G3 expression reduced phytosterol and BR concentrations, and caused typical phenotypic changes related to phytosterol and BR deficiency, including dwarf plants, erect leaves, semi-sterile pollen grains, and shorter cells. Circadian expression of osa-miR1848 regulated the diurnal abundance of OsCYP51G3 transcript in developing organs, and the response of OsCYP51G3 to salt stress. We propose that osa-miR1848 regulates OsCYP51G3 expression posttranscriptionally, and mediates phytosterol and BR biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 might have potential applications in rice breeding to modulate leaf angle, and the size and quality of seeds. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Multicomponent diffusion in basaltic melts at 1350 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chenghuan; Zhang, Youxue

    2018-05-01

    Nine successful diffusion couple experiments were conducted in an 8-component SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O system at ∼1350 °C and at 1 GPa, to study multicomponent diffusion in basaltic melts. At least 3 traverses were measured to obtain diffusion profiles for each experiment. Multicomponent diffusion matrix at 1350 °C was obtained by simultaneously fitting diffusion profiles of diffusion couple experiments. Furthermore, in order to better constrain the diffusion matrix and reconcile mineral dissolution data, mineral dissolution experiments in the literature and diffusion couple experiments from this study, were fit together. All features of diffusion profiles in both diffusion couple and mineral dissolution experiments were well reproduced by the diffusion matrix. Diffusion mechanism is inferred from eigenvectors of the diffusion matrix, and it shows that the diffusive exchange between network-formers SiO2 and Al2O3 is the slowest, the exchange of SiO2 with other oxide components is the second slowest with an eigenvalue that is only ∼10% larger, then the exchange between divalent oxide components and all the other oxide components is the third slowest with an eigenvalue that is twice the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of FeO + K2O with all the other oxide components is the fourth slowest with an eigenvalue that is 5 times the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of MgO with FeO + CaO is the third fastest with an eigenvalue that is 6.3 times the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of CaO + K2O with all the other oxide components is the second fastest with an eigenvalue that is 7.5 times the smallest eigenvalue, and the exchange of Na2O with all other oxide components is the fastest with an eigenvalue that is 31 times the smallest eigenvalue. The slowest and fastest eigenvectors are consistent with those for simpler systems in most literature. The obtained diffusion matrix was successfully applied to predict diffusion profiles during

  1. Petrogenesis of basalt-trachyte lavas from Olmoti Crater, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F.; Swisher, Carl C., III; McHenry, Lindsay J.; Feigenson, Mark D.; Carr, Michael J.

    2009-08-01

    Olmoti Crater is part of the Plio-Pleistocene Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH) in northern Tanzania to the south of Gregory Rift. The Gregory Rift is part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) that stretches some 4000 km from the Read Sea and Gulf of Aden in the north to the Zambezi River in Mozambique. Here, we (1) characterize the chemistry and mineral compositions of lavas from Olmoti Crater, (2) determine the age and duration of Olmoti volcanic activity through 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of Olmoti Crater wall lavas and (3) determine the genesis of Olmoti lavas and the relationship to other NVH and EARS volcanics and (4) their correlation with volcanics in the Olduvai and Laetoli stratigraphic sequences. Olmoti lavas collected from the lower part of the exposed crater wall section (OLS) range from basalt to trachyandesite whereas the upper part of the section (OUS) is trachytic. Petrography and major and trace element data reflect a very low degree partial melt origin for the Olmoti lavas, presumably of peridotite, followed by extensive fractionation. The 87Sr/ 86Sr data overlap whereas Nd and Pb isotope data are distinct between OLS and OUS samples. Interpretation of the isotope data suggests mixing of enriched mantle (EM I) with high-μ-like reservoirs, consistent with the model of Bell and Blenkinsop [Bell, K., Blenkinsop, J., 1987. Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of East African carbonatites: implications for mantle heterogeneity. Geology 5, 99-102] for East African carbonatite lavas. The isotope ratios are within the range of values defined by Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB) globally and moderate normalized Tb/Yb ratios (2.3-1.6) in these lavas suggest melting in the lithospheric mantle consistent with other studies in the region. 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental-heating analyses of matrix and anorthoclase separates from Olmoti OLS and OUS lavas indicate that volcanic activity was short in duration, lasting ˜200 kyr from 2.01 ± 0.03 Ma to 1.80 ± 0

  2. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-. Cretaceous are ... produce a new scene that has the best of orig- ... developed from an olivine basalt parent magma, ..... Marcelino E, Formaggio A and Maeda E 2009 Landslide.

  3. Petrology of dune sand derived from basalt on the Ka'u Desert, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Dune sand from the Ka'u Desert, southwest flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, is moderately well-sorted (median = 1.60 Phi, deviation = 0.60, skewness = 0.25, kurtosis = 0.68) and composed mostly of frosted subangular particles of basalt glass ('unfractionated' olivine-normative tholeitte), olivine, lithic fragments (subophitic and intersertal basalts; magnetite-ilmenite-rich basalts), reticular basalt glass, magnetite, ilmenite, and plagioclase, in approximately that order of abundance. Quantitative lithological comparison of the dune sand with sand-sized ash from the Keanakakoi Formation supports suggestions that the dune sand was derived largely from Keanakakoi ash. The dune sand is too well sorted to have been emplaced in its present form by base-surge but could have evolved by post-eruption reworking of the ash.

  4. Mineral chemistry of Carlsberg Ridge basalts at 3 degrees 35'- 3 degrees 41' N

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.

    (approximately 91 mole %) are few and rarely zoned. The composition of plagioclase and olivine indicate low pressure equilibrium crystallization. The basalts were probably derived through fractional crystallization at shallow depths under low partial melting...

  5. Characterization and Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalt Types Using Remote Sensing Techniques. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C.

    1977-01-01

    The types of basal to be found on the moon were identified using reflectance spectra from a variety of lunar mare surfaces and craters as well as geochemical interpretations of laboratory measurements of reflectance from lunar, terrestrial, and meteoritic samples. Findings indicate that major basaltic units are not represented in lunar sample collections. The existence of late stage high titanium basalts is confirmed. All maria contain lateral variations of compositionally heterogenous basalts; some are vertically inhomogenous with distinctly different subsurface composition. Some basalt types are spectrally gradational, suggesting minor variations in composition. Mineral components of unsampled units can be defined if spectra are obtained with sufficient spectral coverage (.3 to 2.5 micron m) and spatial resolution (approximating .5 km).

  6. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...... in the selected samples. Uncontaminated Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts appear to have sampled the same broad range in mantle compositions seen in Recent Iceland basalts. In contrast to the peripheral lava suites from the British Isles and Southeast Greenland, where the inferred uncontaminated magmas have...... to the most radiogenic values found in recent Icelandic basalts. Furthermore, the main volume of lavas in East Greenland is displaced away from the NAEM towards this radiogenic Pb component. Thus, this ‘Iceland radiogenic Pb end-member’ component was a significant contributor to the break-up-related magmatism...

  7. Basalt microlapilli in deep sea sediments of Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Iyer, S.D.

    Two cores recovered from the flanks of Mid-India oceanic ridge in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone consist of discrete pyroclastic layers at various depths. These layers are composed of coarse-grained, angular basaltic microlapilli in which...

  8. The hardness of synthetic products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ogrean

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hardness of Synthetic Products Obtained from Cooled and Crystallized Basaltic Melts. Hardness is one of the main properties of the products obtained from cooled and crystallized basaltic melts under a controlled thermal regime. It influences the abrasion tear resistance of the resulted material. The microhardness measurements on the samples (bricks, boards, gutters, armour plates, tubes indicated Vickers hardness value between 757–926 for the materials obtained from Şanovita basalts (Timiş district and between 539–958 respectively, in case of the Racoş basalts (Braşov district. There is a certain variation of the hardness within the same sample, in various measurement points, within the theoretical limits of the hardnesses of the pyroxenes and that of the spinels.

  9. A note on sulphide-oxide mineralisation in Carlsberg Ridge basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Pillow basalts from the Carlsberg Ridge at 3 degrees 35'N contain disseminated chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite. The euhedral shape of the pyrite grains indicate them to be early formed and grown unobstructed while magnetite occurs as skeletal...

  10. Coupled geomechanical/hydrological modeling: an overview of basalt waste isolation project studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Case, J.B.; Patricio, J.G.

    1980-07-01

    Basalt Waste Isolation Project investigations of the Columbia River basalts are multi-disciplinary in nature with a broad scope spanning such areas as geology, seismology, geochemistry, hydrology, rock mechanics, and many other disciplines as well. In this paper, an overview is presented which surveys recent work on numerical modeling of geomechanical and hydrological processes in a basalt rock environment. A major objective of the ongoing numerical modeling work is to establish a predictive technology base with which to: interpret the interrelationships between geomechanical behavior of rock media, the natural hydrologic phenomena, and repository conditions; evaluate the effectiveness of preconceptual repository designs and assist in the design of in situ field testing; and assess the waste isolation capability of candidate host rocks within the Columbia River basalts. To accomplish this objective, a systems approach has been adopted which is based on the use of digital simulation models

  11. Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites with Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basalt fibers (BFs were surface-treated with a vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent to improve the mechanical properties of wood fiber-reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE composites. Basalt fibers were characterized with SEM and FT-IR. The effects of the basalt fiber content and apparent morphology on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The results show that the BF coated with the vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties due to the increased interfacial compatibility between the BF and HDPE. The flexural strength and impact properties significantly increased with 4 wt.% modified basalt fibers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6441

  12. Enhancement of interfacial properties of basalt fiber reinforced nylon 6 matrix composites with silane coupling agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work solution surface treatment was applied for producing basalt fiber reinforced PA6 matrix composites. Beyond scanning electron microscopy, static and dynamic mechanical tests, dynamic mechanical analysis of composites was used for qualifying the interfacial adhesion in a wide temperature range. The loss factor peak height of loss factor is particularly important, because it is in close relationship with the mobility of polymer molecular chain segments and side groups, hence it correlates with the number and strength of primary or secondary bondings established between the matrix and the basalt fibers. It was proven, that the interfacial adhesion between basalt fibers and polyamide can be largely improved by the application of silane coupling agents in the entire usage temperature range of composites. The presence of coupling agents on the surface of basalt fibers was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The best results were obtained by 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent.

  13. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, which allows a shape to be formed prior to the cure, and is then pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Basalt fibers are used for the reinforcement in the composite system. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material.

  14. Perfil socioeconômico, nutricional e de antioxidantes de jovens fumantes, do município de Viçosa-MG

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Ellencristina da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Com o objetivo de comparar o perfil socieconômico, nutricional e de antioxidantes de indivíduos jovens fumantes e não fumantes de Viçosa-MG, conduziu-se um estudo transversal controlado. Foram selecionados indivíduos fumantes e não fumantes de instituições de ensino da cidade de Viçosa-MG. Considerou-se como fumante o indivíduo que fumava pelo menos um cigarro diariamente, por pelo menos 30 dias antes do inicio do estudo, e não fumante o que nunca fumou e/ou não fumava esporadicamente. Os fum...

  15. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerenquima Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerénquima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Elena

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An anatomy study was made of following wood easy-to-root species: Aucuba japonica Thunb., Buddleja  japonica Hemsley,  Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium.  L., Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil.,  Cvdonia oblonga Miller,  Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L., Populus nigra L.,  Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix  viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. and Symphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake.  It was observed the presence or absence of a discontinous sclerenchyma ring so the species studied had not a mechanical barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots. Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L. Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. y Syrnphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake. Se observó la presencia o ausencia de un anillo discontinuo de esclerénquima, por lo tanto dichas especies no poseen ningún impedimento mecánico para la emergencia de las raíces adventicias.

  16. Corrosion of ferrous materials in a basaltic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    The results of corrosion tests on A27 cast low-carbon steel are discussed. The corrosion performance of these materials was tested in condensed systems at temperature ranging from 50 C to 200 C and in air-steam mixtures between 150 C and 300 C. The groundwater used was a deoxygenated mild sodium chloride solution. When used, the packing material was 75 percent crushed basalt and 25 percent Wyoming sodium bentonite. In synthetic groundwater corrosion rates for both cast carbon steel and A387 steel in saturated packing and air-steam mixtures were low; maximum rates of 9 μm/a for A27 steel and 1.8 μm/a for A387 steel were observed. These maximum rates were observed at intermediate temperatures because of the formation of non-protective corrosion films. In A27 steel magnetite was the principal corrosion product, with non-protective siderite observed at 100 C. Pits were difficult to produce in saturated packing in A27 steel and did not grow. In air-steam mixtures corrosion rates of both steels were again very low, less than 1 μm/a. Magnetite and small amounts of hematite were detected in corrosion product films

  17. Off-gassing induced tracer release from molten basalt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Callow, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Two in situ vitrification (ISV) field tests were conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1990 to assess ISV suitability for long-term stabilization of buried waste that contains transuranic and other radionuclide contaminants. The ISV process uses electrical resistance heating to melt buried waste and soil in place, which upon cooldown and resolidification fixes the waste into a vitrified (glass-like) form. In these two ISV field tests, small quantities of rare-earth oxides (tracers DY 2 O 3 , Yb 2 O 3 , and Tb 4 O 7 ) were placed in the test pits to simulate the presence of plutonium oxides and assess plutonium retention/release behavior. The analysis presented in this report indicates that dissolution of tracer oxides into basaltic melts can be expected with subsequent tracer molecular or microparticle carry-off by escaping gas bubbles, which is similar to adsorptive bubble separation and ion flotation processes employed in the chemical industry to separate dilute heavy species from liquids under gas sparging conditions. Gaseous bubble escape from the melt surface and associated aerosolization is believed to be responsible for small quantities of tracer ejection from the melt surface to the cover hood and off-gas collection system. Methods of controlling off-gassing during ISV would be expected to improve the overall retention of such heavy oxide contaminants during melting/vitrification of buried waste

  18. Underground engineering at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A special task group was organized by the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council to address issues relating to the geotechnical site characterization program for an underground facility to house high-level radioactive waste of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Intended to provide an overview of the geotechnical program, the study was carried out by a task group consisting of ten members with expertise in the many disciplines required to successfully complete such a project. The task group recognized from the outset that the short time frame of this study would limit its ability to address all geotechnical issues in detail. Geotechnical issues were considered to range from specific technical aspects such as in-situ testing for rock mass permeability; rock hardness testing in the laboratory; or geologic characterizations and quantification of joints, to broader aspects of design philosophy, data collection, and treatment of uncertainty. The task group chose to focus on the broader aspects of underground design and construction, recognizing that the BWIP program utilizes a peer review group on a regular basis which reviews the specific technical questions related to geotechnical engineering. In this way, it was hoped that the review provided by the task group would complement those prepared by the BWIP peer review group

  19. Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Masahiko; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences); Clague, D.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1991-01-10

    The noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea. We find a systematic enrichment in {sup 20}Ne and {sup 21}Ne relative to {sup 22}Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth. (author).

  20. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  1. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes in oceanic ferromanganese deposits and ocean floor basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Nions, R.K.; Carter, S.R.; Cohen, R.S.; Evensen, N.M.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Pb-, Nd-, and Sr-isotope compositions of oceanic ferromanganese deposits, together with the Nd- and Sr-isotope compositions of altered ocean-floor basalts, are here reported. These data are used to evaluate these metals as sources in both the oceans and ocean ferromanganese deposits and the extent to which ocean-floor basalts may be a source of, or a sink for, these metals. (author)

  2. Single and Multi-Date Landsat Classifications of Basalt to Support Soil Survey Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Mitchell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Basalt outcrops are significant features in the Western United States and consistently present challenges to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil mapping efforts. Current soil survey methods to estimate basalt outcrops involve field transects and are impractical for mapping regionally extensive areas. The purpose of this research was to investigate remote sensing methods to effectively determine the presence of basalt rock outcrops. Five Landsat 5 TM scenes (path 39, row 29 over the year 2007 growing season were processed and analyzed to detect and quantify basalt outcrops across the Clark Area Soil Survey, ID, USA (4,570 km2. The Robust Classification Method (RCM using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM method and Random Forest (RF classifications was applied to individual scenes and to a multitemporal stack of the five images. The highest performing RCM basalt classification was obtained using the 18 July scene, which yielded an overall accuracy of 60.45%. The RF classifications applied to the same datasets yielded slightly better overall classification rates when using the multitemporal stack (72.35% than when using the 18 July scene (71.13% and the same rate of successfully predicting basalt (61.76% using out-of-bag sampling. For optimal RCM and RF classifications, uncertainty tended to be lowest in irrigated areas; however, the RCM uncertainty map included more extensive areas of low uncertainty that also encompassed forested hillslopes and riparian areas. RCM uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of bright soil reflectance, while RF uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of shadows. Quantification of basalt requires continued investigation to reduce the influence of vegetation, lichen and loess on basalt detection. With further development, remote sensing tools have the potential to support soil survey mapping of lava fields covering expansive areas in the Western United States and other regions of the world with similar

  3. NEW GEOCHEMICAL DATA OF BASALTS IN THE TSOROIDOG AREA, CENTRAL MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oyunchimeg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, geochemical data are widely used for reconstructing geodynamic settings, especially, volcanic rocks of mafic composition, i.e., basalts, because they are widespread in many orogenic belts and are indicative of different geodynamic environments. In general, we propose the reconstruction of the tectonic settings of basalts according to their relationships with associated ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS sediments, their petrogenesis and their geochemical features.

  4. Growing magma chambers control the distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2015-11-19

    Small-scale continental flood basalts are a global phenomenon characterized by regular spatio-temporal distributions. However, no genetic mechanism has been proposed to explain the visible but overlooked distribution patterns of these continental basaltic volcanism. Here we present a case study from eastern China, combining major and trace element analyses with Ar-Ar and K-Ar dating to show that the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts is controlled by the growth of long-lived magma chambers. Evolved basalts (SiO2 > 47.5 wt.%) from Xinchang-Shengzhou, a small-scale Cenozoic flood basalt field in Zhejiang province, eastern China, show a northward younging trend over the period 9.4-3.0 Ma. With northward migration, the magmas evolved only slightly ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.40-0.66; TiO2/MgO = 0.23-0.35) during about 6 Myr (9.4-3.3 Ma). When the flood basalts reached the northern end of the province, the magmas evolved rapidly (3.3-3.0 Ma) through a broad range of compositions ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.60-1.28; TiO2/MgO = 0.30-0.57). The distribution and two-stage compositional evolution of the migrating flood basalts record continuous magma replenishment that buffered against magmatic evolution and induced magma chamber growth. Our results demonstrate that the magma replenishment-magma chamber growth model explains the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

  5. Material toughness, internal structure, and caldera-collapse frequencies in basaltic and composite edifices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, Agust [Department of Earth Sciences, Queen' s Building, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 OEX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.gudmundsson@es.rhul.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    Formation of, and slip on existing, collapse calderas is much more common in basaltic edifices than in composite edifices. I suggest that this difference is partly due to the composite edifices being tougher and more resistant to ring-fault formation than a basaltic edifices. The high matieral toughness of composite edifices is related to their being composed of rock layers with widely different elastic properties, the elastic mismatch promoting deflection and/or arrest of potential ring faults at layer contacts.

  6. A study of the thermostimulated evolution of labelled hydrogen sulfide from the leached basalt fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznov, A.V.; Zyuzin, A.Yu.; Bekman, I.N.

    1991-01-01

    Thermostimulated separation of labelled hydrogen sulfide from basalt fibers leached by hydrochloric acid is investigated by the method of radioactive tracers. It is shown that the type of H 2 35 S thermosorption spectrum depends on the presence of water traces in a fibrous adsrobent. Formal order and activation energy of thermodesorption of labelled hydrogen sulfide as well as inhomogeneity of porous structure of adsorbents based on basalt fibers are established

  7. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  8. Perfil cualitativo de metabolitos secundarios en la fracción comestible de especies leñosas seleccionadas por vacunos en un bosque semicaducifolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á Ojeda

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar cualitativamente el perfil de metabolitos secundarios de la fracción comestible de plantas leñosas seleccionadas por vacunos en silvopastoreo, las cuales se encuentran en un bosque tropófilo semicaducifolio de Venezuela, se utilizaron 14 vacunos machos Brahman x Holstein de 390,4 ± 18,0 kg de PV. Estos fueron manejados en pastoreo continuo en una superficie de 81 ha, de las cuales 50 ha correspondían a un bosque semicaducifolio y el resto, a vegetación herbácea natural (Cynodon nlemfuensis, Sporobolus indicus, Axonopus sp., Mimosa pudica e Hyptis suaveolens. La composición de la biomasa leñosa seleccionada por los animales se estudió mediante la evaluación de los fragmentos epidérmicos presentes en las heces colectadas por vía transrectal, cada 15 días. A partir de estos resultados, se tomaron muestras de cinco plantas por especie leñosa, en los periodos seco y lluvioso. Se determinaron 15 grupos de metabolitos: alcaloides, á-aminos, carbohidratos solubles, cardenólidos, cianógenos, esteroles, fenoles totales, flavonoides, lectinas, mucílagos, quinonas, saponinas, taninos extractables (totales y condensados y terpenoides. La mayoría de la biomasa correspondió a especies de la familia Fabaceae, las cuales presentaron todos los metabolitos evaluados. En ambos periodos se detectaron niveles de esteroles, terpenoides, fenoles totales y taninos extractables que variaron desde leves hasta cuantiosos. Con independencia del periodo, el 66,7 % de las especies presentó entre 10-11 metabolitos secundarios en su biomasa comestible. Se recomienda realizar estudios para la cuantificación de los metabolitos secundarios presentes en plantas leñosas de valor forrajero, para este sistema silvopastoril

  9. The importance of neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio (NC/TM) as a predictor of difficult intubation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Ezzat Abdel Naim; Sabah Abdel Raouf Mohamed; Sherif Mohamed Soaida; Haitham Hassan Awad Eltrabily

    2014-01-01

    Background: The trial to find a bedside examination that is helpful for foreseeing difficult intubation is quite inspiring. It was reported that thyromental distance (TM), body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC) and a Mallampati score >3 were the only helpful bedside test predictors. By using magnetic resonance imaging, it was established that more fat was present in areas around the collapsible parts of the pharynx in OSA patients. So distribution of fat may provide a better suggestio...

  10. Control of OSA during automatic positive airway pressure titration in a clinical case series: predictors and accuracy of device download data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Hillman, David R; McArdle, Nigel

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Tertiary sleep clinic. There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices.

  11. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, heat transfer and rock-waste compatibility studies conducted by the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company to evaluate the feasibility of storing nuclear wastes in caverns mined out into the Columbia River basalts are discussed. The succession of Columbia River Plateau flood basalts was sampled at various outcrops and in core holes and the samples were analyzed to develop a stratigraphic correlation of the various basalt units and sedimentary interbeds. Hydrologic tests were made in one bore hole to assess the degree of isolation in the various deep aquifers separated by thick basalt accumulations. Earthquake and tectonic studies were conducted to assess the tectonic stability of the Columbia River Plateau. Studies were made to evaluate the extent of heat dissipation from stored radioactive wastes. Geochemical studies were aimed at evaluating the compatibility between the radioactive wastes and the basalt host rocks. Data obtained to-date have allowed development of a hydrostratigraphic framework for the Columbia River Plateau and a preliminary understanding of the deep aquifer systems. Finally, the compilation of this information has served as a basis for planning the studies necessary to define the effectiveness of the Columbia River basalts for permanently isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere

  12. Basaltic material in the main belt: a tale of two (or more) parent bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Lazzaro, D.; Fulvio, D.; Perna, D.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta; Medeiros, H.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2018-06-01

    The majority of basaltic objects in the main belt are dynamically connected to Vesta, the largest differentiated asteroid known. Others, due to their current orbital parameters, cannot be easily dynamically linked to Vesta. This is particularly true for all the basaltic asteroids located beyond 2.5 au, where lies the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter. In order to investigate the presence of other V-type asteroids in the middle and outer main belt (MOVs) we started an observational campaign to spectroscopically characterize in the visible range MOV candidates. We observed 18 basaltic candidates from TNG and ESO - NTT between 2015 and 2016. We derived spectral parameters using the same approach adopted in our recent statistical analysis and we compared our data with orbital parameters to look for possible clusters of MOVs in the main belt, symptomatic for a new basaltic family. Our analysis seemed to point out that MOVs show different spectral parameters respect to other basaltic bodies in the main belt, which could account for a diverse mineralogy than Vesta; moreover, some of them belong to the Eos family, suggesting the possibility of another basaltic progenitor. This could have strong repercussions on the temperature gradient present in the early Solar System, and on our current understanding of differentiation processes.

  13. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Andic-Cakir, Ozge; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.; Kuehnel, Radko

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO 2 . The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  14. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan, E-mail: O.Copuroglu@CiTG.TUDelft.NL [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of CiTG, Materials and Environment, Stevinweg 1, 2628CN, Delft (Netherlands); Andic-Cakir, Ozge [Ege University, Civil Engineering Dept., 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M. [Geological Survey of Norway, Dept. of Mineral Characterization, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kuehnel, Radko [Burgemeester Merkusstraat 5, 2645 NJ, Delfgauw (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO{sub 2}. The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  15. The durability of fired brick incorporating textile factory waste ash and basaltic pumice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binici, Hanifi [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Univ., Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Yardim, Yavuz [Epoka Univ., Tirana (Albania). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2012-07-15

    This study investigates the durability of fired brick produced with additives of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice. The effects of incorporating waste ash and basaltic pumice on durability and mechanical properties of the clay bricks were studied. Samples were produced with different ratios of the textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice added and at different fire temperatures of 700, 900, and 1 050 C for 8 h. The bricks with additives were produced by adding equal amounts of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice, separately and together, with rates of 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The produced samples were kept one year in sodium sulphate and sodium nitrate and tested under freezing - unfreezing and drying - wetting conditions. Then compression strength and mass loss of the samples with and without additives were investigated. The test results were compared with standards and results obtained from control specimens. The results showed that incorporations up to 10 wt.% of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice is beneficial to the fired brick. Both textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice were suitable additives and could be used for more durable clay brick production at 900 C fire temperature. (orig.)

  16. Properties of composite laminates based on basalt fibers with epoxidized vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, M.D.; Petrucci, R.; Sanchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.; Kenny, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New environmentally friendly composites from biobased epoxies and basalt fibers. • Improved performance with conventional silane treatment on basalt fabrics. • Composites with excellent appearance due to basalt shiny brown color. • Potential applications as substitute of glass fiber reinforced composites in engineering design. • Processing with conventional resin transfer molding (RTM) techniques. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of polymeric materials derived from epoxidized vegetable oils which have been used in the manufacture of laminated composite materials with basalt fabrics. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) were used as biobased matrices. The basalt fabrics were modified with amino-silane and glycidyl-silane to increase fiber–matrix interactions. The curing behavior of both resins was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry (OR). The evaluation of mechanical properties was made by tensile, flexural and Charpy tests. The extent of the fiber–matrix interactions among interface was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results revealed that surface modification of basalt fibers with glycidyl-silane clearly improves the mechanical properties of the composites. The use of the ELO resin as matrix for composite laminates improved substantially the mechanical performance compared to composites made with ESBO

  17. Experimental Study on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanism and effect of basalt fiber reinforced clay soil, a series of unconfined compressive strength tests conducted on clay soil reinforced with basalt fiber have been performed under the condition of optimum water content and maximum dry density. Both the content and length of basalt fiber are considered in this paper. When the effect of content is studied, the 12 mm long fibers are dispersed into clay soil at different contents of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, and 0.35%. When the effect of length is researched, different lengths of basalt fibers with 4 mm, 8 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm are put into soil at the same content of 0.05%. Experimental results show that basalt fiber can effectively improve the UCS of clay soil. And the best content and length are 0.25% and 12 mm, respectively. The results also show that the basalt fiber reinforced clay soil has the “poststrong” characteristic. About the reinforcement mechanism, the fiber and soil column-net model is proposed in this paper. Based on this model and SEM images, the effect of fiber content and length is related to the change of fiber-soil column and formation of effective fiber-soil net.

  18. The investigation of gamma and neutron shielding properties of concrete including basalt fibre for nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nulk, H.; Ipbuker, C.; Gulik, V.; Tkaczyk, A.; Biland, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we would like to draw attention to the prospect of basalt fibre as the main component for concrete reinforcement of NPP. This work describes the computational study of gamma attenuation parameters, the effective atomic number Z(eff) and the effective electron density N e (eff), of relatively light-weight concrete with chopped basalt fibre used as reinforcement in different mixture rates. We can draw the following conclusions. Basalt fibre is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement instead of metallic fibers. Basalt fibre has a similar specific gravity to that of concrete elements. Basalt fibre has high chemical and abrasion resistance. Basalt fibre has almost 10 times the tensile strength of steel re-bars. Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients increase with addition of basalt fibre into concrete in every case. The effective atomic number of the concrete increases with the addition of basalt fibre. The results show that basalt fibre reinforced concrete have improved shielding properties against gamma rays in comparison with regular concrete. This result is based on a regular concrete with only basalt fiber reinforcement. We estimate that with addition of standard aggregates for radiation shielding concrete, such as barite, magnetite or hematite, the shielding properties will increase exponentially

  19. Geochemistry of cenozoic basaltic rocks from Shandong province and its implication for mantle process in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Yungtan; Chen Juchin; Huang Shaowei; Shih Jyhyi; Lin Menglung; Juang Wenshing; Yang Huaijen

    2006-01-01

    Cenozoic (Miocene to Pleistocene) basaltic rocks found in Shandong province of northern China include tholeiite, olivine tholeiite and alkali basalt. We present major, trace and rare earth elements data of these basalts and together with Sr-Nd isotopic data in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts. The basalts from Penglai area have higher K, Na and P and incompatible elements, but lower Ca, Mg and compatible elements contents than those from Changle area of Shandong province. Spidergrams indicate that Cenozoic basalts from Shandong province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) with slight positive Nb anomaly. The negative Ba, Rb and K anomalies found in the alkali basalts suggest the presence of residual phlogopite in the mantle source, indicating a metasomatic event occurred before the partial melting. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd vs. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr plot suggested that basalts from Shandong province can be produced by MORB and EM-I components mixing. We propose that the EM-I type lithospheric mantle may have been produced by the recent H 2 O-CO 2 -fluids metasomatism and the fluids may be derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. Based on Shaw's equation, the basalts from eastern and central Shandong province have undergone different degrees of particle melting from the mantle source. Degrees of partial melting and chemical composition of basalts from Shandong province suggest that the lithosphere has thickened progressively since the Miocene. On the basis of Ar-Ar ages of this study and the fractional crystallization model proposed by Brooks and Nielsen (1982), we suggest that basalts from Changle and Penglai areas belong to different magmatic systems which have undergone fractional crystallization and evolved progressively to produce other types of basalts. (author)

  20. Role of spousal involvement in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool-Anwar S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the impact of spousal involvement on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence. The aim of this study was to determine whether spouse involvement affects adherence with CPAP therapy, and how this association varies with gender. Methods: 194 subjects recruited from Apnea Positive Pressure Long Term Efficacy Study (APPLES completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS. The majority of participants were Caucasian (83%, and males (73%, with mean age of 56 years, mean BMI of 31 kg/m2. & 62% had severe OSA. The DAS is a validated 32-item self-report instrument measuring dyadic consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, and affectional expression. A high score in the DAS is indicative of a person’s adjustment to the marriage. Additionally, questions related to spouse involvement with general health and CPAP use were asked. CPAP use was downloaded from the device and self-report, and compliance was defined as usage > 4 h per night. Results: There were no significant differences in overall marital quality between the compliant and noncompliant subjects. However, level of spousal involvement was associated with increased CPAP adherence at 6 months (p=0.01. After stratifying for gender these results were significant only among males (p=0.03. Three years after completing APPLES, level of spousal involvement was not associated with CPAP compliance even after gender stratification. Conclusion: Spousal involvement is important in determining CPAP compliance in males in the 1st 6 months after initiation of therapy but is not predictive of longer-term adherence. Involvement of the spouse should be considered an integral part of CPAP initiation procedures.

  1. Mapping Tropical Forest Mosaics with C- and L-band SAR: First Results from Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, N.; Hensley, S.; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, N.; Broadbent, E. N.; Ahmed, R.

    2016-12-01

    In tropical countries, economic incentives and improved infrastructure are creating forest mosaics where small-scale farming and industrial plantations are embedded within and potentially replacing native ecosystems. Practices such as agroforestry, slash-and-burn cultivation, and oil palm monocultures bring widely different impacts on carbon stocks. Characterizing these production systems is not only critical to ascribe deforestation to particular drivers, but also essential to understand the impact of macroeconomic scenarios, national policies, and land tenure schemes on carbon fluxes. The last decade has experienced a dramatic improvement in the extent and consistency of tree cover and gross deforestation products from optical imagery. At the same time, recent work shows that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can complement optical data and reveal structural types that cannot be easily resolved with reflectance measurements alone. While these results demonstrate the validity of sensor fusion methodologies, they typically rely on local classifications or even manual delineation and as such they cannot support large-scale investigations. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to exploit PolInSAR or multiple wavelengths that can provide critical information to resolve natural and anthropogenic land cover types. We report results from our research at Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula. This site is ideal for algorithm development as it includes a highly diverse tropical forest within Corcovado National Park, as well as agroforestry zones, mangroves, and palm plantations. We first integrate SAR backscatter and coherence data from NASA's L-band UAVSAR, JAXA's ALOS/PALSAR, and ESA's Sentinel to produce a map of structural types. Second, we assess whether coherence measurements and PolInSAR retrievals can be used to resolve forest stand differences at 30m resolution and disitinguish between primary and secondary forest sites.

  2. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Christopher D; Bratton, Daniel J; Craig, Sonya E; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2-4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2-4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2-4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months. Although, in general, early patterns of CPAP

  3. The Mantle and Basalt-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.

    2010-01-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic

  4. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing

  5. Carbon and its isotopes in mid-oceanic basaltic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Marais, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Three carbon components are evident in eleven analyzed mid-oceanic basalts: carbon on sample surfaces (resembling adsorbed gases, organic matter, or other non-magmatic carbon species acquired by the glasses subsequent to their eruption), mantle carbon dioxide in vesicles, and mantle carbon dissolved in the glasses. The combustion technique employed recovered only reduced sulfur, all of which appears to be indigenous to the glasses. The dissolved carbon concentration (measured in vesicle-free glass) increases with the eruption depth of the spreading ridge, and is consistent with earlier data which show that magma carbon solubility increases with pressure. The total glass carbon content (dissolved plus vesicular carbon) may be controlled by the depth of the shallowest ridge magma chamber. Carbon isotopic fractionation accompanies magma degassing; vesicle CO 2 is about 3.8per mille enriched in 13 C, relative to dissolved carbon. Despite this fractionation, delta 13 Csub(PDB) values for all spreading ridge glasses lie within the range -5.6 and -7.5, and the delta 13 Csub(PDB) of mantle carbon likely lies between -5 and -7. The carbon abundances and delta 13 Csub(PDB) values of Kilauea East Rift glasses apparently are influences by the differentiation and movement of magma within that Hawaiian volcano. Using 3 He and carbon data for submarine hydrothermal fluids, the present-day mid-oceanic ridge mantle carbon flux is estimated very roughly to be about 1.0 x 10 13 g C/yr. Such a flux requires 8 Gyr to accumulate the earth's present crustal carbon inventory. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preliminary socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.A.; Malhotra, S.; McStay, J.R.; Slingsby, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report was prepared as a part of the continuing site characterization activities for a proposed nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) to be located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The purpose of this study is to assess the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of the proposed NWRB facility. The specific objectives of this study are to describe historical socioeconomic trends in the study area, to describe current conditions, to project future baseline conditions without the NWRB, to project potential impacts due to the proposed NWRB under two alternative regional development scenarios and assess their significance, and to suggest an overall impact management and mitigation strategy. A closely related objective is to assemble a comprehensive socioeconomic data base that can be easily updated for future analyses. This study examines employment, labor supply, population change, housing, local transportation, revenues, and expenditures for public services. This report documents the marked demographic and economic decline that has occurred in the study area since 1981 and concludes that future baseline growth will resume at a relatively slower pace after further expected declines have been experienced through about 1985. The projected socioeconomic impacts of the NWRB development are assessed under two alternative baseline scenarios and are not expected to be significant in either case. With careful planning and attention to impact mitigation, including public participation and interaction with local and regional planning agencies, potential socioeconomic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Recommendations are made for providing frequent updating of the data base and for improving the analysis of socioeconomic impacts. 68 references, 19 figures, 38 tables

  7. Autogenous Tumbling Media Assessment to Clean Weathered Surfaces of Waste-Rock Particles from a Basalt Quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Tufan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimum feed composition in autogenous tumbling of basalt waste-rock particles to clean their weathered surface was determined. The weathered surfaces of basalt are generally cut out consequent to extraction of basalt columns in quarry operations. The inefficiently cut out portions of basalt cause formation of huge quarry waste dumps causing visual pollution on roadsides. Mixtures of different particle size fractions of basalt waste-rock particles were experimented to achieve the optimum feed material composition. The minimum loss of commercially available basalt particles and maximum clear surface was intended. The results were compared with respect to weight loss (% and reflectance values of used and generated samples.

  8. Back-arc basalts from the Loncopue graben (Province of Neuquen, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Hesse, A.; Mandeville, C. W.

    2010-11-01

    Young basaltic back-arc volcanoes occur east of the main Andes chain at about 37.5°-39°S in the Loncopue graben, Province of Neuquen, Argentina. These olivine-rich basalts and trachybasalts have up to 8% MgO, with high Ni and Cr contents, but highly variable incompatible element concentrations. Mafic lava flows and cinder cones at the southern end of the graben lack phenocrystic plagioclase. The northern samples have relative Ta-Nb depletions and K, Pb and LREE enrichment. These samples strongly resemble rocks of the nearby arc volcanoes Copahue and Caviahue, including their Fe-Ti enrichment relative to the main Andes arc rocks. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios show that the source regions of these back-arc basalts are enriched in subducted components that were depleted in the aqueous mobile elements such as Cs, Sr and Ba as a result of prior extractions from the subducted complex below the main arc. Some mafic flows show slightly low 206Pb/ 204Pb and 143Nd/ 144Nd values as well as incompatible trace element ratios similar to southern Patagonia plateau back-arc basalts, suggesting contributions from an EM1 mantle source. Geothermometry and barometry suggest that the basalts crystallized and fractionated small amounts of olivine and spinel at ˜ 35 km depth at temperatures of 1170-1220 °C, at about QFM + 0.5 to QFM + 1 with 1-2% H 2O, and then rose rapidly to the surface. The Loncopue graben back-arc basalts are transitional in composition between the South Patagonia back-arc plateau basalts and the Caviahue and Copahue arc volcanoes to the northwest. The EM1 source endmember is possibly the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Strong variations in incompatible element enrichment and isotopic compositions between closely spaced cinder cones and lava flows suggest a heterogeneous mantle source for the Loncopue graben volcanics.

  9. Behavior of 99Tc in doped-glass/basalt hydrothermal interaction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Apted, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The release of polyvalent radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository located in basalt may be sensitively related to the redox potential (Eh) imposed by the basalt. A series of tests are reported here, evaluating the effect of basalt on the concentrations of 99 Tc released into solution from a borosilicate glass waste form. Crushed PNL 76-68 glass, doped with 0.7 mg 99 Tc/g glass, was reacted with reference basalt groundwater under oxic hydrothermal conditions in a sampling autoclave, both alone and in the presence of crushed basalt. The steady state fluid concentrations of 99 Tc and various table species were determined from samples obtained at the test conditions of 200 0 C, 30 MPa, and a initial solution to solid mass ratio of 10 for both tests. In the glass + groundwater test, the 99 Tc concentration rose rapidly to about 50 mg/L after only 200 hr of run time and remained at a value between 50 and 60 mg/L throughout the duration of the test. For the basalt + glass + groundwater test, the 99 Tc concentration rose to an initial value of about 2.5 mg/L. At about 700 hr, the 99 Tc concentration began to drop rapidly until a value near the analytical detection limit (approximately 0.005 mg/L) was reached after a test duration of 1400 hr. It is concluded that the presence of basalt in these hydrothermal experiments reduces the concentration of 99 Tc in solution by nearly four orders of magnitude, probably by control of solution Eh and subsequent precipitation of a solid containing a reduced form of technetium. Reaction mechanisms are discussed that can account for these observations. 17 references, 1 figure

  10. Fertirrigação da bananeira cv. Prata-Anã com N e K em um argissolo vermelho-amarelo Fertigation of banana cv Prata Anã with N and K in an ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbério Paolilo dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O Nordeste brasileiro é a principal região produtora de banana, responsável por cerca de 35,80% da produção nacional. Apesar das condições favoráveis ao seu cultivo, a produtividade tem sido muito abaixo do seu potencial. Geralmente, isso se deve a problemas de suprimento hídrico e nutricional. Dentre os nutrientes, o nitrogênio (N e o potássio (K são requeridos em maiores quantidades pela bananeira. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de quatro doses de N (0; 117; 235 e 352 kg ha-1 de N e de K (0; 157; 313 e 470 kg ha-1 de K2O, aplicados via fertirrigação, avaliaram-se características produtivas de um 2º ciclo de cultivo da banana cv. Prata-Anã, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro. O N não influenciou na produção de banana, enquanto a resposta ao K foi linear. O nível crítico de K pelo Mehlich-1, na profundidade de 0,20- 0,40 m, foi 0,71 mmol c kg-1.The Brazilian Northeast is the main producing area, being responsible for about 35,80% of banana's national production. In spite of the favorable conditions to its cultivation, the average national yield has been a lot below its potential, due mainly to water and nutrients supply. Among all nutrients, nitrogen (N and potassium (K are the ones required in larger amounts by the banana. With the objective of studying the effect of four rates of N (0, 117, 235 and 352 kg ha-1 of N, and of four rates K (0, 157, 313 and 470 kg ha-1 of K2O applied by fertirrigation in the 2º cycle of cultivation of the cv. Prata Anã, data was collected in an factorial experiment in randomized blocks, in an Ultisol of the coastal tableland, of the northeast of Brazil. There was not response to N but a linear one was observed for K. Soil K by Mehlich-1 critical level at 0,20- 0,40 m was 0,71 mmol c kg-1.

  11. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 3. Stratigraphies of salt, granite, shale, and basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This study presents the methodology and basic literature used to develop generic stratigraphic sections for the various geologic repository host rocks under considerations: salt, granite, shale and basalt

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults

  13. Geochemical insights into the lithology of mantle sources for Cenozoic alkali basalts in West Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2018-03-01

    Although alkali basalts are common in oceanic islands and continental rifts, the lithology of their mantle sources is still controversial. While the peridotite is usually viewed as a common source lithology, there are increasing studies suggesting significant contributions from ultramafic metasomatites such as carbonated peridotite, pyroxenite and hornblendite to the origin of alkali basalts. The present study indicates that carbonated peridotite plus hornblendite would have served as the mantle sources of Cenozoic alkali basalts from the West Qinling orogen in China. The target basalts show low SiO2 contents of 36.9 to 40.8 wt% and highly variable Na2O + K2O contents from 0.86 to 4.77 wt%, but high CaO contents of 12.5 to 16.3 wt% and CaO/Al2O3 ratios of 1.42 to 2.19. They are highly enriched in the majority of incompatible trace elements, but depleted in Rb, K, Pb, Zr, Hf, and Ti. Furthermore, they exhibit high (La/Yb)N, Zr/Hf, Ce/Pb and Nb/Ta ratios, but low Ti/Eu and Hf/Sm ratios. Generally, with increasing (La/Yb)N and CaO/Al2O3 ratios, their Ti/Eu and Hf/Sm ratios decrease whereas their Zr/Hf, Ce/Pb and Nb/Ta ratios increase. These major and trace element features are similar to those of carbonatites and hornblendite-derived melts to some extent, but significantly different from those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). This suggests that the alkali basalts would be originated from metasomatic mantle sources. A comparison of the major-trace elements in the alkali basalts with those of some representative mantle-derived melts indicates that the source lithology of alkali basalts is a kind of ultramafic metasomatites that are composed of carbonated peridotite and hornblendite. Such metasomatites would be generated by reaction of the depleted MORB mantle peridotite with hydrous, carbonate-bearing felsic melts derived from partial melting of the subducted Paleotethyan oceanic crust. Therefore, the melt-peridotite reaction at the slab-mantle interface in the

  14. Petrochemistry of a xenolith-bearing Neogene alkali olivine basalt from northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeed; Stern, Charles R.

    2012-05-01

    A small isolated Neogene, possibly Quaternary, monogenetic alkali olivine basalt cone in northeastern Iran contains both mantle peridotite and crustal gabbroic xenoliths, as well as plagioclase megacrysts. The basaltic magma rose to the surface along pathways associated with local extension at the junction between the N-S right-lateral and E-W left-lateral strike slip faults that form the northeastern boundary of the Lut microcontinental block. This basalt is enriched in LREE relative to HREE, and has trace-element ratios similar to that of oceanic island basalts (OIB). Its 87Sr/86Sr (0.705013 to 0.705252), 143Nd/144Nd (0.512735 to 0.512738), and Pb isotopic compositions all fall in the field of OIB derived from enriched (EM-2) mantle. It formed by mixing of small melt fractions from both garnet-bearing asthenospheric and spinel-facies lithospheric mantle. Plagioclase (An26-32) megacrysts, up to 4 cm in length, have euhedral crystal faces and show no evidence of reaction with the host basalt. Their trace-element concentrations suggest that these megacrysts are co-genetic with the basalt host, although their 87Sr/86Sr (0.704796) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512687) ratios are different than this basalt. Round to angular, medium-grained granoblastic meta-igneous gabbroic xenoliths, ranging from ~ 1 to 6 cm in dimension, are derived from the lower continental crust. Spinel-peridotite xenoliths equilibrated in the subcontinental lithosphere at depths of 30 to 60 km and temperatures of 965 °C to 1065 °C. These xenoliths do not preserve evidence of extensive metasomatic enrichment as has been inferred for the mantle below the Damavand volcano further to the west in north-central Iran, and clinopyroxenes separated from two different mantle xenoliths have 87Sr/86Sr (0.704309 and 0.704593) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512798) ratios which are less radiogenic than either their host alkali basalt or Damavand basalts, implying significant regional variations in the composition and extent of

  15. The relationship of seismic velocity structure and surface fracture characteristics of basalt outcrops to rippability estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, S.E.; Dougherty, M.E.; Pelton, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Seismic velocity has been shown in previous engineering studies to be related to the fracture characteristics and rippability of rock outcrops. However, common methods of measuring seismic velocity in outcrops do not take into account the many possible travel paths for wave propagation and the fact that velocity zones may exist within an outcrop. Presented here are the results of using raytracing inversion of first-arrival travel-time data to map P-velocity structure in basalt outcrops, and also the investigation of the relationship of the mapped velocities to observed surface fractures and hand-sample P-velocities. It is shown that basalt outcrops commonly consist of an irregular near-surface low-velocity zone underlain by higher velocity material; that velocity gradients can exist in outcrops; that hand-sample velocity measurements are typically higher than outcrop-scale measurements; and that the characteristics of surface fractures are empirically related to near-surface P-velocity. All of these findings are relevant to the estimated rippability of rock in geotechnical engineering. The data for this study are derived from eleven sites on basalt outcrops of the Troodos Ophiolite in Cyprus. The basalt types include pillow basalts, massive flows, and a pillow breccia. A commonly available raytracing inversion program (RAYINVR) was used to produce a velocity profile of each outcrop. Different velocity zones were detailed by inverting observed travel times to produce a model of outcrop velocity structure which produces rippability profiles for each outcrop. 16 refs., 9 figs

  16. Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Skeffington, Richard; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Ridgwell, Andy; Fowler, David; Wilson, Marjorie; Mann, Graham; Wignall, Paul; Carslaw, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Several biotic crises during the past 300 million years have been linked to episodes of continental flood basalt volcanism, and in particular to the release of massive quantities of magmatic sulphur gas species. Flood basalt provinces were typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades. However, the environmental impact of these eruptions may have been limited by the occurrence of quiescent periods that lasted hundreds to thousands of years. Here we use a global aerosol model to quantify the sulphur-induced environmental effects of individual, decade-long flood basalt eruptions representative of the Columbia River Basalt Group, 16.5-14.5 million years ago, and the Deccan Traps, 65 million years ago. For a decade-long eruption of Deccan scale, we calculate a decadal-mean reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which would recover within 50 years after an eruption ceased unless climate feedbacks were very different in deep-time climates. Acid mists and fogs could have caused immediate damage to vegetation in some regions, but acid-sensitive land and marine ecosystems were well-buffered against volcanic sulphur deposition effects even during century-long eruptions. We conclude that magmatic sulphur from flood basalt eruptions would have caused a biotic crisis only if eruption frequencies and lava discharge rates had been high and sustained for several centuries at a time.

  17. Non-destructive XRF analyses of fine-grained basalts from Eiao, Marquesas Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleux, M.; McAlister, A.; Mills, P.R.; Lundblad, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    The Marquesan island of Eiao was an important source of fine-grained basalt in Central East Polynesia, with examples being identified in archaeological assemblages throughout the region. However, compared to many other large-scale Polynesian basalt sources, little has been published about the physical extent and geochemical variability of tool-quality basalt on Eiao; prior to our study, only a single site with evidence of stone extraction had been identified and geochemical information was limited to less than two dozen samples. In this paper we report geochemical data for 225 additional basalt specimens collected on Eiao. Our analyses were conducted non-destructively using three EDXRF instruments: one lab-based unit and two portable analysers. The majority of our sample, identified here as Group 1, possesses geochemical and physical characteristics similar to those reported in previous studies. Group 1 samples were collected from various locations on Eiao suggesting that, rather than being limited to a single quarry site, fine-grained basalt was extracted from multiple sources throughout the island. In addition, we identified a second group (Group 2), which possesses a distinct geochemistry, a coarser grain and often an unusual reddish colour. Evidence from Eiao indicates that Group 2 stone was regularly utilised and our analysis of an adze collected on Hiva Oa Island suggests that this material was distributed at least as far as the southern Marquesas. (author)

  18. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.L.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report

  19. Geochemistry contribution of Pb isotopes on basalts origin study from Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.; Dupre, B.; Allegre, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents thirty new Pb-isotope and concentration data for low- and high-tiO sub(2) continental flood basalts of the Parana Basin. The results obtained from representative samples show significant differences with respect to type and location of these basic rocks. The low- and high-TiO sub(2) basalts from the northern region of the Parana Basin exhibit very similar Pb-isotope compositions. On the other hand, the low-TiO sub(2) basalts of central and southern areas, which exhibit low Sr initial isotope ratios (less than 0,7060), show very small variation in Pb isotope compositions which are highly enriched in radiogenic Pb in comparison with the analogues of northern region. The high-TiO sub(2) basic rocks analysed from northern and central regions have the same values for Pb isotope ratios, which are slightly more radiogenic compared with high-TiO sub(2) basalts from southern region. The data obtained, combined with other geochemical (major and trace elements, including rare earths) and isotope (Sr and Nd) results support the view that the basalts from northern and southern areas of the Parana Basin originated in lithospheric mantle reservoirs with different geochemical characteristics. (author)

  20. Zircon evidence for incorporation of terrigenous sediments into the magma source of continental basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2018-01-09

    Crustal components may be incorporated into continental basalts by either shallow contamination or deep mixing. While the former proceeds at crustal depths with common preservation of refractory minerals, the latter occurs at mantle depths with rare survival of relict minerals. Discrimination between the two mechanisms has great bearing to subcontinental mantle geochemistry. Here we report the occurrence of relict zircons in Cenozoic continental basalts from eastern China. A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry indicates that detrital zircons were carried by terrigenous sediments into a subcontinental subduction zone, where the zircon were transferred by fluids into the magma sources of continental basalts. The basalts were sampled from three petrotectonic units with distinct differences in their magmatic and metamorphic ages, making the crustal contamination discernible. The terrigenous sediments were carried by the subducting oceanic crust into the asthenospheric mantle, producing both soluble and insoluble materials at the slab-mantle interface. These materials were served as metasomatic agents to react with the overlying mantle wedge peridotite, generating a kind of ultramafic metasomatites that contain the relict zircons. Therefore, the occurrence of relict zircons in continental basalts indicates that this refractory mineral can survive extreme temperature-pressure conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.

  1. Seeking a paleontological signature for mass extinctions caused by flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bush, A. M.; Chang, E. T.; Heim, N. A.; Knope, M. L.; Pruss, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Flood basalt eruptions coincide with numerous extinction events in the fossil record. Increasingly precise absolute age determinations for both the timing of eruption and of species extinctions have strengthened the case for flood basalt eruptions as the single most important trigger for major mass extinction events in the fossil record. However, the extent to which flood basalt eruptions cause a pattern of biotic loss distinctive from extinctions triggered by other geological or biological processes remains an open question. In the absence of diagnostic mapping between geological triggers and biological losses, establishing the identities of causal agents for mass extinctions will continue to depend primarily on evidence for temporal coincidence. Here we use a synoptic database of marine animal genera spanning the Phanerozoic, including times of first and last occurrence, body size, motility, life position, feeding mode, and respiratory physiology to assess whether extinction events temporally associated with flood basalt eruptions exhibit a diagnostic pattern of extinction selectivity. We further ask whether any events not associated with known large igneous provinces nevertheless display extinction patterns suggestive of such a cause. Finally, we ask whether extinction events associated with other primary causes, such as glaciation or bolide impact, are distinguishable from events apparently triggered by flood basalt eruptions on the basis of extinction selectivity patterns

  2. A LREE-depleted component in the Afar plume: Further evidence from Quaternary Djibouti basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Mohamed A.; Maury, René C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Taylor, Rex N.; Le Gall, Bernard; Guillou, Hervé; Cotten, Joseph; Rolet, Joël

    2010-02-01

    Major, trace element and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data and unspiked K-Ar ages are presented for Quaternary (0.90-0.95 Ma old) basalts from the Hayyabley volcano, Djibouti. These basalts are LREE-depleted (La n/Sm n = 0.76-0.83), with 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70369 to 0.70376, and rather homogeneous 143Nd/ 144Nd ( ɛNd = + 5.9-+ 7.3) and Pb isotopic compositions ( 206Pb/ 204Pb = 18.47-18.55, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.52-15.57, 208Pb/ 204Pb = 38.62-38.77). They are very different from the underlying enriched Tadjoura Gulf basalts, and from the N-MORB erupted from the nascent oceanic ridges of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Their compositions closely resemble those of (1) depleted Quaternary Manda Hararo basalts from the Afar depression in Ethiopia and (2) one Oligocene basalt from the Ethiopian Plateau trap series. Their trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb isotope systematics suggest the involvement of a discrete but minor LREE-depleted component, which is probably an intrinsic part of the Afar plume.

  3. Hydrogeological and quantitative groundwater assessment of the Basaltic Aquifer, Northern Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shaibani, A.; Abokhodair, Abdulwahab A.; Lloyd, J.W.; Al-Ahmari, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Northern Harrat Rahat consists of 300m basalt lavas covering some 2000 km2 to the south-east of Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia. Like many basalt sequences, the Rahat basalts form an important aquifer and groundwater resource. The aquifer has a saturated thickness of up to 60m and made up of the weathered upper part of underlying basement, pre-basalt sands and gravels and the fractured basalts. Since 1992, groundwater has been abstracted from the aquifer as part of the Al-Madinah water supply. To assess the potential of the aquifer an assessment has been made based on pumping tests of 70 wells. The hydraulic parameters have been shown to be highly variable typical of the fractured domain. The aquifer contains good-quality water in storage, but receives limited recharge. Groundwater temperature anomalies indicate remnant volcanic activity locally. A numerical groundwater model has been constructed, which has been calibrated using limited groundwater head measurements, but with good abstraction records. Prediction of groundwater heads and the examination of several abstraction scenarios indicate that the aquifer can continue to support part of the Al-Madinah demand for the next several years, if certain well distributions are adopted. The predictions also show that the aquifer can only support the total demand of the city for a few days as a contingency resource. (author)

  4. Erosion by flowing lava: Geochemical evidence in the Cave Basalt, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.A.; Kadel, S.D.; Greeley, R.; Lesher, C.M.; Clynne, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We sampled basaltic lava flows and underlying dacitic tuff deposits in or near lava tubes of the Cave Basalt, Mount St. Helens, Washington to determine whether the Cave Basalt lavas contain geochemical evidence of substrate contamination by lava erosion. The samples were analyzed using a combination of wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the oldest, outer lava tube linings in direct contact with the dacitic substrate are contaminated, whereas the younger, inner lava tube linings are uncontaminated and apparently either more evolved or enriched in residual liquid. The most heavily contaminated lavas occur closer to the vent and in steeper parts of the tube system, and the amount of contamination decreases with increasing distance downstream. These results suggest that erosion by lava and contamination were limited to only the initially emplaced flows and that erosion was localized and enhanced by vigorous laminar flow over steeper slopes. After cooling, the initial Cave Basalt lava flows formed an insulating lining within the tubes that prevented further erosion by later flows. This interpretation is consistent with models of lava erosion that predict higher erosion rates closer to sources and over steeper slopes. A greater abundance of xenoliths and xenocrysts relative to xenomelts in hand samples indicates that mechanical erosion rather than thermal erosion was the dominant erosional process in the Cave Basalt, but further sampling and petrographic analyses must be performed to verify this hypothesis. ?? Springer-Verlag 2003.

  5. Characterization and utilization potential of basalt rock from East-Lampung district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnugroho, K.; Hendronursito, Y.; Birawidha, D. C.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the petrography and chemical properties of basalt rock from East Lampung district, Lampung province. Petrography analysis was performed using a polarization microscope, and analysis of chemical composition using X-RF method. From the analysis of basalt rock samples, the mineral composition consists of pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, and opaque minerals. Basic mass of basalt rock samples is, composed of plagioclase and pyroxene with subhedral-anhedral shape, forming intergranular texture, and uniform distribution. Mineral plagioclase is colorless and blade shape, transformed into opaque minerals with a size of basalt rock samples, consisting of 37.76-59.64 SiO2; 10.10-20.93 Fe2O3; 11.77-14.32 Al2O3; 5.57-14.75 CaO; 5.37-9.15 MgO; 1.40-3.34 Na2O. From the calculation, obtained the value of acidity ratio (Ma) = 3.81. With these values, indicate that the basalt rock from East Lampung district has the potential to be utilized as stone wool fiber.

  6. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  7. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Li Yan; Gu Ning

    2010-01-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  8. Degradation of basalt fibre and glass fibre/epoxy resin composites in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Bin; Cao Hailin; Song Shenhua

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → BFRP degradation process in seawater environment was first investigated. → The mass gain change includes two effects: absorption and extraction. → The interfacial adhesion of BFRP is bigger than GFRP. → After treated, the bending strength of BFRP is lower than GFRP. → Reducing the Fe 2+ in the basalt fibre could lead to a higher stability of BFRP. - Abstract: Epoxy resins reinforced, respectively, by basalt fibres and glass fibres were treated with a seawater solution for different periods of time. Both the mass gain ratio and the strength maintenance ratio of the composites were examined after the treatment. The fracture surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The tensile and bending strengths of the seawater treated samples showed a decreasing trend with treating time. In general, the anti-seawater corrosion property of the basalt fibre reinforced composites was almost the same as that of the glass fibre reinforced ones. Based on the experimental results, possible corrosion mechanisms were explored, indicating that an effective lowering of the Fe 2+ content in the basalt fibre could lead to a higher stability for the basalt fibre reinforced composites in a seawater environment.

  9. Effect of γ irradiation on the properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ran; Gu, Yizhuo; Yang, Zhongjia; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray (γ-ray) irradiation is a crucial reason for the aging in materials used for nuclear industry. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, light weight and good corrosion resistance, fiber reinforced composites are regarded as an alternative of traditional materials used on nuclear facilities. In this study, basalt fiber (BF)/AG80 epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by autoclave process and treated with "6"0Co gamma irradiation dose up to 2.0 MGy. Irradiation induced polymer chain scission and oxidation of AG80 resin were detected from physical and chemical analysis. The experimental results show that the tensile and flexural performances of irradiated BF/AG80 composite maintain stable and have a low amplitude attenuation respectively, and the interlaminar shear strength has increased from irradiation dose of 0–1.5 MGy. Furthermore, the comparison between the studied BF composite and reported polymer and composite materials was done for evaluating the γ resistance property of BF composite. - Highlights: • The properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite under "6"0Co γ irradiation up to 2.0 MGy were studied. • Basalt fiber can weaken the aging effects of γ irradiation on the resin matrix. • Tensile property of basalt fiber composite remains stable and flexural property has a low degree of attenuation. • Basalt fiber composite is an ideal candidate of structural material for nuclear industry.

  10. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrançosa from different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil (VOO from the cv. “cobrançosa” integrated into a protected denomination of origin of “Azeite de Trás-os-Montes” in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc, (T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc and (T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006. Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts.

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el efecto de distintas estrategias de riego en la composición relativa de los compuestos volátiles y en la calidad sensorial. El experimento se realizó en el Noreste de Portugal, dentro de la denominación de origen protegida “Azeites de Tr

  11. Diagnosis of health-related physical fitness in office workers of the Federal University of Viçosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Diniz da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral demands and the particularities of the activities performed by the employees from offices at the Federal University of Viçosa can offer a series of negative factors for health. The interface with the computer and task characteristics give a great body and also cognitive demands, that allied to several factors can represent the appearance or worsening repetitive lesions and/or work related problems in the skeletal muscle (Cumulative Trauma Disorders . This study aimed to diagnose the workers’ situation in relation to General Human Factors (GHF and level of Health-Related Fitness (HRFcomponents: cardiorrespiratory; flexibility; strength and percent of body fat. The sample was composed by 46 workers. For both sexes, the GHF variables of higher significance were: “posture perception”; “sensation of local pains and those from some movement or task” in the back, shoulders and arms areas. Referring to HRF, both sexes presented unsatisfactory levels for trunk-hip flexibility “ and great part of men were classified as” below average “ in the push-up test” which are risk factors for CTD. Significant portion of them presented high percent of body fat (25,0% or were “obese” (14,2%. In general terms of HFR, there should be interventions, such as physical activity and/or sports programs for this group of employees at this institution. It is suggested that actions should also be taken in the leisure activity offering, once it was shown that 39,2% of the men and 44,4% of the women have in TV their main leisure activity. RESUMO As exigências comportamentais e as particularidades das atividades desenvolvidas pelos funcionários de alguns setores caracterizados como escritórios da Universidade Federal de Viçosa podem estar potencializando uma série de fatores negativos para a saúde destes. A interface com o computador e a característica da tarefa levam a uma forte exigência física e também cognitiva, que aliadas a

  12. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of OSA-18, a Quality of Life Questionnaire for Evaluation of Children with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiner, Eusebi; Landete, Pedro; Sancho-Chust, José Norberto; Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Ferrer, Patricia; Pastor, Esther; Senent, Cristina; Arlandis, Mar; Navarro, Cristina; Selma, María José

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire in children with apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Children with suspected SAHS were studied with polysomnography (PSG) before and after adenotonsillectomy (AA). Age, gender, clinical data, PSG, anthropometric data, and Mallampati and Brodsky scales were analyzed. OSA-18 was administered at baseline and 3-6months post AA. After translation and backtranslation by bilingual professionals, the internal consistency, reliability, construct validity, concurrent validity, predictive validity and sensitivity to change of the questionnaire was assessed. In total, 45 boys and 15 girls were evaluated, showing BMI 18±4, neck 28±5, Brodsky (0: 7%; 50 to 75%: 6%), AHI 12±7 pre AA. Global Cronbach alpha was 0.91. Correlations between domains were significant except for emotional aspects, although the total scores correlated with all domains (0.50 to 0.90). The factorial analysis was virtually identical to the original structure. The total scores showed good correlation for concurrent validity (0.2-0.45). With regard to predictive validity, the questionnaire adequately differentiated levels of severity according to Mallampati (ANOVA P=.002) and apnea-hypopnea index (ANOVA P=.006). Test-retest reliability was excellent, as was sensitivity to change, both in the total scores (P<.001) and in each domain (P<.001). The Spanish adaptation of the OSA-18 and its psychometric characteristics suggest that the Spanish version is equivalent to the original and can be used in Spanish-speaking countries. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-Ti basalts from the Faroe Islands constrain the early Iceland depleted plume component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    New Sr, Nd, Hf and high precision Pb isotope analyses of 46 Faroese low-Ti lavas erupted at the rifting of the proto-North Atlantic ~56-55 Ma ago are presented. The low-Ti lavas are depleted, MORB-like basalts erupted close to the riftzone at the same time as enriched high-Ti basalts were erupted...... away from the rift . The low-Ti samples include a large proportion of high-MgO basalts and can be related by a common model of low-pressure fractionation. Fractionation correction to 13 % MgO shows only little variation in their primitive major element contents, suggesting very similar origins...

  14. Study of crystallization of a basalt glass; Estudo de cristalizacao de um vidro de basalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Fernando Takahiro; Hashizume, Camila Mina; Toffoli, Samuel Marcio, E-mail: toffoli@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Basalt vitreous ceramics posses industrial importance by presenting high mechanical resistance to the abrasion. It was studied the obtention and the crystallization of a glass obtained from a basalt of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, aiming to develop a material with great abrasive resistance. Fusions were made at 1400 deg Celsius in electrical oven and in alumina crucible, of fine residues of basalt mining. The obtained glass was treated in a crystallization temperature of 880 deg Celsius, determined by DSC, by various time of treatment. The present main crystalline phases, detected by XRD, were the magnesium-ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and the diopsid Ca(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 6}. Analysing the density by the Archimedes methodology and the DRX it was possible to follow the crystallization kinetic up.

  15. Geochemistry of the earth mantle: distribution of trace elements in the basaltic magma Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joron, J.-L.; Jaffrezic, H.; Treuil, M.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the study of petrogenetic processes by geochemical reasoning based on the chemical analysis of ''hygromagmaphil'' elements in rock suites has recently been applied in our laboratory to suites of oceanic basalts sampled during the I.P.O.P. (International Program for Ocean Drilling) program and several French missions in the North Atlantic (FAMOUS-VEMA-MAPCO). The main conclusions derived from this extensive data are as follows. We confirm that magma sources for the oceanic basalts are to be found in two distinctive mantle domains. To the large scale heterogeneity a smaller scale complex one is superimposed. Intermediate mantle source characteristics may also be found. Mantle source zonation is, at least in part, an old feature as borne out by off ridge metamorphosed basalts. (author)

  16. Preparation of Basalt Incorporated Polyethylene Composite with Enhanced Mechanical Properties for Various Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bredikhin Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article showed the possibility of increasing the complex of mechanical properties of polyolefins with dispersed mineral fillers obtained by fine grinding of basalt rocks via ball mill processing. The composites based on dispersed basalt, which were derived from Samara rock mass (Russia with rare earth elements containing, were obtained by extrusion combining the binder and filler, followed by preparation injection-molded test samples. The study of mechanical properties of materials developed showed the possibility of a significant increase in strength characteristics of different types of polyethylene: the breaking stress at static bending for HDPE can be increasing more than 60% and the impact strength by more than 4 times. In addition the incorporation of the dispersed basalt also enhanced the thermal properties of the composites (the oxygen index of HDPE increases from 19 to 25%.

  17. water alteration processes and kinetics of basaltic glasses, natural analogue of nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techer, I.; Advocat, Th.; Vernaz, E.; Lancelot, J.R.; Liotard, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Dissolution experiments of a basaltic glass were carried out at 90 deg C for different reaction progresses. The initial dissolution rate was compared with values obtained for rhyolitic glass and the R7T7 nuclear glass. The activation energy was also determined by computing literature data. The results provide similar reactional mechanism for basaltic and nuclear glasses. Dissolution rates measured under saturation conditions were compared to theoretical dissolution rates. These ones were calculated using two kinetic models: the first rate equation is the Grambow's law which only takes into account ortho-silica acid activity; the second rate equation was proposed by Daux et al., where silica and aluminum are combined to formulate the affinity. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results point out that these two models are not appropriate to describe the alteration kinetic of basaltic glasses. (authors)

  18. Effect of chromate action on morphology of basalt-inhabiting bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhang; Zhu Ying; Kalabegishvili, Tamaz L.; Tsibakhashvili, Nelly Y.; Holman, Hoi-Ying

    2006-01-01

    Basalt-inhabiting bacteria isolated from polluted basalts have been demonstrated to be able to tolerate moderate to high concentrations of chromium oxyanions such as chromate. Previous results have shown that macromolecules outside the cell wall of bacteria may play an important role in this survival ability. In this paper, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were applied to study the chromate-induced morphological changes in chromate-resistant basalt-inhabiting Arthrobacter K-2 and K-4, which were isolated from the Republic of Georgia. The surfaces of both strains changed in the presence of chromate. TEM thin sections show that chromate stimulates the appearance of bacteria capsular polysaccharide outside the cell wall, although the chromate concentration does not have a strong effect on the capsular thickness. These results, in conjunction with those reported earlier, provide direct evidence to show that capsular polysaccharides of the bacteria play very important role for the reduction and localization of chromate

  19. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations on the Owyhee basalt of the Columbia plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, R.J.; York, D.

    1976-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating analyses have been performed on 11 samples of basalt from sites near Owyhee Reservoir of southeastern Oregon, U.S.A. These rocks were extruded during the great flood basalt episode of the Pacific Northwest. The whole-rock points are highly correlated on a plot of 40 Ar/ 36 Ar versus 39 Ar/ 36 Ar, corresponding to a common age of the samples of 14.3+-0.3 m.y. Inspite of this, individual 'plateau' plots of the age versus fraction of 39 Ar released do not give good plateaux. These age spectra exhibit to varying degrees a common structure in which lower age values are found at higher temperatures. This pattern may result from a closed-system redistribution of the argon isotopes. The usefulness of grinding the basalts in removing a loosely held atmospheric argon component is confirmed. (Auth.)

  20. Bibliography of geologic studies: Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.

    1978-11-01

    The objective of this compilation is to present a comprehensive listing of published, unpublished, and open-file references pertaining to the geology of the Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas in the State of Idaho. The bibliography was compiled in support of Rockwell's Basalt Waste Isolation Program that is evaluating the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The emphasis is on stratigraphy, structural geology, seismicity, and tectonics, although the nature of Columbia River Basalt distribution in Idaho has necessitated the inclusion of a sizeable collection of references on geology marginal to the Columbia Plateau and associated mineral resources. The bibliography is divided into two major sections, the alphabetical listing of all references and the subject index. The subject index is divided into 19 categories to facilitate locating a specific reference in the user's field of interest

  1. Role of syn-eruptive plagioclase disequilibrium crystallization in basaltic magma ascent dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, G; Burton, M; De' Michieli Vitturi, M; Arzilli, F

    2016-12-12

    Timescales of magma ascent in conduit models are typically assumed to be much longer than crystallization and gas exsolution for basaltic eruptions. However, it is now recognized that basaltic magmas may rise fast enough for disequilibrium processes to play a key role on the ascent dynamics. The quantification of the characteristic times for crystallization and exsolution processes are fundamental to our understanding of such disequilibria and ascent dynamics. Here we use observations from Mount Etna's 2001 eruption and a magma ascent model to constrain timescales for crystallization and exsolution processes. Our results show that plagioclase reaches equilibrium in 1-2 h, whereas ascent times were magma ascent rate and disequilibrium crystallization and exsolution plays a key role in controlling eruption dynamics in basaltic volcanism.

  2. Studies of Basalt Through Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS for the Manufacturing of Lapilli Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael De la Viuda-Pérez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basaltic samples selected from different areas of Tenerife were analyzed by applying laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS, Raman spectroscopy and X Ray Diffraction (XRD in order to identify the basic chemical composition and mineralogy. The basic composition obtained from the analysis was: O, F, Na, K, Mg, Al Si, Ca, Ti and Fe. Raman spectroscopic and XRD analyses indicated a basaltic mineralogy which is consistent with the basic composition results obtained from LIBS. The results of the analyses carried out using portable instrumentation proved the suitability of the LIBS, specially combined with the Raman spectroscopy for their application in the mineralogical-chemical identification in the areas where basalts and lapilli are extracted for construction works in Tenerife.

  3. Impact behavior of basalt/epoxy composite: Comparison between flat and twill fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, I.; Ricciardi, M. R.; Antonucci, V.; Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.

    2018-05-01

    Two types of basalt fibre reinforced epoxy laminates were realized by overlapping flat and twill woven basalt fabrics by resin infusion. Rectangular specimens, cut from the panels were impacted at penetration and at increasing energy values, to investigate the damage onset and propagation. A non-destructive technique, Ultrasound testing (UT), was adopted to investigate the internal damage. Despite the difficulties to obtain information by UT method due to the high amount of signal absorbed, the technique, properly calibrated, proved to be very useful in providing information about the presence, the shape and the extent of the delaminations. The results were compared at the aim to investigate the effect of the fiber architecture (textile). The experimental results indicate a similar impact behavior between basalt flat and twill composites but in the case of the twill a minor delaminated area was detected, even if a higher absorbed energy was recorded

  4. Study of inflammatory responses to crocidolite and basalt wool in the rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, Z; Kerényi, T; Honma, K; Jäckel, M; Tátrai, E; Ungváry, G

    2001-03-09

    The subacute effects of crocidolite and basalt wool dusts were studied by nmeans of biochemical, morphological. and histological methods 1 and .3 mo after intrabronchial instillation. The cell count, protein and phospholipid contents, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Both types of fibers induced a prolonged inflammatory reaction in the lung. All the parameters studied in the experimental groups were more markedly elevated after 3 mo. Relative to the control, the protein and LDH values were increased three- to fivefold, the phospholipid content twofold, and the number of free cells in the BAL exceeded the control level up to ninefold. The inflammatory responses to crocidolite and basalt wool in the lung did not differ significantly. In spite of this, basalt wool is recoinmended as an asbestos substitute, as the use of this man-nade fiber may result in a significantly lower release of dust than that from crocidolite.

  5. A study on the crushing behavior of basalt fiber reinforced composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, A.; Veerasimman, A. P.; Vairavan, M.; Francisco, C.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The crushing behavior and energy absorption capacity of basalt fiber reinforced hollow square structure composites are studied under axial compression. Using the hand layup technique, basalt fiber reinforced composites were fabricated using general purpose (GP) polyester resin with the help of wooden square shaped mould of varying height (100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm). For comparison, similar specimens of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites were also fabricated and tested. Axial compression load is applied over the top end of the specimen with cross head speed as 2 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). From the experimental results, the load-deformation characteristics of both glass fiber and basalt fiber composites were investigated. Crashworthiness and mode of collapse for the composites were determined from load-deformation curve, and they were then compared to each other in terms of their crushing behaviors.

  6. Influence of length-to-diameter ratio on shrinkage of basalt fiber concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijie, MA; Yang, Jiansen; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaojun

    2017-09-01

    In order to study the shrinkage performance of basalt concrete, using the shrinkage rate as index, the work not only studied the influence of different length-to-diameter ratio (LDR) on plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage of basalt fiber concrete, but also analyzed the action mechanism. The results show that when the fiber content is 0.1%, the LDR of 800 and 1200 take better effects on reducing plastic shrinkage, however the fiber content is 0.3%, that of LDR 600 is better. To improve drying shrinkage, the fiber of LDR 800 takes best effect. In the concrete structure, the adding basalt fibers form a uniform and chaotic supporting system, optimize the pore and the void structure of concrete, make the material further compacted, reduce the water loss, so as to decrease the shrinkage of concrete effectively.

  7. Wear Characterization of Aluminium/Basalt Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites - A Novel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amuthakkannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy based metal matrix composite participate have a wider applications in wear resistance applications. Attempt made in current study is that, basalt fiber reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite have been prepared using stir casting method. Different weight percentage of basalt fiber reinforced with Al (6061 metal matrix composites are used to study the wear resistance of the composites. For wear study, percentage of reinforcement, normal load and sliding velocity are the considered as important parameters. To study the effect of basalt fiber reinforcement on the dry sliding wear of Al6061 alloy composites the Pin On wear tester is used. Initially hardness of the composites was tested, it was found that increasing reinforcement in the composite hardness value of the composites also increased. Based on the Grey relation analysis (GRA the effects of wear resistance of the composites were studied.

  8. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  9. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Basalt/Epoxy Composites under Bending Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrieh, Mahmood M.; Memar, Mahdi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the stress corrosion behavior of basalt/epoxy composites under bending loading and submerged in 5% sulfuric acid corrosive medium. There are limited numbers of research in durability of fiber reinforced polymer composites. Moreover, studies on basalt fibers and its composites are very limited. In this research, mechanical property degradation of basalt/epoxy composites under bending loading and submerged in acidic corrosive medium is investigated. Three states of stress, equal to 30%, 50% and 70% of the ultimate strength of composites, are applied on samples. High stress states are applied to the samples to accelerate the testing procedure. Mechanical properties degradation consists of bending strength, bending modulus of elasticity and fracture energy of samples are examined. Also, a normalized strength degradation model for stress corrosion condition is presented. Finally, microscopic images of broken cross sections of samples are examined.

  10. Modeling of the Sedimentary Interbedded Basalt Stratigraphy for the Idaho National Laboratory Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzette Payne

    2006-04-01

    This report summarizes how the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy were modeled in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Drill holes indicate the bedrock beneath INL facilities is composed of about 1.1 km of alternating layers of basalt rock and loosely consolidated sediments. Alternating layers of hard rock and “soft” loose sediments tend to attenuate seismic energy greater than uniform rock due to scattering and damping. The INL PSHA incorporated the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy by developing site-specific shear (S) wave velocity profiles. The profiles were used in the PSHA to model the near-surface site response by developing site-specific stochastic attenuation relationships.

  11. Modeling of the Sedimentary Interbedded Basalt Stratigraphy for the Idaho National Laboratory Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzette Payne

    2007-08-01

    This report summarizes how the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy were modeled in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Drill holes indicate the bedrock beneath INL facilities is composed of about 1.1 km of alternating layers of basalt rock and loosely consolidated sediments. Alternating layers of hard rock and “soft” loose sediments tend to attenuate seismic energy greater than uniform rock due to scattering and damping. The INL PSHA incorporated the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy by developing site-specific shear (S) wave velocity profiles. The profiles were used in the PSHA to model the near-surface site response by developing site-specific stochastic attenuation relationships.

  12. Floristic composition of natural regeneration of tree species in a mountain seasonal semideciduous florest fragment over an eigth year period, in Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Pedro; Reis, Maria das Graças Ferreira; Reis, Geraldo Gonçalves dos; Pinheiro, Antonio Lelis; Silva, Crodoaldo Telmo da; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Rodrigues de

    2006-01-01

    A florística da regeneração natural foi estudada em 10 locais, com seis sub-parcelas em cada local, em 1992, 1995 e 2000, em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, em Viçosa, MG. A amostragem da classe 1 de tamanho de planta (até 1 m de altura), classe 2 (1-3 m de altura) e classe 3 (>3 m de altura e 3m and DBH < 5cm). A total of 4,149 individuals were sampled over the inventory period, comprising 42 families and 160 species, being 11.7 % pioneer, 62.1 % early secondary, and ...

  13. The petrogenesis of Gorgona komatiites, picrites and basalts: new field, petrographic and geochemical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. C.; Marriner, G. F.; Arndt, N. T.; Tarney, J.; Nivia, A.; Saunders, A. D.; Duncan, R. A.

    1996-04-01

    Gorgona Island, Colombia is remarkable not only because it contains the only Phanerozoic komatiites, but also because it has mafic to ultramafic lavas with a wide range of compositions, from moderately enriched to extremely depleted (relative to Bulk Earth). The komatiite flows are, in many respects similar to Archaean komatiites; they formed from MgO-rich (18%) liquids and have upper spinifex zones and lower cumulate zones. The cumulate zones of Archaean komatiites contain many solid grains, in contrast more than 90% of the olivine in the Gorgona cumulates is highly skeletal. This combined with the fact that the Gorgona cumulate zones are thinner than those in Archaean komatiites, suggests that the komatiite magma became strongly superheated en route to the surface. The komatiites have trace element contents intermediate between those of the basalts and the ultramafic tuffs. Some basalts have isotope compositions indicative of long-term enrichment in incompatible elements, whereas other basalts and ultramafic volcanics have isotopic signatures that imply corresponding depletion. It is apparent that the plume source region of the Gorgona magmas was markedly heterogeneous, with at least two source components contributing to the observed variation in composition. This heterogeneity may have resulted from the incorporation of different components into the plume source, or it may be the result of complex melting and melt extraction processes during the ascent of a heterogeneous plume. Despite earlier suggestions that there may have been a significant age gap between depleted komatiite and basalt flows and the enriched basalts, new 40Ar- 39Ar dating of basalts and gabbros are more consistent with all being generated at 87 Ma during formation of the Caribbean/Colombian plateau, possibly at the Galapagos hotspot.

  14. Asthenosphere versus lithosphere as possible sources for basaltic magmas erupted during formation of the Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, R.; Henjes-Kunst, F.; Baumann, A.

    1990-01-01

    Representative basalts from the axial trough of the Red Sea and from volcanic fields of the Arabian Peninsula ranging in composition from N-type MORB to basanite and in age from Early Miocene to Recent show a limited variation in their isotopic compositions: 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.70240-0.70361, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.040-19.634, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb = 15.496-15.666, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 37.808-39.710, 143 Nd/ 144 Nd = 0.513194-0.512670. There is a poorly constrained correlation between chemical composition and isotope ratios: with increasing alkalinity, Sr and Pb isotope ratios increase and the Nd isotope ratio tends to decrease. In Pb isotope variation diagrams most of the basalts plot significantly above the NHRLs, irrespective of tectonic setting, i.e. thickness of underlying crust and/or lithosphere. MORBs from the axial trough of the Red Sea have higher Pb isotope ratios for a given 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than MORBs from the Indian Ocean ridges, including the Carlsberg Ridge. It is therefore suggested that both spreading ridges tap different convective systems in the asthenosphere. The tectonic setting of the basalts is reflected in their Nd-Sr isotope characteristics. Basalts from areas where the continental lithosphere is drastically thinned or absent (i.e. Red Sea axial trough and coastal plain, Afar) plot along a reference line defined by N-type MORB and Tristan da Cunha. Basalts erupted in areas with Pan-African crust of normal thickness and moderately thinned lithospheric mantle (i.e. rift shoulder) are characterized by relative low 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios and plot below the reference line towards an EM I component which is also found in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. These differences in the Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of the basalts are independent of bulk-rock chemistry and are therefore controlled by tectonic setting alone. (orig./WL)

  15. High-level waste-basalt interactions. Annual progress report, February 1, 1977--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Scheetz, B.E.

    1978-05-01

    Commercial radioactive waste can be placed under ground in a basalt repository to contain significant amounts of radioactive decay heat for the first hundred or so years, which constitutes the ''thermal period'' of waste isolation, if the feasibility is determined that a basalt geology is a suitable medium for storage of radioactive wastes. Several physical-chemical changes analogous to natural geochemical processes can occur in and around this repository during the thermal period. The waste canister can act as a heat source and cause changes in the mineralogy and properties of the surrounding basalts. Geochemically, this is ''contact metamorphism.'' This phenomenon needs to be investigated because it could affect the behavior of the basalt with regard to migration of long-lived radionuclides away from the immediate repository. It is well known that even the relatively low-grade hydrothermal conditions possible in the repository (temperatures up to 400 degrees Centigrade; pressures up to 300 bars) can cause extensive modifications in rocks and minerals. At the end of the thermal period, the residue of the original waste plus the waste-basalt interaction products would constitute the actual waste form (or ''source term'') subject to the low-temperature leaching and migration processes under investigation in other laboratories. During the last eight months of fiscal year 1977, a program was initiated at The Pennsylvania State University which had as its objective the determination of the nature and implication of any chemical or mineralogical changes in, or interactions between, each candidate radioactive waste form and representative Columbia River Basalt under the various relevant repository conditions during the thermal period. Results of these investigations are given

  16. High-level waste-basalt interactions. Annual progress report, February 1, 1977--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Scheetz, B.E.

    1978-05-01

    Commercial radioactive waste can be placed under ground in a basalt repository to contain significant amounts of radioactive decay heat for the first hundred or so years, which constitutes the ''thermal period'' of waste isolation, if the feasibility is determined that a basalt geology is a suitable medium for storage of radioactive wastes. Several physical-chemical changes analogous to natural geochemical processes can occur in and around this repository during the thermal period. The waste canister can act as a heat source and cause changes in the mineralogy and properties of the surrounding basalts. Geochemically, this is ''contact metamorphism.'' This phenomenon needs to be investigated because it could affect the behavior of the basalt with regard to migration of long-lived radionuclides away from the immediate repository. It is well known that even the relatively low-grade hydrothermal conditions possible in the repository (temperatures up to 400 degrees Centigrade; pressures up to 300 bars) can cause extensive modifications in rocks and minerals. At the end of the thermal period, the residue of the original waste plus the waste-basalt interaction products would constitute the actual waste form (or ''source term'') subject to the low-temperature leaching and migration processes under investigation in other laboratories. During the last eight months of fiscal year 1977, a program was initiated at The Pennsylvania State University which had as its objective the determination of the nature and implication of any chemical or mineralogical changes in, or interactions between, each candidate radioactive waste form and representative Columbia River Basalt under the various relevant repository conditions during the thermal period. Results of these investigations are given.

  17. Hydrochemistry and hydrogeologic conditions within the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Webber, W.D.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, Flow System Characterization Task. Pacific Northwest Laboratory examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system for the US Department of Energy (DOE). As part of this activity, groundwater samples were collected over the past 2 years from selected wells completed in the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt. The hydrochemical and isotopic information obtained from these groundwater samples provides hydrologic information concerning the aquifer-flow system. Ideally, when combined with other hydrologic property information, hydrochemical and isotopic data can be used to evaluate the origin and source of groundwater, areal groundwater-flow patterns, residence and groundwater travel time, rock/groundwater reactions, and aquifer intercommunication for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report presents the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydrochemical properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report provides the hydrogeologic characteristics (Section 2.0) and hydrochemical properties (Section 3.0) for groundwater within this system. A detailed description of the range of the identified hydrochemical parameter subgroups for groundwater in the upper basalt confined aquifer system is also presented in Section 3.0. Evidence that is indicative of aquifer contamination/aquifer intercommunication and an assessment of the potential for offsite migration of contaminants in groundwater within the upper basalt aquifer is provided in Section 4.0. The references cited throughout the report are given in Section 5.0. Tables that summarize groundwater sample analysis results for individual test interval/well sites are included in the Appendix

  18. Effects of Elevated Temperature Treatment on Compositions and Tensile Properties of Several Kinds of Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Five kinds of domestic basalt fibers were studied for the changes of chemical compositions, physical properties and tensile properties of these fibers before and after 200-800℃ treatment in air atmosphere and in nitrogen atmosphere. These works were done mainly by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and fiber monofilament tensile testing methods in order to understand the elevated temperature resistance of basalt fiber. The experimental results show that the surface of basalt fibers becomes smoother with slightly smaller in diameter and mass reduction at the same time, due to the removal of fiber surface treatment agent after elevated temperature treatment in air atmosphere. Mass fractions of SiO2 and Al2O3 decrease while mass fractions of FeO+Fe2O3, CaO and MgO increase, among which the mass fraction of FeO+Fe2O3 increase the most with the maximum increase of 21%. The monofilament tensile strength of basalt fiber is reduced after 200℃ treatment and the maximum strength retention percentage is 98.3%. The monofilament tensile strength reduces evidently after 400℃ treatment and the maximum strength retention percentage is 64.6%. Moreover, the strength retention percentages of five kinds of basalt fibers are all less than 20% after 800℃ treatment. In addition, the fiber elongation at break decreases with the increase of treating temperature and the elastic modulus increases. Compared with that in air atmosphere, strength retention rate of basalt fiber is higher and tensile properties are more stable in nitrogen atmosphere.

  19. The use of endomarketing in credit unions: a case study of the UFVCredi and the Unicred-Viçosa O emprego do endomarketing em cooperativas de crédito: estudo de caso da UFV-Credi e da Unicred-Viçosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Lopes Dornelas

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Endomarketing can be considered as a group of activities concerned with the internal aspects of the organization, whose purpose is to value the human being. In order to become competitive, the Credit Unions should adopt Endomarketing strategies that combine motivation, training and communication elements. The purpose of the present work was to verify how the Credit Union of the Workers of the Federal University of Viçosa Ltd. / UFV-CREDI and the Credit Union of the Doctors and Health-related Professionals of Viçosa Ltd. – UNICRED/VIÇOSA – MG are using the tools offered by Endomarketing. In the methodology, a study concerning the Endomarketing and the Credit Unions war carried out. After that, the employees and the members of the Credit Unions were asked to answer a questionnaire. After the analysis of the obtained data, it was concluded that UFV-CREDI and UNICRED/VIÇOSA-MG have effectively reached their objectives because their Endomarketing strategies have presented positive results, making it possible for them to get new members as well as to keep their members and employees motivated and satisfied with the products and services offered by the Credit Unions.O Endomarketing pode ser conceituado como um conjunto de atividades voltadas para o interior da organização, cuja finalidade é valorizar o ser humano. Para que as cooperativas de crédito sejam competitivas, elas devem adotar estratégias de Endomarketing, que combinem elementos de motivação, treinamento e comunicação. Procurou-se com o presente estudo, verificar como a Cooperativa de Economia e Crédito Mútuo dos Servidores da Universidade Federal de Viçosa – LTDA / UFV-CREDI e a Cooperativa de Economia e Crédito Mútuo dos Médicos e demais Profissionais da Saúde de Viçosa Ltda – UNICRED/VIÇOSA-MG estão utilizando as ferramentas oferecidas pelo Endomarketing. Na metodologia foi realizado um estudo acerca do Endomarketing e das cooperativas de crédito, para

  20. Sr isotopic evidence on the spilitic degradation of the Deccan basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    Similar Sr isotopic ratios (∼0.7055) for the tholeiite-spilite flow unit and the associated mineral phases, of Bombay (Deccan Traps) provide a direct evidence for the spilitic degradation of tholeiite. In contrast, a dramatic increase in the rare earth elements (REE) from basalt to spilite is rather puzzling as rare earths are considered to be relatively immobile. The geochemistry thus suggests that the process of spilitization is due to the reaction with a complex fluid having identical Sr-isotopic composition as that of the basaltic magma-thereby masking the details of the mixing process. (author)

  1. Technical conservatism in the design and analysis of a nuclear-waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage Program has adopted a policy of technical conservatism to guide the design and analysis of geologic disposal systems for commercial high-level radioactive waste. Technical conservatism serves as the programmatic philosophy for managing uncertainty in the performance of the disposal system. The implementation of technical conservatism as applied to a nuclear waste repository in basalt is discussed. Preliminary assessments of the performance of the waste package, repository, and site subsystems are compared to key proposed regulatory criteria. The comparison shows that there are substantial safety margins in the predicted performance of the nuclear waste repository in basalt

  2. Review of the upper Cenozoic stratigraphy overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in western Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.B.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a synthesis of information currently available on the rocks that stratigraphically overlie the Columbia River Basalt Group in Idaho. The primary objective is to furnish a brief but comprehensive review of the literature available on upper Cenozoic rocks in western Idaho and to discuss their general stratigraphic relationships. This study also reviews the derivation of the present stratigraphy and notes weaknesses in our present understanding of the geology and the stratigraphy. This report was prepared in support of a study to evaluate the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group of the Pasco Basin, Washington

  3. Petrology and chemistry of the Huntzinger flow, Columbia River basalt, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, A.W. Jr.

    1976-11-01

    Drill core samples of basalts of the Columbia River Group from the Hanford Reservation reveal a spotted, diabasic flow of up to 60 meters in thickness. These samples and those from the flow outcropping at Wahatis Peak (Saddle Mountains, Washington) were examined in detail to document intraflow textural, mineralogical, and chemical variations, which are of importance in basalt flow correlations. Analyses were by atomic absorption, instrumental neutron activation, electron microprobe, natural gamma well logging, K-Ar age dating, X-ray fluorescence, field (portable) magnetometer, and petrographic microscope.

  4. Determination of Geochemical Bio-Signatures in Mars-Like Basaltic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Olsson-Francis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bio-signatures play a central role in determining whether life existed on early Mars. Using a terrestrial basalt as a compositional analog for the martian surface, we applied a combination of experimental microbiology and thermochemical modeling techniques to identify potential geochemical bio-signatures for life on early Mars. Laboratory experiments were used to determine the short-term effects of biota on the dissolution of terrestrial basalt, and the formation of secondary alteration minerals. The chemoorganoheterotrophic bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain B_33, was grown in a minimal growth medium with and without terrestrial basalt as the sole nutrient source. No growth was detected in the absence of the basalt. In the presence of basalt, during exponential growth, the pH decreased rapidly from pH 7.0 to 3.6 and then gradually increased to a steady-state of equilibrium of between 6.8 and 7.1. Microbial growth coincided with an increase in key elements in the growth medium (Si, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Experimental results were compared with theoretical thermochemical modeling to predict growth of secondary alteration minerals, which can be used as bio-signatures, over a geological timescale. We thermochemically modeled the dissolution of the basalt (in the absence of biota in very dilute brine at 25°C, 1 bar; the pH was buffered by the mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. Preliminary results suggested that at the water to rock ratio of 1 × 107, zeolite, hematite, chlorite, kaolinite, and apatite formed abiotically. The biotic weathering processes were modeled by varying the pH conditions within the model to adjust for biologic influence. The results suggested that, for a basaltic system, the microbially-mediated dissolution of basalt would result in “simpler” secondary alteration, consisting of Fe-hydroxide and kaolinite, under conditions where the abiotic system would also form chlorite. The results from this study demonstrate

  5. Estimation of the geological age of oceanic basalts by track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, A.N.; Krylov, A.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    The method is described of the determination of the thermostability of tracks applied to oceanic basalts and the comparison is carried out of age values obtained for the same samples by the track method and by the potassium-argon method. The obtained results allow to consider that the track method is quite practicable for the dating of oceanic basalts on the condition that natural annealing of a part of tracks of the spontaneous uranium fission is taken into accout. For glasses of the other origin - tektites - such approach results in the agreement of the obtained values with the results of potassium-argon method

  6. Hydrologic bibliography of the Columbia River basalts in Washington with selected annotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Wildrick, L.; Pearson, B.

    1979-08-01

    The objective of this compilation is to present a comprehensive listing of the published, unpublished, and open file references pertaining to the surface and subsurface hydrology of the Columbia River basalts within the State of Washington and is presented in support of Rockwell's hydrologic data compilation effort for the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. A comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the Pasco Basin (including the Hanford Site) hydrology has been prepared for Rockwell as part of the Pasco Basin hydrology studies. In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, no effort was made to include a complete list of bibliographic references on Hanford in this volume

  7. Basalts as probes of planetary interiors: constraints on the chemistry and mineralogy of their source regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bence, A.E.; Grove, T.L.; Papike, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Basalt magmas, derived by the partial melting of planetary interiors, have compositions that reflect the pre-accretionary history of the material from which the planet formed, the planets, subsequent evolutionary history, the chemistry and mineralogy of the source regions, and the intensive thermodynamic parameters operating at the source and emplacement sites. Studies of basalt suites from the Earth, its Moon, and the eucrite parent body reveal compositional differences intrinsic to their source regions which are, in turn, a characteristic of the planet and its formational and evolutionary history. (Auth.)

  8. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  9. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerilli, Francesca [Unicusano - Università degli Studi Niccolò Cusano Telematica Roma, 00166 Rome (Italy); Vairo, Giuseppe [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”- (DICII), 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  10. Back-arc with frontal-arc component origin of Triassic Karmutsen basalt, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F.; Sutherland, Brown A.; Budahn, J.R.; Plafker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The largely basaltic, ???4.5-6.2-km-thick, Middle to Upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation is a prominent part of the Wrangellian sequence. Twelve analyses of major and minor elements of representative samples of pillowed and massive basalt flows and sills from Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands are ferrotholeiites that show a range of 10.2-3.8% MgO (as normalized, H2O- and CO2-free) and related increases in TiO2 (1.0-2.5%), Zr (43-147 ppm) and Nb (5-16 ppm). Other elemental abundances are not related simply to MgO: distinct groupings are evident in Al2O3, Na2O and Cr, but considerable scatter is present in FeO* (FeO + 0.9Fe2O3) and CaO. Some of the variation is attributed to alteration during low-rank metamorphism or by seawater - including variation of Ba, Rb, Sr and Cu, but high-field-strength elements (Sc, Ti, Y, Zr and Nb) as well as Cr, Ni, Cu and rare-earth elements (REE's) were relatively immobile. REE's show chondrite-normalized patterns ranging from light-REE depleted to moderately light-REE enriched. On eleven discriminant plots these analyses fall largely into or across fields of within-plate basalt (WIP), normal or enriched mid-ocean-ridge tholeiite (MORB) and island-arc tholeiite (IAT). Karmutsen basalts are chemically identical to the stratigraphically equivalent Nikolai Greenstone of southern Alaska and Yukon Territory. These data and the fact that the Karmutsen rests on Sicker Group island-arc rocks of Paleozoic age suggest to us that: 1. (1) the basal arc, after minor carbonate-shale deposition, underwent near-axial back-arc rifting (as, e.g., the Mariana arc rifted at different times); 2. (2) the Karmutsen basalts were erupted along this rift or basin as "arc-rift" tholeiitite; and 3. (3) after subsequent deposition of carbonates and other rocks, and Jurassic magmatism, a large fragment of this basalt-sediment-covered island arc was accreted to North America as Wrangellia. The major- and minor-elemental abundances of Karmutsen basalt is modeled

  11. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  12. Influences of chemical aging on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of aging in high humidity and water on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers has been studied using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results show that interaction between...... the fibers and the surrounding media (high humidity or water at 70 C) leads to chemical changes strongly affecting the surface morphology. The crystallization peak temperature of the basaltic glass fibers are increased without changing the onset temperature, this may be caused by a chemical depletion...

  13. Determinação de resíduos de organoclorados em águas fluviais do município de Viçosa - MG Determination of organochlorinated present in river from the region of Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Chagas

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the contamination, by organochlorinated, of a drinking water source located in the region of Viçosa, MG, was evaluated. The identification and quantification of the analytes was carried out using a gas-chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector after liquid-liquid extraction and concentration. Four insecticides, Aldrin, Epoxy heptachloride, Endrin and op'- DDT were detected in concentrations that are higher than the safety limits established in the Brazilian legislation.

  14. Thermobarometry for spinel lherzolite xenoliths in alkali basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Nagahara, Hiroko

    2016-04-01

    geothermobarometry based on reactions with large and distinct volume changes, is necessary. Specification of mineral domains and their components representing the thermal state of the mantle just before xenolith extraction is one of the major tasks for the establishment of reliable geothermobarometry for spinel lherzolite xenoliths. Systematic variations of such mineralogical information among xenoliths transported by a single volcanic eruption guarantees proper estimation of a mantle geotherm. For the development of such geobarometry, it is important to choose appropriate xenolith locality, where previous studies provide enough information and where many xenolith samples are available for extending a range of derivation depth. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths in alkali basalts from Bou Ibalhatene maars in the Middle Atlas in Morocco are suitable study target. Geochemical, geochronological, petrological, and rheological aspects of the spinel lherzolite xenoliths have been studied (Raffone et al. 2009; El Messbahi et al., 2015; Witting et al., 2010; El Azzouzi et al., 2010), which show that they represent fragments of the lithospheric mantle formed and modified since 1.7Ga before their extraction from Miocene to recent. We have pinpointed portions of minerals in the xenolith samples and their components representing condition just before their entrapment in magmas, on which appropriate geothermobarometers are applied and detected ~0.5GPa pressure difference (1.5-2.0GPa) for ~100°C variation in temperatures (950-1050°C).

  15. Thermal Demagnetization of Mare Basalts 10017 and 10020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suavet, C. R.; Weiss, B. P.; Grove, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    unstable. The fact that the NRM and the ARM have similar behavior upon heating confirms that the magnetization is a TRM. We compared the AF demagnetization of a 0.1 mT ARM before and after heating a subsample of 10017 up to 250°C: there was no change in the coercivity spectrum, which shows that the demagnetization was not due to alteration of the magnetic carriers. The thermal demagnetization of a subsample of 10017 with a saturation isothermal magnetization (SIRM) does not show a Curie point at 250°C. Therefore, the low-temperature demagnetization of mare basalts 10017 and 10020 is real. It could be caused by a defect magnetization of troilite, interaction between troilite and kamacite, presence of cohenite, or an unknown phenomenon.

  16. El cura y sus hijos osos o el recorrido civilizador de los hijos de un cura y una osa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available LE CURE ET SES ENFANTS OURS OU LE PARCOURS CIVILISATEUR DES ENFANTS D’UN CURE ET D’UNE OURSE. Cet article constitue un essai d’interprétation de deux versions quechuas cuzquéniennes du récit panandin connu comme “Jean de l’Ours” ou “Le fils de l’ours”. A partir d’une analyse du symbolisme du récit, la logique profonde qui l’ordonne est mise en lumière: la société humaine et civilisée ne peut se perpétuer sans établir des échanges et une coopération avec les êtres sauvages de l’au-delà. Les protagonistes, fils d’un curé et d’une ourse, ainsi que le curé lui-même, sont les héros médiateurs d’un récit mythique dont la logique prétend aussi s’appliquer aux relations interethniques dans les Andes. Este artículo presenta un ensayo de interpretación de dos versiones quechuas cuzqueñas del relato panandino conocido como “Juan Oso” o “El hijo del oso”. A partir de un análisis del simbolismo del relato, se saca a luz la lógica profunda que lo ordena: la sociedad humana y civilizada no puede perpetuarse sin establecer un intercambio y una cooperación con los seres salvajes del más allá. Los protagonistas, hijos de un cura y una osa, así como el cura mismo, son los héroes mediadores de un relato mítico cuya lógica pretende también aplicarse a las relaciones interétnicas en los Andes. THE PRIEST AND HIS BEAR CHILDREN OR THE PASSAGE TO CIVILIZATION OF THE CHILDREN OF A PRIEST AND A SHE-BEAR. This article sets out to interpret two Cuzco Quechua versions of the pan-Andean tale known as “Juan Oso” or “The Bear’s Son”. The analysis of the story’s symbolism sheds light on the profound logic on which it is based: human and civilized society cannot survive without establishing interchange and cooperation with wild beings from the other world. The protagonist, the son of the priest and the she-bear, as well as the priest himself, are the mediator heroes of a tale whose logic also applies to interethnic

  17. Banco de sementes do solo de uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Pinheiro Batista Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se quantitativa e qualitativamente a florística do banco de sementes do solo de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, no município de Viçosa, MG. No final da estação chuvosa (março/2004, foram coletadas duas amostras de solo de 20 x 15 cm, com 5 cm de profundidade, no centro de seis subparcelas contíguas de 10 x 20 m, em dez parcelas permanentes de 20 x 60 m, em dez locais, totalizando 120 amostras (3,6 m2. As amostras de solo foram colocadas em estruturas de sombreamento de 11,5 % e 60 %, e as sementes germinadas foram identificadas em graminóides, herbáceo-cipós, arbustivas e arbóreas. Foram registradas 3.416 sementes germinadas, sendo 30,2 % graminóides, 29,2 % herbáceo-cipós, 17,5 % arbustivas e 23,1 % arbóreas, estas duas últimas distribuídas em 17 famílias, 25 gêneros e 31 espécies. Melastomataceae, Cecropiaceae e Piperaceae contribuíram com 31,8 %, 10,0 % e 8,8 % do total de espécies, respectivamente, sendo que Miconia cinnamomifolia e Leandra purpurascens foram responsáveis por 59,3 % das sementes arbustivo-arbóreas germinadas. As pioneiras se destacaram com 61,3 % das espécies e 88,5 % das sementes germinadas. Não foram registradas espécies secundárias tardias. A densidade média de sementes germinadas para todos os hábitos e locais foi de 949 sementes/m2. O número de espécies e de sementes germinadas do grupo arbustivo-arbóreo diferiu significativamente pelo teste Kruskal-Wallis (P ≤ 0,05 entre os locais estudados. Esses resultados indicam que, no banco de sementes do solo, há predomínio de espécies pioneiras que são importantes para a sucessão em clareiras ou após o corte da floresta. Porém, esse estoque de sementes não é suficiente para a continuidade do processo de sucessão, que inclui o estabelecimento de maior proporção de espécies secundárias iniciais e tardias. Isso indica que há necessidade de um manejo adequado do banco de pl

  18. Performance allocation traceable to regulatory criteria as applied to site characterization work at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Babad, H.; Bensky, M.S.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project has developed a method for defining in detail the work required to demonstrate the feasibility of emplacing and providing for the safe isolation of nuclear wastes in a repository in the deep basalts at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Criteria analysis allows the identification of areas of significant technical uncertainty or controversy that can be highlighted as issues. A preliminary analysis has been conducted, which, by identifying key radionuclides and allocating performance among the multiple barriers in a repository constructed in a basalt, allows the design and development testing activities at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to be put into perspective. Application of sophisticated uncertainty analysis techniques will allow refinements in the analysis to be made and to further guide characterization and testing activities. Preliminary results suggest that a repository constructed in basalt will provide for the safe isolation of nuclear wastes in a cost-effective and reliable manner with a high degree of confidence

  19. Investigation of novel composite material based on extra-heavy concrete and basalt fiber for gamma radiation protection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, Yi.M.; Nosovs'kij, A.V.; Gulyik, V.Yi.; Golyuk, M.Yi.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a new composite material for radiation protection based on extra-heavy concrete reinforced by basalt fiber. Basalt fiber is a new material for concrete reinforcement, which provides improved mechanical characteristics of concrete, reduces the level of microcracks and increases the durability of concrete. Within the scope of present work, the gamma-ray radiation protection properties of concrete reinforced with basalt fiber was modeled. Two types of extra-heavy concrete were used for this paper. The main gamma-ray attenuation coefficients such as mean atomic number, mean atomic mass, mean electron density, effective atomic number, effective electron density, Murty effective atomic number were analyzed with help of WinXCom software. It has been shown that the addition of basalt fiber to concrete does not impair its gamma-ray radiation shielding properties. With increasing the basalt fiber dosage in concrete, the radiation properties against gamma radiation are improved.

  20. The Effect of the Transition to Home Monitoring for the Diagnosis of OSAS on Test Availability, Waiting Time, Patients’ Satisfaction, and Outcome in a Large Health Provider System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Safadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients’ satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory. Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (P<0.05. 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients’ satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; P=0.11. Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients’ satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced.