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Sample records for orientierende wirkungsuntersuchungen vpt

  1. Bioavailability of very finely distributed metallic platinum in the lungs and first orienting studies on effects. Part 1; Bioverfuegbarkeit von feinstverteiltem metallischem Platin in der Lunge und erste orientierende Wirkungsuntersuchungen (VPT 09; 1. Teil)

    Artelt, S [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Projects 07 VPT 08 and 07 VPT 08A revealed that platinum from automotive catalytic converters are largely emitted in metallic form as bound to the support material (aluminium oxide). Platinum emissions from this source are on the order of ng per km. The aim of the still ongoing project 07 VPT 09 is to estimate any health hazards that might grow from the deposition in the human lung by inhalation of very fine platinum particles. To answer this question it is necessary to have sufficient quantities of abraded material at one`s disposal. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Projektes 07 VPT 08 und 07 VPT 08A wurde festgestellt, dass Platin aus Automobilabgaskatalysatoren zum ueberwiegenden Teil in metallischer Form, gebunden an Traegermaterial (Aluminiumoxid), emittiert wird. Dabei liegt die Platinemission in der Groessenordnung von ng Platin/km. Im noch laufenden Vorhaben 07 VPT 09 soll ein eventuell auftretendes gesundheitliches Risiko, das durch die inhalative Aufnahme von sehr feinen Platinpartikeln in die Lunge des Menschen entstehen koennte, abgeschaetzt werden. Versuche zur Beantwortung dieser Frage setzen voraus, dass eine genuegend grosse Menge an Abriebmaterial zur Verfuegung steht. (orig.)

  2. Bioavailability of very finely distributed metallic platinum in the lungs and first orienting studies on effects. Part 1; Bioverfuegbarkeit von feinstverteiltem metallischem Platin in der Lunge und erste orientierende Wirkungsuntersuchungen (VPT 09; 1. Teil)

    Artelt, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Projects 07 VPT 08 and 07 VPT 08A revealed that platinum from automotive catalytic converters are largely emitted in metallic form as bound to the support material (aluminium oxide). Platinum emissions from this source are on the order of ng per km. The aim of the still ongoing project 07 VPT 09 is to estimate any health hazards that might grow from the deposition in the human lung by inhalation of very fine platinum particles. To answer this question it is necessary to have sufficient quantities of abraded material at one`s disposal. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Projektes 07 VPT 08 und 07 VPT 08A wurde festgestellt, dass Platin aus Automobilabgaskatalysatoren zum ueberwiegenden Teil in metallischer Form, gebunden an Traegermaterial (Aluminiumoxid), emittiert wird. Dabei liegt die Platinemission in der Groessenordnung von ng Platin/km. Im noch laufenden Vorhaben 07 VPT 09 soll ein eventuell auftretendes gesundheitliches Risiko, das durch die inhalative Aufnahme von sehr feinen Platinpartikeln in die Lunge des Menschen entstehen koennte, abgeschaetzt werden. Versuche zur Beantwortung dieser Frage setzen voraus, dass eine genuegend grosse Menge an Abriebmaterial zur Verfuegung steht. (orig.)

  3. Bioavailability of very finely distributed metallic platinum in the lungs and first orienting studies on effects. Part 2; Bioverfuegbarkeit von feinstverteiltem metallischem Platin in der Lunge und erste orientierende Wirkungsuntersuchungen (VPT 09; 2. Teil)

    Emmendoerffer, A [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Platinum is emitted from automotive catalytic converters in particulate form. The first organ to be exposed to it after its uptake by the organism is the lung. Lung macrophages therefore constitute the first barrier of the immune system which can to react to platinum. In this study the production of nitrogen oxides and cytokines was studied. These parameters play an important role in the initiation of inflammation and in the maintenance of chronic inflammatory processes that can lead to fibrosis of the lung. [Deutsch] Platin wird partikulaer aus Automobilabgaskatalysatoren emittiert. Das erste Zielorgan fuer eine Aufnahme im Organismus ist deshalb die Lunge. Die Lungenmakrophagen stellen also die erste Barriere des Immunsystems dar, das auf Platin reagieren kann. In vitro wurde die Produktion von Stickoxiden und Zytokinen untersucht. Diese Parameter spielen eine Rolle bei der Initiation von Entzuendungen und auch bei der Aufrechterhaltung chronisch entzuendlicher Prozesse, die in der Lunge zu einer Fibrose fuehren koennen. (orig.)

  4. Bioavailability of very finely distributed metallic platinum in the lungs and first orienting studies on effects. Part 2; Bioverfuegbarkeit von feinstverteiltem metallischem Platin in der Lunge und erste orientierende Wirkungsuntersuchungen (VPT 09; 2. Teil)

    Emmendoerffer, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Platinum is emitted from automotive catalytic converters in particulate form. The first organ to be exposed to it after its uptake by the organism is the lung. Lung macrophages therefore constitute the first barrier of the immune system which can to react to platinum. In this study the production of nitrogen oxides and cytokines was studied. These parameters play an important role in the initiation of inflammation and in the maintenance of chronic inflammatory processes that can lead to fibrosis of the lung. [Deutsch] Platin wird partikulaer aus Automobilabgaskatalysatoren emittiert. Das erste Zielorgan fuer eine Aufnahme im Organismus ist deshalb die Lunge. Die Lungenmakrophagen stellen also die erste Barriere des Immunsystems dar, das auf Platin reagieren kann. In vitro wurde die Produktion von Stickoxiden und Zytokinen untersucht. Diese Parameter spielen eine Rolle bei der Initiation von Entzuendungen und auch bei der Aufrechterhaltung chronisch entzuendlicher Prozesse, die in der Lunge zu einer Fibrose fuehren koennen. (orig.)

  5. GLOBEC NEP Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data, 1997-2001

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) California Current Program Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data For more information, see...

  6. General P-T fit construction for He, N2, Ar, H2 and Ne VPT used at Fermilab

    Geynisman, M.; Makara, J.

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fits are constructed for Fermilab Tevatron vapor pressure thermometers (VPT) for use with ACNET database. Fit coefficients and P-T graphs are included. Fits cover the VPT saturation region and the gas region. The thermodynamic analysis of VPT bulb is used to define transition points for each cryogenic VPT with given geometry and ''charge'' conditions. The methodology is described to repeat fit construction calculations for any geometry and ''charge'' conditions if required

  7. Systematic Comparison of Brain Imaging Meta-Analyses of ToM with vPT.

    Arora, Aditi; Schurz, Matthias; Perner, Josef

    2017-01-01

    In visual perspective taking (vPT) one has to concern oneself with what other people see and how they see it. Since seeing is a mental state, developmental studies have discussed vPT within the domain of "theory of mind (ToM)" but imaging studies have not treated it as such. Based on earlier results from several meta-analyses, we tested for the overlap of visual perspective taking studies with 6 different kinds of ToM studies: false belief, trait judgments, strategic games, social animations, mind in the eyes, and rational actions. Joint activation was observed between the vPT task and some kinds of ToM tasks in regions involving the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior precuneus, left middle occipital gyrus/extrastriate body area (EBA), and the left inferior frontal and precentral gyrus. Importantly, no overlap activation was found for the vPT tasks with the joint core of all six kinds of ToM tasks. This raises the important question of what the common denominator of all tasks that fall under the label of "theory of mind" is supposed to be if visual perspective taking is not one of them.

  8. The effect of pulse rate on VPT response and the use of an LED light to improve stability

    Dawn, Elizabeth Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS detector at the LHC uses vacuum phototriodes (VPTs), which operate in the full 3.8T magnetic field of the experiment, to detect the scintillation light from the lead tungstate crystals. Initial measurements of the variation in response of VPTs, induced by sudden changes in the illuminating light pulse rate, prompted the inclusion of a dedicated stability pulser based on light emitting diodes (LEDs). The response of production VPTs, under simulated LHC operating conditions, has been investigated in three independent studies: in-situ tests with the installed endcaps at CERN, and separate VPT studies by groups at the University of Virginia, USA and Brunel University, UK. In this work, results are presented which demonstrate the expected stability of the VPTs during normal LHC operation, with a proposed regime for operating the stability pulser to minimise variations in response.

  9. Experimental measurement of phase equilibrium for gas hydrates of refrigerants, and thermodynamic modeling by SRK, VPT and CPA EOSs

    Karamoddin, Maryam; Varaminian, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-phase equilibrium data, (VL W H), were measured for HCFC22 and HFC134a hydrates. • The pressures were evaluated by simple EoSs (modified mixing rule) and CPA EOS. • The Kihara potential parameters were obtained by optimizing scheme for refrigerants. -- Abstract: In this study, three-phase equilibrium conditions of hydrate-liquid–vapor, (VL W H), were experimentally determined for chlorodifluoromethane and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane gas hydrates at temperatures ranging from (278 to 290) K and (280 to 285) K respectively, at pressures ranging from (0.2 to 0.8) MPa. Then the different models were presented for estimating of the hydrate dissociation conditions of chlorodifluoromethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1,1-difluoroethane refrigerants. The cubic simple equations of state (SRK and VPT) and the cubic plus association equation of state (CPA) were employed for modeling the vapor and liquid phases, also van der Waals–Platteeuw statistical model was used for the solid hydrate phase. In this paper, the binary interaction parameters of classic and modified mixing rules were optimized by using two-phase equilibrium data (VL W H). The Kihara potential parameters in each refrigerant were estimated using obtained experimental equilibrium data (VL W H) and based on the optimization scheme by the Nelder Mead optimization method. The agreement between the experimental and the predicted pressure is acceptable by using these models. The average deviation of models for chlorodifluoromethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane hydrates is about 3%, 4.3%, and 3.6%, respectively

  10. Measuring the effects of platinum from catalytic converter equipped vehicles by means of plant indicators (food and fodder plants); Wirkungsmessungen von Platin aus katalysatorbetriebenen Kraftfahrzeugen mit pflanzlichen Bioindikatoren (Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen)

    Maier-Reiter, W; Sommer, B [TUEV Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany). Niederlassung Stuttgart

    1998-12-31

    The essential aim of the present R and D project, titled ``Measuring the effects of platinum from catalytic converter equipped vehicles by means of plant indicators - food and fodder plants (VPT 02)``, was to obtain first orienting results on the potential effects of platinum pollution on plants by means of short-time, high-dose exposure experiments. The most important effect criterion in assessing potential hazards to humans and animals via the food chain, beside any outwardly visible changes (reaction), was the analytical detection of platinum accumulation in the plants. The project was also intended as a first contribution to the ecotoxicology of platinum, in particular the behaviour of metallic platinum and water-soluble platinum compounds in the soil-plant system. [Deutsch] Die wesentliche Zielsetzung des F and E-Vorhabens `Wirkungsmessungen von Platin und Platinverbindungen mit pflanzlichen Bioindikatoren - Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen (VPT 02)` war es, im Rahmen von Kurzzeit-Belastungsexperimenten im hohen Dosisbereich erste orientierende Ergebnisse zu den moeglichen Auswirkungen von Platin-Belastungen auf Pflanzen abzuleiten. Neben aeusserlich sichtbaren Veraenderungen der Pflanzen (Reaktion) wurde als Wirkungskriterium insbesondere die chemisch-analytisch erfassbare Platin-Anreicherung in den Pflanzen (Akkumulation) betrachtet, die eine Abschaetzung moeglicher Gefaehrdungen von Mensch und Tier ueber die Nahrungskette ermoeglicht. Zudem sollte ein erster Beitrag zur Oekotoxikologie des Platins, insbesondere zum Verhalten von metallischem Platin und wasserloeslichen Platinverbindungen im System Boden-Pflanzen, erarbeitet werden. (orig.)

  11. Measuring the effects of platinum from catalytic converter equipped vehicles by means of plant indicators (food and fodder plants); Wirkungsmessungen von Platin aus katalysatorbetriebenen Kraftfahrzeugen mit pflanzlichen Bioindikatoren (Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen)

    Maier-Reiter, W.; Sommer, B. [TUEV Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany). Niederlassung Stuttgart

    1997-12-31

    The essential aim of the present R and D project, titled ``Measuring the effects of platinum from catalytic converter equipped vehicles by means of plant indicators - food and fodder plants (VPT 02)``, was to obtain first orienting results on the potential effects of platinum pollution on plants by means of short-time, high-dose exposure experiments. The most important effect criterion in assessing potential hazards to humans and animals via the food chain, beside any outwardly visible changes (reaction), was the analytical detection of platinum accumulation in the plants. The project was also intended as a first contribution to the ecotoxicology of platinum, in particular the behaviour of metallic platinum and water-soluble platinum compounds in the soil-plant system. [Deutsch] Die wesentliche Zielsetzung des F and E-Vorhabens `Wirkungsmessungen von Platin und Platinverbindungen mit pflanzlichen Bioindikatoren - Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen (VPT 02)` war es, im Rahmen von Kurzzeit-Belastungsexperimenten im hohen Dosisbereich erste orientierende Ergebnisse zu den moeglichen Auswirkungen von Platin-Belastungen auf Pflanzen abzuleiten. Neben aeusserlich sichtbaren Veraenderungen der Pflanzen (Reaktion) wurde als Wirkungskriterium insbesondere die chemisch-analytisch erfassbare Platin-Anreicherung in den Pflanzen (Akkumulation) betrachtet, die eine Abschaetzung moeglicher Gefaehrdungen von Mensch und Tier ueber die Nahrungskette ermoeglicht. Zudem sollte ein erster Beitrag zur Oekotoxikologie des Platins, insbesondere zum Verhalten von metallischem Platin und wasserloeslichen Platinverbindungen im System Boden-Pflanzen, erarbeitet werden. (orig.)

  12. Orientating eco-efficiency analysis. A tool for strategy assessment in communal waste management; Orientierende Oekoeffizienzanalyse. Ein Instrument zur Strategiebewertung in der kommunalen Abfallwirtschaft

    Woebbeking, Karl H.; Davis, Jennifer [Fachhochschule Mainz - Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Forschungsgruppe Kommunal-/Umweltwirtschaft

    2012-11-01

    The model project is to provide a practicable controlling tool for communal waste management utilities which will enable them to reassess their strategies with regard to their economic and ecological goals. As a result of this orientating eco-efficiency analysis, an eco-efficiency portfolio is obtained which shows the interdependences of cost and environmental effects. (orig.) [German] Unser Modellprojekt hat zum Ziel, kommunalen Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieben ein praktikables Controllinginstrument zur Verfuegung zu stellen, mit dem sie ihre strategische Ausrichtung hinsichtlich oekonomischer und oekologischer Zielerreichung pruefen koennen. Ergebnis unserer orientierenden Oekoffizienzanalyse is ein Oekoeffizienzportfolio, in dem die wechselseitigen Abhaengigkeiten von Kosten und Umweltwirkungen dargestellt werden. (orig.)

  13. Studies on allergic reactions after exposure to platinum compounds; Untersuchungen ueber allergische Reaktionen bei Exposition gegen Platinverbindungen (VPT 07A)

    Merget, R; Schultze-Werninghaus, G [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken, Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Abt. fuer Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the allergic hazard potential of Pt-containing substances emitted from automotive catalytic converters for the population. This was done by determining exposure-effect relationships in subjects occupationally exposed to platinum compounds in a catalytic converter manufacturing company. The company had been deemed suitable because it could be assumed that the extensive technical industrial safety measures implemented there would make for a considerably reduced exposure to platinum compounds compared to, for example, a platinum separating plant. Exposure-effect relationships were determined on the basis of platinum measurements in a catalytic-converter-manufacturing plant and of a record of new sickness cases. [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war eine Risikoabschaetzung des Allergie-Gefaehrdungspotentials Pt-haltiger Automobilkatalysatoremittate fuer die Bevoelkerung durch Ermittlung der Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung bei beruflich gegenueber Platinverbindungen Exponierten in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbertrieb. Der gewaehlte Katalysatorbetrieb war deshalb als geeignet betrachtet worden, weil durch weitgehende technische Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen eine wesentlich geringere Exposition gegenueber Platinverbindungen anzunehmen war als zum Beispiel in Platinscheidereien. Die Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung sollte durch Platinmessungen in einem Katalysator-Betrieb und Erfassung der Haeufigkeit von Neuerkrankungen im Laengsschnitt definiert werden. (orig.)

  14. Studies on allergic reactions after exposure to platinum compounds; Untersuchungen ueber allergische Reaktionen bei Exposition gegen Platinverbindungen (VPT 07A)

    Merget, R.; Schultze-Werninghaus, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken, Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Abt. fuer Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Bochum (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the allergic hazard potential of Pt-containing substances emitted from automotive catalytic converters for the population. This was done by determining exposure-effect relationships in subjects occupationally exposed to platinum compounds in a catalytic converter manufacturing company. The company had been deemed suitable because it could be assumed that the extensive technical industrial safety measures implemented there would make for a considerably reduced exposure to platinum compounds compared to, for example, a platinum separating plant. Exposure-effect relationships were determined on the basis of platinum measurements in a catalytic-converter-manufacturing plant and of a record of new sickness cases. [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war eine Risikoabschaetzung des Allergie-Gefaehrdungspotentials Pt-haltiger Automobilkatalysatoremittate fuer die Bevoelkerung durch Ermittlung der Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung bei beruflich gegenueber Platinverbindungen Exponierten in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbertrieb. Der gewaehlte Katalysatorbetrieb war deshalb als geeignet betrachtet worden, weil durch weitgehende technische Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen eine wesentlich geringere Exposition gegenueber Platinverbindungen anzunehmen war als zum Beispiel in Platinscheidereien. Die Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung sollte durch Platinmessungen in einem Katalysator-Betrieb und Erfassung der Haeufigkeit von Neuerkrankungen im Laengsschnitt definiert werden. (orig.)

  15. Studies on the hazard potential of noble metal emissions from catalytic converters; Untersuchungen zur Frage des Gefaehrdungspotentials von katalysatorbuertigen Edelmetallemissionen (VPT 05)

    Artelt, S [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Plants were exposed to engine exhaust fumes from engine test stands in order to estimate the probable level of platinum deposition near roads. [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung der zu erwarteten Platindeposition in der Naehe von Strassen wurden Pflanzen mit Motorabgasen, die aus Motorstandexperimenten gewonnen wurden, beaufschlagt. (orig.)

  16. Studies on the hazard potential of noble metal emissions from catalytic converters; Untersuchungen zur Frage des Gefaehrdungspotentials von katalysatorbuertigen Edelmetallemissionen (VPT 05)

    Artelt, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Plants were exposed to engine exhaust fumes from engine test stands in order to estimate the probable level of platinum deposition near roads. [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung der zu erwarteten Platindeposition in der Naehe von Strassen wurden Pflanzen mit Motorabgasen, die aus Motorstandexperimenten gewonnen wurden, beaufschlagt. (orig.)

  17. Search for and identification of gaseous noble metal emissions from catalytic converters. Quantitative and statistic screening of platinum metal aerosols emitted by automotive catalytic converters; Suche und Identifizierung von gasfoermigen katalysatorbuertigen Edelmetallemissionen (VPT 06). Quantitative und statistische Reihenuntersuchungen ueber emittierte Platinmetallaerosole aus Automobilkatalysatoren (VPT 08)

    Artelt, S [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of these two projects was to determine whether platinum is contained in catalysed automobile exhaust fumes and in what quantities it is emitted. A further task was to determine the particle size and particle size distribution of emitted particles. For this purpose an engine test stand was set up at the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Aerosol Research and two different sampling techniques were developed. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen dieser beiden Vorhaben sollte untersucht werden, ob Platin im katalysierten Automobilabgas vorhanden ist und in welcher Menge es emittiert wird. Weiterhin sollte die Partikelgroesse der emittierten Partikel und ihre Verteilung bestimmt werden. Im Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung wurde dazu ein Motorstand aufgebaut und zwei unterschiedliche Probenahmetechniken entwickelt. (orig.)

  18. Search for and identification of gaseous noble metal emissions from catalytic converters. Quantitative and statistic screening of platinum metal aerosols emitted by automotive catalytic converters; Suche und Identifizierung von gasfoermigen katalysatorbuertigen Edelmetallemissionen (VPT 06). Quantitative und statistische Reihenuntersuchungen ueber emittierte Platinmetallaerosole aus Automobilkatalysatoren (VPT 08)

    Artelt, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of these two projects was to determine whether platinum is contained in catalysed automobile exhaust fumes and in what quantities it is emitted. A further task was to determine the particle size and particle size distribution of emitted particles. For this purpose an engine test stand was set up at the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Aerosol Research and two different sampling techniques were developed. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen dieser beiden Vorhaben sollte untersucht werden, ob Platin im katalysierten Automobilabgas vorhanden ist und in welcher Menge es emittiert wird. Weiterhin sollte die Partikelgroesse der emittierten Partikel und ihre Verteilung bestimmt werden. Im Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung wurde dazu ein Motorstand aufgebaut und zwei unterschiedliche Probenahmetechniken entwickelt. (orig.)

  19. Metabolic dose-effect relationships of different Pt compounds on growing, pregnant, and lactating rats; Metabolische Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehungen verschiedener Pt-Verbindungen bei wachsenden, graviden und laktierenden Ratten (VPT 04)

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung

    1998-12-31

    The fact that humans can take up platinum via the food chain calls for an investigation of the effects of platinum ingestion on the organism. For this purpose a study was carried out on the dose-effect relationships of various platinum compounds using the rat as a model. To take due account of different physiological stages the study included growing, pregnant, and lactating rats. According to present knowledge platinum is primarily emitted in its elemental form by the catalytic converter, i.e. with the formal oxidation number zero, and to a lesser degree in ionic form. Beside elemental platinum the study therefore also involved exposure to PtCl{sub 2} and PtCl{sub 4}. Furthermore, to do justice to the fact that humans and animals take up platinum not only from its primary source but also from plants in the food chain, platinum was also administered as a Pt-II-phytochelatin complex previously isolated from Pt-contaminated material. Study criteria were chosen with a view to obtaining a general indication of potential toxic effects and included parameters such as the live weight curve, haematological status, and platinum accumulation in the body or in specific organs. Of particular interest in pregnant and lactating rats were platinum levels in foetuses and milk. [Deutsch] Ueber die Nahrungskette ist eine alimentaere Aufnahme von Platin durch den Menschen moeglich und erfordert, die Auswirkungen der ingestiven Platinzufuhr auf den Organismus zu untersuchen. Deshalb wurden am Modelltier Ratte Studien zur Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung verschiedener Platinverbindungen durchgefuehrt. Um den verschiedenen physiologischen Stadien gerecht zu werden, wurden sowohl wachsende wie auch gravide und laktierende Ratten in die Studien einbezogen. Soweit bislang bekannt, wird Platin vorwiegend in der formalen Oxidationsstufe Null als elementares Platin, zu einem geringeren Anteil aber auch in ionischer Form aus der Katalysatoreinheit ausgetragen. Deshalb wurden in den vorliegenden Untersuchungen elementares Platin sowie Platin in Form von PtCl{sub 2} und PtCl{sub 4} eingesetzt. Da aber nicht nur direkt ausgeschiedenes Platin von Mensch und Tier aufgenommen wird, sondern auch von Pflanzen aufgenommenes Platin in die Nahrungskette gelangt, wurde auch ein Pt-II-Phytochelatin-Komplex eingesetzt, der aus Pt-kontaminiertem Pflanzenmaterial isoliert wurde. Als wesentliche Untersuchungskriterien sollten Parameter bestimmt werden, die allgemein auf moegliche toxische Wirkungen hinweisen wie die Entwicklung der Lebendmasse oder haematologische Parameter und zudem die Anreicherung des aufgenommenen Platins im Koerper bzw. innerhalb einzelner Organe. Bei graviden und laktierenden Ratten waren zudem Platingehalte in Feten und Milch von besonderem Interesse. (orig.)

  20. Contribution to improving extreme trace analysis for platinum in biotic and environmentally relevant materials; Beitrag zur Verbesserung der extremen Spurenanalytik der Platinmetalle in biotischen und umweltrelevanten Materialien (VPT 01)

    Alt, F [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie, Dortmund (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The declared aim of the present project was to develop reliable and powerful detection methods for platinum metals and in particular platinum. Special emphasis was placed on practicability and transferability to other applications. This meant that the sample preparation techniques and detection methods employed would have to be available to other laboratories without significant prior investment costs. On the hand the analysis method had to meet very exacting requirements because platinum metals are among the rarest substances contained in the Earth`s crust (1x10-7%-10x10-7%) and the element quantities and concentrations to be detected are in range of 10-12g or 10-9g/kg(L), respectively. These levels are approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than those relevant to other environmentally consequential elements (e.g., lead, cadmium). [Deutsch] Die Entwicklung zuverlaessiger und nachweisstarker Bestimmungsmethoden fuer Platinmetalle, besonders Platin, war das erklaerte Ziel dieses Vorhabens. Besonderer Wert sollte allerdings auch auf die Durchfuehrbarkeit und Uebertragbarkeit fuer andere Anwender gelegt werden. Dies bedeutete, dass moeglichst nur Probenvorbereitungstechniken und Bestimmungsmethoden integriert werden sollten, die ohne grosse Investitionskosten auch anderen Laboratorien zur Verfuegung stehen. Andererseits werden an die Analytik sehr hohe Anforderungen gestellt, da die Platinmetalle zu den seltensten Elementen in der Erdkruste gehoeren (1x10{sup -7}%-10x10{sup -7}%). Die Elementmengen bzw. -konzentrationen, die nachgewiesen und bestimmt werden muessen, liegen im Bereich von 10{sup -12} g, respektive 10{sup -9} g/kg(L). Im Vergleich zum Vorkommen anderer umweltrelevanter Elemente (z.B. Blei, Cadmium) sind dies um etwa drei Groessenordnungen niedrigere Konzentrationen. (orig.)

  1. Metabolic dose-effect relationships of different Pt compounds on growing, pregnant, and lactating rats; Metabolische Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehungen verschiedener Pt-Verbindungen bei wachsenden, graviden und laktierenden Ratten (VPT 04)

    Eder, K.; Kirchgessner, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    The fact that humans can take up platinum via the food chain calls for an investigation of the effects of platinum ingestion on the organism. For this purpose a study was carried out on the dose-effect relationships of various platinum compounds using the rat as a model. To take due account of different physiological stages the study included growing, pregnant, and lactating rats. According to present knowledge platinum is primarily emitted in its elemental form by the catalytic converter, i.e. with the formal oxidation number zero, and to a lesser degree in ionic form. Beside elemental platinum the study therefore also involved exposure to PtCl{sub 2} and PtCl{sub 4}. Furthermore, to do justice to the fact that humans and animals take up platinum not only from its primary source but also from plants in the food chain, platinum was also administered as a Pt-II-phytochelatin complex previously isolated from Pt-contaminated material. Study criteria were chosen with a view to obtaining a general indication of potential toxic effects and included parameters such as the live weight curve, haematological status, and platinum accumulation in the body or in specific organs. Of particular interest in pregnant and lactating rats were platinum levels in foetuses and milk. [Deutsch] Ueber die Nahrungskette ist eine alimentaere Aufnahme von Platin durch den Menschen moeglich und erfordert, die Auswirkungen der ingestiven Platinzufuhr auf den Organismus zu untersuchen. Deshalb wurden am Modelltier Ratte Studien zur Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung verschiedener Platinverbindungen durchgefuehrt. Um den verschiedenen physiologischen Stadien gerecht zu werden, wurden sowohl wachsende wie auch gravide und laktierende Ratten in die Studien einbezogen. Soweit bislang bekannt, wird Platin vorwiegend in der formalen Oxidationsstufe Null als elementares Platin, zu einem geringeren Anteil aber auch in ionischer Form aus der Katalysatoreinheit ausgetragen. Deshalb wurden in den vorliegenden Untersuchungen elementares Platin sowie Platin in Form von PtCl{sub 2} und PtCl{sub 4} eingesetzt. Da aber nicht nur direkt ausgeschiedenes Platin von Mensch und Tier aufgenommen wird, sondern auch von Pflanzen aufgenommenes Platin in die Nahrungskette gelangt, wurde auch ein Pt-II-Phytochelatin-Komplex eingesetzt, der aus Pt-kontaminiertem Pflanzenmaterial isoliert wurde. Als wesentliche Untersuchungskriterien sollten Parameter bestimmt werden, die allgemein auf moegliche toxische Wirkungen hinweisen wie die Entwicklung der Lebendmasse oder haematologische Parameter und zudem die Anreicherung des aufgenommenen Platins im Koerper bzw. innerhalb einzelner Organe. Bei graviden und laktierenden Ratten waren zudem Platingehalte in Feten und Milch von besonderem Interesse. (orig.)

  2. Contribution to improving extreme trace analysis for platinum in biotic and environmentally relevant materials; Beitrag zur Verbesserung der extremen Spurenanalytik der Platinmetalle in biotischen und umweltrelevanten Materialien (VPT 01)

    Alt, F. [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The declared aim of the present project was to develop reliable and powerful detection methods for platinum metals and in particular platinum. Special emphasis was placed on practicability and transferability to other applications. This meant that the sample preparation techniques and detection methods employed would have to be available to other laboratories without significant prior investment costs. On the hand the analysis method had to meet very exacting requirements because platinum metals are among the rarest substances contained in the Earth`s crust (1x10-7%-10x10-7%) and the element quantities and concentrations to be detected are in range of 10-12g or 10-9g/kg(L), respectively. These levels are approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than those relevant to other environmentally consequential elements (e.g., lead, cadmium). [Deutsch] Die Entwicklung zuverlaessiger und nachweisstarker Bestimmungsmethoden fuer Platinmetalle, besonders Platin, war das erklaerte Ziel dieses Vorhabens. Besonderer Wert sollte allerdings auch auf die Durchfuehrbarkeit und Uebertragbarkeit fuer andere Anwender gelegt werden. Dies bedeutete, dass moeglichst nur Probenvorbereitungstechniken und Bestimmungsmethoden integriert werden sollten, die ohne grosse Investitionskosten auch anderen Laboratorien zur Verfuegung stehen. Andererseits werden an die Analytik sehr hohe Anforderungen gestellt, da die Platinmetalle zu den seltensten Elementen in der Erdkruste gehoeren (1x10{sup -7}%-10x10{sup -7}%). Die Elementmengen bzw. -konzentrationen, die nachgewiesen und bestimmt werden muessen, liegen im Bereich von 10{sup -12} g, respektive 10{sup -9} g/kg(L). Im Vergleich zum Vorkommen anderer umweltrelevanter Elemente (z.B. Blei, Cadmium) sind dies um etwa drei Groessenordnungen niedrigere Konzentrationen. (orig.)

  3. Vibration perception threshold, complaints and sensory examination in diabetic-patients

    van der Naalt, J.; FIDLER, [No Value; OOSTERHUIS, HJGH

    The vibration perception threshold (VPT) was investigated by means of a biothesiometer among 40 patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The age as well as the duration of the disease affected the VPT. However, a correlation between the VPT and the rate of metabolic control measured

  4. Preparation and characterisation of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} systems as a model of aerosol-type emissions from automobile catalytic converters; Praeparation und Charakterisierung von Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Systemen als Modell fuer aerosolfoermige Emissionen aus Automobilkatalysatoren (VPT 08A)

    Ruehle, T; Schloegl, R [Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Anorganische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The present project was carried out on the basis of available emission data and the known toxicity of platinum compounds. Its aim was to synthesise manageable amounts of a model substance suitable for toxicological screening. [Deutsch] Unter Augenmerk auf die Emissionsdaten und auf die bekannte Toxizitaet von Platinverbindungen sollte versucht werden, handhabbare Mengen einer Modellsubstanz zu synthetisieren, um so toxikologische Reihenversuche zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  5. Preparation and characterisation of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} systems as a model of aerosol-type emissions from automobile catalytic converters; Praeparation und Charakterisierung von Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Systemen als Modell fuer aerosolfoermige Emissionen aus Automobilkatalysatoren (VPT 08A)

    Ruehle, T.; Schloegl, R. [Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Anorganische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    The present project was carried out on the basis of available emission data and the known toxicity of platinum compounds. Its aim was to synthesise manageable amounts of a model substance suitable for toxicological screening. [Deutsch] Unter Augenmerk auf die Emissionsdaten und auf die bekannte Toxizitaet von Platinverbindungen sollte versucht werden, handhabbare Mengen einer Modellsubstanz zu synthetisieren, um so toxikologische Reihenversuche zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  6. Neural correlates of "Theory of Mind" in very preterm born children.

    Mossad, Sarah I; Smith, Mary Lou; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J

    2017-11-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth (Theory of Mind (ToM); the ability to attribute mental states to others and understand that those beliefs can differ from one's own or reality. The neural bases for ToM deficits in VPT born children have not been examined. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) for its excellent spatial and temporal resolution to determine the neural underpinnings of ToM in 24 VPT and 24 full-term born (FT) children (7-13 years). VPT children performed more poorly on neuropsychological measures of ToM but not inhibition. In the MEG task, both FT children and VPT children recruited regions involved in false belief processing such as the rIFG (VPT: 275-350 ms, FT: 250-375 ms) and left inferior temporal gyrus (VPT: 375-450 ms, FT: 325-375 ms) and right fusiform gyrus (VPT: 150-200 ms, FT: 175-250 ms). The rIPL (included in the temporal-parietal junction) was recruited in FT children (475-575 ms) and the lTPJ in VPT children (500-575 ms). However, activations in all regions were reduced in the VPT compared to the FT group. We suggest that with increasing social-cognitive demands such as varying the type of scenarios in the standardized measure of ToM, reduced activations in the rIFG and TPJ in the VPT group may reflect the decreased performance. With access to both spatial and temporal information, we discuss the role of domain general and specific regions of the ToM network in both groups. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5577-5589, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Vibratory perception threshold in young and middle-aged patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis compared to controls

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Shakoor, Najia; Ageberg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Vibratory perception threshold (VPT) is impaired in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is, however, not known if sensory deficits precede or follow as a consequence of OA. The aim of this study was to investigate VPT in 2 independent groups of patients with high risk of future OA (young a...

  8. Specific transfer effects following variable priority dual-task training in older adults.

    Lussier, Maxime; Bugaiska, Aurélia; Bherer, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Past divided attention training studies in older adults have suggested that variable priority training (VPT) tends to show larger improvement than fixed priority training (FPT). However, it remains unclear whether VPT leads to larger transfer effects. In this study, eighty-three older adults aged between 55 and 65 received five 1-hour sessions of VPT, FPT or of an active placebo. VPT and FPT subjects trained on a complex dual-task condition with variable stimulus timings in order to promote more flexible and self-guided strategies with regard to attentional priority devoted to the concurrent tasks. Real-time individualized feedback was provided to encourage improvement. The active placebo group attended computer classes. Near and far modality transfer tasks were used to assess the generalization of transfer effects. Results showed that VPT induced significantly larger transfer effects than FPT on a near modality transfer task. Evidence for larger transfer effects in VPT than FPT on a far modality transfer task was also observed. Furthermore, the superiority of VPT on FPT in transfer effects was specific to the ability to coordinate two concurrent tasks. Results of this study help better understand the benefits of VPT attentional training on transfer effects, which is an essential outcome for cognitive training effectiveness and relevancy.

  9. Parenting Behavior at 2 Years Predicts School-age Performance at 7 Years in Very Preterm Children

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E.; Hunt, Rod W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born <30 weeks' gestation…

  10. Psychiatric Outcomes at Age Seven for Very Preterm Children: Rates and Predictors

    Treyvaud, Karli; Ure, Alexandra; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty remains about the rate of specific psychiatric disorders and associated predictive factors for very preterm (VPT) children. The aims of this study were to document rates of psychiatric disorders in VPT children aged 7 years compared with term born children, and to examine potential predictive factors for psychiatric…

  11. Examination of the Pattern of Growth of Cerebral Tissue Volumes From Hospital Discharge to Early Childhood in Very Preterm Infants.

    Monson, Brian B; Anderson, Peter J; Matthews, Lillian G; Neil, Jeffrey J; Kapur, Kush; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-08-01

    Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years. Prospective cohort study of VPT infants (childhood and outcomes in VPT infants. Low brain volumes observed in VPT infants are exaggerated at 7 years. Low brain volume in infancy is associated with long-term functional outcomes, emphasizing the persisting influence of early brain development on subsequent growth and outcomes.

  12. Longitudinal growth and morphology of the hippocampus through childhood: Impact of prematurity and implications for memory and learning.

    Thompson, Deanne K; Omizzolo, Cristina; Adamson, Christopher; Lee, Katherine J; Stargatt, Robyn; Egan, Gary F; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    The effects of prematurity on hippocampal development through early childhood are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to (1) compare the shape of the very preterm (VPT) hippocampus to that of full-term (FT) children at 7 years of age, and determine if hippocampal shape is associated with memory and learning impairment in VPT children, (2) compare change in shape and volume of the hippocampi from term-equivalent to 7 years of age between VPT and FT children, and determine if development of the hippocampi over time predicts memory and learning impairment in VPT children. T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images were acquired at both term equivalent and 7 years of age in 125 VPT and 25 FT children. Hippocampi were manually segmented and shape was characterized by boundary point distribution models at both time-points. Memory and learning outcomes were measured at 7 years of age. The VPT group demonstrated less hippocampal infolding than the FT group at 7 years. Hippocampal growth between infancy and 7 years was less in the VPT compared with the FT group, but the change in shape was similar between groups. There was little evidence that the measures of hippocampal development were related to memory and learning impairments in the VPT group. This study suggests that the developmental trajectory of the human hippocampus is altered in VPT children, but this does not predict memory and learning impairment. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms for memory and learning difficulties in VPT children. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Health Technology Assessment of CEM Pulpotomy in Permanent Molars with Irreversible Pulpitis

    Yazdani, Shahram; Jadidfard, Mohammad-Pooyan; Tahani, Bahareh; Kazemian, Ali; Dianat, Omid; Alim Marvasti, Laleh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Teeth with irreversible pulpitis usually undergo root canal therapy (RCT). This treatment modality is often considered disadvantageous as it removes vital pulp tissue and weakens the tooth structure. A relatively new concept has risen which suggests vital pulp therapy (VPT) for irreversible pulpitis. VPT with calcium enriched mixture (VPT/CEM) has demonstrated favorable treatment outcomes when treating permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis. This study aims to compare patient related factors, safety and organizational consideration as parts of health technology assessment (HTA) of the new VPT/CEM biotechnology when compared with RCT. Materials and Methods: Patient related factors were assessed by looking at short- and long-term clinical success; safety related factors were evaluated by a specialist committee and discussion board involved in formulating healthcare policies. Organizational evaluation was performed and the social implications were assessed by estimating the costs, availability, accessibility and acceptability. The impact of VPT/CEM biotechnology was assessed by investigating the incidence of irreversible pulpitis and the effect of this treatment on reducing the burden of disease. Results: VPT/CEM biotechnology was deemed feasible and acceptable like RCT; however, it was more successful, accessible, affordable, available and also safer than RCT. Conclusion: When considering socioeconomic implications on oral health status and oral health-related quality of life of VPT/CEM, the novel biotechnology can be more effective and more efficient than RCT in mature permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:24396372

  14. Very preterm adolescents show gender-dependent alteration of the structural brain correlates of spelling abilities.

    Scott, Fiona E; Mechelli, Andrea; Allin, Matthew P; Walshe, Muriel; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2011-07-01

    Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at risk of neurodevelopmental damage and of adverse educational outcomes in childhood and adolescence. The present study used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between grey matter and white matter volume and measures of language and executive functioning in VPT born adolescents and term-born controls by gender. VPT individuals (N=218) and controls (N=127) underwent neuropsychological assessment and MRI at age 14-15 as part of a longitudinal study. Differential associations were found between spelling scores and frontal regional grey matter volume when group (VPT and control) and gender (males and females) were investigated. A main effect of group demonstrated a weaker association in VPT adolescents relative to controls between grey matter volume in the left medial and right superior frontal gyri and spelling scores. A main effect of gender revealed spelling scores to be correlated with grey matter volume in the right superior frontal gyrus in females to a greater extent than in males. Furthermore, a significant interaction between group and gender was detected in two regions. Spelling scores showed a stronger association with grey matter volume in a cluster with local maxima in the left medial frontal cortex extending to the caudate nucleus in VPT females than in control females and a weaker association in VPT males compared to control males. In addition, spelling scores showed a stronger association with grey matter volume in left middle frontal gyrus in VPT males compared to control males and a weaker association in VPT females than in control females. When group and gender were investigated, there were no statistically different correlations between structural brain volumes and performance on reading and executive function tests. These data demonstrate that the typical structure-function relationship in respect to spelling abilities appears to be altered in individuals born preterm and the processes

  15. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    Nosarti, Chiara; Nam, Kie Woo; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M.; Cuddy, Marion; Rifkin, Larry; Allin, Matthew P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT) birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks) and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association w...

  16. Rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair: A work of the Commission Rehabilitation of the German Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery e. V. (DVSE) in collaboration with the German Association for Physiotherapy (ZVK) e. V., the Association Physical Therapy, Association for Physical Professions (VPT) e. V. and the Section Rehabilitation-Physical Therapy of the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma e. V. (DGOU).

    Jung, Christian; Tepohl, Lena; Tholen, Reina; Beitzel, Knut; Buchmann, Stefan; Gottfried, Thomas; Grim, Casper; Mauch, Bettina; Krischak, Gert; Ortmann, Hans; Schoch, Christian; Mauch, Frieder

    2018-01-01

    Tears and lesions of the rotator cuff are a frequent cause of shoulder pain and disability. Surgical repair of the rotator cuff is a valuable procedure to improve shoulder function and decrease pain. However, there is no consensus concerning the rehabilitation protocol following surgery. To review and evaluate current rehabilitation contents and protocols after rotator cuff repair by reviewing the existing scientific literature and providing an overview of the clinical practice of selected German Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery e. V. (DVSE) shoulder experts. A literature search for the years 2004-2014 was conducted in relevant databases and bibliographies including the Guidelines International Network, National Guidelines, PubMed, Cochrane CentralRegister of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. In addition, 63 DVSE experts were contacted via online questionnaire. A total of 17 studies, four reviews and one guideline fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Based on these results and the obtained expert opinions, a four-phase rehabilitation protocol could be developed.

  17. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex NASA space power electronic systems can be configured using a small number of qualified hybrid DC-DC converter and...

  18. Vibrotactile sense in patients with different upper limb disorders compared with a control group

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    diagnostic tools to reveal underlying mechanisms for specific diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible differences in vibration perception threshold (VPT) and tolerance to suprathreshold stimulation (STS) between controls and specific diagnostic ULD patient groups with uni- and bilateral neuropathy...... patients in all diagnostic groups had significantly higher VPT (Pgroups defined with neuropathy demonstrated significantly higher VPT in the limb with diagnoses compared with the contralateral limb without...... diagnoses. The highest VPTs were found in the patient group with unilateral neuropathy and MCD, and for the radial nerve, VPT was significantly higher than that for patients with unilateral MCD alone. These findings were confirmed by almost similar findings in STS responses. CONCLUSIONS: The ULD patients...

  19. Transfer of skill engendered by complex task training under conditions of variable priority.

    Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I; Neider, Mark; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika; Lee, HyunKyu; Low, Kathy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    We explored the theoretical underpinnings of a commonly used training strategy by examining issues of training and transfer of skill in the context of a complex video game (Space Fortress, Donchin, 1989). Participants trained using one of two training regimens: Full Emphasis Training (FET) or Variable Priority Training (VPT). Transfer of training was assessed with a large battery of cognitive and psychomotor tasks ranging from basic laboratory paradigms measuring reasoning, memory, and attention to complex real-world simulations. Consistent with previous studies, VPT accelerated learning and maximized task mastery. However, the hypothesis that VPT would result in broader transfer of training received limited support. Rather, transfer was most evident in tasks that were most similar to the Space Fortress game itself. Results are discussed in terms of potential limitations of the VPT approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes of Different Vital Pulp Therapy Techniques on Symptomatic Permanent Teeth: A Case Series

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In modern endodontics, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been considered an ultra-conservative treatment modality. Based on the level of pulp preservation, VPT includes stepwise excavation, indirect pulp capping (IDPC), direct pulp capping (DPC), miniature pulpotomy (MP), partial/Cvek pulpotomy and coronal/complete pulpotomy (CP). The present article reviews the treatment outcomes of 94 permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis treated with either IDPC (n=28), DPC (n=28), MP (n=29) or CP (n=9) us...

  1. Functional neuroanatomy of executive function after neonatal brain injury in adults who were born very preterm.

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 gestational weeks are at risk of experiencing deficits in tasks involving executive function in childhood and beyond. In addition, the type and severity of neonatal brain injury associated with very preterm birth may exert differential effects on executive functioning by altering its neuroanatomical substrates. Here we addressed this question by investigating with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI the haemodynamic response during executive-type processing using a phonological verbal fluency and a working memory task in VPT-born young adults who had experienced differing degrees of neonatal brain injury. 12 VPT individuals with a history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH, 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads ('easy' and 'hard' letters. Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8 performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back. Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury.

  2. High prevalence/low severity language delay in preschool children born very preterm.

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H; Friesen, Myron D; Champion, Patricia R; Woodward, Lianne J

    2010-10-01

    To examine the language development at corrected age 4 years of a regionally representative cohort of children born very preterm (VPT). Of particular interest was the identification of biological and socioenvironmental risk and protective factors that influence VPT children's early language development. Data were collected as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 110 VPT (VPT: ≤ 33 weeks gestation) and 113 full-term children (full term: 37-41 weeks gestation) born in Canterbury, New Zealand from 1998 to 2000. At corrected age 4 years, all children were assessed with the preschool version of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Extensive information was also collected about children's family social background, perinatal health, childrearing environment, education/intervention exposures, and neurodevelopmental progress from birth to age 4. At the age of 4 years, VPT children were characterized by poorer receptive and expressive language development than full-term children. These differences persisted after exclusion of children with neurosensory impairment as well as statistical adjustment for the effects of social risk. Within the VPT group, the key predictors of children's overall language development were family social risk at birth (p =.05), severity of white matter abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (p =.49), observed parent-child synchrony (p =.001), and concurrent child cognitive ability (p =.001). Together, these factors accounted for 45% of the variance in children's total Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool scores. By preschool age, children born VPT show early emerging mild to moderate language delays that are likely to affect their school success and longer-term developmental progress. Findings highlight the importance of potentially modifiable factors such as early brain injury and parenting quality in predicting the language outcomes of children born VPT.

  3. A Review of Visual Perspective taking in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Amy ePearson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social cognition are a key symptom of Autism Spectrum Disorder. People with autism have great difficulty with understanding the beliefs and desires of other people. In recent years literature has begun to examine the link between impairments in social cognition and abilities which demand the use of spatial and social skills, such as visual perspective taking (VPT. Flavell (1977 defined two levels of perspective taking: VPT level 1 is the ability to understand that other people have a different line of sight to ourselves, whereas VPT level 2 is the understanding that two people viewing the same item from different points in space may see different things. So far, literature on whether either level of VPT is impaired or intact in autism is inconsistent. Here we review studies which have examined VPT levels 1 and 2 in people with autism with a focus on the methods that have been used to measure perspective taking. We conclude the review with an evaluation of the findings into VPT in autism and give recommendations for future research which may give a clearer insight into whether perspective taking is truly impaired in autism.

  4. The influence of multiple birth and bereavement on maternal and family outcomes 2 and 7years after very preterm birth.

    Treyvaud, Karli; Aldana, Andrea C; Scratch, Shannon E; Ure, Alexandra M; Pace, Carmen C; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Psychological distress has been reported by mothers of infants born very preterm (VPT) and by mothers of multiples (twins and triplets). This study examined the influence of i) multiple birth and ii) bereavement associated with a multifetal pregnancy, on mental health, parenting stress and family functioning for mothers of children born VPT across early childhood. Participants were 162 mothers of 194 infants (129 singletons, 65 multiples) born at family functioning were assessed using the Parenting Stress Index and Family Assessment Device. Maternal mental health, stress and family functioning were similar in mothers of VPT singletons and multiples. However compared with mothers who had not experienced bereavement, mothers who had were 3.6 times [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05, 12.5] more likely to report elevated anxiety symptoms and 3.6 times [95% CI 1.05, 12.3] more likely to report elevated depressive symptoms when their VPT child was seven years old. The results of this study highlight the need for monitoring and offering ongoing support to bereaved mothers with surviving VPT children. However, within the context of VPT birth, multiple birth does not increase the risk for maternal psychological distress in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vapor phase treatment–total reflection X-ray fluorescence for trace elemental analysis of silicon wafer surface

    Takahara, Hikari; Mori, Yoshihiro; Shibata, Harumi; Shimazaki, Ayako; Shabani, Mohammad B.; Yamagami, Motoyuki; Yabumoto, Norikuni; Nishihagi, Kazuo; Gohshi, Yohichi

    2013-01-01

    Vapor phase treatment (VPT) was under investigation by the International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 201/Working Group 2 (ISO/TC201/WG2) to improve the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) for trace metal analysis of silicon wafers. Round robin test results have confirmed that TXRF intensity increased by VPT for intentional contamination with 5 × 10 9 and 5 × 10 10 atoms/cm 2 Fe and Ni. The magnification of intensity enhancement varied greatly (1.2–4.7 in VPT factor) among the participating laboratories, though reproducible results could be obtained for average of mapping measurement. SEM observation results showed that various features, sizes, and surface densities of particles formed on the wafer after VPT. The particle morphology seems to have some impact on the VPT efficiency. High resolution SEM observation revealed that a certain number of dots with SiO 2 , silicate and/or carbon gathered to form a particle and heavy metals, Ni and Fe in this study were segregated on it. The amount and shape of the residue should be important to control VPT factor. - Highlights: • This paper presents a summary of study results of VPT–TXRF using ISO/TC201/WG2. • Our goal is to analyze the trace metallic contamination on silicon wafer with concentrations below 1 × 10 10 atoms/cm 2 . • The efficiency and mechanism of VPT are discussed under several round robin tests and systematic studies

  6. One-year results of vital pulp therapy in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: an ongoing multicenter, randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial.

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Yazdani, Shahram

    2013-03-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) and tooth extraction have been conventional treatment options for management of human mature teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Excellent short-term treatment outcomes of vital pulp therapy with calcium-enriched mixture cement (VPT/CEM), as a new treatment option, on postoperative pain relief was demonstrated; if intermediate- and long-term treatment outcomes of the new treatment are also non-inferior compared to RCT, then VPT/CEM may become a viable treatment option for management of mature teeth with irreversible pulpitis. In 23 healthcare centers, 407 9- to 65-year-old patients were randomly allocated into two study arms including one-visit RCT (reference treatment; n = 202) and VPT/CEM (alternative treatment; n = 205). Six- and twelve-month clinical and radiographic successes were assessed. Mean follow-up times at 6- and 12-month follow-ups were "6.70 ± 0.68 and 6.72 ± 0.71 months" and "12.96 ± 0.67 and 12.90 ± 0.66 months" in the available cases of RCT and VPT/CEM arms, respectively. Favorable clinical success rates in the two study arms did not show statistical difference; however, the radiographic success rate in the VPT/CEM was significantly greater than RCT arm at the two follow-ups (P pulpitis. The performance of biomaterials such CEM cement may assist in the shift towards more biologic treatments. VPT/CEM may be a realistic alternative treatment for human mature molar teeth with symptoms of irreversible pulpitis; the use of VPT/CEM is highly beneficial for patients as well as general dentists.

  7. Increase of tumor oxygen tension and potentiation of radiation effects using pentoxifylline, vinpocetine and ticlopidine hydrochloride

    Amano, Morikazu; Monzen, Hajime; Suzuki, Takatoshi; Hasegawa, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effects of pentoxifylline (PTX), vinpocetine (VPT) and ticlopidine hydrochloride (TCD), each drug commonly used for vascular disorders in humans, on the pO 2 in SCC-7 (squamous cell carcinoma) tumors of C3H/HeJ mice on the radioresponse of SCC-7 tumors were investigated. When the SCC-7 implanted in the leg of C3H/HeJ mice grew about 100 mm 3 , the effects of PTX, VPT and TCD on the increase oxygen tension in the tumor was determined with polarography. The mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with 5 ml/kg PTX, 5 ml/kg VPT, or 10 ml/kg TCD, the tumor pO 2 increased slowly, peaked about 20-50 min postinjection, and returned to its original level in 60-80 min. When the C3H/HeJ mice bearing SCC-7 tumors in the legs were injected ip with 5 ml/kg PTX, 5 ml/kg VPT or 10 ml/kg TCD and tumors were X-irradiated 30 min later, the radiation induced growth delay of the tumor was greater than that caused by X-irradiation alone. The results in the present study, PTX, VPT and TCD increase the tumor pO 2 in rodent tumors strongly suggest that each drug may be useful for increasing the radiosensitivity of human tumor. (author)

  8. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology.

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors.

  9. Attention and Regional Gray Matter Development in Very Preterm Children at Age 12 Years.

    Lean, Rachel E; Melzer, Tracy R; Bora, Samudragupta; Watts, Richard; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods. VPT children obtained similar selective (p=.85), but poorer sustained (p=.02) and executive attention (p=.01) scores than FT children. VPT children were also characterized by reduced gray matter in the bilateral parietal, temporal, prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral thalami, and left hippocampus; and increased gray matter in the occipital and anterior cingulate cortices (family-wise error-corrected pregional gray matter development appear to contribute, at least in part, to the poorer attentional performance of VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2017, 23, 539-550).

  10. Socio-emotional development following very preterm birth: pathways to psychopathology

    Anita eMontagna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset.Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity.However, the aetiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies.Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological and psychosocial factors.

  11. Neonatal Brain Pathology Predicts Adverse Attention and Processing Speed Outcomes in Very Preterm and/or Very Low Birth Weight Children

    Murray, Andrea L; Scratch, Shannon E; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Jacqueline F. I.; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine attention and processing speed outcomes in very preterm (VPT; deep gray matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Attention and processing speed were assessed at 7 years using standardized neuropsychological tests. Group differences were tested in attention and processing speed, and the relationships between these cognitive domains and brain abnormalities at birth were investigated. Results At 7 years of age, the VPT/VLBW group performed significantly poorer than term controls on all attention and processing speed outcomes. Associations between adverse attention and processing speed performances at 7 years and higher neonatal brain abnormality scores were found; in particular, white matter and deep gray matter abnormalities were reasonable predictors of long-term cognitive outcomes. Conclusion Attention and processing speed are significant areas of concern in VPT/VLBW children. This is the first study to show that adverse attention and processing speed outcomes at 7 years are associated with neonatal brain pathology. PMID:24708047

  12. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Mature Molar with Concurrent Hyperplastic Pulpitis, Internal Root Resorption and Periradicular Periodontitis: A Case Report.

    Asgary, Saeed; Kemal Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) of permanent mature teeth is continuously ascertaining to be a more reliable endodontic treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful VPT of a mature mandibular left first molar with concurrent hyperplastic pulpitis, internal root resorption and periradicular periodontitis in a 35-year-old male patient. After complete caries removal and access cavity preparation, the dental pulp was removed from the coronal third of the roots. To protect the remaining pulp, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed and adapted into the cavities; the tooth was then restored with amalgam. Six months after VPT, radiographic examination showed evidence of periradicular healing. Clinically, the tooth was functional without signs and symptoms of infection/inflammation. The successful outcome of this case suggests that diseased dental pulp (i.e. irreversible pulpitis) has the potential to heal after pulp protection with CEM biocement.

  13. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Mature Molar with Concurrent Hyperplastic Pulpitis, Internal Root Resorption and Periradicular Periodontitis: A Case Report

    Asgary, Saeed; Kemal Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) of permanent mature teeth is continuously ascertaining to be a more reliable endodontic treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful VPT of a mature mandibular left first molar with concurrent hyperplastic pulpitis, internal root resorption and periradicular periodontitis in a 35-year-old male patient. After complete caries removal and access cavity preparation, the dental pulp was removed from the coronal third of the roots. To protect the remaining pulp, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed and adapted into the cavities; the tooth was then restored with amalgam. Six months after VPT, radiographic examination showed evidence of periradicular healing. Clinically, the tooth was functional without signs and symptoms of infection/inflammation. The successful outcome of this case suggests that diseased dental pulp (i.e. irreversible pulpitis) has the potential to heal after pulp protection with CEM biocement. PMID:26523145

  14. Mathematics ability and related skills in preschoolers born very preterm.

    Hasler, Holly M; Akshoomoff, Natacha

    2017-12-12

    Children born very preterm (VPT) are at risk for academic, behavioral, and/or emotional problems. Mathematics is a particular weakness and better understanding of the relationship between preterm birth and early mathematics ability is needed, particularly as early as possible to aid in early intervention. Preschoolers born VPT (n = 58) and those born full term (FT; n = 29) were administered a large battery of measures within 6 months of beginning kindergarten. A multiple-mediation model was utilized to characterize the difference in skills underlying mathematics ability between groups. Children born VPT performed significantly worse than FT-born children on a measure of mathematics ability as well as full-scale IQ, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological awareness, phonological working memory, motor skills, and executive functioning. Mathematics was significantly correlated with verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological processing, and motor skills across both groups. When entered into the mediation model, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, and phonological awareness were significant mediators of the group differences. This analysis provides insights into the pre-academic skills that are weak in preschoolers born VPT and their relationship to mathematics. It is important to identify children who will have difficulties as early as possible, particularly for VPT children who are at higher risk for academic difficulties. Therefore, this model may be used in evaluating VPT children for emerging difficulties as well as an indicator that if other weaknesses are found, an assessment of mathematics should be conducted.

  15. Two-year results of vital pulp therapy in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: an ongoing multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2014-01-01

    Oral healthcare expenses are increasing rapidly as a result of the growth of high-cost health technologies worldwide. In many developing/developed countries, low-cost tooth extraction is the alternative treatment option for a high-cost root canal therapy (RCT) for management of human molars with irreversible pulpitis. Vital pulp therapy with calcium-enriched mixture cement (VPT/CEM) as a new alternative treatment option has demonstrated excellent treatment outcomes up to 1 year; if 2-year radiographic/clinical effectiveness as well as cost-effectiveness of the VPT/CEM is also non-inferior compared with RCT, it can serve as a viable treatment for mature molars with irreversible pulpitis. In this prospective, multicenter (n = 23), non-inferiority clinical trial, 407 patients were randomized to either one-visit RCT (n = 202) or VPT/CEM (n = 205) for 27 months. In this part of study, the primary outcome measure was the 2-year clinical and radiographic treatment outcomes. Cost-effectiveness was also analyzed. Mean follow-up times were 24.62 ± 0.72 and 24.61 ± 0.69 months in RCT (n = 166) and VPT/CEM (n = 166) arms, respectively. Clinical success rates in the two study arms were equal (98.19%); however, radiographic success rates were 79.5 and 86.7% in RCT and VPT/CEM arms, respectively, with no statistical difference (P = 0.053). The treatment time span mean was approximately three times greater in the RCT than in the VPT/CEM arm (94.07 vs. 31.09 min; P pulpitis. Vital pulp therapy with CEM is a cost-effective and reliable biological technique for endodontic treatment of permanent molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis and can be recommended for general clinical practice.

  16. Pain-related stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old very preterm infants.

    Provenzi, Livio; Giusti, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Monica; Tasca, Hilarj; Ciceri, Francesca; Menozzi, Giorgia; Mosca, Fabio; Morandi, Francesco; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and exposed to varying levels of skin-breaking procedures (pain-related stress), even in absence of severe clinical conditions. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in VPT infants. During the post-discharge period, altered HPA axis reactivity has been documented in response to non-social stressors, using salivary cortisol as a biomarker. However, little is known about the effects of NICU pain-related stress on subsequent HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in infants. We examined the relationship between pain-related stress in NICU and HPA axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol reactivity) to an age-appropriate socio-emotional condition in 37 healthy VPT infants compared to 53 full-term (FT) controls. The number of skin-breaking procedures was obtained across NICU stay for VPT infants. At 3 months (corrected age for prematurity), all infants participated in the maternal Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) procedure, in order to assess HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness). VPT infants exhibited a blunted salivary cortisol reactivity, which was associated with the amount of skin-breaking procedures during NICU: greater pain-related stress predicted lower salivary cortisol reactivity, adjusting for neonatal confounders. These findings further advance our knowledge of how early exposure to pain-related stress in NICU contributes to the programming of an altered HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old VPT infants, even in the absence of major perinatal complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assembly of a supercrystal (SC) of the CMS endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    J. Williams et al., RAL

    2004-01-01

    The first three pictures show the insertion of the first three rows of crystals into the supercrystal SC03 on Jan. 2004 and the completion of the SC endstops. Fig. 4 shows a complete supercrystal and Fig. 5 its components (alveolar, interface plate, housing, optical fibre, insert, crystal and VPT, endstop). A set of 25 inserts is shown in Fig. 6, while Fig. 7 shows housing, interface plates and inserts. Finally, a SC rear view showing the Vacum Phototriode (VPT) wires through the inserts can be seen in Fig. 8. Fig. 9 and 10 show two supercrystals under test on Dee F and R, respectively.

  18. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    Chiara Nosarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM and white matter (WM maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001. WM volume in posterior corpus

  19. Socio economic achievements of individuals born very preterm at the age of 27 to 29 years: A nationwide cohort study

    Mathiasen, René; Hansen, Bo M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    Aim To describe the socio economic achievement of individuals born very preterm (VPT) at the age of 27 to 29 years. Method Demographic and social data were extracted from national registers for all individuals born between 1974 and 1976 in Denmark (n=208 656). Of these, 203 283 individuals were...... results in the two groups were similar, but significant differences appeared. The VPT group had a lower educational level than the term group: 23.9% versus 16.3% had a basic education (corresponding to attendance at basic school for 9y or less; odds ratio [OR] =1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.......42-1.82). Similarly, 31.9% versus 37.6% had a tertiary education (corresponding to different levels of professional education; OR=0.77, CI 0.69-0.86). Net income was 11% lower in the VPT group and 10.8% versus 5.3% were receiving welfare support (OR=2.14, CI 1.81-2.55). In the VPT group 59% versus 52% did not have...

  20. Parenting behavior at 2 years predicts school-age performance at 7 years in very preterm children.

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E; Hunt, Rod W; Anderson, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born parent-child interaction was assessed, and at 7 years CA, general intelligence (IQ), language, executive function, academic skills, and social-emotional functioning were assessed. Higher levels of parent-child synchrony, and parent facilitation, sensitivity and positive affect at 2 years were associated with better child outcomes at 7 years, while higher levels of intrusiveness and negative affect were associated with poorer outcomes. Many of these relationships remained after controlling for early child cognitive development. Interactions between child medical risk (higher/lower) and parenting were limited to child reading, math, and executive functioning outcomes, with stronger relationships for lower medical risk children. The contribution of early parenting to VPT children's school-age performance is significant, with stronger effects for lower medical risk children in some outcomes. These findings support the premise that parenting strategies should be included in the NICU and early interventions programs for VPT infants. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Variability in Very Preterm Stillbirth and In-Hospital Mortality Across Europe

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Manktelow, Bradley N; Cuttini, Marina

    2017-01-01

    to determine what proportion of the variation in stillbirth and in-hospital VPT mortality rates persists after adjusting for population demographics, case-mix, and timing of death. METHODS: Standardized data collection for a geographically defined prospective cohort of VPTs (22(+0)-31(+6) weeks gestation...

  2. Characterization of geometrical random uncertainty distribution for a group of patients in radiotherapy; Caracterizacion de la distribucion de incertidumbres geometricas aleatorias para un grupo de pacientes en radioterapia

    Munoz Montplet, C.; Jurado Bruggeman, D.

    2010-07-01

    Geometrical random uncertainty in radiotherapy is usually characterized by a unique value in each group of patients. We propose a novel approach based on a statistically accurate characterization of the uncertainty distribution, thus reducing the risk of obtaining potentially unsafe results in CT V-Pt margins or in the selection of correction protocols.

  3. Axon density and axon orientation dispersion in children born preterm

    Kelly, Claire E.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Chen, Jian; Leemans, Alexander; Adamson, Christopher L.; Inder, Terrie E.; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Very preterm birth (VPT, <32 weeks' gestation) is associated with altered white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), the biological basis of which is uncertain but may relate to changes in axon density and/or dispersion, which can be measured using Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density

  4. Anharmonic rovibrational calculations of singlet cyclic C{sub 4} using a new ab initio potential and a quartic force field

    Wang, Xiaohong; Bowman, Joel M., E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu [Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Huang, Xinchuan [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite 100, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States); Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [MS 245-1, NASA Ames Research Center, Mofffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    We report a CCSD(T)/cc-pCV5Z quartic force field (QFF) and a semi-global CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ potential energy surface (PES) for singlet, cyclic C{sub 4}. Vibrational fundamentals, combinations, and overtones are obtained using vibrational second-order perturbation theory (VPT2) and the vibrational configuration-interaction (VCI) approach. Agreement is within 10 cm{sup −1} between the VCI calculated fundamentals on the QFF and PES using the MULTIMODE (MM) program, and VPT2 and VCI results agree for the fundamentals. The agreement between VPT2-QFF and MM-QFF results is also good for the C{sub 4} combinations and overtones. The J = 1 and J = 2 rovibrational energies are reported from both VCI (MM) on the PES and VPT2 on the QFF calculations. The spectroscopic constants of {sup 12}C{sub 4} and two C{sub 2v}-symmetry, single {sup 13}C-substituted isotopologues are presented, which may help identification of cyclic C{sub 4} in future experimental analyses or astronomical observations.

  5. Social development of children born very preterm: a systematic review.

    Ritchie, Kirsten; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J

    2015-10-01

    To review systematically studies examining the development of social competence in children born very preterm (VPT) (gestation skills. Twenty-three studies were included. Seven focused on social competence and another 16 examined social competence within a range of outcomes. Study quality was low. Limitations included reliance on single informant data, cross-sectional measurement, use of brief screening tools, absence of child or peer report, and no conceptual model. In terms of social adjustment, 16 out of 21 studies found children born VPT had more peer problems and social withdrawal. Findings of social performance were mixed, with some studies suggesting differences in prosocial behavior (4/14) and others not. Social skills were assessed in four studies and showed children born VPT had poorer skills than children born at term. Predictors of social competence included gestational age, neonatal brain abnormalities, and family socio-economic status. Children born VPT have poorer social competence. These difficulties emerge early and persist throughout childhood. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  6. A Comparison of Maternal and Paternal Experiences of Becoming Parents of a Very Preterm Infant.

    Provenzi, Livio; Barello, Serena; Fumagalli, Monica; Graffigna, Guendalina; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    To compare maternal and paternal experiences of very preterm (VPT) birth (gestational age < 32 weeks) and the NICU stay. Qualitative study. Data collection took place at parents' homes 3 to 6 months after NICU discharge. Ten parental couples participated in the study (20 parents). All VPT infants were healthy, without any neonatal or postnatal complications or injuries. Computer-assisted content analysis was used to highlight thematic clusters from parents' narratives, which were labeled through qualitative interpretation. Two main dimensions (Adjustment Process to Preterm Birth and Parental Role Assumption) and three main thematic clusters (Facing the Unexpected, Learning to Parent, and Finally Back Home) described the parental experience. Mothers focused mostly on the Finally Back Home cluster, which was characterized by moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by awareness of their own maternal roles. Fathers focused mostly on the Learning to Parent cluster, which was characterized by low to moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by a limited assumption of paternal role. To our knowledge, this study is unique in that we compared mothers and fathers who experienced the VPT births of their infants and described their experiences of the NICU stay. We found that the VPT birth experience for parents involves a dynamic adjustment. Differences in maternal and paternal experiences may indicate the need for tailored supportive interventions in the NICU. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of electrochemical skin conductance and vibration perception threshold measurement in the detection of early diabetic neuropathy.

    Amit Goel

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN is challenging. Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in DPN. The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC test in detecting early DPN, compared with the vibration perception threshold (VPT test and diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS score, using the modified neuropathy disability score (NDS as the reference standard. Five hundred and twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes underwent an NDS-based clinical assessment for neuropathy. Participants were classified into the DPN and non-DPN groups based on the NDS (≥ 6. Both groups were evaluated further using the DNS, and VPT and ESC testing. A receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of ESC measurements with those of DNS and VPT testing in detecting DPN. The DPN group (n = 110, 21% had significantly higher HbA1c levels and longer diabetes durations compared with the non-DPN group (n = 413. The sensitivity of feet ESC 15 V, and DNS ≥ 1, were 16.4, 10.9 and 1.8, respectively. ESC measurement is an objective and sensitive technique for the early detection of DPN. Feet ESC measurement was superior to VPT testing for identifying patients with early DPN.

  8. On the convergence of zero-point vibrational corrections to nuclear shieldings and shielding anisotropies towards the complete basis set limit in water

    Faber, Rasmus; Buczek, Aneta; Kupka, Teobald

    2017-01-01

    ), coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples corrections (CCSD(T)) and Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional methods in combination with the second order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2...

  9. The effect of pulse width and contact configuration on paresthesia coverage in spinal cord stimulation

    Holsheimer, J.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Das, John; de Sutter, Paul; Manola, L.; Nuttin, Bart

    Objective. To investigate the effect of stimulus pulsewidth (PW) and contact configuration (CC) on the area of paresthesia (PA), perception threshold (VPT), discomfort threshold (VDT) and usage range (UR) in spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Methods. Chronic pain patients were tested during a follow-up

  10. Correlation between Retinopathy and Vibration Perception Threshold in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%2型糖尿病视网膜病变与震动感觉阈值的相关性分析

    熊春霖

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨2型糖尿病视网膜病变与震动感觉阈值的相关性。方法将135例2型糖尿病患者按眼科检查结果分为糖尿病背景期视网膜病变组(BDR,n =45)、增殖期视网膜病变组(PDR,n =45)以及无视网膜病变组(NDR,n=45),3组均采用震动感觉阈值检测仪检测周围神经的震动感觉阈值(VPT),采用眼震电图描记法检测前庭功能及动眼系统功能损害情况,对比分析3组生化指标、VPT 检测结果、前庭功能损害及动眼系统功能损害发生率。结果FINS、2 h INS、TC、TG、HDL-C 以及 LDL-C 3组间比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),BDP 组与PDR 组周围神经 VPT 均高于 NDP 组(P <0.05),且 PDR 组周围神经 VPT 均显著高于 BDP 组(P <0.05),BDP组与 PDR 组患者前庭功能损害发生率以及动眼系统功能损害发生率均高于 NDP 组(P <0.05),且 PDR 组上述VPT 均显著高于 BDP 组(P <0.05)。结论2型糖尿病视网膜病变与震动感觉阈值具有相关性,可作为2型糖尿病视网膜病变的重要筛查指标。%Objective To investigate the correlation between retinopathy and vibration percep-tion threshold(VPT)in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM).Methods According to the results of ophthalmologic examination,135 T2DM patients were divided into three groups:background diabetic retinopathy(BDR,n=45)group,proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR,n=45)group,and non-diabetic retinopathy(PDR,n=45)group.The vibration threshold of peripher-al nerve was measured using VPT.The ocular motion threshold was detected using electronystag-mography.The biochemical indexes,VPT test results,vestibular dysfunction and oculomotor function damage were compared among the three groups.Results There were no significant differences in the levels of fasting insulin,2-hour postprandial insulin,total cholesterol,triglycer-ides,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and

  11. Road work on memory lane--functional and structural alterations to the learning and memory circuit in adults born very preterm.

    Salvan, Piergiorgio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Allin, Matthew P G; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; McGuire, Philip K; Williams, Steven C R; Nosarti, Chiara

    2014-11-15

    Very preterm (VPT) birth is considered a risk factor not only for neurological impairment, but also for reduced function in several cognitive domains in childhood and later in life. Individuals who were born VPT are more likely to demonstrate learning and memory difficulties compared to term-born controls. These problems contribute to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. This, in turn, affects their prospects in adult life. Here we aimed to 1) study how the VPT-born adult brain functionally recruited specific areas during learning, i.e. encoding and recall across four repeated blocks of verbal stimuli, and to investigate how these patterns of activation differed from term-born subjects; and 2) probe the microstructural differences of white-matter tracts connecting these areas to other parts of the learning and memory network. To investigate these functional-structural relationships we analyzed functional and diffusion-weighted MRI. Functional-MRI and a verbal paired associate learning (VPAL) task were used to extract Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) activity in 21 VPT-born adults (memory network, including anterior cingulate and caudate body during encoding and thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus during cued recall. Altered activation in thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus may be explained by reduced connections between these areas and the hippocampus, which may be a direct consequence of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic injury. These results could reflect the effect of adaptive plastic processes associated with high-order cognitive functions, at least when the cognitive load remains relatively low, as ex-preterm young adults displayed unimpaired performance in completing the verbal paired associate learning task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Place matters: variation in the black/white very preterm birth rate across U.S. metropolitan areas, 2002-2004.

    Kramer, Michael R; Hogue, Carol R

    2008-01-01

    We reported on the distribution of very preterm (VPT) birth rates by race across metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Rates of singleton VPT birth for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women were calculated with National Center for Health Statistics 2002-2004 natality files for infants in 168 MSAs. Subanalysis included stratification by parity, age, smoking, maternal education, metropolitan size, region, proportion of MSA that was black, proportion of black population living below the poverty line, and indices of residential segregation. The mean metropolitan-level VPT birth rate was 12.3, 34.8, and 15.7 per 1,000 live births for white, black, and Hispanic women, respectively. There was virtually no overlap in the white and black distributions. The variation in mean risk across cities was three times greater for black women compared with white women. The threefold disparity in mean rate, and two- to threefold increased variation as indicated by standard deviation, was maintained in all subanalyses. Compared with white women, black women have three times the mean VPT birth risk, as well as three times the variance in city-level rates. The racial disparity in VPT birth rates was composed of characteristics that were constant across MSAs, as well as factors that varied by MSA. The increased sensitivity to place for black women was unexplained by measured maternal and metropolitan factors. Understanding determinants of differences in both the mean risk and the variation of risk among black and white women may contribute to reducing the disparity in risk between races.

  13. Neonatal brain injury and neuroanatomy of memory processing following very preterm birth in adulthood: an fMRI study.

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Altered functional neuroanatomy of high-order cognitive processing has been described in very preterm individuals (born before 33 weeks of gestation; VPT compared to controls in childhood and adolescence. However, VPT birth may be accompanied by different types of adverse neonatal events and associated brain injury, the severity of which may have differential effects on brain development and subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study to investigate how differing degrees of neonatal brain injury, detected by neonatal ultrasounds, affect the functional neuroanatomy of memory processing in VPT young adults. We used a verbal paired associates learning task, consisting of four encoding, four cued-recall and four baseline condition blocks. To further investigate whether differences in neural activation between the groups were modulated by structural brain changes, structural MRI data were also collected. We studied 12 VPT young adults with a history of periventricular haemorrhage with associated ventricular dilatation, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage, 12 individuals with normal ultrasonographic findings, and 17 controls. Results of a linear trend analysis demonstrated that during completion of the paired associates learning task right frontal and right parietal brain activation decreased as the severity of neonatal brain injury increased. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in on-line task performance and participants' intelligence quotient (IQ at assessment. This pattern of differential activation across the groups was observed particularly in the right middle frontal gyrus during encoding and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus during recall. Structural MRI data analysis revealed that grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left middle temporal gyrus, right globus pallidus and

  14. Reproducibility of vibration perception threshold values in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and associated factors.

    Louraki, M; Tsentidis, C; Kallinikou, D; Katsalouli, M; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Kafassi, N; Papathanasiou, A; Karavanaki, K

    2014-07-01

    To define the reproducibility of vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) and the possible associated factors, as an early index of peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children and adolescents. A single examiner studied 118 T1DM subjects (aged 13.5±3.4 years) and 79 controls (aged 12.0±3.07 years). Glycaemic control was assessed with HbA1c levels. VPT was measured twice on upper and lower limbs, using a Biothesiometer. Concordance between the two VPT measurements was evaluated using the Cohen's Weighted Kappa statistic (Kappa=0.41-0.60→moderate concordance, Kappa=0.61-0.80→substantial concordance). T1DM children had significantly higher VPTs than controls at all sites (p=0.001), but with lower Kappa values (0.64-0.70). VPT values increased in parallel with HbA1c (a.9.5%) and T1DM duration (a.1-10, c.>10 years). However, Kappa values were lower in the groups with the poorest control (HbA1c>9.5%) (Kappa=0.54-0.76) or the longest T1DM duration (>10 years) (Kappa=0.49-0.71). Although VPTs increased with stature and male gender, no effect on VPT reproducibility was observed. However, obesity was associated with lower VPT values and poorer concordance. These findings suggest that the reproducibility of VPTs is lower in the high-risk patients for early subclinical PDN development, who need a regular follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increase in tumor oxygenation and potentiation of radiation effects using pentoxifylline, vinpocetine and ticlopidine hydrochloride

    Amano, Morikazu; Monzen, Hajime; Suzuki, Minoru; Terai, Kaoru; Andoh, Satoshi; Tsumuraya, Akio; Hasegawa, Takeo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Pentoxifylline (PTX), Vinpocetine (VPT) and Ticlopidine Hydrochloride (TCD), used commonly for vascular disorders in humans, on the pO 2 in SCCVII tumors of C3H/HeJ mice and on the radioresponse of SCCVII tumors. The pO 2 in the SCCVII tumors, which were measured 30 min after intraperioneal (i.p.) injection of PTX (5 mg/kg), VPT (5 mg/kg), or TCD (10 mg/kg) using polarography, was compared to that in saline-treated control tumors. All the three drugs, PTX, VPT and TCD, yielded significant increase of the pO 2 in the SCCVII tumors from 25.6 to 26.9 mmHg, from 18.6 to 22.9 mmHg, and from 22.6 to 25.9 mmHg, respectively. Frequency histogram of the pO 2 distribution in the saline-treated SCCVII tumors did not show hypoxic fraction of less than 10 mmHg. The radioresponses of the drugs were investigated by tumor growth delay assay. In the drug-treated groups, the SCCVII tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy 30 min after injection of the drugs at the same doses as those used in the experiments for intratumoral pO 2 measurement. Compared with the irradiation alone group, significant tumor growth delays were observed in all the drug-treated groups. The time required to reach a four-fold increase in the initial tumor volume were 4 days in the saline-treated control group, 22 days in the irradiation (IR) alone group, 28 days in the PTX+IR group, 29 days in the VPT+IR group, and 32 days in TCD+IR group. In conclusion, VPT and TCD are potentially promising drugs for increasing the intratumoral pO 2 although the mechanism for radiopotentiation observed in the present study is unknown due to small hypoxic fraction in the SCCVII tumors. Further studies on other mechanisms for radiopotentiation of PTX, VPT or TCD, besides of increasing the pO 2 in the tumor, are needed. (author)

  16. Outcomes of different vital pulp therapy techniques on symptomatic permanent teeth: a case series.

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In modern endodontics, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been considered an ultra-conservative treatment modality. Based on the level of pulp preservation, VPT includes stepwise excavation, indirect pulp capping (IDPC), direct pulp capping (DPC), miniature pulpotomy (MP), partial/Cvek pulpotomy and coronal/complete pulpotomy (CP). The present article reviews the treatment outcomes of 94 permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis treated with either IDPC (n=28), DPC (n=28), MP (n=29) or CP (n=9) using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After a mean follow-up time of 12.3 months, 93 treated teeth were radiographic/clinically successful; only one radiographic failure was observed in the DPC group.

  17. Selective weighting of cutaneous receptor feedback and associated balance impairments following short duration space flight.

    Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Lowrey, Catherine R; Perry, Stephen D; Williams, David R; Wood, Scott J; Bent, Leah R

    2015-04-10

    The present study investigated the perception of low frequency (3 Hz) vibration on the foot sole and its relationship to standing balance following short duration space flight in nine astronauts. Both 3 Hz vibration perception threshold (VPT) and standing balance measures increased on landing day compared to pre-flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, a positive linear relationship between these measures was not observed; however astronauts with the most sensitive skin (lowest 3 Hz VPT) were found to have the largest sway on landing day. While the change in foot sole sensitivity does not appear to directly relate to standing balance control, an exploratory strategy may be employed by astronauts whose threshold to pressure information is lower. Understanding sensory adaptations and balance control has implications to improve balance control strategies following space flight and in sensory impaired populations on earth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The construction of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter: delivery of the 3rd and 4th endcap "Dees" and Ring Flanges to CERN

    2006-01-01

    Delivery of the 3rd and 4th Dees and Ring Flanges of the CMS-ECAL endcaps to CERN. The pictures show also an endcap crystal with its VPT (Vacuum PhotoTriode), the aluminium blackplates of the endcap Dees and four mock supercrystals (5x5 crystals) attached in their position on the backplate, along with 138 positional spacers. Finally, endcap assembly in the CMS construction hall in Cessy (neighbouring France) is also shown.

  19. Folding units in calcium vector protein of amphioxus: Structural and functional properties of its amino- and carboxy-terminal halves.

    Baladi, S; Tsvetkov, P O; Petrova, T V; Takagi, T; Sakamoto, H; Lobachov, V M; Makarov, A A; Cox, J A

    2001-04-01

    Muscle of amphioxus contains large amounts of a four EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein, CaVP, and its target, CaVPT. To study the domain structure of CaVP and assess the structurally important determinants for its interaction with CaVPT, we expressed CaVP and its amino (N-CaVP) and carboxy-terminal halves (C-CaVP). The interactive properties of recombinant and wild-type CaVP are very similar, despite three post-translational modifications in the wild-type protein. N-CaVP does not bind Ca2+, shows a well-formed hydrophobic core, and melts at 44 degrees C. C-CaVP binds two Ca2+ with intrinsic dissociation constants of 0.22 and 140 microM (i.e., very similar to the entire CaVP). The metal-free domain in CaVP and C-CaVP shows no distinct melting transition, whereas its 1Ca2+ and 2Ca2+) forms melt in the 111 degrees -123 degrees C range, suggesting that C-CaVP and the carboxy- domain of CaVP are natively unfolded in the metal-free state and progressively gain structure upon binding of 1Ca2+ and 2Ca2+. Thermal denaturation studies provide evidence for interdomain interaction: the apo, 1Ca2+ and 2Ca2+ states of the carboxy-domain destabilize to different degrees the amino-domain. Only C-CaVP forms a Ca2+-dependent 1:1 complex with CaVPT. Our results suggest that the carboxy-terminal domain of CaVP interacts with CaVPT and that the amino-terminal lobe modulates this interaction.

  20. Five-year results of vital pulp therapy in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: a non-inferiority multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Fazlyab, Mahta; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2015-03-01

    Previous reported results of up to 12 months as well as 24-month follow-ups revealed superior and equivalent treatment outcomes for vital pulp therapy (VPT) using calcium-enriched mixture cement (CEM) in comparison with root canal therapy (RCT) for mature molars with established irreversible pulpitis, respectively. Present non-inferiority multicenter randomized clinical trial assesses the final long-term (5-year) results as well as the effects of patients' age/gender and the presence of preoperative periapical lesion on the treatment outcomes. A total number of 407 patients were blindly allocated into two treatment groups [group 1 (VPT/CEM, n = 205) and group 2 (RCT, n = 202)] treated in 23 health-care centers by calibrated dentists. The treatment outcomes were assessed after 60 months. The 5-year results revealed no significant differences in the successes of both study arms (P = 0.29); a total number of 271 patients were available (~33 % were lost to follow-up). The patients' age/gender did not affect the outcomes; the presence of preoperative periapical lesion also did not implement a significant effect in both groups (P > 0.05). As an alternative for RCT, VPT/CEM can be considered as a valid treatment for vital mature permanent molars clinically diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Considering the favorable outcomes of 6- to 60-month follow-ups, as an evidence-based/simple/affordable/effective/biologic approach in cases of irreversible pulpitis, VPT/CEM is highly recommended for universal clinical practice.

  1. Clinical features and treatment outcomes of vasoproliferative tumors in Indian participants

    Jaydeep Avinash Walinjkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to describe the clinical features and treatment outcomes of vasoproliferative tumors (VPT in Indian participants. Methods: This study design was a retrospective case series in a tertiary eye care center. Case records of patients diagnosed with VPT from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed, and their demographic details, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes were documented. Baseline and follow-up visual acuity and tumor dimensions were statistically compared by applying paired t-test. Statistical analysis used SPSS version 14. Results: Twenty-two tumors from 19 eyes of 17 patients were included. Mean age at presentation was 43.5 years (range: 15–68 years. Mean presenting best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was + 1.10 logMAR. Sixty-eight percent eyes had secondary tumors. Most common association of secondary VPT was Coats disease followed by retinal vasculitis, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, and traumatic chorioretinopathy. Ten tumors (45% involved the inferior quadrant. Tumor-associated features were intra/subretinal exudates, vitritis, subretinal fluid, vitreous hemorrhage, preretinal fibrosis, epiretinal membrane, and subretinal blood. Treatment included cryotherapy, intravitreal or oral steroids, laser photocoagulation, cryotherapy with encirclage, cryotherapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, and observation. Complications included tumor recurrence, retinal detachment, raised intraocular pressure, neovascularization of iris, and cataract. Ninety-five percent VPT regressed at mean 21 months (Median: 17 months; Range: 3–64 months. Mean final BCVA was + 1.21 logMAR. Conclusion: VPTs are commonly unilateral, unifocal, and located anterior to equator in inferior fundus. Secondary tumors are more common than primary tumors. Treatment achieves tumor regression in majority of cases.

  2. Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires via Hotwire Thermal Evaporation of Brass (CuZn) Assisted by Vapor Phase Transport of Methanol

    Tamil Many K. Thandavan; Siti Meriam Abdul Gani; Chiow San Wong; Roslan Md Nor

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) were synthesized using vapor phase transport (VPT) and thermal evaporation of Zn from CuZn. Time dependence of ZnO NWs growth was investigated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes. Significant changes were observed from the field electron scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images as well as from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile. The photoluminescence (PL) profile was attributed to the contribution of oxygen vacancy, zinc interstitials, and hydrogen defec...

  3. Neonatal Amygdala Functional Connectivity at Rest in Healthy and Preterm Infants and Early Internalizing Symptoms.

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Sylvester, Chad M; Mintz, Carrie; Kenley, Jeanette K; Shimony, Joshua S; Barch, Deanna M; Smyser, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Alterations in the normal developmental trajectory of amygdala resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) have been associated with atypical emotional processes and psychopathology. Little is known, however, regarding amygdala rs-FC at birth or its relevance to outcomes. This study examined amygdala rs-FC in healthy, full-term (FT) infants and in very preterm (VPT) infants, and tested whether variability of neonatal amygdala rs-FC predicted internalizing symptoms at age 2 years. Resting state fMRI data were obtained shortly after birth from 65 FT infants (gestational age [GA] ≥36 weeks) and 57 VPT infants (GA amygdala regions of interest. Total internalizing symptoms and the behavioral inhibition, depression/withdrawal, general anxiety, and separation distress subdomains were assessed in a subset (n = 44) at age 2 years using the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment. In FT and VPT infants, the amygdala demonstrated positive correlations with subcortical and limbic structures and negative correlations with cortical regions, although magnitudes were decreased in VPT infants. Neonatal amygdala rs-FC predicted internalizing symptoms at age 2 years with regional specificity consistent with known pathophysiology in older populations: connectivity with the anterior insula related to depressive symptoms, with the dorsal anterior cingulate related to generalized anxiety, and with the medial prefrontal cortex related to behavioral inhibition. Amygdala rs-FC is well established in neonates. Variability in regional neonatal amygdala rs-FC predicted internalizing symptoms at 2 years, suggesting that risk for internalizing symptoms may be established in neonatal amygdala functional connectivity patterns. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Variation in term birthweight across European countries affects the prevalence of small for gestational age among very preterm infants

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt; Piedvache, Aurelie

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study assessed the prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm (VPT) infants using national and European intrauterine references. METHODS: We generated country-specific and common European intrauterine growth references for 11 European countries, according to Gardosi...... with lower term birthweights (39.9%) - Portugal, Italy and France - and higher term birthweights, namely Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden (28.9%; p third...

  5. Brain injury in very preterm children and neurosensory and cognitive disabilities during childhood: the EPIPAGE cohort study.

    Stéphane Marret

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of motor and cognitive/learning deficiencies and overall disabilities in very preterm (VPT children and their relations to gestational age (GA and brain lesions. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: EPIPAGE is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children born before 33 weeks' gestation (WG in 9 French regions in 1997-1998. Cumulating data from all follow up stages, neurodevelopmental outcomes were available for 90% of the 2480 VPT survivors at 8 years. Main outcomes were association of motor and cognitive deficiencies and existence of at least one deficiency (motor, cognitive, behavioral/psychiatric, epileptic, visual, and/or hearing deficiencies in three GA groups (24-26, 27-28, and 29-32WG and four groups of brain lesions (none, minor, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: VPT had high rates of motor (14% and cognitive (31% deficiencies. Only 6% had an isolated motor deficiency, 23% an isolated cognitive one and 8% both types. This rate reached 20% among extremely preterm. Psychiatric disorders and epilepsy were observed in 6% and 2% of children, respectively. The risks of at least one severe or moderate deficiency were 11 and 29%. These risks increased as GA decreased; only 36% of children born extremely preterm had no reported deficiency. Among children with major white matter injury (WMI, deficiency rates reached 71% at 24-26WG, 88% at 27-28WG, and 80% at 29-32WG; more than 40% had associated motor and cognitive deficiencies. By contrast, isolated cognitive deficiency was the most frequent problem among children without major lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In VPT, the lower the GA, the higher the neurodisability rate. Cerebral palsy is common. Impaired cognitive development is more frequent. Its occurrence in case without WMI or early motor disorders makes long-term follow up necessary. The strong association between motor impairments, when they exist, and later cognitive dysfunction supports the hypothesis

  6. The effect of pulse width and contact configuration on paresthesia coverage in spinal cord stimulation.

    Holsheimer, Jan; Buitenweg, Jan R; Das, John; de Sutter, Paul; Manola, Ljubomir; Nuttin, Bart

    2011-05-01

    In spinal cord stimulation for the management of chronic, intractable pain, a satisfactory analgesic effect can be obtained only when the stimulation-induced paresthesias cover all painful body areas completely or partially. To investigate the effect of stimulus pulse width (PW) and contact configuration (CC) on the area of paresthesia (PA), perception threshold (VPT), discomfort threshold (VDT), and usage range (UR) in spinal cord stimulation. Chronic pain patients were tested during a follow-up visit. They were stimulated monopolarly and with the CC giving each patient the best analgesia. VPT, VDT, and UR were determined for PWs of 90, 210, and 450 microseconds. The paresthesia contours at VDT were drawn on a body map and digitized; PA was calculated; and its anatomic composition was described. The effects of PW and CC on PA, VPT, VDT, and UR were tested statistically. Twenty-four of 31 tests with low thoracic stimulation and 8 of 9 tests with cervical stimulation gave a significant extension of PA at increasing PW. In 14 of 18 tests (low thoracic), a caudal extension was obtained (primarily in L5-S2). In cervical stimulation the extension was predominantly caudal as well. In contrast to VPT and VDT, UR is not significantly different when stimulating with any CC. PA extends caudally with increasing PW. The mechanism includes that the larger and smaller dorsal column fibers have a different mediolateral distribution and that smaller dorsal column fibers have a smaller UR and can be activated only when PW is sufficiently large. A similar effect of CC on PA is unlikely as long as electrodes with a large intercontact distance are applied.

  7. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  8. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p358

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  9. Histone deacetylase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in a pharmacological model of mania

    Laura Stertz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li, 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT, 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB, or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity.

  10. ZnMgO-ZnO quantum wells embedded in ZnO nanopillars: Towards realisation of nano-LEDs

    Bakin, A.; El-Shaer, A.; Mofor, A.C.; Al-Suleiman, M.; Schlenker, E.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig Technical University, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    ZnO thin films, ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructures and ZnO nanostructures were fabricated using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), vapour phase transport (VPT) and an aqueous chemical growth approach (ACG). The possibility to employ several fabrication techniques is of special importance for the realization of unique device structures. MBE was implemented for ZnO-based layer and heterostructure growth. Pronounced RHEED oscillations were used for growth control and optimisation, resulting in high quality ZnO and Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O epilayers and heterostructures, as well as ZnMgO/ZnO quantum wells on sapphire and SiC substrates. A novel advanced VPT approach is developed and sapphire, SiC, ZnO epitaxial layers, and even plastic and glass were implemented as substrates for ZnO growth. The VPT fabrication of ZnO nanopillars, leading to well aligned, c-axis oriented nanopillars with excellent quality and purity is demonstrated. Successful steps were made towards device fabrication on ZnO basis. The nanopillar fabrication technique is combined with MBE technology: MBE-grown ZnMgO/ZnO quantum well structures were grown on ZnO nanopillars presenting significant progress towards nano-LEDs realization. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  12. RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS: An innovative scale for the assessment of child′s dental anxiety

    R M Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety assessment for young children is as important as performing their treatment. Appropriate knowledge of patient′s anxiety boosts confidence and will help us to review potential management options specific to every child. Aim: This study aimed to validate (RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS and to compare it with Venham Picture Test (VPT and Facial image scale (FIS in measuring dental anxiety for young children during their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 healthy children aged between 4 and 14 years during their first dental visit were randomly selected for the study. Childs anxiety level was measured using three different scales namely (i RMS-PS (ii VPT, and (iii FIS. Statistical Analysis: Student t test was used to compare the scores obtained from all the three scales. Pearson correlation test was used to obtain correlation among the scales used in the study. Results: A strong correlation (0·76 was found between the VPT and RMS-PS, and a moderate correlation (0.5 was found between RMS-PS and FIS, indicating good validity for the RMS-PS. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the RMS-PS can be a newer and easiest means for the assessment of dental anxiety for young children in a clinical context.

  13. Numerical-analytic implementation of the higher-order canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory for the interpretation of medium-sized molecule vibrational spectra.

    Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V; Isayeva, Elena V; Stepanov, Nikolay F

    2012-04-12

    Anharmonic vibrational states of semirigid polyatomic molecules are often studied using the second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2). For efficient higher-order analysis, an approach based on the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory (CVPT), the Watson Hamiltonian and operators of creation and annihilation of vibrational quanta is employed. This method allows analysis of the convergence of perturbation theory and solves a number of theoretical problems of VPT2, e.g., yields anharmonic constants y(ijk), z(ijkl), and allows the reliable evaluation of vibrational IR and Raman anharmonic intensities in the presence of resonances. Darling-Dennison and higher-order resonance coupling coefficients can be reliably evaluated as well. The method is illustrated on classic molecules: water and formaldehyde. A number of theoretical conclusions results, including the necessity of using sextic force field in the fourth order (CVPT4) and the nearly vanishing CVPT4 contributions for bending and wagging modes. The coefficients of perturbative Dunham-type Hamiltonians in high-orders of CVPT are found to conform to the rules of equality at different orders as earlier proven analytically for diatomic molecules. The method can serve as a good substitution of the more traditional VPT2.

  14. Geometric Energy Derivatives at the Complete Basis Set Limit: Application to the Equilibrium Structure and Molecular Force Field of Formaldehyde.

    Morgan, W James; Matthews, Devin A; Ringholm, Magnus; Agarwal, Jay; Gong, Justin Z; Ruud, Kenneth; Allen, Wesley D; Stanton, John F; Schaefer, Henry F

    2018-03-13

    Geometric energy derivatives which rely on core-corrected focal-point energies extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit of coupled cluster theory with iterative and noniterative quadruple excitations, CCSDTQ and CCSDT(Q), are used as elements of molecular gradients and, in the case of CCSDT(Q), expansion coefficients of an anharmonic force field. These gradients are used to determine the CCSDTQ/CBS and CCSDT(Q)/CBS equilibrium structure of the S 0 ground state of H 2 CO where excellent agreement is observed with previous work and experimentally derived results. A fourth-order expansion about this CCSDT(Q)/CBS reference geometry using the same level of theory produces an exceptional level of agreement to spectroscopically observed vibrational band origins with a MAE of 0.57 cm -1 . Second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) and variational discrete variable representation (DVR) results are contrasted and discussed. Vibration-rotation, anharmonicity, and centrifugal distortion constants from the VPT2 analysis are reported and compared to previous work. Additionally, an initial application of a sum-over-states fourth-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT4) formalism is employed herein, utilizing quintic and sextic derivatives obtained with a recursive algorithmic approach for response theory.

  15. The antioxidant EDU and Raphanus sativus L. - a new approach to biological indication of ozone?; Das Antioxidant EDU und Raphanus sativus L. - neue Moeglichkeiten der Bioindikation von Ozon?

    Kostka-Rick, R; Manning, W J

    1993-12-31

    Studies on the effects of ozone on plants repeatedly suggested to use anti-oxidant agent-like ethylene diurea (EDU) as control treatment for exposure systems like open-top chambers. Radish (`Cherry Belle`) was exposed to ozone (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d) in a controlled way in green-house tests run during three different developmental stages. Some plants received pretreatment with EDU (150 mg l{sup -1}). Up to 26% of the leaf surface was injured by ozone exposure in untreated plants; EDU-treated plants and control plants grown in filtered ais showed a maximum of 2% of leaf injury. The growth of the storage organ (hypocotyl) was significantly depressed by ozone exposure (without EDU) but compensatory processes largely redressed this loss after the exposure period. EDU caused some minor leaf injury and a nonsignificant stimulation of shoot growth. (orig.) [Deutsch] In O{sub 3}-Wirkungsuntersuchungen mit Pflanzen wurde wiederholt der Einsatz antioxidanter Wirkstoffe wie Ethylendiurea (EDU) als Kontrollbehandlung alternativ zu Expositionssystemen wie z.B. Open-Top-Kammern vorgeschlagen. Waehrend drei verschiedener Entwicklungsstadien wurden Radies (Sorte `Cherry Belle`) in einem Gewaechshausversuch kontrolliert mit O{sub 3} belastet (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d), nachdem ein Teil der Pflanzen mit EDU behandelt worden war (150 mg l{sup -1}). Bei unbehandelten Pflanzen wurden bis zu 26% der Blattflaeche durch die O{sub 3}-Exposition geschaedigt; EDU-behandelte Pflanzen und Kontrollpflanzen in gefilterter Luft zeigten maximal 2% Blattschaedigung. Das Wachstum des Speicherorgans (Hypokotyl) war durch die O{sub 3}-Belastung (ohne EDU) signifikant vermindert, kompensatorische Prozesse glichen diesen Verlust nach der Belastungsphase jedoch weitgehend aus. EDU selbst loeste leichte Blattschaedigungen aus und bewirkte eine nicht-signifikante Stimulation des Sprosswachstums. (orig.)

  16. The antioxidant EDU and Raphanus sativus L. - a new approach to biological indication of ozone?; Das Antioxidant EDU und Raphanus sativus L. - neue Moeglichkeiten der Bioindikation von Ozon?

    Kostka-Rick, R.; Manning, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    Studies on the effects of ozone on plants repeatedly suggested to use anti-oxidant agent-like ethylene diurea (EDU) as control treatment for exposure systems like open-top chambers. Radish (`Cherry Belle`) was exposed to ozone (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d) in a controlled way in green-house tests run during three different developmental stages. Some plants received pretreatment with EDU (150 mg l{sup -1}). Up to 26% of the leaf surface was injured by ozone exposure in untreated plants; EDU-treated plants and control plants grown in filtered ais showed a maximum of 2% of leaf injury. The growth of the storage organ (hypocotyl) was significantly depressed by ozone exposure (without EDU) but compensatory processes largely redressed this loss after the exposure period. EDU caused some minor leaf injury and a nonsignificant stimulation of shoot growth. (orig.) [Deutsch] In O{sub 3}-Wirkungsuntersuchungen mit Pflanzen wurde wiederholt der Einsatz antioxidanter Wirkstoffe wie Ethylendiurea (EDU) als Kontrollbehandlung alternativ zu Expositionssystemen wie z.B. Open-Top-Kammern vorgeschlagen. Waehrend drei verschiedener Entwicklungsstadien wurden Radies (Sorte `Cherry Belle`) in einem Gewaechshausversuch kontrolliert mit O{sub 3} belastet (135-225 {mu}g m{sup -3}, 7.5 h d{sup -1}, 7 d), nachdem ein Teil der Pflanzen mit EDU behandelt worden war (150 mg l{sup -1}). Bei unbehandelten Pflanzen wurden bis zu 26% der Blattflaeche durch die O{sub 3}-Exposition geschaedigt; EDU-behandelte Pflanzen und Kontrollpflanzen in gefilterter Luft zeigten maximal 2% Blattschaedigung. Das Wachstum des Speicherorgans (Hypokotyl) war durch die O{sub 3}-Belastung (ohne EDU) signifikant vermindert, kompensatorische Prozesse glichen diesen Verlust nach der Belastungsphase jedoch weitgehend aus. EDU selbst loeste leichte Blattschaedigungen aus und bewirkte eine nicht-signifikante Stimulation des Sprosswachstums. (orig.)

  17. Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human-Biomonitoring am Beispiel einer Schwermetallaltlast

    Elison, M; Schulte-Hostede, S [GSF-Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Modellen zur Expositionsabschaetzung ist man nach den oben dargestellten Vorgehensweisen in der Lage, eine orientierende Bewertung des von einer kontaminierten Flaeche ausgehenden Risikos vorzunehmen. Dabei ist jedoch zu beruecksichtigen, dass solche Modelle mit erheblichen Schwachstellen belastet sind. Zur Ergaenzung und Interpretationshilfe sind bei Untersuchungen wie der hier vorgestellten auch Untersuchungen an den betroffenen Buergen vorzunehmen. Dieses Human-Biomonitoring hat nur dort einen Sinn, wo sichergestellt ist, dass die Menschen dort tatsaechlich auf belasteten Flaechen leben und damit eine erhoehte Belastung der Menschen anzunehmen ist. Das Human-Biomonitoring soll eine Abschaetzung der inneren Belastung des Menschen mit Schadstoffen, die von der kontaminierten Flaeche herruehren, ermoeglichen. (orig./SR)

  18. Interaktive Visualisierung von Abständen und Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen für die Interventionsplanung

    Rössling, Ivo; Cyrus, Christian; Dornheim, Lars; Hahn, Peter; Preim, Bernhard; Boehm, Andreas

    Im Rahmen der Interventionsplanung muss der Chirurg therapierelevante Entscheidungen auf Basis räumlicher Relationen anatomischer Strukturen treffen. Interaktive 3D-Visualisierungen unterstützen diesen Prozess qualitativ. Quantitative Fragestellungen (Tumorausdehnung, Infiltrationstiefe, etc.) erfordern die Integration einer Bemaßung, deren Nutzen wesentlich von einer geeigneten Darstellung abhängt. In dieser Arbeit haben wir allgemeine Kriterien für die Eignung von Visualisierungen von Bemaßungen in interaktiven 3D-Szenen erarbeitet. Daran orientierend haben wir verschiedene Varianten der Darstellung von Abständen und Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen betrachtet und ihr Erscheinungsbild hierzu zweckmäßig parametrisiert. Die Ausprägungen dieser Darstellungsparameter wurden in einer Studie auf ihre visuellen Wirkung hin an Chirurgen evaluiert. Es zeigte sich, dass die befragten Mediziner höchsten Wert auf Kohärenz und klare Zuordnung der Bemaßung setzten und überraschenderweise dafür sogar Abstriche in der direkten Lesbarkeit in Kauf nahmen.

  19. Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human-Biomonitoring am Beispiel einer Schwermetallaltlast

    Elison, M.; Schulte-Hostede, S. [GSF-Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Modellen zur Expositionsabschaetzung ist man nach den oben dargestellten Vorgehensweisen in der Lage, eine orientierende Bewertung des von einer kontaminierten Flaeche ausgehenden Risikos vorzunehmen. Dabei ist jedoch zu beruecksichtigen, dass solche Modelle mit erheblichen Schwachstellen belastet sind. Zur Ergaenzung und Interpretationshilfe sind bei Untersuchungen wie der hier vorgestellten auch Untersuchungen an den betroffenen Buergen vorzunehmen. Dieses Human-Biomonitoring hat nur dort einen Sinn, wo sichergestellt ist, dass die Menschen dort tatsaechlich auf belasteten Flaechen leben und damit eine erhoehte Belastung der Menschen anzunehmen ist. Das Human-Biomonitoring soll eine Abschaetzung der inneren Belastung des Menschen mit Schadstoffen, die von der kontaminierten Flaeche herruehren, ermoeglichen. (orig./SR)

  20. Silage seepage and water protection. Production and recovery of silage seepage from animal feed and biomass for biogas plants. 7. ed.; Silagesickersaft und Gewaesserschutz. Anfall und Verwertung von Silagesickersaft aus Futtermitteln und Biomasse fuer Biogasanlagen

    Spiekers, Hubert [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Attenberger, Erwin [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The production of silage is now standard and an important basis for a successful milk and beef production. Silage is also needed in agricultural biogas plants as a substrate for energy production. This publication is intended to serve agriculture as a source of information and guidance document for the construction and operation of silos and the administration as an orientating work aid. The factors influencing the accumulation of silage seepage and the possibilities of prevention in silage and silage management are presented and evaluated from environmental and legal perspective. [German] Die Produktion von Silage ist heute Standard und eine wichtige Grundlage fuer eine erfolgreiche Milch- und Rindfleischerzeugung. Silage wird auch in landwirtschaftlichen Biogasanlagen als Substrat zur Energieerzeugung benoetigt. Die vorliegende Publikation soll der Landwirtschaft als Informationsquelle und Handlungsanleitung fuer den Bau und Betrieb von Siloanlagen und der Verwaltung als orientierende Arbeitshilfe dienen. Die Einflussgroessen auf den Anfall an Sickersaeften und die Moeglichkeiten der Vermeidung bei der Silierung und dem Silagemanagement werden dargestellt und aus umwelt- und rechtlicher Sicht bewertet.

  1. From early stress to 12-month development in very preterm infants: Preliminary findings on epigenetic mechanisms and brain growth.

    Fumagalli, Monica; Provenzi, Livio; De Carli, Pietro; Dessimone, Francesca; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Giorda, Roberto; Cinnante, Claudia; Squarcina, Letizia; Pozzoli, Uberto; Triulzi, Fabio; Brambilla, Paolo; Borgatti, Renato; Mosca, Fabio; Montirosso, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are at risk for altered brain growth and less-than-optimal socio-emotional development. Recent research suggests that early NICU-related stress contributes to socio-emotional impairments in VPT infants at 3 months through epigenetic regulation (i.e., DNA methylation) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). In the present longitudinal study we assessed: (a) the effects of NICU-related stress and SLC6A4 methylation variations from birth to discharge on brain development at term equivalent age (TEA); (b) the association between brain volume at TEA and socio-emotional development (i.e., Personal-Social scale of Griffith Mental Development Scales, GMDS) at 12 months corrected age (CA). Twenty-four infants had complete data at 12-month-age. SLC6A4 methylation was measured at a specific CpG previously associated with NICU-related stress and socio-emotional stress. Findings confirmed that higher NICU-related stress associated with greater increase of SLC6A4 methylation at NICU discharge. Moreover, higher SLC6A4 discharge methylation was associated with reduced anterior temporal lobe (ATL) volume at TEA, which in turn was significantly associated with less-than-optimal GMDS Personal-Social scale score at 12 months CA. The reduced ATL volume at TEA mediated the pathway linking stress-related increase in SLC6A4 methylation at NICU discharge and socio-emotional development at 12 months CA. These findings suggest that early adversity-related epigenetic changes might contribute to the long-lasting programming of socio-emotional development in VPT infants through epigenetic regulation and structural modifications of the developing brain.

  2. Arterial Stiffness Is Associated with Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy in Diabetes Patients in Ghana

    Kwame Yeboah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN is among microvascular complications of diabetes that make patients prone to ulceration and amputation. Arterial stiffness is a predictor of cardiovascular diseases and microvascular complications associated with diabetes. We investigated the association between PSN and arterial stiffness, measured as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI. Method. In a case-control design, arterial stiffness was measured in 240 diabetes patients and 110 nondiabetic control. Large-fibre nerve function was assessed by vibration perception threshold (VPT using a neurothesiometer. PSN was defined as the VPT > 97.5th percentile from age- and gender-adjusted models in nondiabetic controls. Results. The overall prevalence of PSN was 16.6% in the entire study participants. Compared to non-PSN participants, PSN patients had higher levels of PWVao (9.5 ± 1.7 versus 8.7 ± 1.2 m/s, p=0.016 and CAVI (8.4 ± 1.3 versus 7.6 ± 1.1, p=0.001. In multiple regression models, VPT was associated with PWVao (β=0.14, p=0.025 and CAVI (β=0.12, p=0.04. PSN patients had increased odds of CAVI (OR = 1.51 (1.02–2.4, p=0.043, but not PWVao (OR = 1.25 (0.91–1.71, p=0.173. Conclusion. PWVao and CAVI were associated with VPT and PSN in diabetes patients in Ghana. Patients having PSN have increased odds of CAVI, independent of other conventional risk factors.

  3. Spectra-structure correlations in NIR region: Spectroscopic and anharmonic DFT study of n-hexanol, cyclohexanol and phenol

    Beć, Krzysztof B.; Grabska, Justyna; Czarnecki, Mirosław A.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated near-infrared (7500-4000 cm-1) spectra of n-hexanol, cyclohexanol and phenol in CCl4 (0.2 M) by using anharmonic quantum calculations. These molecules represent three major kinds of alcohols; linear and cyclic aliphatic, and aromatic ones. Vibrational second-order perturbation theory (VPT2) was employed to calculate the first overtones and binary combination modes and to reproduce the experimental NIR spectra. The level of conformational flexibility of these three alcohols varies from one stable conformer of phenol through four conformers of cyclohexanol to few hundreds conformers in the case of n-hexanol. To take into account the most relevant conformational population of n-hexanol, a systematic conformational search was performed. Accurate reproduction of the experimental NIR spectra was achieved and detailed spectra-structure correlations were obtained for these three alcohols. VPT2 approach provides less reliable description of highly anharmonic modes, i.e. OH stretching. In the present work this limitation was manifested in erroneous results yielded by VPT2 for 2νOH mode of cyclohexanol. To study the anharmonicity of this mode we solved the corresponding time-independent Schrödinger equation based on a dense-grid probing of the relevant vibrational potential. These results allowed for significant improvement of the agreement between the calculated and experimental 2νOH band of cyclohexanol. Various important biomolecules include similar structural units to the systems investigated here. A detailed knowledge on spectral properties of these three types of alcohols is therefore essential for advancing our understanding of NIR spectroscopy of biomolecules.

  4. Brain injury and altered brain growth in preterm infants: predictors and prognosis.

    Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W; Woodward, Lianne J; Neil, Jeffrey J; Inder, Terrie E

    2014-08-01

    To define the nature and frequency of brain injury and brain growth impairment in very preterm (VPT) infants by using MRI at term-equivalent age and to relate these findings to perinatal risk factors and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes. MRI scans at term-equivalent age from 3 VPT cohorts (n = 325) were reviewed. The severity of brain injury, including periventricular leukomalacia and intraventricular and cerebellar hemorrhage, was graded. Brain growth was assessed by using measures of biparietal width (BPW) and interhemispheric distance. Neurodevelopmental outcome at age 2 years was assessed across all cohorts (n = 297) by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II) or Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III), and evaluation for cerebral palsy. Of 325 infants, 107 (33%) had some grade of brain injury and 33 (10%) had severe injury. Severe brain injury was more common in infants with lower Apgar scores, necrotizing enterocolitis, inotropic support, and patent ductus arteriosus. Severe brain injury was associated with delayed cognitive and motor development and cerebral palsy. Decreased BPW was related to lower gestational age, inotropic support, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, prolonged parenteral nutrition, and oxygen at 36 weeks and was associated with delayed cognitive development. In contrast, increased interhemispheric distance was related to male gender, dexamethasone use, and severe brain injury. It was also associated with reduced cognitive development, independent of BPW. At term-equivalent age, VPT infants showed both brain injury and impaired brain growth on MRI. Severe brain injury and impaired brain growth patterns were independently associated with perinatal risk factors and delayed cognitive development. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. The performance of prototype vacuum phototriodes in the first full sized supercrystal array for the CMS ECAL endcaps

    Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Britton, D; Davies, G; Mcleod, E; Seez, C [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Bell, K W; Brown, R M; Imrie, D C; Lintern, A; Lodge, A; Smith, B; Sproston, M [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Brooke, J [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bourotte, J [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Camanzi, B [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Cockerill, D J.A. . [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Devitsin, E [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ergun, G [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Gninenko, S [INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Golubev, N [INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goussev, Y [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Haguenauer, M [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Head, R [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Heath, H [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Hobson, P R [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Inyakin, A [INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Katchanov, V [INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kirsanov, M [INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nash, S [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Newbold, D [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Ukhanov, M [Protvino, Moscow (Russian Federation); Postoev, V [Protvino, Moscow (Russian Federation); Patalakha, D [Protvino, Moscow (Russian Federation); Presland, A [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Probert, M [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Semeniouk, I [INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Seliverstov, D [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Tapper, R [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tchuiko, B [Protvino, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-10-21

    The performance of prototype vacuum phototriodes is presented from the first full sized supercrystal array for the CMS ECAL endcaps. The array was exposed to high-energy electrons and tested in magnetic fields of up to 3 T, in the CERN North area, in July and August 1999. The mean VPT electron yield, normalised to a naked crystal light yield of 8 photoelectrons/MeV into an HPMT, was found to be 25 electrons/MeV at 3 T for devices from Research Institute Electron, 35 electrons/MeV for devices from Hamamatsu and 18/23 electrons/MeV from Electron Tubes.

  6. PREMM: preterm early massage by the mother: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of massage therapy in very preterm infants.

    Lai, Melissa M; D'Acunto, Giulia; Guzzetta, Andrea; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen E; Fripp, Jurgen; Finnigan, Simon; Ngenda, Naoni; Love, Penny; Whittingham, Koa; Pannek, Kerstin; Ware, Robert S; Colditz, Paul B

    2016-08-27

    Preterm infants follow an altered neurodevelopmental trajectory compared to their term born peers as a result of the influence of early birth, and the altered environment. Infant massage in the preterm infant has shown positive effects on weight gain and reduced length of hospital stay. There is however, limited current evidence of improved neurodevelopment or improved attachment, maternal mood or anxiety. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of infant massage performed by the mother in very preterm (VPT) infants. Effects on the infant will be assessed at the electrophysiological, neuroradiological and clinical levels.  Effects on maternal mood, anxiety and mother-infant attachment will also be measured. A randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect of massage therapy in VPT infants. Sixty VPT infants, born at 28 to 32 weeks and 6 days gestational age, who are stable, off supplemental oxygen therapy and have normal cranial ultrasounds will be recruited and randomised to an intervention (infant massage) group or a control (standard care) group. Ten healthy term born infants will be recruited as a reference comparison group. The intervention group will receive standardised massage therapy administered by the mother from recruitment, until term equivalent age (TEA). The control group will receive care as usual (CAU). Infants and their mothers will be assessed at baseline, TEA, 12 months and 24 months corrected age (CA), with a battery of clinical, neuroimaging and electrophysiological measures, as well as structured questionnaires, psychoanalytic observations and neurodevelopmental assessments. Optimising preterm infant neurodevelopment is a key aim of neonatal research, which could substantially improve long-term outcomes and reduce the socio-economic impact of VPT birth. This study has the potential to give insights into the mother-baby relationship and any positive effects of infant massage on neurodevelopment. An early intervention

  7. Incidental findings in chest X-rays; Zufallsbefunde im Roentgenthorax

    Wielpuetz, M.O.; Kauczor, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Deutsches Zentrum fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Weckbach, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Deutsches Zentrum fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Conventional projection radiography (chest x-ray) is one of the most frequently requested procedures in radiology. Even though chest x-ray imaging is frequently performed in asymptomatic patients for preoperative assessment, clinically relevant incidental findings are relatively scarce. This is due to the relatively low sensitivity of chest x-rays where few clinically relevant incidental findings are to be expected, as any detectable pathologies will as a rule already be clinically symptomatic. Recommendations from relevant societies for the management of incidental findings, apart from the clarification of incidental nodules, do not exist. This review article therefore describes the most frequent and typical incidental findings of lung parenchyma (apart from pulmonary nodules), mediastinal structures including the hilum of the lungs, pleura, chest wall and major vessels. Also described are those findings which can be diagnosed with sufficient certainty from chest x-rays so that further clarification is not necessary and those which must be further clarified by multislice imaging procedures or other techniques. (orig.) [German] Eine der haeufigsten Untersuchungen in der Radiologie ist die konventionelle Projektionsradiographie des Thorax (Roentgenthorax). Auch wenn projektionsradiographische Aufnahmen im Rahmen einer praeoperativen Abklaerung haeufig als orientierende Untersuchung angefertigt werden, sind - bedingt durch die relativ geringe Sensitivitaet des Roentgenthorax - wenig klinisch relevante Zufallsbefunde zu erwarten, da nachweisbare Pathologien in der Regel bereits auch klinisch apparent sind. Empfehlungen entsprechender Fachgesellschaften zu Zufallsbefunden im Roentgenthorax jenseits der Abklaerung von Rundherden liegen nicht vor. Die vorliegende Arbeit beleuchtet daher haeufige und typische Zufallsbefunde des Lungenparenchyms (ausser den Lungenrundherden), der mediastinalen Strukturen einschliesslich der Hili, der Pleura, der Thoraxwand sowie der

  8. The child with an acute limp; Das hinkende Kind. Radiologische Differenzialdiagnostik der akuten Gangstoerung des Kinder- und Jugendalters

    Stadler, A.; Puig, S.; Eisenhuber, E.; Rand, T. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2002-03-01

    Limping is a common and often challenging problem in children and adolescents. A limp is defined as asymetric deviation from a normal gait pattern. A systematic approach is necessary to determine the cause of the limp, so the radiologist should combine a thorough history, clinical information and pertinent radiologic testing. The possible differential diagnosis is extensive and includes many pathologies of the lower extremity and spine like trauma, infection, neoplasia, furthermore inflammatory, developmental and congenital disorders. In cases with knee or tight pain, an underlying hip condition should be considered. The childs age can narrow the possible differential diagnoses, because certain entities are age-related. Despite this wide bandwidth of entities, potential catastrophic causes like septic arthritis and malignant disease should be excluded first. Plain radiographs are often diagnostic. The choice of further imaging modalities like ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and bone scan should be guided by the history and clinical findings. (orig.) [German] Die Abklaerung der hinkenden Gangstoerung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen ist ein haeufiges und oft komplexes diagnostisches Problem. Hinken ist definiert als eine asymmetrische Abweichung vom normalen Gangmuster. Um die Ursache des Hinkens suffizient abklaeren zu koennen, ist ein systematisches Vorgehen mit sorgfaeltiger Anamneseerhebung, orientierender klinischer Untersuchung, sowie eine adaequate Wahl der radiologischen Modalitaet durch den Radiologen notwendig. Das weite Spektrum der moeglichen Differenzialdiagnosen umfasst viele Pathologien der unteren Extremitaet wie Trauma, infektioese, neoplastische und entzuendliche Erkrankungen sowie erworbene und angeborene Stoerungen. In Faellen, in denen das Kind Knie- oder Oberschenkelbeschwerden angibt, muss zusaetzlich an eine Erkrankung der Huefte gedacht werden. Da viele Erkrankungen eine bestimmte Altersgruppe bevorzugen, kann

  9. Determination of benzene in exhaust gas from biofuels. Final report; Bestimmung von Benzol im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen. Abschlussbericht

    Dutz, M.; Buenger, J.; Gnuschke, H.; Halboth, H.; Gruedl, P.; Krahl, J.

    2001-10-01

    With the advance of environmental legislation and practices oriented towards sustainability renewable energy resources are becoming increasingly important. Use of replenishable raw materials helps preserve fossil resources. In the fuel sector the most widely used replenishable materials are rape methyl ester (RME) and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The purpose of the present project on the ''Determination of benzene in exhaust gas from biofuels'' was to generate orienting data on the potential health relevance of mixtures of fossil and renewable fuel intended for use in spark ignition and diesel engines. This included a determination of benzene emissions and the mutagenicity of particles. Beyond the applied-for scope of research measurements were also performed on the test engine's toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene emissions as well as on the smoke spot number and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of the diesel engine. [German] Regenerative Energien gewinnen durch die Umweltgesetzgebungen und das Streben nach einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Durch die Verwendung nachwachsender Rohstoffe koennen die fossilen Ressourcen geschont werden. Im Kraftstoffsektor sind hier hauptsaechlich Rapsoelmethylester (RME) und optional Ethyltertiaerbutylether (ETBE) zu nennen. Um fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren insbesondere mit Blick auf Kraftstoffgemische aus fossilen und regenerativen Komponenten orientierende Daten ueber eine potenzielle Gesundheitsrelevanz zu generieren, wurde das Projekt 'Bestimmung von Benzol im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen' durchgefuehrt. Neben der Benzolemission wurde die Mutagenitaet der Partikeln ermittelt. Ueber den beantragten Untersuchungsrahmen hinaus wurden die Tuluol-, Ethylbenzol-, und Xylolemissionen der eingesetzten Motoren, sowie die Russzahl (RZ) und die Stickoxid- (NO{sub x}) und Kohlenwasserstoffemissionen (HC) des Dieselmotors bestimmt. (orig.)

  10. Peripheral tactile sensory perception of older adults improved using subsensory electrical noise stimulation.

    Breen, Paul P; Serrador, Jorge M; O'Tuathail, Claire; Quinlan, Leo R; McIntosh, Caroline; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2016-08-01

    Loss of tactile sensory function is common with aging and can lead to numbness and difficulty with balance and gait. In previous work we found that subsensory electrical noise stimulation (SENS) applied to the tibial nerve improved tactile perception in the soles of the feet of healthy adults. In this work we aimed to determine if SENS remained effective in an older adult population with significant levels of sensory loss. Older adult subjects (N=8, female = 4, aged 65-80) had SENS applied via surface electrodes placed proximally to the medial and lateral malleoli. Vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) were assessed in six conditions, two control conditions (no SENS) and four SENS conditions (zero mean ±15µA, 30µA, 45µA and 60µA SD). VPT was assessed at three sites on the plantar aspect of the foot. Vibration perception was significantly improved in the presence of ±30µA SENS and by 16.2±2.4% (mean ± s.e.m.) when optimised for each subject. The improvement in perception was similar across all VPT test sites. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  11. Visuospatial working memory in children with autism: the effect of a semantic global organization.

    Mammarella, Irene C; Giofrè, David; Caviola, Sara; Cornoldi, Cesare; Hamilton, Colin

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) perceive visual scenes as a sparse set of details rather than as a congruent and meaningful unit, failing in the extraction of the global configuration of the scene. In the present study, children with ASD were compared with typically developing (TD) children, in a visuospatial working memory task, the Visual Patterns Test (VPT). The VPT array was manipulated to vary the semantic affordance of the pattern, high semantic (global) vs. low semantic; temporal parameters were also manipulated within the change detection protocol. Overall, there was no main effect associated with Group, however there was a significant effect associated with Semantics, which was further qualified by an interaction between the Group and Semantic factors; there was only a significant effect of semantics in the TD group. The findings are discussed in light of the weak central coherence theory where the ASD group are unable to make use of long term memory semantics in order to construct global representations of the array. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preschool self regulation predicts later mental health and educational achievement in very preterm and typically developing children.

    Woodward, Lianne J; Lu, Zhigang; Morris, Alyssa R; Healey, Dione M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the extent to which preschool emotional and behavioral regulatory difficulties were associated with an increased risk of later mental health and educational problems. Of particular interest was whether early regulatory abilities contributed to later risk once baseline child behavioral adjustment and cognitive function were taken into account. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of 223 children born very preterm (VPT; Regulation Checklist, and (3) tester ratings of child behavior during neuropsychological testing. At age 9 years, mental health and educational achievement were assessed using the Development and Well-being Assessment interview and the Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement. VPT-born children had poorer emotional and behavioral regulation across all measures and time points. They also had higher rates of DSM-IV mental health disorder and educational delay at age 9. Across both study groups, poorer self regulation was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, conduct disorder, anxiety disorders and any disorder net of preschool child behavior problems and social risk. In contrast, only associations between early regulation and later language and any educational delay remained significant after adjustment for preschool cognitive functioning and family social risk. Early assessment of regulation in addition to behavioral screening may improve the early identification of preschool children at mental health risk.

  13. A new paradigm of electrical stimulation to enhance sensory neural function.

    Breen, Paul P; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; McIntosh, Caroline; Dinneen, Sean F; Quinlan, Leo R; Serrador, Jorge M

    2014-08-01

    The ability to improve peripheral neural transmission would have significant therapeutic potential in medicine. A technology of this kind could be used to restore and/or enhance sensory function in individuals with depressed sensory function, such as older adults or patients with peripheral neuropathies. The goal of this study was to investigate if a new paradigm of subsensory electrical noise stimulation enhances somatosensory function. Vibration (50Hz) was applied with a Neurothesiometer to the plantar aspect of the foot in the presence or absence of subsensory electrical noise (1/f type). The noise was applied at a proximal site, on a defined region of the tibial nerve path above the ankle. Vibration perception thresholds (VPT) of younger adults were measured in control and experimental conditions, in the absence or presence of noise respectively. An improvement of ∼16% in VPT was found in the presence of noise. These are the first data to demonstrate that modulation of axonal transmission with externally applied electrical noise improves perception of tactile stimuli in humans. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  14. Semi-quartic force fields retrieved from multi-mode expansions: Accuracy, scaling behavior, and approximations

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-04-21

    Semi-quartic force fields (QFF) rely on a Taylor-expansion of the multi-dimensional Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface (PES) and are frequently used within the calculation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies based on 2nd order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2). As such they are usually determined by differentiation of the electronic energy with respect to the nuclear coordinates. Alternatively, potential energy surfaces can be expanded in terms of multi-mode expansions, which typically do not require any derivative techniques. The computational effort to retrieve QFF from size-reduced multi-mode expansions has been studied and has been compared with standard Taylor-expansions. As multi-mode expansions allow for the convenient introduction of subtle approximations, these will be discussed in some detail. In addition, a preliminary study about the applicability of a generalized Duschinsky transformation to QFFs is provided. This transformation allows for the efficient evaluation of VPT2 frequencies of isotopologues from the PES of the parent compound and thus avoids the recalculation of PESs in different axes systems.

  15. Screening techniques to identify people at high risk for diabetic foot ulceration: a prospective multicenter trial.

    Pham, H; Armstrong, D G; Harvey, C; Harkless, L B; Giurini, J M; Veves, A

    2000-05-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a preventable long-term complication of diabetes. A multicenter prospective follow-up study was conducted to determine which risk factors in foot screening have a high association with the development of foot ulceration. A total of 248 patients from 3 large diabetic foot centers were enrolled in a prospective study. Neuropathy symptom score, neuropathy disability score (NDS), vibration perception threshold (VPT), Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments (SWFs), joint mobility, peak plantar foot pressures, and vascular status were evaluated in all patients at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up every 6 months for a mean period of 30 months (range 6-40), and all new foot ulcers were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of each risk factor were evaluated. Foot ulcers developed in 95 feet (19%) or 73 patients (29%) during the study. Patients who developed foot ulcers were more frequently men, had diabetes for a longer duration, had nonpalpable pedal pulses, had reduced joint mobility, had a high NDS, had a high VPT, and had an inability to feel a 5.07 SWE NDS alone had the best sensitivity, whereas the combination of the NDS and the inability to feel a 5.07 SWF reached a sensitivity of 99%. On the other hand, the best specificity for a single factor was offered by foot pressures, and the best combination was that of NDS and foot pressures. Univariate logistical regression analysis yielded a statistically significant odds ratio (OR) for sex, race, duration of diabetes, palpable pulses, history of foot ulceration, high NDSs, high VPTs, high SWFs, and high foot pressures. In addition, 94 (99%) of the 95 ulcerated feet had a high NDS and/or SWF which resulted in the highest OR of 26.2 (95% CI 3.6-190). Furthermore, in multivariate logistical regression analysis, the only significant factors were high NDSs, VPTs, SWFs, and foot pressures. Clinical examination and a 5.07 SWF test are the two most sensitive

  16. Spectroscopic and Quantum Mechanical Calculation Study of the Effect of Isotopic Substitution on NIR Spectra of Methanol.

    Grabska, Justyna; Czarnecki, Mirosław A; Beć, Krzysztof B; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-10-19

    In this work, we studied methanol and its deuterated derivatives (CH 3 OH, CH 3 OD, CD 3 OH, CD 3 OD) by NIR spectroscopy and anharmonic quantum chemical calculations. Vibrational bands corresponding to up to three quanta transitions (first and second overtones, binary and ternary combination modes) were predicted by the use of the VPT2 route. The accuracy of prediction of NIR modes was evaluated through density functional theory (DFT) with selected density functionals and basis sets. On the basis of the theoretical NIR spectra, detailed band assignments for all studied molecules were proposed. It was found that the pattern of bands in NIR spectra of deuterated methanols can be used for identification of isotopically equalized forms. Calculations of NIR spectra of all possible forms of CXXXOX (X = H, D) molecules demonstrated that the isotopic contamination can be identified due to a coexistence of bands specific to OH and OD groups. Also, bands from partially deuterated methyl groups can be distinguished in NIR spectra. Since the VPT2 framework is known to be sensitive to inaccuracy in the case of highly anharmonic modes, we obtained an independent insight by numerical solving of the time-independent Schrödinger equation corresponding to the O-X stretching mode scanned within -0.4 to 2.0 Å over a dense grid of 0.005 Å. This way the energies of vibrational levels of the CX1X2X3OX4 (X = H, D) isotopomers and the corresponding transition frequencies were obtained with high accuracy (<0.1 cm -1 ). The change in normal coordinate influences the reduced mass of the oscillator and thus its frequency. Our results lead to a conclusion that the effect of deuterization of the methyl group introduces a very specific and consistent frequency shift of the first overtone of the O-X stretching mode depending on the substitution of X1, X2, or X3 positions (<2 cm -1 ). However, the pattern of this shift is not reproduced accurately and is also largely overestimated by VPT2

  17. Dysconnectivity of neurocognitive networks at rest in very-preterm born adults

    Thomas P. White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in a larger proportion of preterm-born individuals reaching adulthood. Their increased liability to psychiatric illness and impairments of cognition and behaviour intimate lasting cerebral consequences; however, the central physiological disturbances remain unclear. Of fundamental importance to efficient brain function is the coordination and contextually-relevant recruitment of neural networks. Large-scale distributed networks emerge perinatally and increase in hierarchical complexity through development. Preterm-born individuals exhibit systematic reductions in correlation strength within these networks during infancy. Here, we investigate resting-state functional connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 29 very-preterm (VPT-born adults and 23 term-born controls. Neurocognitive networks were identified with spatial independent component analysis conducted using the Infomax algorithm and employing Icasso procedures to enhance component robustness. Network spatial focus and spectral power were not generally significantly affected by preterm birth. By contrast, Granger-causality analysis of the time courses of network activity revealed widespread reductions in between-network connectivity in the preterm group, particularly along paths including salience-network features. The potential clinical relevance of these Granger-causal measurements was suggested by linear discriminant analysis of topological representations of connection strength, which classified individuals by group with a maximal accuracy of 86%. Functional connections from the striatal salience network to the posterior default mode network informed this classification most powerfully. In the VPT-born group it was additionally found that perinatal factors significantly moderated the relationship between executive function (which was reduced in the VPT-born as compared with the term-born group and generalised partial

  18. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod–TaO_x–p-GaN heterojunction

    Zhao, J L; Teo, K L; Zheng, K; Sun, X W

    2016-01-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN–sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaO_x is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO–TaO_x–p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaO_x layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction. (paper)

  19. Optical Sensor Based on a Single CdS Nanobelt

    Lei Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 104, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  20. Optical sensor based on a single CdS nanobelt.

    Li, Lei; Yang, Shuming; Han, Feng; Wang, Liangjun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Pan, Anlian

    2014-04-23

    In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT) method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL) technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 10⁴, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  1. Depression, posttraumatic stress and relationship distress in parents of very preterm infants.

    Winter, Leanne; Colditz, Paul B; Sanders, Matthew R; Boyd, Roslyn N; Pritchard, Margo; Gray, Peter H; Whittingham, Koa; Forrest, Kylee; Leeks, Rebecca; Webb, Lachlan; Marquart, Louise; Taylor, Karen; Macey, Judith

    2018-03-03

    To determine the prevalence, associated factors, and relationships between symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS), and relationship distress in mothers and fathers of very preterm (VPT) infants (relationship distress. The corresponding percentages in fathers were 16.9, 23.7, and 27%. Depression was positively associated with having previous children (p = 0.01), speaking little or no English at home (p = 0.01), financial stress (p = 0.03), and recently accessing mental health services (p = 0.003) for mothers, and financial stress (p = 0.005) and not being the primary income earner (p = 0.04) for fathers. Similar associations were found for symptoms of PTS and relationship distress. Being in higher relationship distress increased the risk of depression in both mothers (p relationship.

  2. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  3. On the superconductivity of vanadium based alloys

    Brouers, F.; Rest, J. Van der

    1984-01-01

    The electron density of states of solid solutions of vanadium based transition metal alloys V 90 X 10 is computed with the aim of calculating the superconducting transition temperature using the McMillan formula. As observed experimentally for X on the left hand side of V in the periodic table, one obtains an increase of Tc while for X on the right hand side of V the critical temperature decreases. The detailed comparison with experiments indicate that when the bandwidths of the two constituents are different, one cannot neglect the variation of the electron-phonon interactions. Another important conclusion is that for alloys which are in the split-band limit like VAu, VPd and VPt, the agreement with experimental data can be obtained only by assuming that these alloys have a short-range order favouring clusters of pure vanadium. (Author) [pt

  4. Variational calculation of the limit cycle and its frequency in a two-neuron model with delay

    Brandt, Sebastian F.; Wessel, Ralf; Pelster, Axel

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model system of two coupled Hopfield neurons, which is described by delay differential equations taking into account the finite signal propagation and processing times. When the delay exceeds a critical value, a limit cycle emerges via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. First, we calculate its frequency and trajectory perturbatively by applying the Poincare-Lindstedt method. Then, the perturbation series are resummed by means of the Shohat expansion in good agreement with numerical values. However, with increasing delay, the accuracy of the results from the Shohat expansion worsens. We thus apply variational perturbation theory (VPT) to the perturbation expansions to obtain more accurate results, which moreover hold even in the limit of large delays

  5. Computational Vibrational Spectroscopy of glycine in aqueous solution - Fundamental considerations towards feasible methodologies

    Lutz, Oliver M. D.; Messner, Christoph B.; Hofer, Thomas S.; Canaval, Lorenz R.; Bonn, Guenther K.; Huck, Christian W.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the mid-infrared spectrum of aqueous glycine is predicted by a number of computational approaches. Velocity autocorrelation functions are applied to ab initio QMCF-MD and QM/MM-MD simulations in order to obtain IR power spectra. Furthermore, continuum solvation model augmented geometry optimizations are studied by anharmonic calculations relying on the PT2-VSCF and the VPT2 formalism. In this context, the potential based EFP hydration technique is discussed and the importance of a Monte Carlo search in conjunction with PT2-VSCF calculations is critically assessed. All results are directly compared to newly recorded experimental FT-IR spectroscopic data, elucidating the qualities of the respective methodology. Moreover, the computational approaches are discussed regarding their usefulness for the interpretation of experimental spectra.

  6. Which diabetic patients should receive podiatry care? An objective analysis.

    McGill, M; Molyneaux, L; Yue, D K

    2005-08-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of lower limb amputation in Australia. However, due to limited resources, it is not feasible for everyone with diabetes to access podiatry care, and some objective guidelines of who should receive podiatry is required. A total of 250 patients with neuropathy (Biothesiometer; Biomedical Instruments, Newbury, Ohio, USA) ( > 30, age podiatry care (mean of estimates from 10 reports), the NNT to prevent one foot ulcer per year was: no neuropathy (vibration perception threshold (VPT) 30) alone, NNT = 45; +cannot feel monofilament, NNT = 18; +previous ulcer/amputation, NNT = 7. Provision of podiatry care to diabetic patients should not be only economically based, but should also be directed to those with reduced sensation, especially where there is a previous history of ulceration or amputation.

  7. Particles and quantum fields

    Kleinert, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    This is an introductory book on elementary particles and their interactions. It starts out with many-body Schrödinger theory and second quantization and leads, via its generalization, to relativistic fields of various spins and to gravity. The text begins with the best known quantum field theory so far, the quantum electrodynamics of photon and electrons (QED). It continues by developing the theory of strong interactions between the elementary constituents of matter (quarks). This is possible due to the property called asymptotic freedom. On the way one has to tackle the problem of removing various infinities by renormalization. The divergent sums of infinitely many diagrams are performed with the renormalization group or by variational perturbation theory (VPT). The latter is an outcome of the Feynman-Kleinert variational approach to path integrals discussed in two earlier books of the author, one representing a comprehensive treatise on path integrals, the other dealing with critial phenomena. Unlike ordin...

  8. Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires via Hotwire Thermal Evaporation of Brass (CuZn Assisted by Vapor Phase Transport of Methanol

    Tamil Many K. Thandavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires (NWs were synthesized using vapor phase transport (VPT and thermal evaporation of Zn from CuZn. Time dependence of ZnO NWs growth was investigated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes. Significant changes were observed from the field electron scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images as well as from the X-ray diffraction (XRD profile. The photoluminescence (PL profile was attributed to the contribution of oxygen vacancy, zinc interstitials, and hydrogen defects in the ZnO NWs. Raman scattering results show a significant peak at 143 cm−1 and possible functionalization on the wall of ZnO NWs. Growth of ZnO NWs in (0002 with an estimated distance between adjacent lattice planes 0.26 nm was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis.

  9. Vibration perception threshold in relation to postural control and fall risk assessment in elderly.

    de Mettelinge, Tine Roman; Calders, Patrick; Palmans, Tanneke; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Cambier, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates (i) the potential discriminative role of a clinical measure of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in assessing postural performance and fall risk and (ii) whether the integration of a simple screening vibration perception threshold (VPT) for PN in any physical (fall risk) assessment among elderly should be recommended, even if they do not suffer from DM. One hundred and ninety-five elderly were entered in a four-group model: DM with PN (D+; n = 75), DM without PN (D-; n = 28), non-diabetic elderly with idiopathic PN (C+; n = 31) and non-diabetic elderly without PN (C-; n = 61). Posturographic sway parameters were captured during different static balance conditions (AMTI AccuGait, Watertown, MA). VPT, fall data, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test were registered. Two-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare between groups and across balance conditions. The groups with PN demonstrated a strikingly comparable, though bigger sway, and a higher prospective fall incidence than their peers without PN. The indication of PN, irrespective of its cause, interferes with postural control and fall incidence. The integration of a simple screening for PN (like bio-thesiometry) in any fall risk assessment among elderly is highly recommended. Implications for Rehabilitation The indication of peripheral neuropathy (PN), irrespective of its cause, interferes with postural control and fall incidence. Therefore, the integration of a simple screening for PN (like bio-thesiometry) in any fall risk assessment among elderly is highly recommended. It might be useful to integrate somatosensory stimulation in rehabilitation programs designed for fall prevention.

  10. Evaluation of proxy tests for SFSN: evidence for mixed small and large fiber dysfunction.

    Hamid Ebadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy (SFSN, we aimed to determine if novel threshold values derived from standard tests of small or large fiber function could serve as diagnostic alternatives. METHODS: Seventy-four consecutive patients with painful polyneuropathy and normal nerve conduction studies (NCS were defined as SFSN cases or controls by distal IENFD <5.4 and ≥5.4 fibers/mm, respectively. Diagnostic performance of small fiber [cooling (CDT and heat perception (HP thresholds, axon reflex-mediated neurogenic vasodilatation] and large fiber function tests [vibration perception thresholds (VPT and sural nerve conduction parameters] were determined by receiver operating-characteristic (ROC curve analyses. RESULTS: The 26(35% SFSN cases had mean IENFD 3.3±1.7 fibers/mm and the 48(65% controls 9.9±2.9 fibers/mm. Male gender (p = 0.02 and older age (p = 0.02 were associated with SFSN cases compared to controls. VPT were higher and CDT lower in SFSN cases, but the largest magnitude of differences was observed for sural nerve amplitude. It had the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.75 compared to all other tests (p<0.001 for all comparisons and the optimal threshold value of ≤12 µV defined SFSN cases with 80% sensitivity and 72% specificity. CONCLUSION: In patients presenting with polyneuropathy manifestations and normal NCS, though small fiber function tests were intuitively considered the best alternative measures to predict reduced IENFD, their diagnostic performance was poor. Instead, novel threshold values within the normal range for large fiber tests should be considered as an alternative strategy to select subjects for skin biopsy in diagnostic protocols for SFSN.

  11. Evaluation of diabetic polyneuropathy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus by nerve conduction study and association of severity of neuropathy with serum sFasL level

    Avijit Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM, a growing health problem globally, has reached epidemic proportions in India. Recently, Fas-mediated apoptosis has been proposed as a causative factor responsible for neuronal degeneration in diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, but there are very few studies to show association of serum soluble Fas ligand (sFasL level with severity of neuropathy. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum sFasL, a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in apoptosis, has any association with severity of peripheral neuropathy in Type 2 DM. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Physiology in collaboration with Department of Endocrinology, IPGME&R. sFasL levels in serum were assessed using ELISA method in healthy individuals (n = 16, newly diagnosed diabetic controls (n = 16 without any complications, and in DPN cases (n = 33 with predominant neuropathy only. All subjects underwent both electrodiagnostic procedures and vibration perception threshold (VPT for quantitative assessment of the severity of neuropathy. Using nerve conduction studies, amplitudes, velocities, and latencies of both sensory and motor nerves were recorded. Results: In DPN patients, concentration of sFasL levels (87.53 ± 3.49 was significantly decreased (P < 0.0001 not only when compared with normal controls (225.30 ± 2.97 but also when compared with diabetic patients without any complication (161 ± 3.63. Moreover, the concentration of sFasL is significantly (P < 0.0001 associated with the severity of neuropathy both by VPT and nerve conduction velocity (NCV. Conclusion: Fas-mediated apoptosis is involved in Type 2 DM and might be associated with the severity of polyneuropathy.

  12. Furosemide urogram in patients with neobladder; Das Diureseurogramm bei Patienten mit Harnblasenersatz

    Merkle, E.M. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Aschoff, A.J. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Bachor, R. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abt. fuer Urologie; Vogel, J. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Merk, J. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Brambs, H.J. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    1996-11-01

    Spaetaufnahmen nach 15 und gegebenenfalls 30 min angefertigt. Als Zeichen der Obstruktion wurden eine zunehmende Erweiterung des NBKS nach forcierter Diurese und ein fehlender Auswascheffekt des Kontrastmittels gewertet. Ergebnisse: 32 renoureterale Einheiten (RUE) waren sonographisch erweitert; hiervon zeigten 25 RUEs nach stimulierter Diurese einen guten Kontrastmittelabfluss, 6 RUEs einen grenzwertigen Befund und eine RUE eine dekompensierte Anastomosenenge, welche dilatiert wurde. Zwei weitere Patienten mit grenzwertigem Befund wurden aufgrund ihrer Schmerzsymptomatik operiert. Bei keinem Patienten war eine weitere praeoperative Diagnostik notwendig. Schlussfolgerung: Das modifizierte Diureseurogramm stellt bei Patienten mit Harnblasenersatz und erweitertem NBKS eine kostenguenstige, diagnostisch-orientierende Strategie dar, die sowohl vom Patienten als auch vom urologischen Partner in hohem Masse akzeptiert wird. (orig.)

  13. Initial diagnosis of therapeutically relevant thoracic lesions in polytraumatised patients; Zur Akutdiagnostik therapierelevanter Thoraxverletzungen bei schwer- und polytraumatisierten Patienten

    Danz, B. [Radiologische Abt., Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany); Biehl, C. [Radiologische Abt., Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany); Baehren, W. [Radiologische Abt., Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    To determine the value of supine chest radiography in comparison to orientating chest CT in the initial diagnostic evaluation of severely polytraumatised patients. 303 patients with primary indication for a cranial CT following trauma were investigated between 1988 and 1993. After performing the cranial CT all patients underwent a chest CT with an average of 6 CT slices without changing the position of the patient and with a median scan time of 4 minutes. The results of the chest CT were correlated with the findings of the supine chest radiography in regard to therapeutically relevant pathological changes. The sensitivity in detection of pneumothorax in supine chest radiography was 53% versus 97% in CT, atelectasis 20% versus 94%, lung contusion 79% versus 99%, haemotothorax 62% versus 97%. More fractures were found conventionally (sensitivity 94%) than by chest CT (sensitivity 44%). Supine chest radiography of polytraumatised patients is clearly inferior to orientating chest CT in demonstrating posttraumatic lesions; obtaining therapeutically relevant information justifies the additionally needed small amount of time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Ziel dieser retrospektiven Untersuchung bestand darin, die Wertigkeit der a.p. Thoraxaufnahme im Liegen im Vergleich zur orientierenden Computertomographie der Thoraxorgane im Rahmen der Akutdiagnostik bei schwer- und polytraumatisierten Patienten zu analysieren. Im Zeitraum von 1988 bis 1993 bestand bei 303 Patienten wegen eines Schaedel-Hirn-Traumas die primaere Indikation zu einem CCT. Im Anschluss an das CCT wurde routinemaessig ein orientierendes CT der Thoraxorgane mit im Durchschnitt 6 Schichten ohne Umlagerung und einem medianen Zeitaufwand von 4 Minuten durchgefuehrt. Die Befunde des CT des Thorax wurden mit den Ergebnissen der durchgefuehrten a.p. Thoraxliegendaufnahmen im Hinblick auf die Erfassung therapierelevanter pathologischer Veraenderungen verglichen. Die Sensitivitaet fuer die Erkennung eines Pneumothorax in

  14. Role of neuropathy and high foot pressures in diabetic foot ulceration.

    Frykberg, R G; Lavery, L A; Pham, H; Harvey, C; Harkless, L; Veves, A

    1998-10-01

    High plantar foot pressures in association with peripheral neuropathy have been ascertained to be important risk factors for ulceration in the diabetic foot. Most studies investigating these parameters have been limited by their size and the homogeneity of study subjects. The objective of this study was therefore to ascertain the risk of ulceration associated with high foot pressures and peripheral neuropathy in a large and diverse diabetic population. We studied a cross-sectional group of 251 diabetic patients of Caucasian (group C) (n=121), black (group B) (n=36), and Hispanic (group H) (n=94) racial origins with an overall age of 58.5+/-12.5 years (range 20-83). There was an equal distribution of men and women across the entire study population. All patients underwent a complete medical history and lower extremity evaluation for neuropathy and foot pressures. Neuropathic parameters were dichotomized (0/1) into two high-risk variables: patients with a vibration perception threshold (VPT) > or =25 V were categorized as HiVPT (n=132) and those with Semmes-Weinstein monofilament tests > or =5.07 were classified as HiSWF (n=190). The mean dynamic foot pressures of three footsteps were measured using the F-scan mat system with patients walking without shoes. Maximum plantar pressures were dichotomized into a high-pressure variable (Pmax6) indicating those subjects with pressures > or =6 kg/cm2 (n=96). A total of 99 patients had a current or prior history of ulceration at baseline. Joint mobility was significantly greater in the Hispanic cohort compared with the other groups at the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint (C 67+/-23 degrees, B 69+/-23 degrees, H 82+/-23 degrees, P=0.000), while the subtalar joint mobility was reduced in the Caucasian group (C 21+/-8 degrees, B 26+/-7 degrees, H 27+/-11 degrees, P=0.000). Maximum plantar foot pressures were significantly higher in the Caucasian group (C 6.7+/-2.9 kg/cm2, B 5.7+/-2.8 kg/cm2, H 4.4+/-1.9 kg/cm2, P=0

  15. Interactive Sensor-Based Balance Training in Older Cancer Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Schwenk, Michael; Grewal, Gurtej S; Holloway, Dustin; Muchna, Amy; Garland, Linda; Najafi, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) have deficits in sensory and motor skills leading to inappropriate proprioceptive feedback, impaired postural control, and fall risk. Balance training programs specifically developed for CIPN patients are lacking. This pilot study investigated the effect of an interactive motor adaptation balance training program based on wearable sensors for improving balance in older cancer patients with CIPN. Twenty-two patients (age: 70.3 ± 8.7 years) with objectively confirmed CIPN [vibration perception threshold (VPT) >25 V] were randomized to either an intervention (IG) or a control (CG) group. The IG received interactive game-based balance training including repetitive weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing tasks. Wearable sensors provided real-time visual/auditory feedback from the lower limb trajectory and allowed the perception of motor errors during each motor action. The CG received no exercise intervention and continued their normal activity. Outcome measures were changes in sway of ankle, hip, and center of mass (CoM) in both mediolateral and anteroposterior (AP) directions during 30-second balance tests with increasing task difficulty [i.e. standing in feet-closed position with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), and in semi-tandem position with EO] at baseline and after the intervention. Additionally, gait performance (speed, variability) and fear of falling [Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I)] were measured. Training was safe despite the participants' impaired health status, great severity of CIPN (VPT 49.6 ± 26.7 V), and great fear of falling (FES-I score 31.37 ± 11.20). After the intervention, sway of hip, ankle, and CoM was significantly reduced in the IG compared to the CG while standing in feet-closed position with EO (p = 0.010-0.022, except AP CoM sway) and in semi-tandem position (p = 0.008-0.035, except ankle sway). No significant effects were found for balance with

  16. Association between a MIR499A polymorphism and diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes.

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Latini, Andrea; Greco, Carla; Politi, Cristina; D'Amato, Cinzia; Lauro, Davide; Novelli, Giuseppe; Borgiani, Paola; Spallone, Vincenza

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) affect a large percentage of diabetic people and impact severely on quality of life. As it seems that miRNAs and their variations might play a role in these complications, we investigated whether the rs3746444 SNP in the MIR499A gene could be associated with susceptibility to DPN and/or CAN. We analyzed 150 participants with type 2 diabetes. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and genotyping was performed by TaqMan genotyping assay. Cardiovascular tests, MNSI-Q and MDNS for neuropathic symptoms and signs, VPT, and thermal thresholds were used for CAN and DPN assessment. We performed a genotype-phenotype correlation analysis. We observed that the GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of developing CAN (P=0.002 and OR=16.08, P=0.0005 and OR=35.02, for early and confirmed CAN, respectively) and DPN (P=0.037 and OR=6.56), after correction for BMI, sex, age, HbA1c and disease duration. Moreover, the GG genotype was associated with worse values of MDNS (P=0.017), VPT (P=0.01), thermal thresholds (P=0.01), and CAN score (P<0.001). A logistic multivariate analysis confirmed that MIR499A GG genotype, disease duration and HbA1c contributed to early CAN (R 2 =0.26), while the same variables and age contributed to DPN (R 2 =0.21). With a multiple linear regression, we observed that GG genotype (P=0.001) and disease duration (P=0.035) were the main variables contributing to the CAN score (R 2 =0.35). We described for the first time that the MIR499A genetic variation could be involved in diabetic neuropathies susceptibility. In particular, patients carrying the rs3746444 GG genotype had a higher risk of CAN development, together with a more severe form of CAN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Structural and biological evaluation of some metal complexes of vanillin-4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2013-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and U(VI)O2 complexes of vanillin-4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H2PVT) are reported. Theoretical calculations have been performed to obtain IR spectra of ligand and its complexes using AM1, Zindo/1, MM+ and PM3, methods. The Schiff base and its metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. H2VPT shows no apparent digestion effect on the egg albumin while Mn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibited a considerable digestion effect following the order Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Hg(II). Moreover, Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes revealed strong digestion effect. Fe(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) acted as metal co- SOD enzyme factors, which are located in different compartments of the cell.

  18. Structures and Spectroscopic Properties of F-(H2O) n with n = 1-10 Clusters from a Global Search Based On Density Functional Theory.

    Shi, Ruili; Wang, Pengju; Tang, Lingli; Huang, Xiaoming; Chen, Yonggang; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-04-05

    Using a genetic algorithm incorporated in density functional theory, we explore the ground state structures of fluoride anion-water clusters F - (H 2 O) n with n = 1-10. The F - (H 2 O) n clusters prefer structures in which the F - anion remains at the surface of the structure and coordinates with four water molecules, as the F - (H 2 O) n clusters have strong F - -H 2 O interactions as well as strong hydrogen bonds between H 2 O molecules. The strong interaction between the F - anion and adjacent H 2 O molecule leads to a longer O-H distance in the adjacent molecule than in an individual water molecule. The simulated infrared (IR) spectra of the F - (H 2 O) 1-5 clusters obtained via second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) and including anharmonic effects reproduce the experimental results quite well. The strong interaction between the F - anion and water molecules results in a large redshift (600-2300 cm -1 ) of the adjacent O-H stretching mode. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the lowest-energy structures of the F - (H 2 O) 1-10 clusters illustrates that charge transfer from the lone pair electron orbital of F - to the antibonding orbital of the adjacent O-H is mainly responsible for the strong interaction between the F - anion and water molecules, which leads to distinctly different geometric and vibrational properties compared with neutral water clusters.

  19. The role of volition in distance education: An exploration of its capacities

    Markus Deimann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, volition, defined as the ability to stay task-focused and ward off distractions, has become of special relevance for educational research and practice. It describes how decreased motivation or negative emotions can be dealt with by applying action control strategies. However, despite its potential, an important area of education has neglected volitional considerations: distance education (DE. This seems paradoxical because by its very nature distance education requires a great deal of persistence and effort that is volitional. Consequently, the present paper introduces a conceptual framework built on volitional theories; it aims to augment traditional perspectives and to analyse major challenges to DE, such as dropout rates.The paper reports results from a longitudinal study (September 2007-July 2009 that was conducted to determine the factorial structure of the Volitional Persona Test (VPT, an online instrument to assess volitional competence, and to obtain detailed information on students’ volitional competence at a large DE university and at numerous traditional universities in German-speaking countries. It was demonstrated that the construct of volition can be subdivided into distinct factors, volitional self-efficacy, consequence control, emotion control, and meta-cognition, which may enable the development of support systems that are tailored to learners’ individual needs. Implications for future research are discussed.

  20. Infrared Spectra of the n-PROPYL and i-PROPYL Radicals in Solid Para-Hydrogen

    Pullen, Gregory T.; Franke, Peter R.; Douberly, Gary E.; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2017-06-01

    We report the infrared spectra of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals measured in solid para-hydrogen (p-H_2) matrices at 3.2 K. n-Propyl and i-propyl radicals were produced via the 248 nm irradiation of matrices formed by co-depositing p-H_2 and either 1-Iodopropane (n-propyl) or 2-Iodopropane (i-propyl). Secondary photolysis was used to group spectral lines all due to the same species. Lines in the C-H stretching region were compared to previous work using the Helium Nanodroplet Isolation (HENDI) technique, and are in excellent agreement. In addition to a few lines previously measured in Ar matrices, we observe many previously unreported bands below 2000 \\wn, which we attribute to the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals. The assignment of features below 2000 \\wn are made via comparisons to anharmonic VPT2+K frequency computations. Peter R. Franke, Daniel P. Tabor, Christopher P. Moradi, Gary E. Douberly, Jay Agarwal, Henry F. Schaefer III, and Edwin L. Sibert III, Journal of Chemical Physics 145, 224304 (2016).

  1. Determination of S_1_7 from systematic analyses on "8B Coulomb breakup with the Eikonal-CDCC method

    Ogata, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Yamashita, N.; Kamimura, M.; Yahiro, M.; Iseri, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Systematic analysis of "8B Coulomb dissociation with the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient (ANC) method is proposed to determine the astrophysical factor S_1_7(0) accurately. An important advantage of the analysis is that uncertainties of the extracted S_1_7(0) coming from the use of the ANC method can quantitatively be evaluated, in contrast to previous analyses using the Virtual Photon Theory (VPT). Calculation of measured spectra in dissociation experiments is done by means of the method of Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels (CDCC). From the analysis of "5"8Ni("8B,"7Be+p) "5"8Ni at 25.8 MeV, S_1_7(0) = 22.83 ± 0.51(theo) ± 2.28(expt) (eVb) is obtained; the ANC method turned out to work in this case within 1% of error. Preceding systematic analysis of experimental data at intermediate energies, we propose hybrid (HY) Coupled-Channels (CC) calculation of "8B Coulomb dissociation, which makes numerical calculation much simple, retaining its accuracy. The validity of the HY calculation is tested for "5"8Ni("8B,"7Be+p) "5"8Ni at 240 MeV. The ANC method combined with the HY CC calculation is shown to be a powerful technique to obtain a reliable S_1_7(0).

  2. Preamplifier development for high count-rate, large dynamic range readout of inorganic scintillators

    Keshelashvili, Irakli; Erni, Werner; Steinacher, Michael; Krusche, Bernd; Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter are central component of many experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Modern ''trigger less'' detectors run with very high count-rates, require good time and energy resolution, and large dynamic range. In addition photosensors and preamplifiers must work in hostile environments (magnetic fields). Due to later constraints mainly Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD's), Vacuum Photo Triodes (VPT's), and Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTT's) are used. A disadvantage is their low gain which together with other requirements is a challenge for the preamplifier design. Our group has developed special Low Noise / Low Power (LNP) preamplifier for this purpose. They will be used to equip PANDA EMC forward end-cap (dynamic range 15'000, rate 1MHz), where the PWO II crystals and preamplifier have to run in an environment cooled down to -25{sup o}C. Further application is the upgrade of the Crystal Barrel detector at the Bonn ELSA accelerator with APD readout for which special temperature comparison of the APD gain and good time resolution is necessary. Development and all test procedures after the mass production done by our group during past several years in Basel University will be reported.

  3. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self-organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. The sensitivity of clinical diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.

    Onde, M E; Ozge, A; Senol, M G; Togrol, E; Ozdag, F; Saracoglu, M; Misirli, H

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the sensitivity of various methods for the clinical diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A total of 147 randomly selected patients with diabetes mellitus and 65 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated by various clinical (the neuropathy symptom score [NSS], the neuropathy disability score [NDS], vibration perception thresholds [VPTs], Tinel's sign and Phalen's sign), laboratory (fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels) and electro-physiological (nerve conduction studies, H-reflex and F-wave measurements) methods. In the patient group, 8.2% had an abnormal NSS, 28.5% had a positive Phalen's sign, 32.6% had a positive Tinel's sign, 42.8% had an abnormal VPT and 57.1% had an abnormal NDS. Significant correlations were found between electro-physiologically confirmed neuropathy and the two provocation tests and abnormal VPTs. In conclusion, assessment with a complete neurological examination and standard electrophysiological tests is very important for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the prevention of morbidity in patients with or without symptoms.

  5. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Tamil Many K Thandavan

    Full Text Available Vapor phase transport (VPT assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures (NSs. The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Photoluminescence (PL properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni, oxygen interstitials (Oi, zinc vacancy (Vzn, singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-, oxygen vacancy (Vo, singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+ and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  6. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  7. A foundation for savantism? Visuo-spatial synaesthetes present with cognitive benefits.

    Simner, Julia; Mayo, Neil; Spiller, Mary-Jane

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with 'time-space' synaesthesia have conscious awareness of mappings between time and space (e.g., they may see months arranged in an ellipse, or years as columns or spirals). These mappings exist in the 3D space around the body or in a virtual space within the mind's eye. Our study shows that these extra-ordinary mappings derive from, or give rise to, superior abilities in the two domains linked by this cross-modal phenomenon (i.e., abilities relating to time, and visualised space). We tested ten time-space synaesthetes with a battery of temporal and visual/spatial tests. Our temporal battery (the Edinburgh [Public and Autobiographical] Events Battery - EEB) assessed both autobiographical and non-autobiographical memory for events. Our visual/spatial tests assessed the ability to manipulate real or imagined objects in 3D space (the Three Dimensional Constructional Praxis test; Visual Object and Space Perception Battery, University of Southern California Mental Rotation Test) as well as assessing visual memory recall (Visual Patterns Test - VPT). Synaesthetes' performance was superior to the control population in every assessment, but was not superior in tasks that do not draw upon abilities related to their mental calendars. Our paper discusses the implications of this temporal-spatial advantage as it relates to normal processing, synaesthetic processing, and to the savant-like condition of hyperthymestic syndrome (Parker et al., 2006).

  8. Avaliação pulmonar em crianças portadoras de cardiopatia congênita acianótica e hiperfluxo pulmonar através de tomografia computadorizada Evaluación pulmonar en niños portadores de cardiopatía congénita acianótica e hiperflujo pulmonar a través de tomografía computadorizada Computed tomography in pulmonary evaluation of children with acyanotic congenital heart defect and pulmonary hyperflow

    Solange Gimenez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Disfunção respiratória é frequente em crianças com cardiopatias congênitas acianóticas com hiperfluxo pulmonar (CCAHP, porém pouco é conhecido sobre a estrutura pulmonar destes pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar os volumes de gás e tecido e a distribuição da aeração pulmonar nesta população. MÉTODOS: Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética institucional e obtenção do consentimento escrito pós-informado, foram obtidas tomografias computadorizadas torácicas em sete crianças com CCAHF. As imagens pulmonares direita e esquerda foram contornadas em todas as imagens e os volumes e pesos pulmonares foram computados a partir dos dados volumétricos. As comparações entre esquerda e direita foram analisadas usando teste t de Student pareado e as correlações através de regressão exponencial. RESULTADOS: A idade mediana foi 20 meses e o peso foi de 9,9 kg. Volume pulmonar total (VPT foi de 66,7 ± 23,1 mL.kg-1, o de tecido 33,5 ± 15,7 mL.kg-1 e o de gás 33,1 ± 8,3 mL.kg-1. O pulmão direito representou 57,9% e o pulmão esquerdo 42,1% do VPT (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La disfunción respiratoria es frecuente en niños con cardiopatías congénitas acianóticas con hiperflujo pulmonar (CCAHP, sin embargo, se conoce muy poco sobre la estructura pulmonar de esos pacientes. El objetivo de este estudio, fue cuantificar los volúmenes de gas y tejido y la distribución de la aeración pulmonar en esa población. MÉTODOS: Después de la aprobación por parte del Comité de Ética Institucional y de la obtención del consentimiento escrito informado, se obtuvieron tomografías computadorizadas torácicas en siete niños con CCAHF. Las imágenes pulmonares derecha e izquierda fueron perfiladas en todas las imágenes, y los volúmenes y los pesos pulmonares fueron computados a partir de los datos volumétricos. Las comparaciones entre izquierda y derecha fueron analizadas usando el test t de

  9. Experimental study and thermodynamic modelling of methane clathrate hydrate dissociation conditions in silica gel porous media in the presence of methanol aqueous solution

    Hashemi, Hamed; Javanmardi, Jafar; Zarifi, Mojdeh; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibria of hydrates of methane in confined silica gel pores are reported. ► Dissociation data in the presences of methanol aqueous solution are also measured. ► A thermodynamic model is developed for prediction of the obtained data. ► Acceptable agreement is found between the obtained data and the predicted results. - Abstract: In this work, the phase equilibria of clathrate hydrates of methane in the presence of pure water and 0.035 mass fraction of methanol aqueous solution in confined silica gel pores with (10 and 15) nm mean diameters are measured and reported. A thermodynamic model is also developed for prediction of the obtained experimental hydrate dissociation data. The Valderrama–Patel–Teja (VPT-EoS) equation of state (EoS) accompanied with the non-density dependent (NDD) mixing rules coupled with a previously developed activity model are applied to evaluate the fugacity of the species present and the activity coefficient of water in methanol aqueous solution. Acceptable agreement between the reported data and the predicted results using the proposed model and an existing method reported in the literature demonstrates the reliability of the presented model.

  10. Using Plantar Electrical Stimulation to Improve Postural Balance and Plantar Sensation Among Patients With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Randomized Double Blinded Study.

    Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K; Grewal, Gurtej Singh; Menzies, Robert; Armstrong, David G; Lavery, Lawrence A

    2017-07-01

    People with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) often exhibit deteriorations in motor-performance mainly due to lack of plantar-sensation. The study explored effectiveness of plantar electrical-stimulation therapy to enhance motor-performance among people with DPN. Using a double-blinded model, 28 volunteers with DPN (age: 57.8 ± 10.2 years) were recruited and randomized to either intervention (IG: n = 17) or control (CG: n = 11) group. Both groups received identical plantar-stimulation devices for six weeks of daily use at home; however, only the IG devices were set to deliver stimulation. Balance (ankle, hip, and center of mass [COM] sway) and gait (stride velocity [SV], stride time [ST], stride length [SL], and cadence) were measured using validated wearable sensors. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at six-week. Clinical assessment including vascular as measured by ankle-brachial-index (ABI) and plantar-sensation as quantified by vibratory plantar threshold (VPT) were also measured at baseline and six weeks. No difference were observed between groups for baseline characteristics ( P > .050). Posttherapy, ankle and COM sway with eyes open were significantly improved ( P 1.20 ( P = .041, d = 0.99) Conclusion: This study suggests that daily home use of plantar electrical-stimulation may be a practical means to enhance motor-performance and plantar-sensation in people with DPN.

  11. Fine--Mesh Photodetectors for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Bajanov, N A; Golubev, Nikolai; Gusev, Yuri; Kachanov, Vassili; Klechneva, T Y; Kovalev, A I; Levtchenko, L A; Lukyanov, Valery; Mamaeva, Galina; Moroz, Feodor; Prilutskaya, D M; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Blinnikov, Yuri

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of fine-mesh vacuum phototetrodes and phototriodes ( VPTs) in an axial magnetic field of ( 0 -- 4)T has been investigated. The measured VPT parameters are: fine-mesh cell dimensions, the photocathode sensitivity and its homogenity, the gain in zero and 4T magnetic field at tilt angles corresponding to the rapidity range of CMS ECAL Endcap 1.479 -- 3.0 and excess noise factor. Measurements have been performed on 21 and 30 mm diameter photodetectors with different fine-mesh structures: 30, 60 and 100 lines per mm under different types of photocathode illumination by green LED. Phototriodes with 30 or 60 lines per mm and an external diameter of 21 mm are found to be the best candidates for the CMS environment with the initial size of PWO crystals proposed to be used in the Endcap, by comparison with phototetrodes. They provide a gain of the order of 6 -- 8 in 4T magnetic field and an excess noise factor of 2 under full photocathode illumination.

  12. Fine-mesh photodetectors for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Bajanov, N A; Gusev, Yu I; Klechneva, T Yu; Kovalev, A I; Levtchenko, L A; Moroz, F V; Seliverstov, D M; Kachanov, V A; Golubev, N A; Frolov, V A; Lukyanov, V N; Mamaeva, G A; Prilutskaya, D M

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of fine-mesh vacuum phototriodes (VPTs) with the external diameters of 21 and 35 mm has been investigated in an axial magnetic field up to 4 T in view of their applications as readout devices for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The measured VPT parameters are: the photocathode's sensitivity and its homogeneity, the gain in zero and 4 T magnetic field at tilt angles corresponding to the pseudorapidity range of CMS ECAL Endcap 1.48-3.0 as a function of fine-mesh cell dimensions, excess noise factor and the stability of the photocathode response under the illumination by light emission diodes (LED) and the irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. Phototriodes with 100 lines per mm fine-mesh and 25 mm external diameter are found to be the best candidates for coupling with rear PbWO/sub 4/ crystals by dimensions of 30*30 mm, proposed to be used in CMS ECAL Endcaps. VPTs provide a gain of the order (6-8) in a 4 T magnetic field and an excess noise factor of 2-2.5 under illumination of a full photocatho...

  13. Recent developments in crystal calorimeters (featuring the CMS PbWO4 electromagnetic calorimeter)

    Gascon-Shotkin, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the mass range of 110-150 GeV the favored process for Higgs boson detection via p-p collisions is via its decay into two photons, which demands a very high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter. This physics goal plus the Large Hadron Calorimeter (LHC)-imposed design constraints of 25ns bunch spacing and a hostile radiation environment have led the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration to the choice of lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) crystals. These factors plus the presence of a 4T magnetic field and the relatively low room-temperature scintillation photon yield of PbWO 4 make photo detection a real challenge, which CMS has met via the choice of devices providing gain amplification: Avalanche photodiodes (APD) in the central barrel region and vacuum phototriodes (VPT) in the forward and backward endcap regions. In the past year the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has entered the construction phase. We review progress in the areas of crystals, barrel and endcap photo detection devices, plans for detector calibration as well as the status of assembly and quality control. We also invoke relevant developments in other crystal calorimeters currently in operation or under development. Crystal calorimeters remain the medium of choice for precision energy and position measurements in high energy physics

  14. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

    Kutashov V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify the degree of cognitive impairment (CN and to optimize the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Material and methods. A total of 695 patients (278 men and 417 women were ranged from 18 to 63 years. The mean age was 30.2±0.7 years: women (417 28.5±0.5 years, while for men (278 31.8±0.7 years. Relaps-ing-remitting type (RT of MS was established in 520 patients (74.8%, secondary progressive type (VPT MS in 132 patients (18.9% and primary progressive type (PPT MS in 10 patients (1.5%. Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS was detected in 33 patients (4.8%. The diagnosis of MS 662 patients according to the criteria McDonald etal. (2005. Score of neurologic deficit was carried out on an extended scale of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale — EDSS. CN were evaluated by conventional tests. To estimate the orientation in time, assessment of short-term and long-term memory, attention and concentration, as well as executive functions, memory, language, evaluation of optical-spatial activities, conceptual thinking, the account used by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA. For the screening of dementia with a primary lesion of the frontal lobes and subcortical cerebral structures used battery frontal test to assess frontal dysfunction. Results. The ratio of male (265 and female (397 was 1:1.5. The severity of the condition patients EDSS scale ranged from 1.5 to 8.0 points, and the average score was 3.5±1.2. In the group of patients with RT RS average score EDSS was more than a half (2.5±1.1, than in the group of patients with MS VAC (5.5±1.2 and POS PC (6.5±1.2. In the study of history, it was found that the development of the RS (662 patients was preceded by the following conditions: a viral infection in 277 patients (41.84%; fatigue in 147 patients (22.21%; transferred psycho-emotional load from 218 (32.93%; after pregnancy and childbirth in 20 patients (3.02%. Conclusion. Among the patients with MS

  15. Premature birth--Studies on orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology and function.

    Paulsson, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    A series of studies have been initiated implying a unique opportunity to evaluate and compare malocclusion traits, orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology, mandibular function, signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache between extremely preterm (EPT; born before the 29th week of gestation) and very preterm (VPT; born between 29 and 32 weeks of gestation) and full-term born children. THIS THESIS WAS BASED ON FOUR STUDIES: Paper I. A systematic literature review was undertaken to answer the following questions: Does prematurity result in alterations of palatal morphology, dental occlusion, tooth-crown dimensions, tooth maturation and eruption? What role does neonatal oral intubation play in the appearance of the alterations? Are the alterations in morphology permanent or transient? The literature search spanned from January 1966 to November 2002 and was later extended to September 2008. Furthermore, a quality analysis of the methodological soundness of the studies in the review was performed. Paper II-IV. The aims were to compare EPT and VPT 8- to 10-year-old children with matched full-term controls considering: Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment need (Paper II). Craniofacial morphology (Paper III). Mandibular function, signs and symptoms of TMD and headache (Paper IV). KEY FINDINGS IN PAPER I AND THE SUPPLEMENTARY SEARCH: Moderate scientific evidence existed for more malocclusion traits among premature children. Limited evidence was found for no delay in dental eruption, if corrected age was considered for the premature children. Insufficientwas considered for the premature children. Insufficient evidence was found for altered tooth-crown dimensions and permanent alteration of palatal morphology among prematurely children. Thus, further well-designed controlled studies which should also consider orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology, TMD and headache are needed. KEY FINDINGS IN PAPER II

  16. Avaliação da função macular por eletrorretinografia focal e por angiofluoresceinografia em pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular submetidos à terapia fotodinâmica com verteporfina Evaluation of the macular function by focal electroretinography and by fluorescein angiography in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration submitted to verteporfin photodynamic therapy

    Akiyoshi Oshima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a função macular por eletrorretinografia focal e angiofluoresceinografia em pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular submetidos à terapia fotodinâmica com verteporfina. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo incluindo 22 pacientes (12 homens com degeneração macular relacionada à idade e lesão neovascular coroídea subfoveal predominantemente clássica, não consecutivos, tratados com terapia fotodinâmica com verteporfina padrão e acompanhados por um período de 12 meses. A acuidade visual melhor corrigida foi medida utilizando tabela ETDRS, as alterações das lesões foram avaliadas pela angiofluoresceinografia e a função dos cones foram obtidas pela eletrorretinografia focal na visita inicial e nas subsequentes a cada três meses. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes completaram as visitas programadas. Após uma média de 3,5 sessões por paciente, a variação da acuidade visual melhor corrigida não foi significante no decorrer do estudo. Em 50% dos pacientes a variação da acuidade visual melhor corrigida foi >1 linha. Ao final do estudo observou-se ausência de vazamento em 86% dos pacientes. A média da amplitude e latência do ERG focal na visita inicial foram de, respectivamente, 194,88 nV e 29,19 ms e as variações no decorrer do estudo não foram significantes. CONCLUSÕES: Não foram encontradas diferenças na amplitude e latência do eletrorretinografia focal após um período de 9 meses. A acuidade visual melhor corrigida não sofreu variações significativas ao longo dos 12 meses. A lesão foi significativamente reduzida ao longo do tempo e houve uma correlação negativa entre a amplitude e a acuidade visual melhor corrigida.PURPOSE: To evaluate macular function by focal electroretinography and fluorescein angiography (FA in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration submitted to verteporfin photodynamic therapy (VPT. METHODS: Prospective study involving 22 patients

  17. Bile salt-stimulated lipase of human milk: characterization of the enzyme from preterm and term milk

    Freed, L.M.; Hamosh, P.; Hamosh, M.

    1986-01-01

    The bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) of human milk is an important digestive enzyme in the newborn whose pancreatic function is immature. Milk from mothers delivering premature infants (preterm milk) has similar levels of BSSL activity to that of mothers of term infants (term milk). This study has determined whether the BSSL in preterm milk has the same characteristics as that in term milk. Milk samples were collected during the first 12 wk of lactation from seven mothers of infants born at 26-30 wk (very preterm, VPT), 31-37 wk (preterm, PT) and 37-42 wk (term, T) gestation. BSSL activity was measured using 3 H-triolein emulsion as substrate. Time course, bile salt and enzyme concentration, pH and pH stability were studied, as well as inhibition of BSSL by eserine. The characteristics of BSSL from preterm and term milk were identical as were comparisons between colostrum and mature milk BSSL. BSSL from all milk sources had a neutral-to-alkaline pH optimum (pH 7.3-8.9), was stable at low pH for 60 min, and was 95-100% inhibited by eserine (greater than or equal to 0.6 mM). BSSL activity, regardless of enzyme source, was bile-salt dependent and was stimulated only by primary bile salts (taurocholate, glycocholate). The data indicate that the BSSL in milks of mothers delivering as early as 26 wk gestation is identical to that in term milk

  18. Reward sensitivity, attentional bias, and executive control in early adolescent alcohol use.

    van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J; Ostafin, Brian D; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether attentional bias for alcohol stimuli was associated with alcohol use in young adolescents, and whether the frequently demonstrated relationship between reward sensitivity and adolescent alcohol use would be partly mediated by attentional bias for alcohol cues. In addition, this study investigated the potential moderating role of executive control (EC), and tested whether the relationship between alcohol-related attentional bias and alcohol use was especially present in young adolescents with weak EC. Participants were 86 adolescents (mean age=14.86), who completed a Visual Probe Task (VPT) as an index of attentional bias, a flanker-task based Attention Network Task (ANT) as an index of EC, the sensitivity of punishment and sensitivity of reward questionnaire (SPSRQ) as an index of reward sensitivity, and an alcohol use questionnaire. High reward sensitivity, high alcohol-related attentional bias, and weak EC were all related to alcohol use. The relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use was not mediated by alcohol-related attentional bias. As hypothesized, attentional bias was only associated with alcohol use in participants with weak EC. Together, the present findings are consistent with the view that high reward sensitivity and low EC may be considered as risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. The independent contribution of reward sensitivity and attentional bias might suggest that adolescents who are highly reward sensitive and display an attentional bias for alcohol cues are at even higher risk for excessive alcohol use and developing alcohol abuse problems. Future research using a longitudinal approach would allow an examination of these risk factors on subsequent alcohol use. Treatment implications are discussed, including the importance of strengthening EC and reducing the rewarding value of alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Telomere Length in Preterm Infants: A Promising Biomarker of Early Adversity and Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit?

    Livio Provenzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants present an immature neurobehavioral profile at birth, even in absence of severe brain injuries and perinatal complications. As such, they require a long-lasting hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, which is thought to grant at-risk newborns’ survival, but still entails a number of physical, painful, and socio-emotional stressors. Hence, preterm birth and NICU stay represent an early adverse experience, which has been linked to detrimental consequences for neurological, neuro-endocrinal, behavioral, and socio-emotional development, as well as to disease later in life. Recent advances in the behavioral epigenetic field are helping us to unveil the potential mechanisms through which early NICU-related stress may lead to negative developmental outcomes. From this perspective, telomere regulation might be a key programming mechanism. Telomeres are the terminal portion of chromosomes and are known to get shorter with age. Moreover, telomere length (TL is affected by the exposure to stress during early development. As such, TL might be an innovative biomarker of early adverse exposures in young infants and children. Unfortunately, there is paucity of studies investigating TL in populations of preterm infants and its association with known NICU-related stressors remains unexplored. In the present paper, the potential relevance of TL for research and clinical work with preterm infants will be underlined in the light of recent contributions linking progressive telomere shortening and early exposure to adverse experiences and stressful environments in humans. Finally, insights will be provided to guide clinically relevant translational research on TL in the field of VPT birth and NICU stay.

  20. DETECTION OF MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES BY EZSCAN AND ITS COMPARISON WITH STANDARD SCREENING METHODS

    Sarita Bajaj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND EZSCAN is a new, noninvasive technique to detect sudomotor dysfunction and thus neuropathy in diabetes patients at an early stage. It further predicts chances of development of other microvascular complications. In this study, we evaluated EZSCAN for detection of microvascular complications in Type 2 diabetes patients and compared accuracy of EZSCAN with standard screening methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS 104 known diabetes patients, 56 males and 48 females, were studied. All cases underwent the EZSCAN test, Nerve Conduction Study (NCS test, Vibration perception threshold test (VPT, Monofilament test, Fundus examination and Urine micral test. The results of EZSCAN were compared with standard screening methods. The data has been analysed and assessed by applying appropriate statistical tests within different groups. RESULTS Mean age of the subjects was 53.5 ± 11.4 years. For detection of diabetic neuropathy, sensitivity and specificity of EZSCAN was found to be 77.0 % and 95.3%, respectively. Odd’s ratio (OR was 68.82 with p < 0.0001. AUC in ROC curve was 0.930. Sensitivity and specificity of EZSCAN for detection of nephropathy were 67.1% and 94.1%, respectively. OR = 32.69 with p < 0.0001. AUC was 0.926. Sensitivity of EZSCAN for detection of retinopathy was 90% while specificity is 70.3%. OR = 21.27; p< 0.0001. AUC came out to be 0.920. CONCLUSION Results of EZSCAN test compared significantly to the standard screening methods for the detection of microvascular complications of diabetes and can be used as a simple, noninvasive and quick method to detect microvascular complications of diabetes.

  1. Electrochemical skin conductance to detect sudomotor dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration among Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Sheshah, Eman; Madanat, Amal; Al-Greesheh, Fahad; Al-Qaisi, Dalal; Al-Harbi, Mohammad; Aman, Reem; Al-Ghamdi, Abdul Aziz; Al-Madani, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Sudomotor dysfunction is manifested clinically as abnormal sweating leading to dryness of feet skin and increased risk of foot ulceration. The aim of this study was to test the performance of foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration against traditional methods in Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 296 Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus. Painful neuropathic symptoms were evaluated using the neuropathy symptom score (NSS). The risk of foot ulceration and diabetic peripheral neuropathy were determined using the neuropathy disability score (NDS). Vibration perception threshold (VPT) was assessed using neurothesiometer. Neurophysiological assessment of the right and left sural, peroneal and tibial nerves was performed in 222 participants. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was defined according to the definition of the American Academy of Neurology. ESC was measured with Sudoscan. Feet-ESC decreased as the scores of sensory and motor function tests increased. Feet-ESC decreased as the NSS, NDS and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy increased. Sensitivity of feet-ESC peripheral neuropathy assessed by VPT ≥ 25 V, NDS ≥ 3, NDS ≥ 6 was 90.1, 61 and 63.8 % respectively and specificity 77, 85 and 81.9 % respectively. Sensitivity of feet-ESC peripheral neuropathy assessed by VPT ≥ 25 V, NDS ≥ 3, NDS ≥ 6 was 100, 80.6 and 80.9 % respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of feet-ESC peripheral neuropathy were 67.5 and 58.9 % respectively. Sudoscan a simple and objective tool can be used to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration among patients with diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies to confirm our results are warranted.

  2. Modeling hydrate formation conditions in the presence of electrolytes and polar inhibitor solutions

    Osfouri, Shahriar; Azin, Reza; Gholami, Reza; Izadpanah, Amir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new predictive model is proposed for prediction of hydrate formation pressures. • A new local composition model was used to evaluate water activity in the presence of electrolyte. • MEG, DEG and TEG were used to test ability of the proposed model in the presence of polar inhibitors. • Cage occupancies by methane for the small cage were higher than carbon dioxide for gas mixtures. • The proposed model gives better match with experimental data in mixed electrolyte solutions. - Abstract: In this paper, a new predictive model is proposed for prediction of gas hydrate formation conditions in the presence of single and mixed electrolytes and solutions containing both electrolyte and a polar inhibitor such as monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG). The proposed model is based on the γ–φ approach, which uses modified Patel–Teja equation of state (VPT EOS) for characterizing the vapor phase, the solid solution theory by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling the hydrate phase, the non-electrolyte NRTL-NRF local composition model and Pitzer–Debye–Huckel equation as short-range and long-range contributions to calculate water activity in single electrolyte solutions. Also, the Margules equation was used to determine the activity of water in solutions containing polar inhibitor (glycols). The model predictions are in acceptable agreement with experimental data. For single electrolyte solutions, the model predictions are similar to available models, while for mixtures of electrolytes and mixtures of electrolytes and inhibitors, the proposed model gives significantly better predictions. In addition, the absolute average deviation of hydrate formation pressures (AADP) for 144 experimental data in solutions containing single electrolyte is 5.86% and for 190 experimental data in mixed electrolytes solutions is 5.23%. Furthermore, the proposed model has an AADP of 14.13%, 5.82% and 5.28% in solutions

  3. Spectroscopic Studies of Molecular Systems relevant in Astrobiology

    Fornaro, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    double-ζ quality such as N07D and SNSD. Such a protocol has been then applied to the dimers of nucleobases in order to study the perturbation on the vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities induced by the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. Efforts have been made to challenge the problems of simulating strongly anharmonic vibrations within hydrogen-bonded bridges, focusing on the requirement of a very accurate description of the underlying potential energy surface. Improvements for such vibrations have been achieved by means of hybrid models, where the harmonic part of the force-field is computed at a higher level of theory like B2PLYP, or by application of the less demanding ONIOM B2PLYP:B3LYP scheme, which is a focused model where only the part of the molecular system forming the hydrogen bonds is treated at B2PLYP level of theory. Moreover, for improving the vibrational frequencies of modes like the stretching of C=O and N-H functional groups, which are particularly sensitive to hydrogen-bonding, correction parameters for the B3LYP-D3/N07D frequencies have been determined. Afterwards, the treatment of the vibrational properties of nucleobases in condensed phases has been faced, focusing on uracil in the solid state. In particular, a heptamer cluster of uracil molecules has been considered as model to represent the properties in the solid state. The relative vibrational frequencies have been computed at anharmonic level within the VPT2 framework, combining two cost-effective approaches, namely the hybrid B3LYP-D3/N07D:DFTBA model, where the harmonic frequencies are computed with B3LYP-D3/N07D method and the anharmonic corrections are evaluated with the less expensive DFTBA method, and the reduced dimensionality VPT2 (RD-VPT2) approach, in which only selected vibrational modes are calculated anharmonically (including the couplings with the other modes) while the remaining modes are treated at the harmonic level, using the B3LYP-D3/N07D method only

  4. Evaluación de ansiedad y frecuencia cardíaca: ensayo clínico aleatorizado de la remoción químico-mecánica de caries con papacárieDuoTM. Proyecto piloto

    Elisa-Lopes-Craveiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de ansiedad y frecuencia cardíaca en pacientes infantiles sometidos a tratamiento con PapacárieDuoTM, comparado a un grupo control con el uso del método tradicional (fresa. Métodos: Se desarrolló un ensayo clínico aleatorizado en 7 pacientes infantiles (5 a 11 años. Fueron tratados 2 molares deciduos en cada niño, realizando la aleatorización para los dos grupos (G1= remoción químico-mecánica de la caries con Papacárie DuoTM; G2= remoción de la dentina cariada utilizando fresa con baja velocidad, realizando un procedimiento restaurador similar en ambos (cemento de ionómero de vidrio y control. Se evaluó el tiempo de duración del procedimiento, ansiedad y frecuencia cardíaca. Los datos fueron tabulados con el programa SPSS para Windows (v.17 y analizados estadísticamente mediante el Test Wilcoxon, para los resultados del test VPT; el Test t pareado, para la frecuencia cardíaca, y el Test t para el tiempo de tratamiento, considerándose el nivel de significancia de 5%. Resultados: La media del tiempo para el G1 fue menor (p<0.001, así como la frecuencia cardíaca en el mismo grupo luego de finalizado el tratamiento (p=0.042. No hubo diferencia estadística en las reacciones emocionales antes (p=0.317, durante (p=0.355 y después (p=0.564 de los procedimientos. Conclusión: El tiempo operatorio y la frecuencia cardíaca fueron menores en los niños tratados con el Papacárie DuoTM al ser comparados con los que fueron tratados con tratamiento convencional. Estos hallazgos demuestran las ventajas de los tratamientos conservadores en dientes deciduos.

  5. Syntheses and Post-Polymerization Modifications of Well-Defined Styrenic Polymers Containing Three-Membered Heterocyclic Functionalities

    McLeod, David Charles

    compositions, architectures, and thermal stabilities of the resulting ?-hydroxy ether-functionalized homopolymers were evaluated using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Aziridines and thiiranes (saturated, three-membered heterocycles containing either a single nitrogen or sulfur atom, respectively) are also susceptible to nucleophilic ring-opening reactions, and functional materials derived from aziridine- or thiirane-containing polymers could potentially have many interesting properties as a result of their high amine or thiol content, such as the ability to form pH- or redox-responsive structures. The synthesis of polymers containing aziridines that are activated towards nucleophilic ring-opening by C-aryl and/or N-sulfonyl substituents is unprecedented in the literature. Efficient methods for synthesizing styrenic monomers that contain these highly-reactive functionalities, namely 2-(4-vinylphenyl)aziridine (VPA) and its sulfonyl-activated derivative, N-mesyl-2-(4-vinylphenyl)aziridine (NMVPA), were developed utilizing 4VPO as a starting material. VPA was polymerized under LCC ATRP and RAFT conditions, but these methods were ineffective at producing well-defined polymers due to side reactions between the aziridine groups and the polymerization mediating compounds. Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMRP) produced well-defined polyVPA at low to moderate conversions of monomer, but cross-linking side reactions were evident at higher monomer conversions. Nearly all undesirable side reactions were prevented by attaching a mesyl group to the aziridine nitrogen atom, and well-defined polyNMVPA was realized under RAFT and NMRP conditions. Under ATRP conditions, reactions between the aziridine groups and catalyst still occurred, so the polymerization of NMVPA was not controlled using this technique. The synthesis of thiirane-containing styrenic polymers from either 2-(4-vinylphenyl)thiirane (VPT) or 2

  6. Optimal geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the global minima of water clusters (H2O)n, n = 2–6, and several hexamer local minima at the CCSD(T) level of theory

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Aprà, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-01-01

    (T) harmonic frequencies, when corrected using the MP2 anharmonicities obtained from second order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2), produce anharmonicCCSD(T) estimates that are within < 60 cm-1 from the measured infrared (IR) active bands of the n=2-6 clusters and furthermore trace the observed red shifts with respect to the monomer (Δν) quite accurately. The energetic order between the various hexamer isomers on the PES (prism has the lowest energy) previously reported at MP2 was found to be preserved at the CCSD(T) level, whereas the inclusion of anharmonic corrections further stabilizes the cage among the hexamer isomers.

  7. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    Konrad, Charles E. [VPT, Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  8. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    occur at different times and have different depths in the light curve each time they orbit. Their misalignment may have been caused by a past collision with another planet, which was kicked out of the system in the process. The LIGO-VIRGO Forum on Hunting Gravitational Wave Counterparts(by Gourav Khullar)This parallel session, organized by Peter Shawhan (University of Maryland, advancedLIGO) discussed the first major followup campaign of the GW150914 gravitational wave (GW) discovery event by the physics and astronomy community around the world. It was extremely exciting to hear the speakers talk of the actual process behind the mega-collaborative effort following the first GW event. This paper, published on June 3rd this year, was described by Peter, with a strong emphasis on the timeline following the GW alert in raw LIGO data back in September 2015, along with description of the sky map and raw data given to different facilities and collaborations that LIGO-VIRGO had signed Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) with for rapid and robust followups. The talk also focussed on resources and tutorials available now to unpack and characterize future alerts data from LIGO-VIRGO. This talk was followed by the description of the all sky survey PAN-STARRS, and its joint efforts with LIGO. It was pointed out that PAN-STARRS had already scanned the sky multiple times, which gave the program an edge in determining transients, i.e. recent features appearing on their new maps but not the old. This extensive survey also allowed better characterization of the transient source, which would be the next step for PAN-STARRS and other similar projects. Our @LIGO booth at #AAS228 is up and running drop by for a chat about #gravitationalwaves pic.twitter.com/akt9wsVPT6 pic.twitter.com/kmPz3oxzJf LIGO (@LIGO) June 13, 2016Following this was a talk by Andy Howell, of the newly formed Las Cumbres Observatory A Global Telescope Network (LCOGT), made up of multiple telescopes across the US, Chile