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Sample records for organochlorines including polychlorinated

  1. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blue多sh collected in the vicinity...

  2. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of...

  3. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan;

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF...

  4. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2001-12-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs > PCBs > HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p'-DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. PMID:11827119

  5. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  8. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polycyclic musks in human fat from Italy: Comparison to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to this study, reports of occurrence of polycyclic musks and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in human tissues from Italy were not available. In this study, concentrations of PCNs and polycyclic musks were determined in human adipose tissue from Italy collected during 2005-2006; for comparison, legacy organohalogen pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined. ΣPCN concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 14 ng/g lipid wt (lw). Polycyclic musks such as HHCB and AHTN were found in 92% and 83% of the human samples, respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in Italian adipose tissue ranged between 3.2 and 35.6 ng/g lw. - Polycyclic musks and polychlorinated naphthalenes are present in human adipose tissues from Italy.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polycyclic musks in human fat from Italy: Comparison to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavone, Alessandra, E-mail: schiavone4@unisi.i [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Horii, Yuichi [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Focardi, Silvano; Corsolini, Simonetta [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Prior to this study, reports of occurrence of polycyclic musks and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in human tissues from Italy were not available. In this study, concentrations of PCNs and polycyclic musks were determined in human adipose tissue from Italy collected during 2005-2006; for comparison, legacy organohalogen pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined. SIGMAPCN concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 14 ng/g lipid wt (lw). Polycyclic musks such as HHCB and AHTN were found in 92% and 83% of the human samples, respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in Italian adipose tissue ranged between 3.2 and 35.6 ng/g lw. - Polycyclic musks and polychlorinated naphthalenes are present in human adipose tissues from Italy.

  11. Methodological refinements in the determination of 146 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho, and mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and 26 organochlorine pesticides in eggs as demonstrated in heron eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S.; Hong, C.-S.; Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the determination of 146 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 4 non-ortho and 8 mono-ortho substituted congeners and 26 chlorinated pesticides is described. The method consists of ultrasonic extraction, Florisilcleanup, HPLC fractionation over porous graphitic carbon (PGC), and final determination with GC/ECD and/or GC/MS. Two PCB congeners (PCB 30 and PCB 161) and two polybromo-biphenyls (2,4?,5-tribromobiphenyl and 3,3?,4,4?-tetrabromobiphenyl) were used as surrogate standards to evaluate the analytical efficiency. Four PCB congeners, PCB 14 and PCB 159 for the first fraction, PCB 61 for the second fraction, and PCB 204 for the third fraction, were used as internal standards to monitor the GC performance. The retention behavior of PCBs and pesticides on porous-graphitic-carbon column were discussed. The method was found to be effective and reliable under the operational conditions proposed and was applied successfully to the analysis of individual PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in heron egg samples.

  12. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. PMID:23954213

  13. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) inTilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fishwater fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in the mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation between the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results came concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recorded concentrations of these studied pollutants still do not exceed the international hazardous levels. (author)

  14. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  15. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log KOW. A negative correlation between BCF and log KOW was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log KOA. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots

  16. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO. PMID:27184129

  17. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Arctic Ocean food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, B T; Harding, G C; Vass, W P; Erickson, P E; Fowler, B R; Scott, V

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs) and isomers of DDT and DDE were the predominant organochlorine (OC) hydrocarbons measured in epontic particulate matter, zooplankton, pelagic and benthic amphipods and liver tissue from an abyssal fish collected in the Arctic Ocean. Chlordane, dieldrin and other cyclodienes and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers were present at lower concentrations. Levels on a dry weight basis in plankton of various sizes less than 63 microns to 2 mm were similar to those in epontic particulate matter, but on a lipid weight basis, concentrations in smaller plankton were two to five times higher. Organochlorines in amphipods and liver from the glacial eelpout Lycodes frigidus exceeded levels in zooplankton by up to an order of magnitude. Large benthic lysianassid amphipods (Tmetonyx cicada, Anonyx nugax and Eurythenes gryllus) accumulated higher concentrations on a dry and lipid weight basis than small species (Onisimus spp. and Andaniexis spp.) or the under-ice gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus wilkitzkii). No significant differences in OC levels were measured in benthic amphipods collected at different times. However, concentrations in large zooplankton (greater than 500 microns) collected in August, dominated by adult copepods and ctenophores, contained concentrations of alpha-HCH, chlordane isomers and other cyclodienes that were two to four times higher than levels in May. Ratios of alpha-HCH: gamma-HCH (5 to 10) were similar to those in seawater collected simultaneously but there was no difference in ratios in various size categories of planktonic and benthic crustaceans indicating no selective accumulation or metabolic alteration of these isomers. Ratios of cis-chlordane:trans-chlordane concentrations were lower in all sizes of zooplankton (2 to 3) than in shelf amphipods (3 to 6) which corresponded to an increase in the ratio with depth. Higher ratios of DDT:DDE in plankton (2 to 6) than in amphipods (1 to 2

  18. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and dechlorane plus in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Jurng, Jongsoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for one year at eight cities in Mongolia, China, and South Korea to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and dechlorane plus (DP). PCB levels were highly correlated with population size and density in China and South Korea. In Mongolia, PCB levels were relatively high considering the low population. In the cases of OCPs and DP, a country-specific distribution was observed. The highest levels of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane isomers) were detected at sites in China, whereas the highest endosulfan and DP levels were measured at South Korean sites. These results strongly reflected the patterns of use of these chemicals. Mirex, an insecticide never registered in Mongolia and South Korea, was detected at all sampling sites; this is likely to have resulted from long-range transport. Nevertheless, OCPs were generally low in Mongolia. This study confirms that PAS results reflect well the past and current usage of POPs in Northeast Asia.

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  1. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Tissues of White-Backed Vulture in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhananjayan, V.; Muralidharan, S

    2013-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑ PAHs, ∑ PCBs, and ∑ OCPs in tissues were 60–2037 ng/g, 30–5790 ng/g, and 3.2–5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-c...

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in common buzzard (Buteo buteo) from Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Patrizia; Naccari, Francesco; Dugo, Giacomo; Fotia, Vincenzo; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potorti, Angela Giorgia; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in intestine, liver, and muscle samples of 11 common buzzards (Buteo buteo) from Sicily used as bioindicator for monitoring pollution in environment. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the "Recovery Center of Wild Fauna" of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Quantitative determination of OCs and PCBs in the samples examined has been carried out using HRGC-ECD and GC-MS. The results obtained show the presence of concentrations of ∑DDT and ∑PCB in almost all samples. Regarding ∑DDT (4,4(')-DDE, 2,4(')-DDD, 4,4(')-DDD, 2,4(')-DDT, and 4,4(')-DDT), the highest concentrations were found in intestine (0.411 ± 0.050 μg/g) followed by muscle (0.130 ± 0.017 μg/g) and liver samples (0.109 ± 0.014 μg/g). As regards the ∑PCB congeners (PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-95, PCB-99, PCB-101, PCB-110, PCB-138, PCB-146, PCB-149, PCB-151, PCB-153, PCB-170, PCB-177, PCB-180, PCB-183, and PCB-187), the highest concentrations were found in intestine (1.686 ± 0.144 μg/g) followed by liver (1.064 ± 0.162 μg/g) and muscle samples (0.797 ± 0.078 μg/g). Our data deserve particular attention not only for their significance but especially because they were recorded in Sicily, a region with a very low risk of environmental pollution due to the shortage of industries. PMID:21739282

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in urban air of Konya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Senar; Aydin, Mehmet Emin

    2009-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in urban air samples of Konya, Turkey between August 2006 and May 2007. The concentrations of pollutants in both the gas and particulate phase were separately analysed. The average total (gas + particulate) concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs were determined as 206 ng m - 3 , 0.106 ng m - 3 , 4.78 ng m - 3 respectively. All of the investigated target compounds were dominantly found in the gas phase except OCPs. Higher air concentrations of PAHs were found at winter season while the highest concentrations of PCBs were determined in September. The highest OCPs were detected in October and in March. In urban air of Konya, PCB 28 and PCB 52 congeners represent 46% and 35% of total PCBs while Phenanthrene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene accounted for 29%, 13%, 10% of total PAHs. HCH compounds (α + β + γ + δ-HCH), total DDTs ( p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT), Endosulfan compounds (Endosulfan I, Endosulfan II, Endosulfan sulfate) were dominantly determined as 30%, 21%, 20% of total OCPs respectively. Considering the relation between these compounds with temperature, there was no significant correlation observed. Despite banned/restricted use in Turkey, some OCPs were determined in urban air. These results demonstrated that they are either illegally being used in the course of agricultural activity and gardens in Konya or they are residues of past use in environment. According to these results, it can be suggested that Konya is an actively contributing region to persistent organic pollutants in Turkey.

  4. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs, and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively. The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBsusing World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1. However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1. The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  6. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. PMID:26807987

  7. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in muck soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fiona [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Bidleman, Terry F., E-mail: terry.bidleman@ec.gc.c [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was used as a non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muck soil. An optimized extraction method was developed which involved using a HPCD to soil mass ratio of 5.8 with a single extraction period of 20 h. An aging experiment was performed by spiking a muck soil with {sup 13}C-labeled OCs and non-labeled PCBs. The soil was extracted with the optimized HPCD method and Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane over 550 d periodically. The HPCD extractability of the spiked OCs was greater than of the native OCs. A decreased in HPCD extractability was observed for the spiked OCs after 550 d of aging and their extractability approached those of the natives. The partition coefficient between HPCD and soil (log K{sub CD-Soil}) was negatively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (log K{sub OW}) with r{sup 2} = 0.67 and p < 0.05. - The effect of aging on the extractability of organochlorine chemicals in muck soil was investigated using hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as a mild extractant.

  8. Concentrations and hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in shark liver from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Storelli, Arianna; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2005-08-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDTs), were determined in the liver of two different shark species Prionace glauca (blue shark) and Dalatias licha (kitefin shark) from the Mediterranean Sea. In blue shark liver, the concentrations of PCBs (2482 ngg(-1)) and DDTs (2392 ngg(-1)) were comparable, while in kitefin shark the hepatic concentrations of DDTs (4554 ngg(-1)) were significantly higher than those of PCBs (1827 ngg(-1)). Contamination levels differed between species, with kitefin shark showing consistently higher concentrations of DDTs, and blue shark higher levels of PCBs. Congener-specific PCB profiles, similar between the two species were dominated by the higher chlorinated congeners (hexachlorobiphenyls: 62.8-63.9%, penta-: 15.2-21.3%, hepta-: 13.4-14.5%) with most of the lower chlorinated congeners being absent or present at very low levels. In both species, the total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenz-p-dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQs) concentrations (blue shark: 2.51 pg/g; kitefin shark: 1.46 pg/g) seem to be relatively modest. Regards to DDT component pattern, p,p'-DDE was dominant in the liver of both species (blue shark: 81.5%; kitefin shark: 38.0%), while the percentage composition of the other metabolites was differently characterized. The composition pattern of DDTs and the low value of p,p'-DDE/DDTs ratio in the specimens from Ionian Sea suggest that organochlorine pesticide contamination is still continuing in this marine environment. PMID:16115502

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  10. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in muck soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was used as a non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muck soil. An optimized extraction method was developed which involved using a HPCD to soil mass ratio of 5.8 with a single extraction period of 20 h. An aging experiment was performed by spiking a muck soil with 13C-labeled OCs and non-labeled PCBs. The soil was extracted with the optimized HPCD method and Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane over 550 d periodically. The HPCD extractability of the spiked OCs was greater than of the native OCs. A decreased in HPCD extractability was observed for the spiked OCs after 550 d of aging and their extractability approached those of the natives. The partition coefficient between HPCD and soil (log KCD-Soil) was negatively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (log KOW) with r2 = 0.67 and p < 0.05. - The effect of aging on the extractability of organochlorine chemicals in muck soil was investigated using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as a mild extractant.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:21529852

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in foodstuffs from Asian and oceanic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Tanabe, S; Giesy, J P; Tatsukawa, R

    1997-01-01

    Public concern about the adverse environmental and human health impacts of organochlorine contaminants led to strict regulations on their use in developed nations two decades ago. Nevertheless, DDT and several other organochlorine insecticides are still being used for agriculture and public health programs in developing countries in Asia and the South Pacific. As a consequence, humans in this region are exposed to greater dietary levels of organochlorines. In this review, published information on organochlorine concentrations in foodstuffs from South and Southeast Asia and Oceanic countries has been compiled. Foodstuffs that contribute to human exposures and dietary intakes of organochlorines were examined, and the data compared with those reported from more developed nations. Among various developing countries in Asia, considerable information on organochlorines in foodstuffs has been available from India since the late 1960s. DDT and HCH were the major insecticides in Indian foodstuffs. Concentrations of these insecticides have declined more than two orders of magnitude in farm products, such as food grains and vegetables, in two decades. Milk and milk products are the major sources of dietary exposure to DDT and HCH in India. The residues of these insecticides in dairy products were close to or above the MRLs of the FAO/WHO. Dietary intake of DDT and HCH by Indians was > 100 fold that in more developed nations. Sporadic incidences of greater concentrations (> 1 microgram/g) of aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlor have been measured in Indian vegetables. Untreated surface waters could be a potential source of DDT and HCH exposure. In most Southeast Asian countries DDT was the common contaminant in animal origin foodstuffs. The higher percentage of p,p'-DDT in meat and fish from Southeast Asian countries, except Japan and Korea, indicated the recent use of DDt in vector control operations. Dietary intakes of DDt and HCH in Southeast Asia were an order of magnitude

  13. Low dose organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls predict obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among people free of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hee Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs are important in the development of conditions predisposing to diabetes as well as of type 2 diabetes itself. We recently reported that low dose POPs predicted incident type 2 diabetes in a nested case-control study. The current study examined if low dose POPs predicted future adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among controls without diabetes in that study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 90 controls were diabetes-free during 20 years follow-up. They were a stratified random sample, enriched with overweight and obese persons. POPs measured in 1987-88 (year 2 sera included 8 organochlorine (OC pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB. Body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment value for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were study outcomes at 2005-06 (year 20. The evolution of study outcomes during 18 years by categories of serum concentrations of POPs at year 2 was evaluated by adjusting for the baseline values of outcomes plus potential confounders. Parallel to prediction of type 2 diabetes, many statistically significant associations of POPs with dysmetabolic conditions appeared at low dose, forming inverted U-shaped dose-response relations. Among OC pesticides, p,p'-DDE most consistently predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 after adjusting for baseline values. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene also significantly predicted higher triglycerides. Persistent PCBs with ≥7 chlorides predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 with similar dose-response curves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Simultaneous exposure to various POPs in the general population may contribute to development of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance

  14. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupander Kumar; Satish Kumar Singh; Meenu Mishra; Sanjay Kumar; Chandra Shekhar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and ...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 ??g PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 ??g PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 ??g PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 ??g PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric particulate matter of Northern China: distribution, sources, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuangshuang; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Liufei; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Mei; He, Ping

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work are to track the contamination levels, distribution characteristics, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in atmospheric particulate matter (APM) of Northern China and to provide more comprehensive and fundamental data for risk assessment of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in environments. Samples were extracted and purified by the microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction system, respectively. PCBs and OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged from 0.73 to 112.65 ng/g and 0.14 to 34.73 ng/g, respectively. PCBs in atmospheric particulates collected from Shijiazhuang City had the highest concentration, whereas OCP congeners were at the relatively low levels. However, the highest concentration of OCPs occurred in Yongning City. The principal component analysis indicated that the predominant compositions of PCBs in most of samples were tetrachlorobiphenyl (Tetra-CB), pentachlorobiphenyl (Penta-CB), hexachlorobiphenyl (Hexa-CB), and heptachlorbiphenyl (Hepta-CB), while hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, chlordanes, and endosulfans were the dominant components of OCPs, which was attributed to their application characteristics. OCs in those particles were further used to assess a potential cancer risk to humans via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Cancer risk was evaluated in airborne particles caused by PCBs and OCPs. TEQPCBs values suggested that the representative areas were subject to different pollution degrees. However, the pollution of OCPs in certain areas should be a concern due to 41.6% of the high risk, which could pose a potential risk to organisms. PMID:26139408

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wild, farmed, and frozen marine seafood marketed in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, T; Viscardi, V; Fasano, E; Farina, A; Amodio-Cocchieri, R

    2009-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in fresh-catch, farmed, and frozen marine fish marketed in Campania, Italy. Additionally, polychlorobiphenyl congeners were found: six were non-dioxin-like (NDL-PCB) (IUPAC no. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180), and one was dioxin-like (DL-PCB) (IUPAC no. 118). In all, 93% of fresh-catch, 100% of aquaculture, and 74% of the frozen specimens contained PCBs at concentrations varying from 0.12 to 35.11 ng/g, wet weight; NDL-PCBs ranged between 0.12 and 32.44 ng/g. Penta-, hexa-, and heptachlorobiphenyls were predominant. Regarding organochlorine pesticides, hexachlorobenzene was detected in 35% of fresh catch, 36% of farmed, and 46% of the frozen fish specimens, in a range between catch, and 24% of the frozen species, at concentrations varying from 0.03 to 9.18 ng/g. On the basis of annual fish consumption, an average daily intake of NDL-PCBs of 6.02 ng/kg of body weight was estimated. Calculated daily hexachlorobenzene and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane intakes were, respectively, 0.11 and 0.90 ng/kg of body weight per day. The contribution of fish to the daily consumption of the noncarcinogenic PAHs can be considered low; for benzo[a]pyrene, the estimated daily intake is considerably lower than the doses considered carcinogenic for experimental animals by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food. PMID:19722400

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Gray, Brian R

    2010-02-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 microg PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 microg PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 microg PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 microg PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. PMID:19809875

  19. Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl, trace element and metal residues in bird eggs from Salton Sea, California, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, T.W.; Crayon, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Salton Sea is a highly eutrophic, hypersaline terminal lake that receives inflows primarily from agricultural drainages in the Imperial and Coachella valleys. Impending reductions in water inflow at Salton Sea may concentrate existing contaminants which have been a concern for many years, and result in higher exposure to birds. Thus, waterbird eggs were collected and analyzed in 2004 and compared with residue concentrations from earlier years; these data provide a base for future comparisons. Eggs from four waterbird species (black-crowned night-heron [Nycticorax nycticorax], great egret [Ardea alba], black-necked stilt [Himantopus mexicanus], and American avocet [Recurvirostra Americana]) were collected. Eggs were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, and trace elements, with current results compared to those reported for eggs collected from the same species and others during 1985a??1993. The two contaminants of primary concern were p,pa??-DDE (DDE) and selenium. DDE concentrations in night-heron and great egret eggs collected from the northwest corner of Salton Sea (Whitewater River delta) decreased 91 and 95%, respectively, by 2004, with a concomitant increase in eggshell thickness for both species. Decreases in bird egg DDE levels paralleled those in tissues of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus ?? O. urolepis), an important prey species for herons and egrets. Despite most nests of night-herons and great egrets failing in 2004 due to predation, predicted reproductive effects based on DDE concentrations in eggs were low or negligible for these species. The 2004 DDE findings were in dramatic contrast to those in the past decade, and included an 81% decrease in black-necked stilt eggs, although concentrations were lower historically than those reported in night-herons and egrets. Selenium concentrations in black-necked stilt eggs from the southeast corner of Salton Sea (Davis Road) were similar in 1993 and 2004, with 4

  20. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Tissues of White-Backed Vulture in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhananjayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑PAHs, ∑PCBs, and ∑OCPs in tissues were 60–2037 ng/g, 30–5790 ng/g, and 3.2–5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethylene (p,p′-DDE concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p′-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 ± 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 ± 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 ± 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects

  3. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Concentrations, distributions, and cancer risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has been quickly industrialized and urbanized. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in the YRD in 2010–2011 to investigate their spatiotemporal distributions and estimate the risk of cancer from their inhalation. Annual concentrations were 151, 168, 18.8, 110, 17.9, and 35.0 pg m−3 for HCB, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, mirex, and PCBs, respectively. The highest OCP and PCB concentrations were generally detected in the autumn and winter. The average concentrations of OCPs and PCBs for the different site groups followed the order urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. The lifetime excess cancer risks from the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs were −6. The predicted cancer cases per lifetime associated with the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs are 12, 7, and 4 per ten thousand people for urban, urban–rural transition, and rural areas, respectively. Highlights: •Organochlorine pollutants were measured in the air in the Yangtze River Delta area. •Air PCB concentration declined in recent years comparing with previous results. •HCB and DDEs predominated, with the highest values in winter and autumn, respectively. •OCPs and PCBs followed the order: urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. -- A detailed study of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air across the Yangtze River Delta area using passive air samplers

  4. Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramu, Karri [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Isobe, Tomohiko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kim, Eun-Young [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Min, Byung-Yoon [Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, 449 Wolyoung-dong, Kyungnam 631-701, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); We, Sung-Ug [Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, 449 Wolyoung-dong, Kyungnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-07-15

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 20 locations along the coastal waters of Korea were analyzed to elucidate the characteristic distribution and contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the contamination status of HBCDs from Korea. PBDEs and HBCDs were found in mussels at levels ranging from 6.6 to 440 and from 6.0 to 500 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in mussels from Korea were higher or comparable to available data in mussels from other countries. Among the organochlorine compounds (OCs) analyzed, levels of PCBs and DDTs were the highest followed by CHLs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene. For all the compounds, higher concentrations were found in mussels from southeastern coast of Korea. The present study shows the importance of mussels as bioindicators for monitoring contaminants in coastal waters. - Mussels are good bioindicators for monitoring organohalogen contaminants.

  5. Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 20 locations along the coastal waters of Korea were analyzed to elucidate the characteristic distribution and contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the contamination status of HBCDs from Korea. PBDEs and HBCDs were found in mussels at levels ranging from 6.6 to 440 and from 6.0 to 500 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in mussels from Korea were higher or comparable to available data in mussels from other countries. Among the organochlorine compounds (OCs) analyzed, levels of PCBs and DDTs were the highest followed by CHLs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene. For all the compounds, higher concentrations were found in mussels from southeastern coast of Korea. The present study shows the importance of mussels as bioindicators for monitoring contaminants in coastal waters. - Mussels are good bioindicators for monitoring organohalogen contaminants

  6. Estimates of the inputs of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides to the River Thames derived from the sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, M. D.; Lester, J. N.

    Sediment deposited in the Tilbury Basin exhibited two distinct zones where contamination with organochlorine insecticides (OCL) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) differed by up to an order of magnitude. The upper section of the core had an average concentration of 39 ng g-1 PCB and SigmaDDT (sum of concentrations of DDT, DDD and DDE) 47 ng g-1 whereas in the lower section these were 309 and 87 ng g-1 respectively. This difference was attributed to improvements in waste water treatment technology, specifically the extension of activated sludge treatment at Beckton and its introduction at Crossness sewage treatment works (STW) between 1959 and 1964. At the time Beckton alone was the largest STW in Europe, treating waste from a population of 2.82 million in 1961, with a flow of 1.14 x 106 m3 d-1 through the works making it the largest tributary of the Thames. The abruptness of change in pollutant concentrations observed in cored sediments at -5.82 m below Ordnance Datum Newlyn (OD) was linked to dredging activities within the basin and did not reflect rates of temporal changes in inputs. There was evidence to suggest that dechlorination of PCB had occurred within the deposited sediments. This was expressed as a change in the ratios of lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) congeners relative to those with 5 or more substituted chlorine atoms. An average ratio of 0.23 from the sediment surface to -2.29 m OD changed to 0.32 and subsequently increased to 0.62 between -5.82 m to -9.55 m OD. A number of factors may account for changes in microbial dechlorination activity. However, the possibility that changes in input sources were responsible for such effects cannot be discounted.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the baltic and coastal waters of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Lerz, Astrid

    1996-03-01

    The distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides, e.g. the isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p’-dichiorodiphenyitrichloroethane (DDT) and its primary metabolites DDE and DDD was investigated in surface sediments (0 2 cm) and sediment cores (0 45 cm) from the western Baltic Sea and the coastal waters of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Sediment sampling was carried out in the Belt Sea, the Arkona Basin, the Pomeranian Bight and in almost all Bodden and Haff areas of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in autumn 1993 and 1994. The highest concentrations of PCB and DDT compounds, measured in the innercoastal waters, reached 214 ng g-1 dry weight (d. w.). The values of HCH isomers ranged between 0.01 and 2.9 ng g-1 d.w., the highest levels being those of Β-HCH. Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons, which varied depending on the sediment properties, indicated increased riverine inputs (Oder, Peene, and Uecker). Elevated levels in the Oderhaff and Peenestrom characterize that area as a sink and, due to remobilization of the upper sediment layer (fluffy layer) into the pelagic, also as a source of organic contaminants. Input from agriculture and industrial point sources (shipyards, shipbuilding) was observed in the coastal waters. The homogeneous PCB and DDT distribution (TOC standardization) observed in the surface sediments of some areas in the western Baltic indicates high sediment dynamics. This is supported by the results of sediment core analyses which showed a constant PCB and DDT distribution down to a depth of 15 to 20 cm.

  8. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in organically-farmed vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohair, Azza; Salim, Abou-Bakr; Soyibo, Adeola A; Beck, Angus J

    2006-04-01

    The residues of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils from organic farms and their uptake by four varieties of organic-produced potatoes and three varieties of organic carrots from England were investigated. Samples of the soils, crop peels and cores were all Soxhlet-extracted in triplicate, cleaned up by open-column chromatography and analysed by a multi-residue analytical method using gas chromatography with mass selective detection. The concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in soils from organic farms ranged from 590+/-43 to 2301+/-146 microg/kg, 3.56+/-0.73 to 9.61+/-1.98 microg/kg and 52.2+/-4.9 to 478+/-111 microg/kg, respectively. Uptake by different crop varieties were 8.42+/-0.93 to 40.1+/-4.9 microg/kg sigmaPAHs, 0.83+/-0.19 to 2.68+/-0.94 microg/kg sigmaPCBs and 8.09+/-0.83 to 133+/-27 microg/kg sigmaOCPs. Residue uptake from soils depended on plant variety; Desiree potato and Nairobi carrot varieties were more susceptible to PAH contamination. Likewise, uptake of PCBs and OCPs depended on potato variety. There were significant positive correlations between the PCB and OCP concentrations (Ppotatoes. Peeling carrots and potatoes was found to remove 52-100% of the contaminant residues depending on crop variety and the properties of the contaminants. Soil-crop bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased with increasing logK(ow) for PAHs up to about 4.5 and for PCBs up to about 6.5, above which no changes were discernible for either class of contaminants. No relationship was observed between soil-crop BCFs and logK(ow) for OCPs, most likely because their concentrations were low and variable. PMID:16297429

  9. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Louise; Vitonis Allison F; Altshul Larisa; Missmer Stacey A; Meeker John D; Cramer Daniel W; Hauser Russ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not...

  10. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  11. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a one-off global survey of bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Strand, Jakob; Christensen, Jan H.;

    2010-01-01

    During the Danish Galathea 3 expedition, bivalve samples were collected at the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Ghana, South Africa, Australia, Solomon Islands, New Zealand, Chile, US Virgin Islands, Boston, Newfoundland and Shetland Islands and analysed for organochlorines and PAHs. Concentration...

  13. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, S; Gandoura, N; Driss, M R

    2008-09-01

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (pmilk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines. PMID:18614165

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  15. Lactational Transfer of Polychlorinated-Biphenyls (PCBs) and Other Organochlorines in St. Lawrence Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Marc A; Muir, Derek C G; Béland, Pierre; Hickie, Brendan E

    2016-01-01

    This study uses an individual-based contaminant bioaccumulation model for marine mammals to explore factors controlling the transfer of PCBs from mother to calf via nursing in beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary. Beluga blubber samples (n = 46), along with four matched milk samples from stranded animals over the 1986-1994 period were used for comparison with modelled results. Based on 68 POPs, including 48 PCBs and 20 other organochlorine compounds, milk:blubber ratios were 0.65 between log K OW 3-6.5, then decreased to 0.1 at log K OW 8. Model simulations based on this relationship indicated females were transferring PCBs that were relatively very hydrophobic and highly chlorinated less readily than their lower chlorinated counterparts, resulting in an enriched concentration of very hydrophobic congeners in nursing females relative to adult males. There was very good agreement between observed and modelled male:female PCB concentration ratios. Four females within our dataset (15 %) had male-like ΣPCB concentrations as well as male-like congener profiles, suggesting that these individuals may have had a reduced or limited nursing history. PMID:26323485

  16. Potential effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) on immune cells and blood biochemistry measures: a cross-sectional assessment of the NHANES 2003-2004 data

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar, Berrin; William G LeBlanc; Norris, Jill M.; Dickinson, L. Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely distributed in the environment and may have adverse effects on the immune system. Methods Lipid adjusted serum levels of 19 Dioxin Like (DL), 17 Non Dioxin Like (NDL) PCBs, 5 OCPs, and measures of complete blood count and routine biochemistry profile were obtained from the NHANES 2003-2004 cycle. For each of the PCB/OCP variables, individuals were put into four exposure groups and blood markers were co...

  17. First worldwide UNEP interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with data on polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized, with a participation of 103 laboratories from Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Australia, of which the majority submitted data on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and

  18. Contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in breast milk in Korea: time-course variation, influencing factors, and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, In-Seok; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-11-01

    Breast milk is a noninvasive specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In this study, 206 breast milk samples were collected from 87 participants during lactation, at residue levels of these contaminants measured in our study were relatively lower than those reported for European, African and Asian populations. Within a month postpartum typically after day seven the levels of ΣPCB and ΣOCP significantly increased. Some OCP compounds were correlated with maternal age, BMI, parity, and delivery mode. Certain types of dietary habits such as seafood and noodle consumption were significantly associated with ΣPCB and ΣOCP. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of ΣPCB and ΣOCP were 45.2-127 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) and 625-1259 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) during lactation, respectively, which are lower than the threshold values proposed by the US EPA and Health Canada. The exposure of Korean infants to chlordanes via breast milk had a potential health risk which deserves further investigation. PMID:24112654

  19. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and analogues, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in sediments and biota (invertebrates, 11 fish species and cormorant tissues) collected in 2001 from the Danube Delta, the biggest European wetland. DDTs were the predominant pollutants in all samples. A high variability in the concentrations of pollutants within the same species was observed and this was related to sampling location, age, length and sex. DDTs were also the main organohalogenated contaminants in cormorant muscle and liver, followed by PCBs, HCHs, HCB and PBDEs. The present levels of DDTs in cormorant tissues are lower than levels measured in cormorant eggs sampled from the Danube Delta in 1982 and 1997, respectively. The variance of δ 15N for herbivores was much greater than for carnivores, while carp and bream showed higher δ 15N signatures than expected, probably due to a higher dietary proportion of benthos, typically more δ 15N enriched relative to pelagic biota. - Levels of persistent organohalogenated pollutants in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta are low

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the sand flats of Shuangtaizi Estuary, China: levels, distribution, and possible sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Yang, Xiaolong; Na, Guangshui; Zhang, Anguo; Mao, Yuze; Liu, Guize; Wang, Lili; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from the sandy flat system of Shuangtaizi Estuary, the highest-latitude estuary in China, were investigated to identify their possible sources and potential ecological risk. The concentrations of 28 PCBs and 18 OCPs ranged from 1.83 to 36.68 ng g(-1) dw (mean 10.53 ng g(-1) dw) and from 0.02 to 14.57 ng g(-1) dw (mean 5.65 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Generally, these organic pollutants showed an obvious spatial distribution, and relatively high levels were found at the high-tidal zone near river mouths. Compositional analyses indicated that tetra-PCBs were dominant for PCBs, whereas heptachlor was identified to be prevalent for OCPs in surficial sediment in the sand flats of Shuangtaizi Estuary. Overall, Shuangtaizi Estuary had moderate PCB and OCP levels in the sand flat sediments and posed a low ecological hazard to aquatic biota. Our results indicated that the sediment PCBs came from nonpoint deposition, such as atmospheric contribution and river input, for light chlorinated congeners and point source deposition, such as the industrial sources along river flow, for highly chlorinated congeners, whereas OCPs originate mainly from old residuals and new usage of pesticides in agriculture and aquaculture. PMID:25982989

  1. [Preparation and certification of mussel reference material for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls using isotope dilution-high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xianbo; Chen, Jiping; Wang, Shuqiu; Zou, Lili; Tian, Yuzeng; Ni, Yuwen; Su, Fan

    2012-09-01

    A method for the preparation and certification of the reference material of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mussel tissue is described. The mussel tissue from Dalian Bay was frozen-dried, comminuted, sieved, homogenized, packaged, and sterilized by 60Co radiation sterilization in turn. The certified values for 18 OCPs and 16 PCBs were determined by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using isotope dilution and internal standard quantitation techniques. The certified values were validated and given based on seven accredited laboratories, and these values are traceable to the SI (international system of units) through gravimetrically prepared standards of established purity and measurement intercomparisons. The certified values of PCBs and OCPs in mussel span 4 orders of magnitude with a relative uncertainty of about 10%. This material is a natural biological material with confirmed good homogeneity and stability, and it was approved as the grade "primary reference material" (GBW10069) in June 2012 in China. This reference material provided necessary quality control products for our country to implement the Stockholm Treaty on the monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The material is intended to be used for the method validation and quality control in the determination of OCPs and PCBs in biota samples. PMID:23285973

  2. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (pow such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines

  3. Temporal and spatial variabilities of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Canadian Arctic: results from a decade of monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H; Blanchard, P; Halsall, C J; Bidleman, T F; Stern, G A; Fellin, P; Muir, D C G; Barrie, L A; Jantunen, L M; Helm, P A; Ma, J; Konoplev, A

    2005-04-15

    The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) baseline monitoring project was established in 1992 to monitor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic air. Under this project, weekly samples of air were collected at four Canadian and two Russian arctic sites, namely Alert, Nunavut; Tagish, Yukon; Little Fox Lake, Yukon; Kinngait, Nunavut; Dunai Island, Russia and Amderma, Russia. Selected POPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides, were analyzed in both the gas and particulate phases. This paper summarizes results obtained from this project in the past 5 years. Temporal trends were developed for atmospheric PCBs and OCs observed at Alert using a digital filtration (DF) technique. It was found that trends developed with 5 years of data (1993-1997) did not differ significantly from those determined with 7 years of data (1993-1999). This implies that with the DF technique, long-term trends can still be developed with less than 10 years of data. An acceleration in decline of OC and PCB air concentrations was noted in 1999 for some compounds, although the reason is unknown. Monitoring efforts must continue to assess the effect of this decline on the long-term trends of POPs in the Canadian Arctic. Occasional high trans-/cis-chlordane ratios and heptachlor air concentrations measured at Alert between 1995 and 1997 suggests sporadic fresh usage of chlordane-based pesticides. However, significant decreasing trends of chlordanes along with their chemical signatures has provided evidence that emission of old soil residues is replacing new usage as an important source to the atmosphere. Measurements of OC air concentrations conducted at Kinngait in 1994-1995 and 2000-2001 indicated faster OC removal at this location than at Alert. This may be attributed to the proximity of Kinngait to temperate regions where both biotic and abiotic degradation rates are faster. The PAH concentrations observed

  4. Interactions of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides with sedimentary organic matter of retrogressive thaw slump-affected lakes in the tundra uplands adjacent to the Mackenzie Delta, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickmeyer, David C.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Kokelj, Steve V.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Smol, John P.; Sanei, Hamed; Thienpont, Joshua R.; Blais, Jules M.

    2016-02-01

    Using a comparative spatial analysis of sediment cores from eight lakes in tundra uplands adjacent to the Mackenzie Delta, NT, we examined how the presence of retrogressive thaw slumps on lake shores affected persistent organic pollutant (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides) accumulation in lake sediments. Sediments of slump-affected lakes contained higher total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized POP concentrations than nearby reference lakes that were unaffected by thaw slumps. Mean focus-corrected inorganic sedimentation rates were positively related to TOC-normalized contaminant concentrations, explaining 58-94% of the variation in POP concentrations in sediment, suggesting that reduced organic carbon in slump-affected lake water results in higher concentrations of POPs on sedimentary organic matter. This explanation was corroborated by an inverse relationship between sedimentary POP concentrations and TOC content of the lake water. Inferred chlorophyll a, S2, and S3 carbon fluxes to sediment were not significantly correlated to POP fluxes. Higher POP concentrations observed in sediment of slump-affected lakes are best explained by simple solvent switching processes of hydrophobic organic contaminants onto a smaller pool of available organic carbon when compared to neighboring lakes unaffected by thaw slump development.

  5. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  6. Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dawei; Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Dunstan, Jody; Hagberg, Jessika; Wang, Thanh; Ruzzin, Jerome; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; van Bavel, Bert

    2016-07-01

    A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r(2))>0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4pg/μL) and CS 3 (4pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS. PMID:27236485

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and

  8. Atmospheric concentrations and loadings of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin (GLB): Spatial and temporal analysis (1992-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Gawor, Anya; Hung, Hayley; Brice, Kenneth A; Su, Ky; Alexandrou, Nick; Dryfhout-Clark, Helena; Backus, Sean; Sverko, Ed; Shin, Cecilia; Park, Richard; Noronha, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring data for POPs are required to determine the effectiveness of source reduction measures and factors controlling air concentrations. Air samples were collected between 1992 and 2012 at three sites with different geographical characteristics (Burnt Island, Egbert and Point Petre) in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using high-volume samplers and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Spatial and temporal trends of gas-phase concentrations of OCPs, selected PCB congeners and ƩPCBs (84 congeners) were assessed. Egbert had the highest concentrations of some OCPs due to historical [dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), dieldrin, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)] and current (endosulfan) applications of these pesticides in the surrounding agricultural cropland. This shows that agricultural areas are a source of OCPs to the GLB. High o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios were determined and an increasing trend was observed at Point Petre and Burnt Island up to 2004; indicating that the GLB is influenced by dicofol-type DDT sources, which have higher o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios than technical DDT. Atmospheric PCB concentrations at Egbert and Point Petre are higher than those measured at Burnt Island, likely due to urban influence and greater populations. Loadings calculations suggest that the atmosphere is a source of α-endosulfan and p,p'-DDT to the lakes and the opposite is true for p,p'-DDE. Long-term decreasing trends were observed for both OCPs and PCBs; consistent with control measures implemented in North America. Atmospheric PCB concentrations are decreasing relatively slowly, with halflives in the range of 9-39 years. Chlordane, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT-related substances showed halflives in the range of 7-13 years. α-HCH and γ-HCH were decreasing rapidly in air, with halflives of 5 years. Long-term declining trends of PCBs and OCPs suggest that regulatory efforts to reduce emissions

  9. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  10. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab egg...

  11. Application of dispersive Liquid-Liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine, and pyrethroid pesticides in aqueous sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Mei; Li, Man-Liang [Enshi Prefecture Tobacco Company, Enshi, Hubei (China); Cheng, Jing; Matsadiq, Guzalnur; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Miao [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) technique was successfully applied for simultaneous assay of eight polychlorinated biphenyls, two organochlorine, and four pyrethroid pesticides multi-residue in aqueous samples by using GC-electron capture detection. The effects of various parameters such as kind of extractant and dispersant and volume of them, extraction time, effect of salt addition, and pH were optimized. As a result, 5.0 {mu}L 1-dodecanol was chosen as extraction solvent, 600 {mu}L methanol were used as dispersive solvent without salt addition, pH was adjusted to 7. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were ranged from 1.4 to 8.3 ng L{sup -1}. Satisfactory linear range was observed from 5.0 to 2000 ng L{sup -1} with correlation coefficient better than 0.9909. Good precisions were also acquired with RSD better than 13.6% for all target analytes. The enrichment factors of the method were ranged from 786 to 1427. The method can be successfully applied to simultaneous separation and determination of three class residues in real water samples and good recoveries were obtained ranging from 76 to 130, 73 to 129, and 78 to 130% for tap water, lake water, and industrial waste water, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. A routine accredited method for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, chlorobenzenes and screening of other halogenated organics in soil, sediment and sludge by GCxGC-{mu}ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscalu, Alina M. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Laboratory Services Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Reiner, Eric J.; Chen, Tony; Ladwig, Gerry; Morse, David [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Laboratory Services Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Liss, Steven N. [Queens University, School of Environmental Studies, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    The analysis of persistent organic pollutants is a real challenge due to the large number of compounds with varying chemical and physical properties. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection or mass spectrometry has been the method of choice for the past 50 years. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) coupled with micro-electron capture detector ({mu}ECD) is a new method that can analyze polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and chlorobenzenes (CBz) in a single analytical run with enhanced selectivity and sensitivity over single column methods and can also be used to screen for other halogenated organics in environmental samples. An accredited routine method using commercially available LECO GCxGC-{mu}ECD and a column combination DB-1 x Rtx-PCB has been developed to analyse PCBs/OCs/CBz in soils, sediments and sludges. The method provides quantification of Aroclors and Aroclor mixtures to within 15% of target values and sub-nanogrammes per gramme detection limits. (orig.)

  13. Application of dispersive Liquid-Liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine, and pyrethroid pesticides in aqueous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) technique was successfully applied for simultaneous assay of eight polychlorinated biphenyls, two organochlorine, and four pyrethroid pesticides multi-residue in aqueous samples by using GC-electron capture detection. The effects of various parameters such as kind of extractant and dispersant and volume of them, extraction time, effect of salt addition, and pH were optimized. As a result, 5.0 μL 1-dodecanol was chosen as extraction solvent, 600 μL methanol were used as dispersive solvent without salt addition, pH was adjusted to 7. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were ranged from 1.4 to 8.3 ng L-1. Satisfactory linear range was observed from 5.0 to 2000 ng L-1 with correlation coefficient better than 0.9909. Good precisions were also acquired with RSD better than 13.6% for all target analytes. The enrichment factors of the method were ranged from 786 to 1427. The method can be successfully applied to simultaneous separation and determination of three class residues in real water samples and good recoveries were obtained ranging from 76 to 130, 73 to 129, and 78 to 130% for tap water, lake water, and industrial waste water, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sourthern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H.; Kannan, K.; Jing, L.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT), HCHs (α-, β-, γ-isomers), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA, during 1992–96. The contamination pattern of organochlorines in sea otters from several locations was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > > CHLs > HCHs > > HCB, whereas those from Monterey Harbor contained greater concentrations of PCBs than of DDTs. Hepatic concentrations of PCBs and DDTs were in the ranges of 58–8700 and 280–5900 ng/g, wet weight, respectively, which varied depending on the geographic location. Sea otters collected from Monterey Harbor contained the greatest concentrations of PCBs and DDTs. In general, accumulation of DDTs, CHLs and PCBs was greater in kidney than in liver, whereas that of HCHs was similar in both the tissues. The gender difference in organochlorine concentrations was less than those reported in cetaceans. The composition of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs compounds in sea otter tissues indicated no recent inputs of these compounds in coastal California. Sea otters that died from infectious diseases, neoplasia and emaciation contained higher concentrations of DDTs than those that died from trauma.

  15. Time course of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast-feeding mothers throughout the first 10 months of lactation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Soukaina; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Organochorine (OCs) residues were measured in human breast milk samples from four Tunisian women. Month-mix samples composed of weekly collected breast milk samples were analyzed over the lactation period between 3 days after delivery and 10 months post-partum. The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The variation of OC residue levels in human milk was investigated for each woman individually. The average p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT concentrations declined from 661- and 438-ng g(-1) fat basis at day 3 to 77- and 106-ng g(-1) fat basis after 8 months, respectively. No essential changes in HCB, HCHs, dieldrin, and total PCBs concentrations in human breast milk occurred over the lactation periods investigated; the concentrations remained either relatively constant or show no significant weak decrease. PMID:22644123

  16. Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue in Spain: Study of an agrarian area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camps, M.; Planas, J.; Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Corbella, J.

    1989-02-01

    The environmental pollution by persistent organochlorine residues has received much attention in the last years because of its possible effects on wildlife and human health. These residues - organochlorine insecticides, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in minor levels, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) - are accumulated in lipid-rich tissues. Their concentrations in adipose tissues of human populations are the best indices in determining the extent of exposure and in evaluating the hazard. In a previous study on the urban population of Barcelona (Spain) during the years 1982-83, high levels of DDE, DDT, /beta/-HCH and HCB were determined. Recently the incidence of HCB in Barcelona has been confirmed by serum determinations. In the present paper the authors have investigated the levels of organochlorine residues - with special concern on HCB- in human adipose tissues from an agrarian area, located at 130 km from Barcelona, mainly devoted to fruit-trees and cereal culture. Results obtained will form part of an up-to-date report on organochlorine pollution in Spain, including several populations of different geographical and socioeconomic characteristics, that will make it possible to identify the sources and trends of this contamination.

  17. CONTAMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FISHES LEADING TO TOXICITY IN FISH CONSUMING POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey; Madhuri S.; A.B. Shrivastav

    2012-01-01

    The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the most critical environmental problems. Similar to humans and other species of animals, fish have also been found to be polluted with a large number of pollutants/contaminants. Unintentionally added chemicals causing fish toxicity include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent chemicals in feed, chemicals in construction materials, and metabolites and degradation produc...

  18. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere. PMID:26780048

  19. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp; Gunnarsen, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s...

  20. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  1. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the

  2. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  3. Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Muir, D C; Chan, H M; Soueida, R

    1995-10-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides through traditional food resources was examined for Arctic Indigenous women living in two cultural and environmental areas of the Canadian Arctic--one community representing Baffin Island Inuit in eastern Arctic and two communities representing Sahtú Dene/Métis in western Arctic. Polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin were determined in local food resources as normally prepared and eaten. Quantified dietary recalls taken seasonally reflected normal consumption patterns of these food resources by women in three age groups: 20-40 y, 41-60 y and > or = 61 y. There was wide variation of intake of all organochlorine contaminants in both areas and among age groups for the Sahtú. Fifty percent of the intake recalls collected from the Baffin Inuit exceeded the acceptable daily intake for chlordane-related compounds and toxaphene, and a substantial percentage of the intake records for dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls exceeded the acceptable or tolerable daily intake levels. Primary contributing foods to organochlorine contaminants intake for the Baffin Inuit were meat and blubber of ringed seal, blubber of walrus and mattak and blubber of narwal. Important foods contributing organochlorine contaminant to the Sahtú Dene/Métis were caribou, whitefish, inconnu, trout and duck. The superior nutritional benefits and potential health risks of traditional food items are reviewed, as are implications for monitoring organochlorine contaminant contents of food, clinical symptoms and food use. PMID:7562084

  4. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  6. Trace elements, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in New Zealand common dolphins (Delphinus sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide levels were determined in tissues collected from stranded and bycaught common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) from New Zealand waters between 1999 and 2005. The concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and silver (Ag) were determined in blubber, liver and kidney tissue. PCBs (45 congeners) and a range of OC pesticides including dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites DDE and DDD were determined in blubber samples. Cr and Ni were not detected in any of the samples and concentrations of Co, Sn and Pb were generally low. Concentrations of Hg ranged from 0.17 to 110 mg/kg wet weight. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, HCB, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were present at the highest concentrations. Sum DDT concentrations in the blubber ranged from 17 to 337 and 654 to 4430 μg/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. Similarly, Σ45CB concentrations ranged from 49 to 386 and 268 to 1634 μg/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. The mean transmission of ΣDDTs and ICES7CBs between a genetically determined mother-offspring pair was calculated at 46% and 42%, respectively. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides determined in the present study are within similar range to those reported for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhyncus hectori) from inshore New Zealand waters

  7. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  8. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Éric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning S.;

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We...... report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high...... than those measured using the same analytical method in samples from Canadians in Quebec City, Quebec. Brain lipids contained lower concentrations of all organochlorines than lipids extracted from other tissues. Organochlorine residue levels in lipid extracts from liver, omental fat, and subcutaneous...

  9. Organochlorines in cultivated sea bass and in diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, O.; Antunes, P. [Inst. Nacional de Investigacao Agraria e das Pescas/IPIMAR, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The main source of organochlorines bioaccumulation seems to be the food and marine species are considered one of the most important sources of organochlorines for human population. Therefore, it is essential to inventory the levels of these contaminants in marine organisms and find ways to reduce these levels. Aquaculture has been developed in the past decades and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is one of the main species produced in Portugal. The levels of organochlorines of commercial formulations of diets used in fish farming can influence the concentrations of fish produced in these systems of culture. In this study eighteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and p,p'-DDT compounds were quantified in cultivated sea bass from two farms and the influence of size and diet contamination in bioaccumulation of these compounds was evaluated.

  10. Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: Levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 wereanalysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers...... andhexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs and DDT (including metabolites) were by far the most abundant OC groups,with median concentrations of 55 and 40 μg/g lw, respectively. The concentrations were high in an Arcticcontext, but similar to previously reported levels from Alaska and Norway and slightly lower...

  11. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M;

    2015-01-01

    than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin...... contaminants provides further indications that some organochlorines and phthalates adversely affect some parameters of male reproductive health....

  12. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine compounds in duplicate diet samples from a Portuguese academic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Sónia D; Sousa, Ana C A; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nogueira, António J A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were measured in duplicate diet samples from 21 volunteers at a Portuguese academic community (University of Aveiro). Overall, the levels of the target compounds were low, with detection frequencies varying widely depending on the compounds and with brominated flame retardants (BFRs) registering the lowest detection frequencies. Among PCB congeners, nondioxin-like PCBs were predominant and detected in the majority of the samples. Organochlorine pesticides were also detected in the majority of the samples, with 100% detection for DDTs and HCHs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated using lower and upper bound estimations, and in both cases values were far below the currently established tolerable daily intakes for PCBs and OCs and the reference doses for PBDEs and HBCDDs. PMID:27367176

  13. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  14. Levels of organochlorine contaminants in human milk in relation to the dietary habits of the mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, K

    1983-11-01

    The levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, alpha- and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH), hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in milk fat from mothers with different dietary habits. The categories studied comprised mothers eating a lacto-vegetarian diet (18 milk samples), a mixed diet (20 milk samples) and a mixed diet which regularly included fatty fish from the Baltic (11 milk samples). The lowest levels of p,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDE and PCBs were found in milk from lacto-vegetarians and the highest levels in milk from mothers who regularly consumed fatty fish from the Baltic. Factors other than the diets which could influence the levels of the organochlorine compounds are discussed, e.g. mother's age, amount of milk produced and mother's weight loss. PMID:6424401

  15. Estrogenic microenvironment generated by organochlorine residues in adipose mammary tissue modulates biomarker expression in ERα-positive breast carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Durando, Milena; Beldoménico, Pablo M; Beldoménico, Horacio R; Kass, Laura; García, Silvia R; Luque, Enrique H

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease in women. Exposure to estrogens throughout a woman's life is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Organochlorine compounds (OCCs), such as pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, are persistent lipophilic chemicals identified as endocrine disruptors, mainly with estrogenic effects. To test the hypothesis that the amount and quality of organochlorine residues in adipose tissue adjacent to breast carcinoma affect...

  16. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, R.C.; Gilmer, D.S.; Coon, N.C.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974?79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks.

  17. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  18. Influence of the drying step within disk-based solid-phase extraction both on the recovery and the limit of quantification of organochlorine pesticides in surface waters including suspended particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Anastasia; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-06-10

    In this study, 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined based on sample preparation using solid-phase extraction disks (SPE disks) coupled with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV)-large-volume injection gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). The work includes a comprehensive testing scheme on the suitability of the method for routine analysis of surface and drinking water including suspended particulate matter (SPM) with regard to requirements derived from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC). SPM is an important reservoir for OCPs, which contributes to the transport of these compounds in the aquatic environment. To achieve the detection limits required by the WFD, a high pre-concentration factor during sample preparation is necessary, which was achieved by disk SPE in this study. The performance of disk SPE is strongly influenced by the drying step, which could be significantly improved by effective elimination of the residual water by combination of a high vacuum pump and a low humidity atmosphere. Detection limits of the WFD in the ng/L range were achieved by large volume injection of 100μL sample extract. The recoveries ranged from 82% to 117% with an RSD smaller than 13%. The applicability of this method to natural samples was tested for instrumental qualification and system suitability evaluation. Successful participation in an interlaboratory comparison proved the suitability of the method for routine analysis. PMID:27173769

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish from lakes of the Tibetan Plateau and the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiqiang; Wang, Yawei; Li, An; Zhang, Qinghua; Jing, Chuanyong; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-06-01

    High mountains may play significant roles in the global transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, patterns and distribution of semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants and to improve the understanding of the long-range atmospheric transport and fate of contaminants on the Tibetan Plateau. A total of 60 fish samples were collected from eight lakes located between 2813 and 4718 m above sea level across the Plateau. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in fish muscle. The results showed that concentrations of DDT, HCH and HCB were comparable to or lower than those found in remote mountains of Europe, Canada and US, while PCB concentrations in fish were, on average, about 4-150 times lower on Tibet than at other mountain areas. The transport and fate of contaminants in the Plateau are significantly influenced by the unique climatological and meteorological conditions, particularly by the summer Indian monsoon and winter westerly jet stream. PMID:20199831

  20. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  1. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. - Fish tainted with dioxin-like PCBs might pose a risk to Hong Kong dolphins

  2. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  3. Organochlorine and mercury residues in canvasback duck eggs, 1972-73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, R.C.; Cromartie, E.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Longcore, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Eggs of canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria) from several major breeding areas were analyzed for organochlorine and mercury residues. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in 96 of 97 eggs, in concentrations up to 29 ppm (wet wt.). DDE occurred in 79 percent of the samples with a maximum residue of 12 ppm (wet wt.). DDT, DDD, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and oxychlordane were detected less frequently. Mercury was detected in only 6 of 34 eggs analyzed. Most of the eggs contained concentrations of organochlorines and mercury below levels known to cause adverse effects on avian survival or reproduction.

  4. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rank Fritz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. Methods The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78. The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. Results The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01. Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7, but no dose-response relation was apparent. Conclusion The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified.

  5. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78). The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN) tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01). Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7), but no dose-response relation was apparent. The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified

  6. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We analyzeds streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for or ganochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB). Our objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. We detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was ΣDDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and Σchlordane (sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor oxychlordane, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide). Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, ΣDDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although ΣDDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, our study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  7. Study on PCBs, PCDD/Fs, organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals and arsenic content in freshwater fish species from the River Turia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordajandi, L R; Gómez, G; Fernández, M A; Abad, E; Rivera, J; González, M J

    2003-10-01

    In this study samples of common trout, European eel and barbel have been analysed for the levels of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and the metalloid arsenic (As). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including three non-ortho substituted PCBs, 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and DDT and its two main metabolites were also analysed in some selected samples, in order to evaluate the extent of contamination of the River Turia basin. All samples presented detectable levels of the elements analysed, presenting zinc the highest concentrations. European eel was the species found to highly accumulate these contaminants. Regarding organochlorinated compounds, seven samples exhibited detectable levels of the most toxic PCDD/Fs congener, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Non-ortho PCBs were not detected or not quantified in almost all samples and the sum of the individual PCB congeners determined were low compared to other aquatic ecosystems with similar fish species. PMID:12892679

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organochlorines and Childhood Obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project

    OpenAIRE

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In some previous studies, prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines such as 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p´-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in children. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), p,p´-DDE, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, trans-nonachlo...

  9. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    OpenAIRE

    Dip, R; Hegglin, D; Deplazes, P.; Dafflon, O; Koch, H; Naegeli, H

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly highe...

  10. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wereanalyzed in sediment and mussel( Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, SouthChina. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/glipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and< 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment,and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presentedsimilar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantlycorrelated ( p < 0.01 ) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several timeshigher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compoundsmeasured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, andtetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition.According to the present results, three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, LingdingYang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all musselsamples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 μg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group ofGuangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  11. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  12. Organochlorine contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D C; Ford, C A; Grift, N P; Stewart, R E; Bidleman, T F

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (DDT, chlordane, polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), dieldrin, hexachloroheclohexanes (SigmaHCH), mirex), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorobenzenes (SigmaCBz) were determined in blubber and liver of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) collected during 1982-1983 from Pond Inlet on northern Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. PCCs were the predominate organochlorines in narwhal blubber, ranging in concentration from 2990 to 13 200 ng g(-1) (wet wt) in males and from 1910 to 8390 ng g(-1) in females. PCCs consisted of two major components, an octachlorobornane and a nonachlorobornane with gas chromatographic retention times of 1.05 and 1.22, relative to 4,4'-DDE. SigmaPCB concentrations in blubber ranged from 2250 to 7290 ng g(-1) in males and from 894 to 5710 ng g(-1) in females. Seven PCB congeners (tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls) accounted for 45% of total PCB (SigmaPCB) in narwhal blubber. Narwhal had 1.4- to 8.6-fold higher ratios of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls to PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), lower 4,4'-DDE/SigmaDDT ratios and lower proportions of trans-nonachlor to total chlordane components than reported for odontocetes living in more contaminated environments. Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in narwhal were 6- to 15-fold lower than in dolphins from the Canadian east coast and belugas from the St Lawrence River estuary, respectively, while PCC levels were from 4- to about 2-fold lower, and SigmaHCH, dieldrin and SigmaCBz differed by <2-fold. The pattern of organochlorines in narwhal tissues suggests they are exposed to proportionally more volatile compounds, and may have less capacity to metabolize some of these compounds, relative to odontocetes living nearer sources of these contaminants. PMID:15092019

  13. Serum organochlorine levels and history of lactation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a study in Egypt to assess the determinants of organochlorine serum levels among premenopausal women and the risk of premenopausal breast cancer for women with high organochlorine serum levels. We included 69 breast cancer patients and 53 controls consisting of visitors to the hospitals of the cancer patients. We found low levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and β-hexacholorhexane (β-HCH) in most subjects. Mean DDE levels were 12.7±20.3 ppb for cases and 16.6±30.1 ppb for controls (P=0.60); β-HCH levels were 2.1±3.8 ppb for patients and 2.1±3.9 ppb for controls (P=0.71). Interestingly, subjects with low levels had breast fed their children for an average period of 18 months. Women with no lactation history had much higher organochlorine levels than women who breast fed (P=0.002 for DDE). Younger age, older age at first childbirth, and shorter duration of breast feeding were significant predictors of higher levels of serum DDE levels. Younger age, older age at first childbirth, and higher body mass index were significant predictors of higher β-HCH levels. This study suggests that organochlorine serum levels in Egyptian women are quite low, but indicates an effect of breast feeding in eliminating organochlorines, which would imply exposure to children. Organochlorine serum level was not a risk factor of breast cancer in this population

  14. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 μM) relative to the positive control 10 μM rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D3 activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D3 activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism

  15. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Genuis; Sanjay Beesoon; Detlef Birkholz

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to f...

  16. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  17. High performance solid-phase extraction cleanup method coupled with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Jin, Jing; Tan, Dongqin; Xu, Jiazhi; Dhanjai; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping

    2016-05-27

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup method was developed to purify the sample extracts for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Monodisperse magnesium oxide (MgO) microspheres and basic alumina were used as SPE adsorbents. Important parameters of the SPE procedure were optimized, including the amount of basic alumina and the type and volume of the washing and elution solvents. The optimized SPE cleanup method exhibited excellent purification performance for the removal of organochlorinated compounds, lipid compounds, sulfur, and pigments. Additionally, it was found that the retention activities of congeners differed with the number and position of the chlorine substituents in PCNs. In this study, an analytical method based on a combination of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with SPE cleanup and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is proposed for the analysis of PCNs and dl-PCBs in complex samples (sediment, pine needle, and scallop samples). The analytical method demonstrates good linearity, acceptable recovery (63-148%) and precision (relative standard deviations less than 26%). The limits of detection (LODs) of PCN and dl-PCB congeners were in the range of 0.6-19.1pgg(-1) and 0.4-8.6pgg(-1), respectively. The PCNs and dl-PCBs levels in these samples ranged from 0.16 to 3.07ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and from undetectable to 0.07ngg(-1) dw, respectively. PMID:27130583

  18. Geographical distribution, accumulation kinetics and infants health risk of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide production and use of organochlorine compounds (OCs) have led to their widespread occurrence in the environment and bioaccumulation in various organisms, including humans. In Indonesia, large usage and production of OCs in the past, particularly OCs pesticides for agricultural and vector-borne disease eradication programs may implicate contaminations of OCs in the environment. Previous studies dealing with mussels as bioindicator reported widespread occurrence of OCs in the coastal environment of this country, and found hot spots of contamination in the waters surroundings Java Island. Occurrence of OCs were also reported in various environmental compartments including fish, sediment and air. However, data on levels of OCs in humans are very scarce. Hence this study has highlighted the accumulation of OCs in human milk from Indonesia, particularly in Java Island where industrial and intensive agriculture are taking place. In this study, concentrations of classical OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the most recently identified microcontaminants, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH) and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) were determined in human breast milk collected from several locations in Indonesia to elucidate their distribution in relation to their site activities, to assess their possible association with maternal characteristics and to evaluate the possible potential risk of OCs in breast-milk on infant's health.

  19. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish from lakes of the Tibetan Plateau and the implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ruiqiang; Wang Yawei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Li An [School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Zhang Qinghua; Jing Chuanyong; Wang Thanh; Wang Pu; Li Yingming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Jiang Guibin, E-mail: gbjiang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2010-06-15

    High mountains may play significant roles in the global transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, patterns and distribution of semi-volatile organoclorine pollutants and to improve the understanding of the long-range atmospheric transport and fate of contaminants on the Tibetan Plateau. A total of 60 fish samples were collected from eight lakes located between 2813 and 4718 m above sea level across the Plateau. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in fish muscle. The results showed that concentrations of DDT, HCH and HCB were comparable to or lower than those found in remote mountains of Europe, Canada and US, while PCB concentrations in fish were, on average, about 4-150 times lower on Tibet than at other mountain areas. The transport and fate of contaminants in the Plateau are significantly influenced by the unique climatological and meteorological conditions, particularly by the summer Indian monsoon and winter westerly jet stream. - Occurrence of POPs in higher-altitude lakes suggests that Tibetan Plateau acts as potential regional convergence zones for long-range atmospheric transported contaminants.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish from lakes of the Tibetan Plateau and the implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High mountains may play significant roles in the global transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, patterns and distribution of semi-volatile organoclorine pollutants and to improve the understanding of the long-range atmospheric transport and fate of contaminants on the Tibetan Plateau. A total of 60 fish samples were collected from eight lakes located between 2813 and 4718 m above sea level across the Plateau. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in fish muscle. The results showed that concentrations of DDT, HCH and HCB were comparable to or lower than those found in remote mountains of Europe, Canada and US, while PCB concentrations in fish were, on average, about 4-150 times lower on Tibet than at other mountain areas. The transport and fate of contaminants in the Plateau are significantly influenced by the unique climatological and meteorological conditions, particularly by the summer Indian monsoon and winter westerly jet stream. - Occurrence of POPs in higher-altitude lakes suggests that Tibetan Plateau acts as potential regional convergence zones for long-range atmospheric transported contaminants.

  2. Hydrophobic organochlorine compounds sequestered in submersed aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla yerticillata (L.f.) Royle) from the tidal Potomac River (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminants to be sequestered in submersed aquatic vegetation was evaluated by determining the concentrations of cis- and trans-chlordane, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feral aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) collected from the tidal Potomac River. Similarities in mean dry-weight concentrations of the identified organochlorine compounds in H. verticillata and surrounding alluvial sediments indicated that the extent of sequestration in H. verticillata was of the same magnitude as sorption of these compounds to river sediments, but some qualitative differences in PCB congener profiles existed. The results imply that to some degree H. verticillata can influence downstream fluxes of organic contaminants in fluvial transport in the Potomac River, and, furthermore, identify this species as a viable candidate organism for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminant biomonitoring in the Chesapeake Bay estuary.

  3. Blood levels of organochlorines before and after chemotherapy among non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, D; Kwak, L W; Rothman, N; Wilson, W; Manns, A; Tarone, R E; Hartge, P

    2000-02-01

    Several small studies suggest a link between environmental exposure to organochlorine compounds and risk of non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Because NHL is uncommon, studies of the topic often use a population-based case-control design, in which cases generally are enrolled after treatment has begun. If chemotherapy affects blood levels of organochlorines, exposure will be misclassified and findings distorted. To determine whether chemotherapy alters serum levels of organochlorines in NHL cases, we compared serum samples before and after treatment in 22 cases diagnosed with NHL between March 1994 and August 1995 and enrolled in a clinical trial at the United States National Cancer Institute's Clinical Center. The time difference between pretreatment and posttreatment samples ranged from 15 to 27 months with an average of 20 months. Laboratory analyses were conducted in blinded pretreatment and posttreatment pairs of the subjects. Pretreatment and posttreatment organochlorine serum levels were compared using Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and paired t test. The pretreatment and posttreatment serum levels were highly correlated for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-156, and total PCBs (ranging from 0.78 to 0.93). Serum levels of all of these organochlorines significantly decreased between initiation and completion of chemotherapy, 25% for total PCB (P = 0.0044), 28% for DDE (P = 0.0014), 25% for PCB-138 (P = 0.0053), 27% for PCB-153 (P = 0.0031), and 29% for PCB-156 (P = 0.045). Neither weight change nor lipid change was correlated with changes in chemical levels. There was no association between the length of time between blood draws and changes in chemical levels. Our data raise the possibility that lymphoma treatment depresses serum organochlorine levels. PMID:10698481

  4. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  5. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W;

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... SigmaCHL (p < 0.03) in subadults and for dieldrin (p < 0.002) and SigmaDDT (p < 0.02) in adult males; indications for SigmaPBDE in subadults were also found (p = 0.06). In conclusion, the strong correlative relationships suggest that disruption of the bone mineral composition in East Greenland polar...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  6. Bimonthly variability of persistent organochlorines in plastic pellets from four beaches in Mumbai coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in plastic pellets collected from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. A total of 72 pools of pellets were extracted and analysed by gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni(63) electron capture detector (ECD). The median concentrations of seven ΣPCBs and 16 ΣOCPs were 37.08 and 104.90 ng g(-1) (n = 72), respectively. PCB-28 was recorded at the highest concentration with a mean of 17.58 ± 2.77 ng g(-1) among the seven PCBs studied, followed by PCB-52 and PCB-101. Bimonthly variation was significant for ΣPCBs. The ΣPCB concentration in November was at par with that of September and was significantly higher than those of the other months (p micropollutants. PMID:26116196

  7. Estimation of dietary intake of PCB and organochlorine pesticides for children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Højgård, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine substances, including a number of organochlorine pesticides and PCB, are monitored in food, including meat, fish and dairy products. The substances are slowly degradable and therefore persist for long periods in the environment, where they accumulate in the fatty tissues...... pesticides and 0.9 μg/day for the indicator PCB-sum. People with a relatively high intake of these substances (the 95th percentile) are estimated to consume approximately twice as much. In general, the highest contributions to the intake of the organochlorine environmental contaminants are from fish, meat...

  8. Occurence and trend analysis of organochlorine in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Peters, R.J.B.; Egmond, van H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2014-01-01

    In this report historical data are used to give insight into the trends in levels of organochlorine compounds in compound feeds and feeding materials for animals in the Netherlands. The main focus is on pesticides, but non-dioxin-like PCBs have been studied as well. The latter will be included in th

  9. Baseline occurrence of organochlorine pesticides and other xenobiotics in the marine environment: Caribbean and Pacific collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert; Soares Quinete, Natalia; Gardinali, Piero; Seba, Douglas

    2013-05-15

    This ongoing survey reports the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea surface slicks collected on a global circumnavigation. Hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds such as POPs are known to accumulate on the sea surface in slicks at concentrations many fold greater than the underlying water column, raising concerns about the ecological impacts due to the high biological activity associated with this zone. Six different categories of POPs were reported: chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane related compounds, organochlorine pesticides and other cyclodiene pesticides, DDTs and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations ranged from endocrine disrupters. PMID:23597795

  10. Subchronic Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) Exposure Produces Oxidative Damage and Neuronal Death of Ventral Midbrain Dopaminergic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donna W.; Notter, Sarah A.; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Dever, Daniel P.; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Opanashuk, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a link between organochlorine and pesticide exposure to an enhanced risk for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). A common biological phenomenon underlying cell injury associated with both polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and dopaminergic neurodegeneration during aging is oxidative stress (OS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that oral PCB exposure, via food ingestion, impairs dopamine systems in the adult ...

  11. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  12. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Kasuga, Yoshio [Department of Surgery, Nagano Matsushiro General Hospital, 183 Matsushiro, Matsushiro-cho, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–1231 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1 Wakasato, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 380–8582 Japan (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki [Department of Respiratory Surgery and Breast Surgery, Nagano Municipal Hospital, 1333–1 Tomitake, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–8551 Japan (Japan); Kusama, Ritsu [Department of Surgery, Hokushin General Hospital, 1-5-63 Nishi, Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture 383–8505 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Teruhiko [Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazuhito [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Dierctor Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  13. CONTAMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FISHES LEADING TO TOXICITY IN FISH CONSUMING POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Pandey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the most critical environmental problems. Similar to humans and other species of animals, fish have also been found to be polluted with a large number of pollutants/contaminants. Unintentionally added chemicals causing fish toxicity include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and other persistent chemicals in feed, chemicals in construction materials, and metabolites and degradation products of intentionally added chemicals. High levels of PCBs have been reported in farmed fishes. The fishes caught in highly polluted water could cause cells of some kinds of cancers to multiply rapidly. The PCBs are persistent environmental contaminants that are ubiquitous in the environment due to intensive industrial use. Many PCB congeners persist in ambient air, water, marine sediments and soil at low levels throughout the world. Humans may be exposed to detectable quantities of PCBs when they eat fish, use fish oils in cooking, or consume meat, milk or cheese. The general population is exposed to PCBs by inhaling contaminated air and ingesting contaminated water and food. The toxic responses to PCBs are dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse effects on reproduction, development and endocrine functions. Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of background levels of PCBs may cause slight but measurable impairments in physical growth and learning behaviour in children.

  14. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The

  15. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x103 and 50x103 dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x103 and 5x103 dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p3 dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in

  16. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui

    2016-09-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL(-1) for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL(-1) for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL(-1) for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9-2054 pg g(-1) and 16 PCNs present at 0.2-15.7 pg g(-1) in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID

  17. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W;

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... and three lumbar vertebrae with skull in a subsample. We detected highly significant correlations between BMD in skull and femur (r = 0.99; p < 0.001; n = 13) and skull and vertebrae (r = 0.97; p < 0.001; n = 8). BMD in skulls sampled in the supposed pre-organochlorine/PBDE period (1892-1932) was...... significantly higher than that in skulls sampled in the supposed pollution period (1966-2002) for subadult females, subadult males, and adult males (all, p < 0.05) but not adult females (p = 0.94). We found a negative correlation between organochlorines and skull BMD for the sum of PCBs (SigmaPCB; p < 0.04) and...

  18. ADSORPTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Preda; Radu Lăcătuşu; Dumitru Marian Motelică; Nicoleta Vrînceanu; Veronica Tănase

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil is determined by several factors including adsorption, mobility and degradation. Adsorption, directly or indirectly, influences the other factors. Adsorption process is generally evaluated by using adsorption isotherms representing the relationship between the quantity of substance adsorbed per unit weight and concentration of the substance in solution at equilibrium. They allow determination of the adsorption constant, which is directl...

  19. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, trace elements and metals in western pond turtle eggs from Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Beal, K.F.; Bury, R. Bruce; Goggans, R.

    2003-01-01

    With increased concern over the status of reptile populations globally, contaminant studies should be part of species evaluations. We analyzed eggs of western pond turtles from Fern Ridge Reservoir in western Oregon for 20 organochlorine (OC) pesticides or metabolites, 42 congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 trace elements or metals. These eggs represent the first of this species analyzed. The OC pesticides and PCB residue concentrations in the western pond turtle eggs were generally low and similar to those found in eggs of snapping turtles from a remote site in Ontario, Canada. Western pond turtle eggs also contained mercury and chromium, which are metals of special concern. Although few reptilian eggs have been analyzed for metals, the 44.9 mug/g dry weight chromium in a western pond turtle egg in this study may be the highest reported in a reptilian egg. We found no significant difference in contaminant concentrations in eggs from nests in Oregon, where all turtle eggs failed to hatch compared to those where some eggs hatched. During this initial project, however, we were unable to assess fully the role of OCs, PCBs and other contaminants in the western pond turtle decline. Factors other than contaminants may be involved. In another study, snapping turtle eggs near the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin were much more contaminated with evidence reported of effects on sex differentiation and reproductive endocrine function. Egg hatchability, the only reproductive parameter monitored, may not be the most sensitive endpoint. Other endpoints, including endocrine function, deformity rates, growth rates, and sex determination need study.

  20. Determination of 17 organochlorine pesticides and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls in plants by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%气相色谱-串联质谱法测定植物样品中17种有机氯农药和8种多氯联苯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟玲; 杨佳佳; 吴淑琪

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( GC-MS/MS ) was used to analyse organochlorine pesticides and poly chlorinated biphenyls in plants. The sample was cleanup by SPE of Carb/NH2, the target compound can be eluted by 20 mL solvent. It can remove most of the pigment and fatty acid. The method was simple, fast and saving money. The average recoveries of 25 compounds were ranged from 66. 6% to 113. 1%. The relative standard deviation (RSD% ) for all the compounds were ranged from 4. 1% to 14. 1%. The method detection limits (MDL) were between 0. 03 and 0.29 ng/g. The sensitivity of this method was high, and can meet the needs of environmental investigation. The concentration of PCB28 can reach to 108 ng/g in the plant samples in pollution zone. It indicated that PCBs can transfer to plants from soil.%建立了植物样品中17种有机氯农药和8种多氯联苯单体的气相色谱-串联质谱( GC-MS/MS)分析方法.样品以V(丙酮)∶V(乙酸乙酯)=1∶1为溶剂进行提取,采用石墨化炭黑及氨基联合SPE小柱净化,GC-MS/MS测定.25种化合物的平均添加回收率在66.6% ~ 113.1%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)在4.1% ~14.1%之间,方法检出限(MDL)在0.03 ~ 0.29 ng/g之间.该方法灵敏度高,满足环境调查的需求.对污染区采集的植物样品进行检测,发现被变压器油污染地区的植物体内含有较高质量分数的PCB28和PCB52,最高达108 ng/g,说明多氯联苯能够通过迁移等途径从土壤传递到植物中.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    OpenAIRE

    Persky Victoria; Piorkowski Julie; Turyk Mary; Freels Sally; Chatterton Robert; Dimos John; Bradlow H; Chary Lin; Burse Virlyn; Unterman Terry; Sepkovic Daniel W; McCann Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the...

  2. Review of current evidence on the impact of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and selected metals on attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder in children

    OpenAIRE

    Kinga Polańska; Joanna Jurewicz; Wojciech Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the association between attention defi cit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD- related symptoms and industrial chemicals, such as organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, mercury and manganese. Medline, PubMed and EBSCO searches were performed to identify the studies that analyzed the association of prenatal and postnatal child exposure to such toxicants and ADHD or ADHD-related symptoms. The review ...

  3. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. PMID:26210237

  4. Role of black carbon in the distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in aged field-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y.Z.; Davis, J.W.; Wilken, M.; Martin, G.D.; Mowery, D.M.; Ghosh, U. [Dow Chemical Co USA, Midland, MI (United States). Toxicology & Environmental Research & Consulting

    2011-01-15

    Floodplain soils containing elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were collected from several locations along the Tittabawassee River (Michigan, USA). The PCDD/F profiles of these soils exhibited distinct congener patterns consistent with byproducts from either chloralkali manufacturing or chlorophenols productions. Black carbon (BC) particles were isolated for the first time from floodplain soil impacted by PCDD/Fs. Petrographic analysis showed that BC particles, including coal, oxidized coal, metallurgical coke, depositional carbon, coal tar/pitch, cenosphere, and charcoal, comprised approximately 30% by volume of the organic fraction with size range of 250 {mu} m-2000 {mu} m from a typical floodplain soil. The BC particles with anthropogenic origin such as pitch and coke associated with the chloralkali production process served as both the source and subsequent transporter for the highly hydrophobic PCDD/Fs. These anthropogenic BC particles were enriched with high levels of PCDFs, containing approximately 1000-fold the concentration found in the bulk soil. The strong association of PCDD/Fs with anthropogenic BC directly impacts the physicochemical and biological availability thus the risk associated with these hydrophobic organochlorines in soils and sediments.

  5. Pollution level and human health risk assessment of some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Nantong of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Li Yi; Lili Shi; Deyang Kong; Daoji Cai; Donghua Wang; Zhengjun Shan

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption is one of the key exposure routes of humans to contaminants.This article evaluated the residue levels of 51 pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected fish and food items which were commonly consumed in the Nantong area of Jiangsu Province,Southeast China.The 51 pesticides and 16 PCBs were analyzed by highly sensitive gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).The results showed that organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs),hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs),hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex and other pesticides including chlorpyrifos,pyrethroid pesticides,metolachlor,pyridaben and trifluralin were frequently detected in the samples,which was consistent with the accumulation level and characteristics of these toxic chemicals in human adipose tissue of people living in Nantong.Meanwhile,correlation of the residue level of toxic chemicals with their physical chemical properties and historic use pattern in Nantong area was observed.Combined with dietary survey results at the same sampling locations,human health risk assessment of ingestion through the dietary route was performed.The results suggested that the non-cancer risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in the Nantong area,however,the cancer risks from lifetime dietary exposure to DDTs and HCB have exceeded the acceptable levels.

  6. Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of tern species and the western snowy plover nesting in San Diego Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Previous studies have raised concerns about the organochlorine pesticide concentrations in the eggs of tern species in Southern California including the California...

  7. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are generally disposed of by incineration, an expensive and hazardous method. Moreover, in cases where the PCBs are a minor component of a nontoxic fluid, such as a dielectric fluid, incineration causes loss of the nontoxic fluid as well as the PCB. An alternative method for destroying PCBs is disclosed which is not only capable of detoxification of PCB-contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments, but can also remove PCBs from solution in a wide range of concentrations, permitting full recovery of the bulk of the solution free of PCBs. The process of the invention may be operated in a batch, continuous, or semicontinuous mode, and is advantageously used to detoxify organic liquids such as transformer oils. According to the invention, PCBs are chemically degraded by contact with a Lewis acid catalyst in a nonaqueous liquid medium, in the presence of a cation which combines with the chlorine on the PCB to form a solid chloride of the cation which will precipitate out from the liquid medium. Preferred Lewis acids are metal halides, particularly a combination of aluminum chloride and ferric chloride, and the preferred cation is potassium in the form of KOH. The Lewis acids may be supplied to the process by the adventitious corrosion of a vessel containing the PCB-contaminated matter. Experiments are described to illustrate the process of the invention. 3 figs

  8. Organochlorine and metal residues in eggs of waterfowl nesting on islands in Lake Michigan off Door County, Wisconsin, 1977-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, S.D.; Heinz, G.H.; Reichel, W.L.; Moore, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    One egg from each of 114 red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) nests in 1977 and 92 nests in 1978 was collected and later analyzed for organochlorines, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated styrenes (PCSs). and metals. One egg was also collected from each of the dabbling duck nests located: Twenty-nine of these eggs were analyzed for organochlorines and metals in 1977; 10 eggs were analyzed in 1978. All merganser eggs contained DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dieldrin; all but one egg collected in 1978 contained DDT. DDE and PCB levels had declined since 1975 to a geometric mean of 7.4 ppm DDE and 20 ppm PCBs in 1977 and 7.6 ppm DDE and 19 ppm PCBs in 1978. Dieldrin residues in eggs had not declined from 1975 Ievels; the geometric mean was 0.78 ppm in 1977 and 0.76 ppm in 1978. Other organochlorines were present at low levels. Mercury residues averaged >0,50 ppm in merganser eggs and had not declined since 1975. Other metals were present at low levels. Dabbling ducks generally had much lower organochlorine and Hg residues than mergansers; DDE and PCBs were the only organochlorines present in the majority of eggs. Geometric means of PCBs and DDE in dabbling duck eggs did not exceed 2.0 ppm and 1.0 ppm, respectively. PBBs and PCSs were detected only in a few merganser eggs, at low levels. Eggshell thickness for red-breasted merganser eggs averaged 0.359 mm in 1977 and 0.355 mm in 1978, which is only 2%-3% below pre-1946 thicknesses. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggshell thicknesses averaged 0.331 mm in 1977 and 0.337 mm in 1978.

  9. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine contaminants in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Eric W; Letcher, Robert J; Reddy, Christopher M; Moore, Michael J; Rubinstein, Belinda; Hahn, Mark E

    2010-08-01

    Various brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and current-use, non-PBDE BFRs, as well as organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were measured in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Eastern United States and Canada. The concentrations of PBDEs in winter flounder and right whales were similar in magnitude to the levels of PCBs, which was unlike the pattern observed in seals. In these marine mammals, the levels of PBDEs were orders of magnitude lower than the levels of OCs and PCBs detected. Evidence existed for the accumulation of methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs of natural origin in seals and right whales. Current-use, non-PBDE BFRs (including hexabromocyclododecane, pentabromoethylbenzene, hexabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene) were detected in winter flounder and marine mammals. Future research should focus on monitoring PBDEs, current-use, non-PBDE BFRs, and MeO-BDEs of natural origin in marine organisms from Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays. PMID:20434733

  10. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring

  11. Atmospheric occurrence, transport and deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in the Mediterranean and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Berrojalbiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to direct and indirect loads of atmospheric inputs of organochlorine compounds (OCl from primary and secondary sources. Here we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007 from Barcelona to Istanbul and Alexandria, respectively, where gas phase and aerosol samples were collected. Both matrices were analyzed for 41 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, including dioxin-like congeners, and hexachlorobencene (HCB. The values reported in this study for gas phase HCB and ∑41PCB (LOD to 418.3 pg m−3 and from 81.99 to 931.6 pg m−3 respectively are in the same range of those reported in former studies, possibly suggesting a limited decline in their atmospheric concentrations during the last decade for the Mediterranean region due to land base OCl sources. There is a clear influence of the direction of the air-mass on the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, with higher concentrations when the air mass was from southern Europe, and the lowest concentrations for air masses coming from the SW Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean. PCBs and HCB are close to air–water equilibrium for most sampling periods, thus resulting in low atmospheric deposition fluxes at open sea. This is consistent with the oligotrophic character of the Mediterranean Sea with a small influence of the biological pump capturing atmospheric PCBs. Therefore, degradation of gas-phase PCBs by OH radicals is estimated to be the main loss process of atmospheric PCBs during their transport over the Mediterranean Sea. Conversely, atmospheric residence times of HCB are predicted to be very long due to a lack of atmospheric degradation and low depositional fluxes due to concentrations at air–water equilibrium.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian Coast. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo e Silva, C.E.; Azeredo, A.; Meire, R.; Torres, J.P. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos E.P.F., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ; Brito Jr., J.L.; Malm, O. [Projeto Mamiferos Aquaticos, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia, UERJ

    2004-09-15

    There is conclusive evidence showing that, in general, fish in meals human diet contributes with a significant proportion of the total intake of PCBs and others organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat content. Thus, human exposure to PCBs is predominantly via diet, and especially from fish and seafood products. Comparatively, little is know about organochlorine contaminants in elasmobranch species, although they are also top predators. Characteristically, sharks are live longer, with comparatively slow rates of growth that in conjuction with their high trophic position may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of pollutants. Blue shark and swordfish are carnivorous fishes of great economic importance. This study investigate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in samples of muscle tissues of blue shark (Prionace glauca) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Brazilian Coast.

  13. Serum Organochlorine Pesticide Residues and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mary L Biggs; Davis, Mark D.; Eaton, David L.; Weiss, Noel S.; Barr, Dana B.; Doody, David R.; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L.; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 20–34. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, sub-optimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess anti-androgenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p’-DDE, and whether the p,p-DDE-TGCC association is ...

  14. Food habits and organochlorine contaminants in the diet of olivaceous cormorants in Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    More than 1,000 food items, representing 32 species of fish and one invertebrate, were identified from olivaceous cormorants. Six species of fish comprised 79% of the diet by frequency of occurrence and 78% by weight. Almost half of the diet consisted of a single species, the sheepshead minnow. Concentrations of pp-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in cormorant carcasses were 27 times greater than those in fish and 57 times higher in cormorant eggs than fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) were 18 times higher in carcasses and 15 times higher in eggs than in fish. The biomagnification of other organochlorine contaminants through the cormorant food base in Galveston Bay is difficult to evaluate because the only compounds detected in all three tissues at greater than 50% frequency of occurrence were DDE and PCB.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  16. Inhibition of E2-induced expression of BRCA1 by persistent organochlorines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental persistent organochlorines (POCs) biomagnify in the food chain, and the chemicals are suspected of being involved in a broad range of human malignancies. It is speculated that some POCs that can interfere with estrogen receptor-mediated responses are involved in the initiation and progression of human breast cancer. The tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 plays a role in cell-cycle control, in DNA repair, and in genomic stability, and it is often downregulated in sporadic mammary cancers. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether POCs have the potential to alter the expression of BRCA1. Using human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, the effect on BRCA1 expression of chemicals belonging to different classes of organochlorine chemicals (the pesticide toxaphene, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and three polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB#138, PCB#153 and PCB#180]) was measured by a reporter gene construct carrying 267 bp of the BRCA1 promoter. A twofold concentration range was analyzed in MCF-7, and the results were supported by northern blot analysis of BRCA1 mRNA using the highest concentrations of the chemicals. All three polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin reduced 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced expression as well as basal reporter gene expression in both cell lines, whereas northern blot analysis only revealed a downregulation of E2-induced BRCA1 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Toxaphene, like E2, induced BRCA1 expression in MCF-7. The present study shows that some POCs have the capability to alter the expression of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 without affecting the cell-cycle control protein p21Waf/Cip1. Some POCs therefore have the potential to affect breast cancer risk

  17. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  18. Organochlorine compound residues in the eggs of broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris) and correlation with measures of reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C; Repetti, M R; García, S R; Zayas, M A; Galoppo, G H; Beldoménico, H R; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2011-06-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCCs), like pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are persistent lipophilic chemicals classified as endocrine-disruptors. Caiman latirostris inhabits wetlands throughout north-eastern Argentina and may accumulate OCCs. The aims of this study were to determine OCC residues in the eggs of C. latirostris and to correlate OCC burden with clutch size, hatching success and hatchling survival as measures of reproductive performance. Fourteen caiman clutches were harvested from sites with different degrees of anthropogenic intervention on wetlands surrounding Paraná River tributaries. Two to four eggs by clutch were used to quantify OCCs. OCP residues were found in all clutches. The principal contributors to the OCPs burden were the DDT family (range BDL-153.0 ng g(-1) lipid) and oxychlordane (range BDL-34.3 ng g(-1) lipid). PCBs were present in 92.9% of the clutches (range BDL-136.6 ng g(-1) lipid). Both higher concentrations and higher diversity of pesticides, including endosulfan sulfate, were found in the nests harvested close to croplands. A negative correlation was found between clutch size and ∑OCCs (p=0.02, Pearson r=-0.53, r(2)=0.28), mainly due to the ∑OCPs (p=0.04, Pearson r=-0.54, r(2)=0.30). Since egg OCCs concentrations predict maternal burden, present findings suggest that higher OCCs exposure could lead to smaller clutches. Although, other factors like mother age could influence clutch size. Additionally, as caimans are a long-lived and non-migratory species, the maternal OCCs burden reflects the environmental status throughout their home range; thus, caiman eggs could be useful as a biomonitor of local contamination. PMID:21531435

  19. Effects of persistent organochlorine exposure on the liver transcriptome of the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Satoko; Imoto, Mai; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Michio X; Kim, Eun-Young; Nakayama, Kei; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) were determined in the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific. To investigate the effects of OCs on the transcriptome in the minke whale, the present study constructed a hepatic oligo array of this species where 985 unique oligonucleotides were spotted and further analyzed the relationship between the OC levels and gene expression profiles of liver tissues. The stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified 32 genes that correlated with hepatic OC levels. The mRNA expression levels of seven cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C78, 2E1, 3A72, 4A35, and 4V6 showed no clear correlations with the concentration of each OC, suggesting that the accumulated OCs in the liver did not reach levels that could alter CYP expression. Among the genes screened by the custom oligo array analysis, hepatic mRNA expression levels of 16 genes were further measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) were negatively correlated with non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels. Androgen receptor-associated coregulator 70 (ARA70) expression levels showed a significant positive correlation with concentrations of non-ortho coplanar PCB169. These correlations suggest that coplanar PCB-reduced DBP expression could suppress vitamin D receptor-mediated signaling cascades in peripheral tissues. Alternatively, the suppression of vitamin D receptor signaling cascade could be enhanced through competition with the androgen receptor signaling pathway for ARA70. In addition, a negative correlation between kynureninase and PCB169 levels was also observed, which suggest an enhanced accumulation of an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, kynurenine in the minke whale population. Further studies are necessary to translate the changes in the transcriptome to toxicological outcomes including

  20. Danish emission inventory for hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    This report documents the improved air emission inventories for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The emission inventories now include all sources covered by the EMEP/EEA Guidebook. The completeness and accuracy of the inventories for these pollutants have been signifi...

  1. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jacob de, E-mail: jacob.de.boer@ivm.vu.n [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dao, Quy T., E-mail: quy.dao@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van, E-mail: stefan.van.leeuwen@ivm.vu.n [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kotterman, Michiel J.J., E-mail: michiel.kotterman@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands); Schobben, John H.M., E-mail: john.schobben@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has delivered valuable information on trends and spatial differences of these compounds in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and other Dutch canals, rivers and lakes. Specific local PCB, HCH and dieldrin contaminations were identified. Temporal trends show a slow decrease of PCB concentrations since 1977. Eels from the rivers Rhine and Meuse still exceed present European maximum residue limits for dioxin-like PCBs. Apart from some exceptions, OCP and tetra-BDE concentrations have also decreased, and more than those of PCBs. Fat contents of eel have decreased from an average of 21 to ca. 13%. This decrease in fat contents, coincides with the strong reduction of the European eel stock. - Results of thirty-year eel monitoring in The Netherlands reveal decreasing PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations, and the identification of specific local contaminations.

  2. Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and their metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds were determined in genital organs of pet dogs and cats and pet foods from Japan. Levels of OCs in dogs were relatively lower than those in cats, while residue levels in their diets were almost similar, implying that accumulation and elimination mechanisms of these contaminants are different between dogs and cats. When bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated from concentrations of OCs in dogs, cats, and their diets, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs exceeded 1.0 in cats. On the other hand, in all the dogs, BCFs of DDTs were below 1.0, suggesting that dogs do not bioconcentrate DDTs. Furthermore, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs in dogs were notably lower than those in cats, suggesting that dogs have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for these contaminants than cats. When residue levels of OCs in livers, adipose tissue, and genital organs of two pet dogs were examined, hepatic sequestration of PCDD/DFs and oxychlordane was observed. - Pet dogs may have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for organochlorines than pet cats

  3. Levels of organochlorine compounds in spotted dolphins from the Coiba archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, A; Cantos, G; Pastor, T; Aguilar, A

    2004-02-01

    Blubber and skin samples from 63 spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) (18 males, 40 females and 5 of unknown sex) were collected by biopsy techniques in the waters of the Coiba archipelago. Blubber was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and skin for gender determination. Mean levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and tDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were 0.064, 2.30 and 6.4 mgkg(-1), respectively. These levels are low and are not considered to represent a threat to the S. attenuata population. No significant differences either in concentrations of HCB, tPCB and tDDT or in PCB profiles were observed between males and females. The ratio tDDT/tPCB was 2.69, indicating predominantly agrarian versus industrial activities in the area. The ratio ppDDE/tDDT was 0.83, a high figure that suggests both a local reduction of DDT inputs and a high rate of DDT degradation. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed between two schools, suggesting intra-population heterogeneity in organochlorine exposure possibly due to demographic segregation. PMID:14599513

  4. Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nakanishi, Shigeyuki [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Abe, Takao [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Nakatsu, Susumu [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Kawauchi, Sakio [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Sano, Akihiko [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Horii, Akira [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Kano, Yasumasa [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-08-15

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and their metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds were determined in genital organs of pet dogs and cats and pet foods from Japan. Levels of OCs in dogs were relatively lower than those in cats, while residue levels in their diets were almost similar, implying that accumulation and elimination mechanisms of these contaminants are different between dogs and cats. When bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated from concentrations of OCs in dogs, cats, and their diets, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs exceeded 1.0 in cats. On the other hand, in all the dogs, BCFs of DDTs were below 1.0, suggesting that dogs do not bioconcentrate DDTs. Furthermore, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs in dogs were notably lower than those in cats, suggesting that dogs have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for these contaminants than cats. When residue levels of OCs in livers, adipose tissue, and genital organs of two pet dogs were examined, hepatic sequestration of PCDD/DFs and oxychlordane was observed. - Pet dogs may have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for organochlorines than pet cats.

  5. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China

  6. Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvad Gert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p 2 = 0.39; p Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention.

  7. Effects of Extraction Solvents on the Extraction Efficiencies of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Reference Materials

    OpenAIRE

    KIGUCHI, Osamu; Kobayashi, Takashi; SAITOH, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction efficiency of a couple of different extraction solvents for Certified Reference Materials of soil and sediment that include Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls using Soxhlet and Pressurized Liquid extraction (PLE). n-Hexane, toluene, acetone, acetone/n-hexane and acetone/toluene (1:1, v/v) as solvents were examined. Unsatisfactory results for Soxhlet extraction were obtained using n-hexane alone. For...

  8. ADSORPTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Preda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil is determined by several factors including adsorption, mobility and degradation. Adsorption, directly or indirectly, influences the other factors. Adsorption process is generally evaluated by using adsorption isotherms representing the relationship between the quantity of substance adsorbed per unit weight and concentration of the substance in solution at equilibrium. They allow determination of the adsorption constant, which is directly proportional to the adsorption of PCBs in soil. PCBs are very insoluble in water, so they tend to accumulate in the lipids. This is the reason why polychlorinated biphenyls are more strongly adsorbed in soils with higher organic matter content. To obtain the adsorption isotherm were used standard solutions of PCB 101with initial concentrations: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/ml. The adsorption constants were in order: 3072 ml/g for chernozem, 2943 mg/l for chromic luvisol, 998 mg/l for aluviosol and 1443 mg/l for anthrosol. The values of adsorption constants depend on the organic matter and clay content.

  9. Atmospheric removal processes for high molecular weight organochlorines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing the atmospheric removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and the chlorinated insecticides p,p'-DDT, chlordane, and toxaphene were investigated in the city of Columbia, South Carolina, and at the North Inlet estuary on the South Carolina coast. Dry deposition velocities (V/sub d/) for individual organochlorines (OC) varied by 1--2 orders of magnitude from day to day, and in Columbia log V/sub d/ was correlated with average wind velocity. Higher V/sub d/ were observed for the less volatile OC, reflecting a greater degree of attachment to aerosols. Average V/sub d/(cm/s) in Columbia were: Aroclor 1016=< or =0.04, Aroclor 1254=0.43, chlordane=0.068, and p,p'-DDT=1.3. The trend in V/sub d/ paralleled th percentages of these OC retained by a glass fiber filter during high volume air sampling, V/sub d/ for Aroclor 1254 and p,p'-DDT at North Inlet were about 3--4 times lower than those in Columbia. Toxaphene was the most prevalent OC in precipitation at North Inlet, with concentrations exceeding 100 ng/1 during the late summer and early fall. Average washout ratios at North Inlet were: Aroclor 1254=94, p, p'-DDT=87, chlordane=8.4, and toxaphene=246. Dry and wet removal rates for Aroclor 1254 and p,p'-DDT were more similar than might be expected from the large difference (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in their reported vapor pressures, although the vapor pressure for Aroclor 1254 is not accurately known. The similarity of PCB and p,p'-DDT removal rates suggests an explanation for the fact that PCB and p,p'-DDT ratios in seawater are about the same as those in the ocean atmosphere

  10. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  11. Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, Corinne; Albert, Adelin; Herman, Philippe; Hamoir, Etienne; Gaspard, Ulysse; Meurisse, Michel; Plomteux, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Background: Controversy still exists about the breast carcinogenic properties in humans of environmental xenoestrogens (organochlorines), justifying new investigations. Aims: To compare the blood levels of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in samples collected at the time of breast cancer discovery, in order to avoid the potential consequences of body weight change ( after chemotherapy or radiotherapy) on the pesticide residue levels. Methods: Blood level...

  12. Organochlorine Residues in Otter Spraints from Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Mason C.F.

    1987-01-01

    These results are based on small samples and are clearly preliminary, but the mean organochlorine load in spraints from the three populations is inversely related to our assessment of the size of these populations, based on spraint numbers. More detailed work in Britain is currently in progress; similar studies in Hungary could prove highly illuminating.

  13. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide in pet cats and dogs: Assessment of toxicological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PCB and DDT concentrations were determined in the adipose tissue of cats and dogs from Southern Italy. In cats p,p'-DDE was the most abundant DDT component (95.0%), while in dogs these compounds were absent, except in two specimens. PCB concentrations were higher in cats (199.02 ng g-1 lipid weight) than in dogs (41.61 ng g-1 lipid weight). Also there were inter-specific differences in the contribution of the different congeners to PCBs, although PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 were the most representative congeners in both species. Animals from one location, Taranto City, had significantly elevated concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs compared to the other locations. Consequently the estimated mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs were higher in these animals (cats: 0.65 pg g-1 lipid weight; dogs 0.29 pg g-1 lipid weight) than in the other ones (cats: 0.12 pg g-1 lipid weight; dogs: 0.001 pg g-1 lipid weight).

  14. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide in pet cats and dogs: Assessment of toxicological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena, E-mail: m.m.storelli@veterinaria.uniba.it [Pharmacological-Biological Department, Chemistry and Biochemistry Section, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy); Storelli, Arianna; Barone, Grazia [Pharmacological-Biological Department, Chemistry and Biochemistry Section, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy); Franchini, Delia [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DEOT), Division of Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    PCB and DDT concentrations were determined in the adipose tissue of cats and dogs from Southern Italy. In cats p,p'-DDE was the most abundant DDT component (95.0%), while in dogs these compounds were absent, except in two specimens. PCB concentrations were higher in cats (199.02 ng g{sup -1} lipid weight) than in dogs (41.61 ng g{sup -1} lipid weight). Also there were inter-specific differences in the contribution of the different congeners to PCBs, although PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 were the most representative congeners in both species. Animals from one location, Taranto City, had significantly elevated concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs compared to the other locations. Consequently the estimated mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs were higher in these animals (cats: 0.65 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight; dogs 0.29 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight) than in the other ones (cats: 0.12 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight; dogs: 0.001 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight).

  15. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber from stranded marine mammals collected from the Northern Oregon and Southern Washington coasts: implications for re-introducing California Condors, Gymnogyps californianus, in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Deke T; Duffield, Deborah A; Randall, Tina; Wintle, Nate; D'Alessandro, Dalin N; Rice, James M; Shepherdson, David

    2013-03-01

    Re-introduction of California Condors into Oregon is currently being considered, but there are concerns about the safety of potential food sources of this species. Condors are opportunistic feeders and a largely available food source for this species will be stranded marine mammal carcasses. We analyzed 37 blubber samples from 7 different marine mammal species collected from the Oregon and Southern Washington coasts for 18 organochlorine (OC) pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was the most prevalent OC contaminant, making up more than 58 % of the total OC concentration measured. There were no significant differences in OC content between species or sexes. PMID:23275975

  16. PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in adult male Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Persistent organochlorines (OC) contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites including...

  17. Effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in the United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies to investigate the effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in the United Republic of Tanzania were conducted in the Lower Moshi area, at the National Agriculture and Food Corporation in the west Kilimanjaro region, on the Arusha seed farm and Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, on the Manyara ranch and in areas around Lake Victoria, as well as in the TPRI laboratory. Large quantities of the pesticides, particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene, are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops, as well as against disease vectors. Several groups of birds, including waterbirds, African fish eagles, marabou storks, oxpeckers, ducks, etc., were found to feed, roost and swim in water and to be exposed to other substances contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. The analytical results of African fish eagle tissues collected from the Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE at levels of 0.4 ng/g and 1.45 ng/g, respectively. These organochlorine pesticides, and beta-HCH, were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of organochlorine residue were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for raptorial birds reported in the literature. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Preliminary studies on the effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies to investigate the effects of organochlorine pesticides on birds was conducted in Lower Moshi, NAFCO West Kilimanjaro, Arusha seed farm, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, Manyara ranch and areas around Lake Victoria as well as in the TPRI laboratory in Tanzania. Large quantities of the pesticides particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops as well as disease vectors in the country. Several groups of birds including waterbirds, African Fish Eagles, Marabou storks, Oxpecker, ducks, etc. were found feeding, roosting and swimming in the water and exposed to other substances that were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and were presumably at risk. Analytical results from the tissues of the African Fish Eagles collected from Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p' DDE and o,p' DDE at levels of 0.4 ng g-1 and 1.45 ng g-1 respectively. These organochlorine insecticides as well as β-HCH were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of the organochlorine residues were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for bird raptors reported in the literature. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Interaction Effects between Organochlorine Pesticides and Isoflavones In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have caused increasing global concern due to their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and significant adverse effects on human health. This study was to explore the interaction effects between OCPs and isoflavones. Six kinds of OCPs and 2 kinds of isoflavones-genistein and daidzein were included to study their effect on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Eighty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 9 groups according to factorial design to study the interaction effect between isoflavones and γ-HCH. Compared to organochlorine pesticides alone group, proliferation rate of MCF-7 cells was lower in 100 μmol/L genistein + organochlorine pesticides and 100 μmol/L daidzein + organochlorine pesticides group (p < 0.05). In vivo study showed that there are interaction effects on kidney weight and liver weight when treated with isoflavones and γ-HCH. The changes in uterine morphology and positive expression of ERα showed inhibition effects between isoflavones and γ-HCH. In conclusion, the data suggests that there are interactions between isoflavones and OCPs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27597971

  20. Interaction Effects between Organochlorine Pesticides and Isoflavones In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunbo; Guo, Jipeng; Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Jingjing; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Yang; Na, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have caused increasing global concern due to their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and significant adverse effects on human health. This study was to explore the interaction effects between OCPs and isoflavones. Six kinds of OCPs and 2 kinds of isoflavones-genistein and daidzein were included to study their effect on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Eighty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 9 groups according to factorial design to study the interaction effect between isoflavones and γ-HCH. Compared to organochlorine pesticides alone group, proliferation rate of MCF-7 cells was lower in 100 μmol/L genistein + organochlorine pesticides and 100 μmol/L daidzein + organochlorine pesticides group (p < 0.05). In vivo study showed that there are interaction effects on kidney weight and liver weight when treated with isoflavones and γ-HCH. The changes in uterine morphology and positive expression of ERα showed inhibition effects between isoflavones and γ-HCH. In conclusion, the data suggests that there are interactions between isoflavones and OCPs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27597971

  1. Intercomparison study of sampling methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of organic pollutants in seawater is a serious problem, as their concentrations in the water column are typical in the fg - ng/L range. Available methods therefore includes extensive sampling and laboratory work. The development of simple sampling techniques for organochlorines (e.g. passive sampling with semipermeable membrane device (SPMD), mussel watch) is required. Three methods for the measurement of trace organochlorines in seawater were investigated: (1) the filtration (GF/F) and extraction (XAD-2 resin) of seawater with an in-situ pumping system, (2) biological-accumulation by mussels (mytilus edulis) and (3) passive sampling with SPMD

  2. Electronic structure of pesticides: 1. Organochlorine insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Igor, E-mail: inovak@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, POB 883, Orange, NSW 2800 (Australia); Kovac, Branka [Physical Chemistry Division, ' R. Boskovic' Institute, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electronic structure of several organochlorine insecticides has been determined by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and high-level ab initio calculations. {yields} The electronic structure obtained from spectra has been related to their biological activity. {yields} The molecular modes of binding to appropriate receptors are rationalized in view of the molecule's electronic structure and conformational flexibility. - Abstract: The electronic structures of six organochlorine insecticides: {gamma}-lindane (I), aldrin (II), dieldrin (III), DDD (IV), DDE (V) and DDT (VI) have been investigated by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), quantum chemical calculations and comparison with molecular modelling studies. Their electronic and molecular structures are discussed in order to rationalize their biological activity. In this work we relate the biological activity of these insecticides to their experimentally observed electronic and molecular structures.

  3. Organochlorine Contaminants in Spraints from Captive Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Mason C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Organochlorine Contaminants in Spraints from Captive OttersPage 18 - 19 (Report)Chris MasonAssays for DDE, Dieldrin and PCBs were carried out on captive otters to provide a baseline of presumed uncontaminated animals for comparison with results from surveys in the wild. Results for captive animals were much lower than those from upland Wales, which has a thriving population of wild otters.

  4. Effect of organochlorine contaminants and individual biological traits on blubber retinoid concentrations in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Victoria; Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Wells, Randall S; Forcada, Jaume; Rowles, Teri K; Reijnders, Peter J H

    2005-02-01

    Here we assessed retinoids as biomarkers of contaminant exposure by studying whether the sex, age, lipid content and organochlorine concentrations of bottlenose dolphins induced variation in retinoid status and its deposition in blubber. Blubber samples were collected from 47 individuals of known age and gender from Sarasota Bay in June 2000 and 2001. The sample included a representative cross-section of the resident dolphin community, with ages ranging from 2 to 50 years. Organochlorine levels showed the age- and sex-related variation commonly observed in other species, with concentrations increasing in youngsters of both sexes and in adult males, and decreasing in adult females after the onset of maturity. Blubber lipid content was low in the overall population and significantly decreased with age in adult males. Retinoid blubber concentrations were comparable to other odontocete species previously studied, and were strongly determined by lipid content. As a consequence of the latter, retinoid concentration was observed to decrease with age in adult males. This effect could not be statistically dissociated from the negative correlation observed between levels of organochlorines and retinoid blubber concentration. Consequently, we could not clarify whether high organochlorine loads in this population lowered retinoid concentrations or, conversely, whether depleted lipid reserves were indeed responsible for the high organochlorine concentrations and the low retinoid levels detected in blubber. With the current knowledge, both options should be considered and investigated, with initial focus on male dolphins. PMID:15690090

  5. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ...

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  7. Contaminant assessment of coastal bald eagles at Maine Coastal Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Acadia National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental contaminants including organochlorine compounds e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene DDE, polybrominated diphenyl...

  8. Placental markers of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies have evaluated biochemical changes in placentae from humans exposed to rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Taiwan. Placentae were obtained from nonsmoking women 4 to 5 years after the exposure had occurred. The exposed individuals ingested approximately 1 to 3 g PCBs and 5 mg PCDFs, and many exhibited symptoms characteristic of PCB poisoning. This disease was termed Yu-Cheng in Chinese. Based on data from experimental animals models, the authors examined a number of parameters in placentae from control and exposed women, including arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, cytochrome P-450 isozymes, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding properties and actions, and Ah receptor. They also quantified concentrations of various PCB and PCDF congeners known to be present in the contaminated rice oil. The results revealed a dramatic elevation in placental AHH activity in samples from PCB/PCDF-exposed women. This increase in enzyme activity was associated with a parallel increase in placental microsomal protein immunochemically related to cytochrome P-450 form 6. EGF receptor-mediated autophosphorylation capacity was significantly diminished in PCB/PCDF placentae, but this effect was not associated with changes in plasma membrane EGF receptor binding properties. Two PCDF congeners were detected in Yu-Cheng placentae but not controls. Several PCBs were also detected in much higher concentrations in Yu-Cheng placentae. Surprisingly, placental concentrations of PCBs correlated better with effects than did the PCDFs. The findings are discussed in relation to the risk assessment process

  9. PCDDs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins) and PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, S.E. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Erickson, M.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Numerous instances of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been documented. Following the development of sufficiently specific and sensitive analytical methods during the past few years, many reports have appeared on PCDD and PCDF levels in human blood and adipose tissues. Studies have examined the PCDD and PCDF levels resulting from accidental and occupational exposures of various groups, including chemical plant workers, forestry and tannery workers, and Niet Nam veterans who had handled Agent Orange. The general background levels in the US, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and Sweden were also determined. The results of these studies indicate that a background level of PCDDs and PCDFs is present in the overall population. In some cases, individuals exposed to specific PCDDs or PCDFs exhibit higher levels than the general population. Isomer distribution patterns are relatively consistent and indicative of sources and metabolism. This paper reviews the available data on human PCDD and PCDF levels in exposed and general populations. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  10. The effect of long-range atmospheric transport of organochlorine compounds by soil studies from Mongolia to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    The results of studies on the distribution regularities are presented for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of different degrees of chlorination and for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs): hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH), and DDT with its metabolites in the soils along the Lena River valley and in background areas of Eastern Siberia and Mongolia. A statistically reliable correlation is found between the PCB-OCP and Corg concentrations. The highest levels of HCB are registered in the soils between 50 and 60° N. The concentrations of αand γ-HCCH increase reliably, while those of pp'-DDT and pp'-DDE decrease from south to north. A trend of the decrease in concentrations from Mongolia to the Laptev Sea is revealed for tri-, tetra-, and penta-chlorine-substituted PCB congeners. However, the soils sampled northwards from 60° N show a reliable increase in the concentrations of tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorine-substituted congeners.

  11. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal......-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. METHODS: The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p......® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age...

  12. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjornoya (Bear Island) freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjornoya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjoen. In Lake Oyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjoen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. δ15N-values were 7-10%o higher in organisms from Ellasjoen as compared to Oyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjoen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. - Elevate levels of chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants have been measured in biota from a Norwegian Arctic lake

  13. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to ΣDDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB5, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China

  14. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV. Hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), by investigating concentrations of these compounds in soils and hedgehog hair from seven study sites around the urban area of Antwerp, Belgium. No relationships were observed between organochlorine compound concentrations in soils and hair from the different study areas. Furthermore, the individual variation of contamination levels in hair within study sites was high, especially for HCHs and HCB, and hair and soil had different relative profiles for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs. Our results show that concentrations of organochlorine compounds in soils alone are not predictive of the risk of these pollutants to hedgehogs and that tissue analyses are preferred to soil analyses in exposure and risk assessment studies. - Hair is better than soil for exposure and risk assessment of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in hedgehogs

  15. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV. Hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Have, Helga [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: helga.dhave@ua.ac.be; Scheirs, Jan [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Brink, Nico W. van den [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Verhagen, Ron [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), by investigating concentrations of these compounds in soils and hedgehog hair from seven study sites around the urban area of Antwerp, Belgium. No relationships were observed between organochlorine compound concentrations in soils and hair from the different study areas. Furthermore, the individual variation of contamination levels in hair within study sites was high, especially for HCHs and HCB, and hair and soil had different relative profiles for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs. Our results show that concentrations of organochlorine compounds in soils alone are not predictive of the risk of these pollutants to hedgehogs and that tissue analyses are preferred to soil analyses in exposure and risk assessment studies. - Hair is better than soil for exposure and risk assessment of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in hedgehogs.

  16. Influence of trophic position on organochlorine concentrations and compositional patterns in a marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Ugland, Karl Inne; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2002-11-01

    The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs (p,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], o,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], p,p'-DDD [1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], o.p'-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], and p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene]), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane), hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers), hexachlorobenzene, and mirex was investigated in a marine food web from southeastern Norway. The food web consisted of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor, lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus), three species of gobys (Gobiusculus flavescens, Pomatoschistus sp., and Gobius niger), bullrout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), cod (Gadus morhua), herring gull (Larus argentatus), and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The results show that interspecies differences in organochlorine (OC) compositional patterns in the food web depend on several factors (allometric, biochemical, physical, and physicochemical) specific to both the chemicals and the organisms. The importance of dietary accumulation and metabolic capacity increases toward higher trophic levels, while the OC patterns are to a larger extent determined by the lipophilicity and water solubility of the compounds at lower trophic levels. Furthermore, stable nitrogen isotopes provided a continuous measure of trophic position, rendering us capable of quantifying the increases in the concentrations of sigma PCB, sigma dichorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and sigma chlordane (CHL) and the percentages of highly chlorinated PCBs through the food web. The information provided may be important for future modeling of the fate of organochlorine contaminants in marine food webs. PMID:12389914

  17. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-10-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  18. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  19. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Daniel A.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Rice, Clifford P.

    1991-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for Organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average α-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average γ-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (α-HCH, average 79% saturation; γ-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for α-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of γ-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  20. Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, E.T.; Wiley, F.; Grasman, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Bowerman, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of cormorant egg extract into the air cell in two separate experiments. After hatching, the immune function was tested using in vivo phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response in 11-day-old chicks, antibody titers to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 28-day-old chicks, and, at necropsy, thymus and bursal mass and cellularity. PCB 126 decreased antibody titers at all doses and decreased the thymus and bursa index but not cellularity at 1.79 ng TEQ/egg. The cormorant egg extract caused no significant alterations in immune function even though it has been demonstrated as immunotoxic in chicken embryos. However, twofold to threefold increases in total anti-SRBC titers in 28-day-old chicks exposed to 1.2 or 2.4 ng TEQ/egg of cormorant extract were similar to elevations in anti-SRBC titer observed in Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) chicks from a highly OC-contaminated site in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Posthatch exposure to OC through fish consumption in addition to in ovo OC exposure might be associated with the immune modulation reported in wild birds. Chicks in this study might have begun to compensate for embryonic immunotoxicity by the ages at which we studied them. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorines (OCs) in various fish species from the Indus River, Pakistan: A human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timmer; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-15

    The present study was conducted to reveal the concentrations and patterns of organochlorines [i.e., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] in freshwater fish species collected from four ecologically important sites of the Indus River i.e., Taunsa (TAU), Rahim Yar Khan (RYK), Guddu (GUD) and Sukkur (SUK). In the fish muscle tissues, concentrations of 15 OCPs (∑15OCPs) and 29 PCBs (∑29PCBs) varied between 1.93-61.9 and 0.81-44.2 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively. Overall, the rank order of OCs was DDTs>PCBs>hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs)>chlordanes (CHLs). The patterns of PCBs showed maximum contribution of tri-CBs (59%). Ratios of individual HCH and DDT analytes contributing to the summed values indicated both recent and past use of these chemicals in the region, depending upon fish species. To assess the associated health risks, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were calculated through hazard ratios (HRs). For carcinogenic risk, HR was >1 at both 50th and 95th percentile concentrations, suggesting that the daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yields a lifetime cancer risk of 1 in a million. HR for non-cancerous risk was <1 at both the percentiles, signifying no adverse effect by OCs exposure in native population. PMID:26476063

  2. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from shark in our study were relatively lower than those reported in other studies. Aggressive shark species and species inhabiting the Indian Ocean had the highest levels of OCs. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of OCs among shark species could be explained by differences in feeding habit and sampling locations. Several confounding factors such as growth velocity, trophic position, and regional contamination status may affect the bioaccumulation of OCs in sharks. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk for all the OCs were below one, whereas the hazard ratios of lifetime cancer risks of PCBs and DDTs exceeded one, implying potential carcinogenic effects in the general population in Korea. This is the first report to document the occurrence of OCs in sharks from Korea. PMID:25704278

  3. Massive PCDD/F contamination at the Khimprom organochlorine plant in Ufa--a review and recommendations for future management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirova, Zarema; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    The Khimprom plant in Ufa was one of the largest organochlorine production facilities in Russia. This paper summarises the residual pollution of the site with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and highlights the current and future challenges in relation to remediation of the site. Preliminary assessment of the pollution shows large-scale PCDD/F contamination at the site from half a century production of organochlorine pesticides and solvents. This contamination is affecting the city, and 2500 residents live within 3 km with a further 350,000 living within 7 km of the factory. The current PCDD/F pollution of the site and the continuing releases highlight the urgent need for further investigations, for the site to be secured and for the contamination to be remediated. The production history of the plant means that also other unintentionally POPs, mercury and chlorinated solvents need to be considered. The current regulatory framework for PCDD/F-contaminated soil and for defining hazardous waste in the Russian Federation is not appropriate for the management of PCDD/F-contaminated sites. It is therefore suggested that a science-based regulatory framework should be developed. The Russian Federation recently ratified the Stockholm Convention providing a foundation for the development of appropriate regulations and for further assessment, securing and remediation of the site. The impacts of pollution from the Khimprom plant demonstrate that the assessment and management of the organochlorine production sites should be a priority in the implementation of the Stockholm Convention by the Russian Federation and other countries. PMID:26201658

  4. Organic halogenated contaminants in mother-fetus pairs of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) from Alaska, 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stressors may interfere with foraging, survival and reproduction of marine mammals resulting in marine mammal population decline. In this study, organic halogenated pollutants [OHs, including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN...

  5. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility. PMID:16169571

  6. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Surface Waters of Konya Closed Basin, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Emin Aydin; Senar Ozcan; Fatma Beduk; Ali Tor

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including α -, β -, γ -, and δ -hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among al...

  7. Airborne organochlorines in the Canadian High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    PATTON, G. W.; HINCKLEY, D. A.; Walla, M D; T. F. Bidleman; HARGRAVE, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    In 1984, the Canadian Polar Continental Shelf Project established a research camp on a floating ice island in the Beaufort Sea. The 7 × 4 km island is presently located about 50 km off Ellesmere Island at about 81°N, 100°W. Air samples of 1400–3000 m3 were collected on the island in August-September 1986 and June 1987, using a filter-solid adsorbent train. Organochlorines in melted snow and Arctic Ocean surface water were preconcentrated using solid adsorbent cartridges. Samples were analyzed...

  8. Options for PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) analysis reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S

    1990-04-01

    Types of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis can be divided into two categories: specific and non-specific methods. Specific methods include gas chromatogrphy and mass spectrometry, which test for PCB molecules in particular. Non-specific methods identify classes of compounds, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, to which PCBs belong. These non-specific methods include Chlor-N-Oil PCB screening kits, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and microcoulemetric titration. In general, PCB-specific methods are more accurate than non-specific methods, but are also more expensive, more lengthy to run, and less portable. Non-specific methods test for the presence of chlorine in the sample, and as a result other chlorinated componds will cause false positive results, however false negative results should not occur. Although false positive results can cause unnecessary secondary testing, they can be very economical when used on samples such as transformer oil, which contains few sources of chlorine other than PCB. Used crank case and cutting oils almost always give false positive results with non-specific tests. Details are presented of a new non-specific test, the L2000 PCB Analyzer, which can be used on transformer oil, soil samples, and for testing of total organic chlorine levels in waste oils. 1 fig.

  9. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. δ15N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. δ13C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens

  10. Smoking as a Determinant of High Organochlorine Levels in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie;

    2003-01-01

    The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine...... diet, and smoking or plasma cotinine in multiple linear-regression models (p < 0.001). Body mass index was inversely correlated with organochlorine accumulation, independent of smoking status. These findings confirm that the source of POPs among the Inuit in Greenland is diet, but smoking is an...

  11. Levels of Organochlorines Contaminants on Fish Species from Coastal Area in the Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs, Dibenzofurans (PCDFs are highly lipophilic persistent organochlorines contaminants competent to resist degradation and with the ability to bioaccumulate through the food chain. Concentrations were determined in four species of edible fish from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: marine catfish (Genidens genidens, false herring (Harengula clupeola, chere-chere grunt (Haemulum steidachneri, and barracuda (Sphyraena sphyraena which were collected in July-August 2012. PCBs and PCDD/Fs and were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS according to the US EPA 1613B, 8290A, and US EPA 1668B methods. The focal objective of the assessment was to obtain information about existing levels of pollutants, having as a consequence the possibility of providing preventive actions for public health, as well as encourage the development of mitigation measures. The concentration of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.10105~0.2141 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww and PCBs ranged from 0.08834~0.62304 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. Judging from the European Union regulation limit levels of PCDD/PCDFs and PCDD/PCDFs/PCBs were lower than the criteria in all samples, however it is important to systematize environmental monitoring.

  12. Partition of organochlorine concentrations among suspended solids, sediments and brown mussel Perna perna, in tropical bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Petrus; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Longo, Renan; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-11-01

    For evaluating the brown mussel Perna perna as a sentinel organism regarding environmental concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the present study reports original data on the relationship between the concentrations of these chemicals in bottom surface sediments, suspended solids (SS) and concentrations bioaccumulated by this bivalve. Three P. perna cultivation areas, located at three bays in southeastern Brazil were used in this study. The three estuaries are under different degrees of environmental impact. Variations in the OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by the bivalves tended to be similar to those observed in the sediment, but differed from those found in SS. This latter difference might suggest that the SS trapping apparatuses should have been left in place for approximately 60 days (not only 15 days). This longer period would allow the integration of the environmental variability of the OCP and PCB burden adsorbed to this compartment. Authors encourage future studies to evaluate P. perna exposure to OCPs and PCBs through the evaluation of sediment concentrations. PMID:25113178

  13. Polar bear hepatic cytochrome P450: Immunochemical quantitation, EROD/PROD activity and organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Analytical and Environmental Chemistry]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Canadian Wildlife Service

    1994-12-31

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an ubiquitous mammal atop the arctic marine food chain and bioaccumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants. Antibodies prepared against purified rat liver cytochrome P450-1 Al, -1 A2, -2Bl and -3Al enzymes have been found to cross-react with structurally-related orthologues present in the hepatic microsomes of wild polar bears, immunochemically determined levels of P450-1 A and -2B proteins in polar bear liver relative to liver of untreated rats suggested enzyme induction, probably as a result of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants. Optical density quantitation of the most immunochemically responsive isozymes P450-I Al, -IA2 and -2Bi to polygonal rabbit anti-rat P450-IA/IA2 sera and -2BI antibodies in hepatic microsomes of 13 adult male polar bars from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic is presented. Correlations with EROD and PROD catalytic activities and levels of organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p-DDE) and their methyl sulfone (MeSO2-) metabolites are made to determine if compound-specific enzyme induction linkages exist. Inter-species immunochemical quantitation of isozymic P450 cytochromes can serve as an indicator of exposure to biologically active contaminant.

  14. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2007-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (alpha -HCH, beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras, Araraquara and São Paulo (Vila Leopoldinha). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ion Trap, electron impact ionization), respectively. The samples were analyzed in triplicate and the target POPs were not detected by GC-ECD. Twelve pollutants were identified in two samples when qualitative analysis (GC-MS) was used (beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE, PCBs 28, 118, 138, 153 and 180). The composting process has advantages such as urban solid waste reduction and landfill life-span increase, however the MSW compost quality, which can be utilized for agricultural purposes, should be evaluated and be controlled. This kind of study is the first step in making available information to answer questions regarding MSW compost for sustainable agricultural use, such as the pollutants accumulation in soil and in groundwater, and plants uptake. PMID:17701705

  15. A simplified procedure for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in edible vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jindong; Liu, Donghui; Wu, Tong; Zhao, Wenting; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-05-15

    A one-step extraction-purification multiresidue method for the determination of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible vegetable oils based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) has been developed. The experimental parameters affecting the recoveries and the efficiency of the cleanup procedure were thoroughly evaluated. Under an optimised condition, 0.5 g of oil sample was blended with 3.5 g of sulfuric acid-impregnated silica and 0.8 g of silica gel was used as co-column absorbent. The PCBs and OCPs were eluted by 10 mL of n-hexane/dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Good recoveries were obtained in the range of 69.6-105.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) values below 15% in most cases. The limits of detection (LOD), based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, were in the range of 0.04-0.74 ng/g. PMID:24423500

  16. Specific pattern of persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from South India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Gondaira, Futoshi; Ramesh, A.; Tatsukawa, Ryo (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan)); Subramanian, A.; Mohan, D.; Kumaran, P.; Venugopalan, V.K. (Annamalai Univ., Tamil Nadu (India))

    1990-03-01

    Human breast milk samples collected from four locations in Tamil Nadu state, South India, were analyzed for understanding the levels of persistent organochlorines such as 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH (BHC)) isomers, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On the basis of the overall concentrations of these compounds, {Sigma}HCH (sum of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, and {delta} isomers) levels were higher than the other two. Unlike that of developed countries, the concentration of HCH isomers in Indian breast milk was more in vegetarians than nonvegetarians. Interestingly, high levels of HCH isomers indicated a shift toward their preferential accumulation in the body relative to DDT compounds, which had higher levels than HCH isomers in earlier years. In view of the increase usage of technical HCH for agriculture and vector control, the body burden of HCH isomers may still go up in Indians. The authors also detected PCBs in Indian breast milk, but at low levels.

  17. Assessment of persistent organochlorine pollutants in sediments from Lake Manzala, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Assem O; Mostafa, Alaa; Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; El Sayed, Nadia B

    2012-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in surface and core sediment samples collected from Manzala Lake, the largest of the Egyptian coastal lakes. Total concentrations of OCPs and ∑7 PCBs (ICES) in sediments ranged from 0.63 to 31.31 ng/g and 0.26 to 31.27 ng/g, respectively. Geographical distribution indicates that levels of contaminants were significantly higher in areas which are mainly influenced by municipal discharge, indicating significant sources of these compounds in urbanised areas. The composition of DDT and its metabolites suggest old input of DDT. The levels of contaminants in Manzala Lake were similar or lower than those observed in comparable areas worldwide. The profiles of ∑OCPs and ∑PCBs in a core from a site heavily impacted by sewage discharge have highest concentrations in the surface core section indicating recent inputs. Assessment of ecotoxicological risk indicated that sediments in two sites were likely to pose potential biological adverse impact. PMID:22513361

  18. Organochlorines in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, heptachlor and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues collected from the Gulf of Alaska during 2000-2001. ΣPCBs (16-728 ng/g lw) and ΣDDTs (14-368 ng/g lw) were the predominant pollutants followed by ΣHCHs (0.56-93 ng/g lw) and heptachlor (≤0.068-6.0 ng/g lw). Concentrations of the above organochlorines (OCs) in the liver, kidney and blubber tissues correlated with ages, sex, body weight and blubber thickness of the harbor seals. The OC concentrations were similar between the samples collected from two different regions - Prince William Sound, and Kodiak Island and Southern Alaska Peninsula. Mean levels of OCs in nursing female adults were much lower than those in male adults, which indicate that lactation transfer OCs from mother seals to newborns. - Σ28 PCB congeners, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH and heptachlor in harbor seal tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska are reported

  19. Using GC to determinate polychlorinated biphenyls in soil after pretreated with microwave-assisted alkaline degradation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-qing; LI Gong-ke; LUO Mei-zhong; ZHANG Zhan-xia

    2006-01-01

    A new and simple microwave-assisted alkaline degradation (MAAD) method for the elimination of organochlorine-pesticide interference on the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil by GC is presented. Under the optimal conditions, the interference of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o. p'-DDT, p. p'-DDD and p. p'-DDT could be eliminated completely, and p. p'-DDE, Aldrin and Dieldrin could be partially eliminated; however, Dieldrin could be completely eliminated by using concentrated sulphuric acid. The method was evaluated by analyzing the spiked-soil sample. The mean recovery obtained was 84. 1%and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was 2.7%. Experimental results also indicate that the degradation of the interference and the extraction of the target analytes, PCBs, could be carried out simultaneously. Compared with the traditional methods, the MAAD method is a rapid, efficient and solvent-saving method.

  20. Biomonitoring of organochlorines in women with benign and malignant breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Established risk factors for breast cancer explain breast cancer risk only partially. Organochlorines are considered to be a possible cause for hormone-dependent cancers. A hospital-based case-control study, the first from India, was conducted among 50 women undergoing surgery for breast disease to examine the association between organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk. Blood, tumor, and surrounding adipose tissue of the breast were collected from the subjects with benign (control) and malignant breast (study) lesions and analyzed to determine organochlorine insecticides using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The α, β, γ, and δ isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p'-DDT, p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were frequently detected in three specimens. Total HCH and total DDT levels were higher in the blood of the study group (25 cases) than in those of the controls (25 cases) with only γ-HCH being significantly different (P0.05). However, both total HCH and total DDT were higher in the tumor tissues of the controls than in those of the study group; γ-HCH was significantly different (P0.05). The level of total HCH (α-HCH was significantly different, P0.05) was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the study group, whereas total DDT was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the control group. The distribution of known confounders of breast cancer including age, body mass index, age at menarche and menopause, duration of breast feeding, and family history related to breast disease did not differ significantly between benign and malignant groups. This pilot study with limited statistical power does not support a positive association between exposure to organochlorines and risk of breast cancer but paves the way for a larger Indian study with greater statistical power encompassing different regions of the country to enable

  1. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk for consumers in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Pohoryło, Anna; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk is a one of bioindicators of environmental pollution, and, consequently, food contamination. This study estimates contamination level of goat milk produced at two organic farms in years 2009-2013. Analysis covered determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers (α, β, γ, δ), DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and its derivatives, and methoxychlor. Pesticide content was determined using GCMS method. The detected levels of organochlorine residues in goat milk were low, in most cases below 8 ng g(-1) lipids. Among HCH isomers, γ- and β-HCH occurred in the highest concentrations, up to 4.85 ng g(-1) lipids. While among DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD dominated, up to 7.86 ng g(-1) lipids. The detected residues were below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the pesticides. Considering the average milk consumption in Poland, the goat milk from both farms was safe for consumers' health. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for the sum of the compounds under study ranged within 1.73 × 10(-5)-1.06 × 10(-4) mg kg bw(-1) d(-1) and were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for particular compounds. This was also confirmed by the values of hazard quotient (HQ), which were very low and ranged within 3.42 × 10(-3)-5.55 × 10(-2). PMID:26829307

  2. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). 129... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (a) Specialized definitions. (1) PCB Manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces polychlorinated biphenyls. (2) Electrical capacitor manufacturer means a manufacturer who...

  3. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  4. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alberto Isea Fernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about organochlorine pesticideslegislation in Venezuela was recovered, usingthe search engine Google. Progress and setbackswas analyzed, with information about imports,exports, inventories, storage sites, controls andactions taken for disposal and participation ininternational conventions. The country appearsto have adequate legislation, however, greaterconsistency of laws and decrees are required. Updatethe technical rule is necessary and increasesthe capacity to monitoring, identification andelimination of organochlorine pesticides.

  5. Storage of organochlorine inseticides in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wassermann

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a survey on OCI storage in people in Bahia, Brasil. In this survey 11 samples of adipose tissue were taken from people who underwent splenectomy for hepato splenic schistosomiasis. In these patients, total DDT averaged 10.66 ppm as compared to 4,83 ppm of total DDT found in presumably healthy people. The difference was statistically significant. It is considered that the increased DDT storage in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiass may be the result of a reduced metabolzation of p,p'-DDT and reduced excretion of its metabolites. Another possíbility is the increased exposure to organochlorine nsectedes by hepatosplenc patients who frequently come from irrigation zones, where these compounds are more used in intensive cultivatíon.

  6. Radiochemical decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) decomposition are analyzed with the aim of determining whether polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) or dibenzafurans (PCDF) are formed during radition-chemical decomposition. It is shown that under irradiation of PCB Arochlor 1260 mixture with 10-2 mass % concentration decomposition degree equals 90.4 % at radiaion dose more than 6 Mrad. As the result of irradiation the content of relatively light PCB in the mixture increases and the content of irradiated mixture becomes close to the content of Arochlor 1242 mixture. Neitgher PCDD nor PCDE is detected on the products of PCB decomposition

  7. Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls on the growth of chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Yasuhiko; Hatano, Akira [Chub Women`s College, Gifu-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Incubation of chicken embryos with either 0.01 or 0.03 ppm polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 12, 15, or 18 d resulted in a significant decrease in liver and body weight associated with enhanced mortality. Teratological examination revealed an increased frequency of malformations including hydrops, eventration, wry neck, and brevicollis. PCB exposure was also found to produce histologic damage to liver and cutaneous tissue. Our data demonstrate that exposure of chicks to PCBs during development results in a retardation of growth, an increased incidence of malformations, and histopathologic damage. 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) FROM PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL'S) TRANSFORMER AND CAPACITOR FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA, under the Toxic Substances Control Act, has been mandated to develop appropriate regulations for the control of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In light of this responsibility the EPA Office of Toxic Substances recently issued an Advance Notice of Proposed ...

  9. Plant enzymes in metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromá, L.; Moeder, M.; Kučerová, P.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 291-295. ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * plants * peroxidases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  10. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in pine needles from Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlikowska, A.; Falandysz, J.; Bochentin, I. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Gdansk (Poland); Hanari, N.; Wyrzykowska, B.; Yamashita, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of 75 compounds, which have been commercially produced and used in a wide range of industrial applications for the sake of their specific chemical properties. They are recognized as good electrical insulators and also as water and flame resistant materials. Technical PCNs formulations were mainly used as capacitor dielectrics, engine oil additives, electroplating stop-off compounds, in wire insulations and as paper, wood and fabric preservatives. Moreover, they have been formed during production of PCBs formulations. Although recently most countries have stopped synthesis of PCNs, they still are widely distributed in the environment. Nowadays the principal sources of these compounds are municipal solid wastes incineration, metallurgical and chloro-alkali processes. In last years PCNs concentrations in the environment have posed the cynosure of big group of scientists in the whole world. The relatively high concentrations are regarded as an environmental problem. Because they are persistent, toxic and lipophilic they might be bioaccumulated in living organisms and generate the danger for animals and humans. It is essentially to monitor their levels in air, regional transport, as well as estimate specific sources. It is possible by using as a biomonitors pine tree needles. These trees are considered as the very suitable passive indicators for monitoring of PCNs concentrations in the troposphere. This is because the surface wax layer of the needles poses an ability to absorb these lipophilic compounds from the surrounding air. In the current study pine needles were employed as biomonitors of PCNs concentrations in the ambient air of Poland. This country with its past history of production and use of different applications including these compounds, as well as with its location in the centre of Europe, presents the interesting region to these researches.

  11. Molecularly imprinted polymers for the analysis and removal of polychlorinated aromatic compounds in the environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-05-23

    Synthetic receptors and in particular molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are gaining relevance as selective sorbent materials and biomimetic recognition elements for analyzing polychlorinated aromatic compounds (PACs) in the environment. PACs are still ubiquitous toxic pollutants requiring their continuous environmental assessment for protecting humans and animals from exposure. Since nowadays most PACs occur at ultra-trace concentration levels and in complex matrices, the selectivity of MIPs renders them ideally suited for facilitating either sample pre-treatment and quantitative enrichment, or acting as biomimetic recognition elements as an integral component of corresponding sensing schemes. Due to the diversity of PACs, imprinting polymers for these constituents appears particularly challenging. This review focuses on prevalent strategies towards successfully templating polymer materials towards polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxy forms, chlorophenols, dioxins and furans, and organochlorine pesticides, and successful applications of the polymer materials in monitoring of these compounds at trace-levels in real-world environmental matrices. Discussed are also group-selective sorbents for facilitating simultaneous detection and quantification of PACs. PMID:27109025

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls levels in human breast milk from different regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Ismet; Donmez, Menekse Keski; Uner, Mine; Demirkaya, Erkan; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Shen, Heqing; Kotalik, Jarmila; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2009-09-01

    Human breast milk offers the optimal nutrition for all infants and have been widely used in biomonitoring programs to assess human exposure to lipophylic environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). There are no previous reports from Turkey on chemically determined levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in human breast milk expressed as World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalents (TEQ). To get an overview of the levels of these contaminants in Turkish human milk, samples from 51 Turkish women living in the Ankara, Istanbul, Antalya, Kahramanmaraş, and Afyon provinces were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) throughout 2007. The mean concentrations of WHO(PCDD/F-)TEQ and WHO(PCB-)TEQ of all samples from the five regions were 7.5 and 3.1 pg g(-1) on a lipid basis, respectively. PCDD/F concentrations ranged between 0.78 and 29.3 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat (1.7 and 36.2 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat, respectively, including PCB). Of the five studied locations, the lowest levels of sigmaTEQs (PCDD/F+PCB) were found in the Afyon (6.8 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat) and the highest in the Antalya (15.6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat) province. The results have been discussed in terms of regions and PCDD/F and PCBs for which analyses had been made. The mean levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Turkish human milk are comparable to that found in other countries. PMID:19604536

  13. Organochlorine pesticide residues in wheat from Konya region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, G O; Cakmak, Y S; Dagli, Z; Aktumsek, A; Ozparlak, H

    2010-05-01

    The present study has been carried out to evaluate the organochlorine pesticide contamination in wheat from Konya region. This region is the largest area of cereal production in Turkey. The contamination level has been determined according to the European Community Directives. Different wheat samples (36) were obtained from local farmers and wheat factories in this region. All the wheat samples examined were found to be contaminated by organochlorine pesticide residues of cis-Chlordane and methoxychlor. Chlordane isomers, methoxychlor, DDT and its metabolites, aldrin, beta HCH, heptachlor and lindane have been found to be the highest organochlorine pesticide residues. In some of these samples, various organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined to be higher than European Community maximum residual limits. The residues of aldrin in one sample, trans-Chlordane in one sample, oxy-chlordane in eight samples and methoxychlor in one sample were found to be in excess of EC MRLs. Since most of the samples have been found to be contaminated with residues and some residues exceed EC MRLs, a control of organochlorine pesticide residues in wheat is necessary. PMID:20156519

  14. Temporal variations of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Ma, Lingling; Xu, Diandou; Liu, Liyan; Jia, Hongliang; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yongbao; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-12-01

    Temporal variations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in precipitation and monthly depositional fluxes were calculated in Beijing from February 2009 to March 2011. Compounds which were detected most often included α-HCH and β-HCH, and the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was 33.0 ng L-1, accounting for 72.3% of the ∑OCPs in precipitation. The total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 3.73 to 152 ng L-1 (mean: 29.7 ± 3.5 ng L-1) for dissolved phase and from 1.61 to 114 ng L-1 (mean: 15.9 ± 2.0 ng L-1) for particulate phase, respectively. OCPs in dissolved phase dominated sampled concentrations in precipitation (HCHs: 71.8%, Chlordane: 77.7%, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes-DDTs: 50.1%) with an exception of hexachlorobenzene-HCB (26.3%). Furthermore, the distribution coefficient, Kpd, was generally large in low temperature, especially in spring. The abundance of ∑OCPs in the precipitation fluctuated monthly, with high value in late winter and spring. The past farmland near the sampling site was under construction during sampling, which may be an important local re-emission source in this study. The elevated wet deposition flux of 11 selected OCPs was 14.9 μg m-2 yr-1 in Beijing.

  15. Ultrasonic solvent extraction of organochlorine pesticides from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic solvent extraction of the organochlorine pesticides (OCP) including α-, β-, γ- and Δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, methoxychlor, mirex from soil is reported. The extraction procedure was optimized with regard to the solvent type, amount of solvent, duration of sonication and number of extraction steps. Determination of pesticides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detection (ECD). Twice ultrasonic extraction using 25 mL of a mixture of petroleum ether and acetone (1/1 v/v) for 20 min of sonication showed satisfactory extraction efficiency. Recoveries of pesticides from fortified soil samples are over 88% for three different fortification levels between 15 and 200 μg kg-1, and relative standard deviations of the recoveries are generally below 6%. Real soil samples were analyzed for OCP residues by optimized ultrasonic solvent extraction and shake-flask as well as soxhlet extraction technique. Investigated all extraction methods showed comparable extraction efficiencies. Optimized ultrasonic solvent extraction is the most rapid procedure because the use of time in ultrasonic extraction was considerably reduced compared to shake-flask and soxhlet extraction

  16. Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. PMID:25043888

  17. Trace metals and organochlorines in the bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum from the southern waters of Hong Kong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Andrew S; Ng, W C; Ho, Valerie C M; Wong, H L; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2007-04-15

    The bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum is an abundant benthic species along the shallow continental shelf of Southeast Asia. It is commonly taken by fishermen in China, India, Taiwan and Thailand for human consumption. This study measured trace metal and organochlorine concentrations in C. plagiosum collected from the southern waters of Hong Kong, China. Metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in three different tissues: dorsal muscle, spleen and liver. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in the dorsal muscle were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Metal concentrations varied among the three different tissues, with liver having higher levels of Ag and Cd, and spleen possessing higher levels of Cu and Mn. Both Ni and Pb in all tissues were below the detection limit. Tissue concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn generally decreased with increasing body weight whilst no significant concentration-size relationship was found for other metals. In muscle tissues, total PCBs ranged from 1.056-4.771 ng/g (wet wt.) with a median of 1.801 ng/g, while total DDTs ranged from 0.602-23.55 ng/g with a median of 1.109 ng/g, in which p,p'-DDE was the predominant metabolite. Levels of total hexachlorohexanes and cyclodienes were low. The pesticide p,p'-DDT was the only compound found to be positively correlated with body weight, indicating temporal bioaccumulation of this compound. Zn concentrations in the muscle of C. plagiosum were comparatively higher than recorded in other shark species, however, concentrations of other metals and organochlorines were relatively low. C. plagiosum feeds primarily on polychaetes, shrimps and small fishes, and thus is unlikely to contain levels of contaminants of human health concern. PMID:17320935

  18. Skull pathology in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1892 to 2002 in relation to organochlorine pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Buelowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)]. E-mail: csh@dmu.dk; Riget, Frank F. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wiig, Oystein [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172 Blindern, N-0562 Oslo (Norway); Kirkegaard, Maja [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Born, Erik W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are heavily polluted with long-range transported organochlorines such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). To investigate the negative health impacts, a time-trend study of skull pathology was conducted on 269 East Greenland and 241 Svalbard polar bears. The skulls were sampled during 1892-2002 and 1964-1992, respectively. Seven different pathological changes were found: adonti, displacement of teeth, caries, osseous proliferations, exostosis, tooth wear and periodontitis. Only tooth wear and periodontitis was in a prevalence that allowed statistical treatment. The most severe cases of tooth wear and periodontitis were accompanied by a substantial loss of alveolar bone structure. The prevalence of tooth wear and periodontitis increased significantly with age (p < 0.001) with incisor wear being more severe than in canines, premolars and molars (p < 0.001). No sex difference was found for tooth wear (p = 0.22) while a significant difference between sexes was found for periodontitis (p = 0.01) with males having higher prevalence than females (odds ratio of 2.5 for males:females). In East Greenland, the prevalence of tooth wear was significantly higher in polar bears collected in the pre pollution period (< 1960) than in bears sampled during polluted periods (1960-1980 and 1981-2002) (p < 0.001). Regarding periodontitis, the prevalence was not significantly different between pre-pollution and pollution periods (p = 0.309). Polar bears from Svalbard had significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear (p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.02) than polar bears from East Greenland. The tooth wear and periodontitis odds ratios for Svalbard:East Greenland were 135 and 2.6, respectively. Hence, we found a clear age/sex link and geographical difference but no evidence for an association between skull pathology and exposure to organochlorines in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears.

  19. Skull pathology in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1892 to 2002 in relation to organochlorine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are heavily polluted with long-range transported organochlorines such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). To investigate the negative health impacts, a time-trend study of skull pathology was conducted on 269 East Greenland and 241 Svalbard polar bears. The skulls were sampled during 1892-2002 and 1964-1992, respectively. Seven different pathological changes were found: adonti, displacement of teeth, caries, osseous proliferations, exostosis, tooth wear and periodontitis. Only tooth wear and periodontitis was in a prevalence that allowed statistical treatment. The most severe cases of tooth wear and periodontitis were accompanied by a substantial loss of alveolar bone structure. The prevalence of tooth wear and periodontitis increased significantly with age (p < 0.001) with incisor wear being more severe than in canines, premolars and molars (p < 0.001). No sex difference was found for tooth wear (p = 0.22) while a significant difference between sexes was found for periodontitis (p = 0.01) with males having higher prevalence than females (odds ratio of 2.5 for males:females). In East Greenland, the prevalence of tooth wear was significantly higher in polar bears collected in the pre pollution period (< 1960) than in bears sampled during polluted periods (1960-1980 and 1981-2002) (p < 0.001). Regarding periodontitis, the prevalence was not significantly different between pre-pollution and pollution periods (p = 0.309). Polar bears from Svalbard had significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear (p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.02) than polar bears from East Greenland. The tooth wear and periodontitis odds ratios for Svalbard:East Greenland were 135 and 2.6, respectively. Hence, we found a clear age/sex link and geographical difference but no evidence for an association between skull pathology and exposure to organochlorines in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears

  20. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  1. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo e Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Azeredo, Antonio; Lailson-Brito, José; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf

    2007-04-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT may bioaccumulate in the aquatic food web and have been of great concern due to their toxic effects on wildlife and human health. There is evidence showing that fish in the human diet contributes at a significant proportion to the total intake of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat levels. This study investigated the concentration of PCBs and DDTs in muscle tissues of samples of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) and a swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from east Brazilian coast and estimate the human exposure to total DDTs through the consumption of both the species. Samples of the each species were caught between August and September 2001. The mean concentration for summation operator PCBs in P. glauca was 3.15 ng/g w.w. and the summation operator DDTs was 0.93 ng/g w.w. The mean concentration of summation operator PCBs in X. gladius was 6.50 ng/g and the mean of summation operator DDTs was 2.47 ng/g. The estimated daily intake of summation operator DDT through X. gladius or P. glauca consumption can be considered safe since it contributes to less than 0.1% of the limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) of summation operator DDT proposed by WHO. PMID:17223179

  3. Soil-Air Partitioning of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Total Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Zhang; Erping Bi; Honghan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Soil-air partitioning is an important diffusive process that affects the environmental fate of organic compounds and human health. In this review, factors affecting the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (p,p’-and o,p’-isomers of DDT, DDD, and DDE) are discussed. Hydrophobicity is an important factor that influences soil-air partition coefficients (KSA), and its effect can be explained through enthalpy of phase change for soil-air partitioning transfer (ΔHSA). For more hydrophobic compounds, a sharp increase in the KSA of PCBs and organochlorines can be seen in the early aging period. During the aging period, the temperature has a significant effect on the more hydrophobic organic compounds. The content and properties of soil or-ganic matter influence the KSA of the target compounds. Generally, KSA decreases with increasing rela-tive humidity in soils. The linear trend between KSA and temperature (T) changes at 0 °C. Freezing the air or soil in experiments would change the research results. On the basis of factors influencing soil-air partitioning, a multipleparameter (T, organic carbon fraction (fOC), and octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA)) model is put forward to predict the KSA values for PCBs and total DDTs.

  4. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson's Disease in North Indian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrabasu Chhillar; Deepika Sharma; Md. Mustafa; Kiran Bala; Neelam Chhillar; Neeraj Kumar Singh; B D Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    The cause of Parkinson’s disease (PD) remains elusive, but environmental chemical exposures have been postulated to be involved in the etiology of PD. We examined the association between the persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PD in the North Indian population. This case control study included 70 PD and 75 control subjects in the age group of 50 to 85 years. Blood samples were collected and high-purity grade hexane and acetone (2 : 1 ratio) were used for extraction of organochlori...

  5. 77 FR 42181 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Disposition of Request Submitted Under TSCA Section 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Disposition of Request Submitted Under TSCA... certain actions to protect human health and the marine environment from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs... Sinking Exercise). List of Subjects Environmental protection, Polychlorinated biphenyls, SINKEX....

  6. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, M S

    1985-01-01

    Human occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with varying chlorine content has been reported by several investigators, using analyses of blood or adipose samples or skin wipes to evaluate levels in the body. The intensity of occupational exposure is related to both duration and intensity of exposure. The qualitative nature of occupational exposure, as well as casual environmental exposure, has been shown to consist of less readily metabolized PCB congeners. The pattern of P...

  7. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D.; Kania-Korwel, I.; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and ...

  8. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 μg/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 μg/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 μg/l; ΣPCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 μg/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 μg/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 μg/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any health risks for our

  9. Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

  10. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Subir Kumar; Raikwar, Mukesh K

    2011-03-01

    Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of β-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg(-1). In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg(-1) and the pp(|) isomers were more frequently encountered than their op(|) counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. PMID:20443138

  11. Accumulation of neurotoxic organochlorines and trace elements in brain of female European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, C; Scaion, D; Lemaire, B; Belpaire, C; Thomé, J-P; Thonon, M; Leermaker, M; Gao, Y; Debier, C; Silvestre, F; Kestemont, P; Rees, J-F

    2016-07-01

    Xenobiotics such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) and metals have been suggested to play a significant role in the collapse of European eel stocks in the last decades. Several of these pollutants could affect functioning of the nervous system. Still, no information is so far available on levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants in eel brain. In present study, carried out on female eels caught in Belgian rivers and canals, we analyzed brain levels of potentially-neurotoxic trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, MeHg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn) and OCs (Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; Hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs; Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites, DDTs). Data were compared to levels in liver and muscle tissues. Eel brain contained very high amounts of OCs, superior to those found in the two other tissues. Interestingly, the relative abundance of PCB congeners markedly differed between tissues. In brain, a predominance of low chlorinated PCBs was noted, whereas highly chlorinated congeners prevailed in muscle and liver. HCHs were particularly abundant in brain, which contains the highest amounts of β-HCH and ϒ-HCH. p,p'-DDTs concentration was similar between brain and muscle (i.e., about twice that of liver). A higher proportion of p,p'-DDT was noticed in brain. Except for Cr and inorganic Hg, all potentially neurotoxic metals accumulated in brain to levels equal to or lower than hepatic levels. Altogether, results indicate that eel brain is an important target for organic and, to a lesser extent, for inorganic neurotoxic pollutants. PMID:27376663

  12. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  13. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers

  14. Organochlorine insecticide residues in the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Bracken Cave, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Martin, C.O.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-nine free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana ) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and analyzed for organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Residues of DDE in the brain were greater in 12 young collected from the floor than in 15 young taken from the ceiling, but food deprivation, not higher residues in the brain, apparently caused young to fall....Among 18 pregnant females, residues of DDE and DDT were highest in yearlings. The first lactation by yearlings caused their residue loads to drop sharply. Thereafter, increasing age was accompanied by increasing residues but amounts generally did not exceed those in yearlings.....Residue levels in embryos were a function both of levels in the female parent and degree of embryonic development. Residues accumulated rapidly in nursing young, and lactating females may excrete from 1.3 to 16.2 (mean = 4.3) micrograms of DDE in milk per day. Maximum individual residue loads may be attained toward the end of nursing, and mobilization of these residues during southward migration may subject Bracken Cave free-tails to maximum lifetime residues in the brain....Comparison of our data with residue data for the free-tail population at Eagle Creek Cave (Arizona) in 1970 produced the following conclusions: ( 1) residues of DDE appeared similar in pregnant females, embryos, lactating females, and fallen young for the two populations; (2) residues of DDT and dieldrin appeared greater in pregnant females at Bracken Cave; (3) DDE and DDT occurred at greater levels in guano samples from Bracken Cave. On this basis, the population decline observed at Eagle Creek Cave between 1963 and 1969 does not appear to be related to the residues observed in the 1970 samples taken from that cave.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air–grass–yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p′-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air–butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. - Highlights: • Air, grass and butter POPs in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were at the lower end of the global levels. • The pasture of the TP was found to be a “sink” of DDTs. • Bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the food chain: air–grass–yak. • The TFA:B was tested to be an excellent tool to predict air OCPs and PCBs in the TP. - Transfer and bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the terrestrial food chain: air–grass–yak (butter)

  16. Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (γ-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

  17. NV- Polychlorinated biphenyls at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — PCBs or other organochlorine compounds were not detected in water from any site sampled during this study. Detection limits reported by the analytical laboratory...

  18. Organochlorine compounds and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Fito, N; M. Sala; Cardo, E; Mazon, C; de Muga, M E; Verdu, A; Marco, E.; Grimalt, J.; Sunyer, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: A total of 98 mother-infant pairs (83.1% of all children born during the period 1997–99 in a specific area polluted with HCB) were recruited. Levels of organochlorine compounds were measured in 70 cord serum samples. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in plasma of all newborns three days after birth.

  19. Hygienic assessment of persistent organochlorine pesticides in milk products

    OpenAIRE

    NORMATOVA SHAKHNOZA ANVAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    In this article the hygienic assessment of averages entering the body in the milk and milk products daily doses of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the towns of the Ferghana valley (Ferghana, Andijan, Namangan region). According to a special formula has been determined the actual level of pesticides and on the results of the study made the appropriate conclusions.

  20. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Ţibulcă; Mirela Jimborean; Dan Sălăgean; Ariana Caraba

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  1. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Alberto Isea Fernández; Lenin José Huerta Morillo; Ilsen Emérita Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Information about organochlorine pesticideslegislation in Venezuela was recovered, usingthe search engine Google. Progress and setbackswas analyzed, with information about imports,exports, inventories, storage sites, controls andactions taken for disposal and participation ininternational conventions. The country appearsto have adequate legislation, however, greaterconsistency of laws and decrees are required. Updatethe technical rule is necessary and increasesthe capacity to monitoring, iden...

  2. Duplicate 24-hour diet study 1994 organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann RA; Hoogerbrugge R; Zoonen P van; LOC

    1999-01-01

    Duplicate diet samples collected in 1994 were analysed for organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. It was not possible to evaluate wether dietary intake exceeded the established Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). For the other organophosphorous compounds as well as for the organoclorine pestic

  3. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  4. Assessment of average exposure to organochlorine pesticides in southern Togo from water, maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawussi, G; Sanda, K; Merlina, G; Pinelli, E

    2009-03-01

    Drinking water, cowpea and maize grains were sampled in some potentially exposed agro-ecological areas in Togo and analysed for their contamination by some common organochlorine pesticides. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides were investigated in ten subsamples of maize, ten subsamples of cowpea and nine subsamples of drinking water. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues and their subsequent quantification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of pesticides were also determined. Pesticides residues in drinking water (0.04-0.40 microg l(-1)) were higher than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.03 microg l(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan levels (13.16-98.79 microg kg(-1)) in cowpea grains exceeded MRLs applied in France (10-50 microg kg(-1)). Contaminants' levels in maize grains (0.53-65.70 microg kg(-1)) were below the MRLs (20-100 microg kg(-1)) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the WHO. EDIs of the tested pesticides ranged from 0.02% to 162.07% of the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). Population exposure levels of dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide were higher than the FAO/WHO standards. A comprehensive national monitoring programme on organochlorine pesticides should be undertaken to include such other relevant sources like meat, fish, eggs and milk. PMID:19680908

  5. Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Leri; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

  6. Organochlorine turnover in forest ecosystems: The missing link in the terrestrial chlorine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

  7. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm2, allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  8. Accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine food chains: field measurements and model calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Karin; Hendriks, Jan; Huijbregts, Mark; Leonards, Pim; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine; Vethaak, Dick

    2005-10-01

    Food chain accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine environments is compared to model estimations and fresh water field data. The food chain consists of herbivores, detritivores and primary and secondary carnivores i.e. fish, fish-eating birds and marine mammals. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls is predicted well by OMEGA for herbi-detritivores and primary and secondary carnivorous fish. Ratios are similar to those found for fresh water species. Accumulation ratios for fish-eating birds and mammals are overestimated by the model, which is attributed partly to biotransformation of meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Additionally, birds may feed in other less polluted areas. For brominated diphenylethers (BDE) accumulation patterns are highly species and congener specific. Accumulation depends on both K(ow) and metabolization capacities. BDE47 is the predominant congener in lower trophic levels. For marine birds and mammals accumulation ratios of BDE99 and 100 are similar to or higher than ratios of persistent PCBs. PMID:15893330

  9. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia

  10. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. PMID:15992976

  11. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Adibroto, Tussy A. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hartono, Phillipus [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia.

  12. Semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in sediments and risk assessment in Huaihe River of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in sediments from Jiangsu reach of Huaihe River, China, were presented. The organic compounds were extracted by acetone: n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus and concentrations were performed using HP6890 gas chromatography coupled by FID and ECD detector. The total contents of 8 heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or cold-vapor/atomic absorption spectrometry were developed. 30 semivolatile organic compounds were detected, including substituted benzenes, phenols, phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, from 0.01 to 3.01 mg/kg. 16 organochlorine pesticides were almost detected and from 0.010 to 2.339 μg/kg.Concentrations of major metals were 50 mg/kg or less, mean level of mercury was only 0.055 mg/kg. Compared to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), concentrations of some semivolatile organic compounds were high enough to cause possible toxic effects to living resources. The organochlorine pesticides presented relatively low, lower than threshold effect concentrations (TECs), harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms were not expected. Chromium posed probable toxic effects to the living resources, other heavy metals had no threat temporarily according to SQGs.

  13. Polychlorinated Alkanes in Fish from Norwegian Freshwater

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders R.; Martin Schlabach; Roland Kallenborn; Eirik Fjeld

    2002-01-01

    Short-chain polychlorinated alkanes (sPCAs) have been measured in freshwater fish samples from different lakes all over Norway and from the Norwegian Arctic. The analyses were performed with high-resolution GC coupled to high-resolution MS in electron capture negative ion mode. The species investigated were trout, Arctic char, and burbot (Lota lota). Muscle tissue in the lake trout and Arctic char, and liver in burbot, were selected for analyses because of their high lipid content. ∑sPCA conc...

  14. Residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in the Mae Klong river of Central Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most natural waterways in Thailand are utilized for conventional agricultures, e.g. irrigation and wastewater discharge. Concentrations of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in surface sediments collected from the tributaries of the Mae Klong river during 2003-2005. The sampling sites chosen were nearby the rice paddy which organochlorine pesticides were intensively used for crop cultivation. Solid-liquid extraction technique was used for sediment extraction, and gas chromatography with electron capture detector was applied for pesticides determination. Total concentrations of OCPs found were ranged from 4.12 to 214.91 μg g-1 dw in the first year. In the second year, total residue concentrations in the surface sediments were in the range of 3.26-215.09 μg g-1 dw. Concentrations of pesticides were greater in dry-season rice cultivation period in both sampling years, and heptachlor epoxide was the contaminant found at highest concentration in this study. In addition, the occurrence of some selected contaminants including DDT, DDD and DDE reflects the recent contamination in the study area. This demonstrates not only that the natural waterway was polluted and contained much pesticide residues, but it also illustrates the necessity of a continuous long-term monitoring of the affected environment

  15. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in conifer needles in the southeast Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-nine conifer needles in mountain-valley areas from the southeastern Tibet were collected with altitude span from 1520 to 4340 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Concentrations of OCPs in samples ranged from 0.69 to 4.3 ng/g, from 0.39 to 4.9 ng/g and from 1.9 to 20.5 ng/g (dry weight) for HCB, total HCHs and DDTs, respectively. The levels of DDTs found here were noticeably higher than those from other high mountainous regions. Composition of HCH isomers and DDTs was analyzed, and it was found that the high ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT might be caused by the application of dicofol in adjacent regions. A number of environmental factors controlling the distribution of OCPs in regional scale were also discussed in this paper. - Conifer needles in southeastern Tibet indicate several organochlorine pesticides are transported from the Indian continent by the southern Asian monsoon

  16. A mechanistic overview of health associated effects of low levels of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides are compounds that can be detected in human populations as a result of occupational or residential exposure. Despite their occurrence in considerably low levels in humans, their biological effects are hazardous since they interact with a plethora of enzymes, proteins, receptors and transcription factors. In this review we summarize the cell and molecular effects of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides with respect to their toxicity, with particular emphasis on glucose and lipid metabolism, their interaction with some members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, including the steroid and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors that changes the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. More importantly, evidence regarding the metabolic degradation of pesticides and their accumulation in tissues is presented. Potential non-cholinergic mechanisms after long-term low-dose organophosphate exposure resulting in neurodevelopmental outcomes and neurodegeneration are also addressed. We conclude that the mechanism of pesticide-mediated toxicity is a combination of various enzyme-inhibitory, metabolic and transcriptional events acting at the cellular and molecular level

  17. Serum organochlorines and urinary porphyrin pattern in a population highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas-Fitó Núria

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT is caused by hexachlorobenzene (HCB in several species of laboratory mammals, but the human evidence is contradictory. In a study among adults of a population highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain, the prevalence of PCT was not increased. We aimed at analysing the association of individual urinary porphyrins with the serum concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine compounds in this highly exposed population. Methods A cross-sectional study on total porphyrins was carried out in 1994 on 604 inhabitants of the general population of Flix, older than 14 years. Of them, 241 subjects (comprising a random sample and the subgroup with the highest exposure were included for the present study. The porphyrin profile was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of HCB, as well as common organochlorine compounds, were determined by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection. Results Coproporphyrin I (CPI and coproporphyrin III (CPIII were the major porphyrins excreted, while uroporphyrins I and III were only detected in 2% and 36% of the subjects respectively, and heptaporphyrins I and III in 1% and 6%, respectively. CPI and CPIII decreased with increasing HCB concentrations (p Conclusion HCB exposure in this highly exposed population did not increase urinary concentrations of individual porphyrins.

  18. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ted H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6160 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, PO Box 764, Jefferson, TX 75657 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Math and Science, Oglala Lakota College, 490 Piya Wiconi Road, Kyle, SD, 57752 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch.

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch

  20. Effects of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Human Liver Cell Models (in vitro) and in Mice (in vivo)

    OpenAIRE

    Lohr, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent environmental pollutants which ubiquitously occur as complex mixtures and accumulate in the food and feed chain due to their high lipophilic properties. Of the 419 possible congeners, only 29 share a common mechanism of action and cause similar effects, the so called dioxin-like compounds. Dioxin-like compounds evoke a broad spectrum of biochemical and toxic responses, i.e. enzyme induction, dermal ...

  1. Effects of Chinese domestic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Zhan-Fen; Zhou, Jing-Ming; Chu, Shao-Gang; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) influence gonadal differentiation in Xenopus laevis, tadpoles were exposed to two Chinese domestic PCBs (PCB3 and PCB5 from Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 46/47 to complete metamorphosis. Gonads were characterized using a dissecting microscope. The control X. laevis had normal ovaries or testes in gross morphology, whereas obviously abnormal testes including ovotestes were found in PCB3- and PCB5-exposed groups. Ovotestes were characterized by ...

  2. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, E S; Crowley, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Plant compounds that induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were identified by a screening assay based on the formation of a 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl ring fission product. A chemical component of spearmint (Mentha spicata), l-carvone, induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize Aroclor 1242, resulting in significant degradation of 26 peaks in the mixture, including selected tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls. Evidence for PCB biodegradation incl...

  3. Residues of organochlorinated pesticides in soils from the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National POPs inventories carried out currently in many countries as a part of the implementation of Stockholm Convention revealed the need for detailed information about a distribution of pollutants in various regions. Screening for the residues of selected organochlorinated pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, methoxychlor, mirex) in soil and biotic samples from the Czech Republic was performed. Although these pesticides have never been used in large quantities in this region, results indicate that their residues still persist in the top layer soils more than 20 years after they have been banned. The fact that their soil concentrations in the mountains are generally higher than those in agricultural areas, and detection of the traces of pesticides that have never been used in this region suggest on their occurrence in soils due to the atmospheric redistribution rather than as a result of direct application. - Organochlorinated pesticides persist in soils

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in wild boars from Calabria (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccari, F; Giofrè, F; Licata, P; Martino, D; Calò, M; Parisi, N

    2004-01-01

    At present, there are no specific studies on the evaluation of environmental toxicological risks in Calabria (south of Italy) and on the presence of contaminants in the fauna of this region. The aim of the present research was to investigate the levels of contamination by OC pesticides and PCBs in some organs and tissues of wild boars (utilized as 'biological indicator') from various areas of Calabria. Quantitative determinations of organochlorines were carried out using GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS in 154 samples from wild boars (heart, liver, lung, kidney, muscle tissue and spleen) during the hunting season from 2000 to 2002. The results indicate the low residual levels of DDE in 8 samples and DDT in 4 samples and PCBs residues (Aroclor 1232) below the detection limits were found. Therefore, these results show that the Calabria region is not at contamination risk from organochlorines and moreover is free from health problems for the consumer of boar meat. PMID:15327158

  5. Isolation of Organochlorine Pesticide from Ginseng with Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芬; 王幼君; 全灿; 田松江

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of removal of the organochlorine pesticides residues of hexachlorocyclohexane(BHC) from radix ginseng with supercritical CO2 was explored. Some factors, such as extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and kinds of co-solvents were investigated. The experimental results indicate that it is possible to reduce BHC residues in radix ginseng to the level of 0.1 × 10-6 with supercritical CO2 in the presence of suitable amount of co-solvent, such as water.

  6. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Blankson-Arthur; P. Owiredu Yeboah; Abledze Golow; Anita Osei Tutu; Dzifa Denutsui

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the extent of contamination of with p,p- DDT, p,p-DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane ((γ-HCH) and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor in tissues of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), obtained from the Gomoa East district of Ghana. The organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples were soxhlet extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone. The extra...

  7. Association between biomarkers of exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds (POCs).

    OpenAIRE

    Axmon, Anna; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Serum concentrations of CB-153 and pp'-DDE were assessed for 354 men and women from the Swedish Fishermen's Families Cohort, and were found to correlate very well (Pearson's r = 0.72). In this particular cohort the main source of exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds are consumption of contaminated fatty fish. High correlations between total PCB/CB-153 and p,p'-DDE have also been found in other population with similar exposure, but not in populations whose major sour...

  8. Trapping of Organochlorine Compounds in High Mountain Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Grimalt, Joan O; Pilar Fernandez; Vilanova, Rosa M.

    2001-01-01

    High mountain areas have recently been observed to be polluted by organochlorine compounds (OC) despite their isolation. These persistent pollutants arrive at these remote regions through atmospheric transport. However, the mechanisms involving the accumulation of these compounds from the atmospheric pool to the lacustrine systems still need to be elucidated. These mechanisms must be related to the processes involving the transfer of these pollutant from low to high latitudes[1] as described ...

  9. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Ţibulcă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  10. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic compounds that persist in the environment. Because of their lipid solubility and resistance to metabolism, some of these chemicals accumulate in human tissues. The largest area of intensive greenhouse agriculture in Europe is near the Mediterranean coast of Southern Spain, where this type of farming has greatly expanded since the 1960s. We determined and compared the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue and blood of 200 women living in Southern Spain. Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, methoxychlor, endosulfans, and DDT and its metabolites were identified. Detectable concentrations of p,p'-DDE were found in 100% of adipose tissue and serum samples. Among the remaining DDTs, p,p'-DDT was the most common, being detected in 39% of adipose tissue and 76.5% of serum samples, followed by endosulfans I and II, which also were found in both adipose tissue and serum samples but at lower concentrations. Endosulfans were followed in frequency by lindane, aldrin, and dieldrin. Endrin and methoxychlor were present at a much lower frequency compared to those of the other organochlorines. Serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE o,p'-DDD, and endosulfan -I, -sulfate, -lactone, and -diol were significantly correlated with their adipose tissue concentrations. No significant relationships were found between the serum and adipose tissue concentrations of the remaining nine compounds determined, raising doubts about the equivalent use of fat/serum samples for the exposure assessment of some pesticides in epidemiological studies. The results suggested that women of reproductive age in Southern Spain have been and are currently exposed to organochlorine pesticides. Because many of these chemicals can mobilize during pregnancy and lactation, further research is warranted to interpret the health consequences for the children of such exposure

  11. Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in fi...

  12. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A.; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily...

  13. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  14. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including: Aroclor (United States); Phenoclor (France); Colphen (Germany); and Kanaclor (Japan). PCB's are... persistent and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment, causing the contamination of certain foods. In... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in...

  15. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  16. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in bald eagle eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, W.C.; Mulhern, B.M.; Bagley, G.E.; Sprunt, A., IV; Ligas, F.J.; Robertson, W.B., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Bald eagle eggs collected in 1968 from nests in Wisconsin, Maine, and Florida all contained residues of DDE, DDD, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Many also contained traces of DDT. Eggs from five nonproductive nests sampled in Maine contained much higher residues than did eggs collected from either productive or nonproductive nests in Wisconsin and Florida.

  17. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  18. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in soils and drinking water sources from cocoa farms in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Y.; Okoffo, Elvis D.; Darko, Godfred; Gordon, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides were determined in soils and drinking water sources in cocoa growing areas in Ghana. Soil samples analysed showed the presence of four organochlorine pesticide residues namely lindane (0.005–0.05 mg/kg), beta-HCH (

  19. Binding of polychlorinated biphenyls to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kafafi, S A; Afeefy, H Y; A. H. Ali; Said, H K; Kafafi, A G

    1993-01-01

    A new thermodynamic model for calculating the dissociation constants of complexes formed between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is reported. The free energies of binding of PCBs to AhR are controlled by their lipophilicities, electron affinities, and entropies. The corresponding physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans also control their interactions with AhR. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that ...

  20. Occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in the eggs and dropping-amended soil of Antarctic large animals and its ecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vetter; WALTER

    2007-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are analyzed for the dropping-amended soils from the habitats of Antarctic seabirds and seals in Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island. The concentration ranges are 0.21 to 3.85 ng/g for polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs),0.09 to 2.01 ng/g for organochlorine pesticides (ΣDDT),and 0.06 to 0.76 ng/g for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Among these,hepata-chlorobiphenyls,hexachlorobiphenyls,p,p′-DDE and α-HCH compounds are dominant. The concentra-tion ranges of ΣPCB,DDT and HCH in the eggs of skuas were 91.9―515.5 ng/g,56.6―304.4 ng/g and 0.5―2.0 ng/g respectively; those in the eggs of penguins were 0.4―0.9 ng/g,2.4―10.3 ng/g and 0.1― 0.4 ng/g; and those in the eggs of giant petrel were 38.1―81.7 ng/g,12.7―53.7 ng/g and 0.5―1.5 ng/g respectively. The dominant POP compounds in the eggs are PCB180,PCB153,p,p′-DDE and hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB). The present study shows that the concentration of POPs in the sea-bird-inhabited-dropping-amended soil varies with the extent of predation and nest occupancy of dif-ferent seabird populations. Statistical analysis on the POP concentrations from the different seabird eggs implies that the difference in the bio-concentration levels of the birds depends on the bio-habits of the species,such as the range of activity,distance of immigration,feeding pattern,and nest occupation. Among these,the most important factor is the location of the seabirds in the food chain and their feeding pattern. This shows that POPs accumulated in the seabirds resulted from the bio-concentration through the food chain. In addtion,210Pb dating for the dropping-amended soils (AD1-a and AD2) was performed,which provided the POP accumulation rate and the historic record for the soil profile. It indicates that POP will continuously affect the Antarctic ecosystem for a long time.

  1. Occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in the eggs and dropping-amended soil of Antarctic large animals and its ecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HaiSheng; WANG ZiPan; LU Bing; ZHU Chun; WU GuangHai; Vetter WALTER

    2007-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are analyzed for the dropping-amended soils from the habitats of Antarctic seabirds and seals in Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island. The concentration ranges are 0.21 to 3.85 ng/g for polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs), 0.09 to 2.01 ng/g for organochlorine pesticides (ΣDDT), and 0.06 to 0.76 ng/g for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Among these, hepatachlorobiphenyls, hexachlorobiphenyls, p,p'-DDE and α-HCH compounds are dominant. The concentration ranges of ΣPCB, DDT and HCH in the eggs of skuas were 91.9-515.5 ng/g, 56.6-304.4 ng/g and 0.5-2.0 ng/g respectively; those in the eggs of penguins were 0.4-0.9 ng/g, 2.4-10.3 ng/g and 0.1-0.4 ng/g; and those in the eggs of giant petrel were 38.1-81.7 ng/g, 12.7-53.7 ng/g and 0.5-1.5 ng/g respectively. The dominant POP compounds in the eggs are PCB180, PCB153, p,p'-DDE and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The present study shows that the concentration of POPs in the seabird-inhabited-dropping-amended soil varies with the extent of predation and nest occupancy of different seabird populations. Statistical analysis on the POP concentrations from the different seabird eggs implies that the difference in the bio-concentration levels of the birds depends on the bio-habits of the species, such as the range of activity, distance of immigration, feeding pattern, and nest occupation. Among these, the most important factor is the location of the seabirds in the food chain and their feeding pattern. This shows that POPs accumulated in the seabirds resulted from the bio-concentration through the food chain. In addtion, 210Pb dating for the dropping-amended soils (AD1-a and AD2) was performed, which provided the POP accumulation rate and the historic record for the soil profile. It indicates that POP will continuously affect the Antarctic ecosystem for a long time.

  2. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  3. The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2013-12-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 μm and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. PMID:24054891

  4. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  5. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet composition must be considered in programs designed to detect temporal changes in chemical contamination. - Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn

  6. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

    2003-04-01

    Diet composition must be considered in programs designed to detect temporal changes in chemical contamination. - Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn.

  7. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

    2003-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn. PMID:12547524

  8. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  9. Thyroid toxicity due to subchronic exposure to a complex mixture of 16 organochlorines, lead, and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Michael G; Parent, Sophie; Finnson, Kenneth W; Foster, Warren; Younglai, Edward; McMahon, Avril; Cyr, Daniel G; Hughes, Claude

    2002-06-01

    The human population in the industrialized world is ubiquitously exposed to complex mixtures of persistent pollutants that contaminate food, water, and air. A large number of these contaminants have been shown to cause significant toxicity to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in laboratory animal studies, through a variety of mechanisms, although these effects occur at levels of exposure greatly in excess of common human exposure. While many of the mechanisms of thyroid toxicity of these substances are potentially complementary, little is known of the degree of interaction of common persistent contaminants on responses of the HPT axis. To investigate the potential effects of a complex, environmentally relevant mixture on the HPT axis, sexually mature male rats were administered a mixture of 16 common organochlorines (dichlorodiphenoxytrichloroethane [DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenoxydichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], methoxychlor, endosulfan, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, dieldrin, aldrin, mirex, and several chlorinated benzenes, and metal contaminants [lead, cadmium]). The doses of the mixture that were administered were related to minimum risk levels or tolerable daily intakes of these substances, as derived by risk assessment with the 1x, 10x, 100x, and 1000x groups receiving mixture components at doses equivalent to 1x, 10x, 100x, or 1000x the minimum risk level (or tolerable daily intake, reference dose), respectively. After 70 daily treatments by gavage, endpoints related to circulating thyroid hormone (serum thyroxine [T(4)], triiodothyronine [T(3)], thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH], and serum T(3) uptake [T(3)-up]), thyroid gland histomorphology (thyroid follicle cross sectional area, epithelial height, follicle roundness or aspect ratio, colloid/epithelial ratio) and hepatic metabolism of thyroid hormone (UDP-glucuronyl transferase [UGT] and outer

  10. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjørnøya (Bear Island) freshwater biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm N; Kallenborn, Roland

    2005-08-01

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjørnøya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjøen. In Lake Øyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjøen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. delta(15)N-values were 7-10 per thousand higher in organisms from Ellasjøen as compared to Øyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjøen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. PMID:15862396

  11. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis. PMID:24863628

  12. An IARC evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as risk factors in human carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, D B; Partensky, C; Wilbourn, J; Rice, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs program reevaluated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and evaluated polychlorinated dibenzofurans as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans in February 1997, using the most recent epidemiologic data on exposed human populations, experimental carcinogenicity bioassays in laboratory animals, and supporting evidence on relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated as carcinogenic ...

  13. Health risk assessment of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls contaminations in dairy products from selected farms in Greater Accra Region - Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residual concentrations of synthetic chemicals such as organochlorines pesticides (OCPs), pyrethroids and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy products (milk, yoghurt, cheese) from selected farms in Greater Accra were analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC). A total of 50 samples of dairy products (9 cheese, 25 cow milk and 16 yogourt) were analyzed for OCPs, prethroids and PCBs. Of the numerious pesticides evaluated, detectable levels of OCPs (β-HCH, endrin, heptachlor, endosulfan, p'p-DDT and methoxchlor); synthetic prethroids (permathrin, allethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and PCBs (18, 28, 52, 101, 153, 138, and 180) were found in all the dairy product samples analysed. Milk samples were found to be the most contaminated with respect to the OCPs and the levels ranged between 0.0001µg/ml and 0.0407µg/ml. ß-HCH was the highest OCP with concentration of 0.0407µg/ml while cyfluthrin was the highest synthetic prethroids recorded in yoghurt sample (0.0318µg/ml). The highest PCB 18 (2,2,5-Trichlorobiphenyl) recorded (0.2668µg/ml) in yoghurt samples. (Data obtained from the field survey regarding safe use of pesticides, toxicity awareness and symptoms among farmers indicated that a very high proportion of animal farmers were at a high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 70% of farm workers did not practise safety precaution during pesticide mixing and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness including nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, abdominal cramps, dizziness, diarrhoea and headaches in this agricultural community. The presence of pesticide residues in dairy products was of further concern because milk is the main protein diet for infants. The estimated dose for γ-chlordane(8.5x105 µ/ml), endrin(0.0114 µg/ml) p'p'-DDT(8.5x105µg/ml), DDE(8.5x105 µg/ml),heptachlor(2.5x105 µg/ml), dieldrin(6.8x105 µg/ml) do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in milk

  14. Organochlorine pesticides associated with ocular, nasal, or otic infection in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangredi, B P; Evans, R H

    1997-03-01

    From May 1987 to September 1994, 19 eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) originating from scattered locations on Long Island, New York (USA) were presented with one or more of the following signs: listlessness, ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and otitis media. Numerous species of bacteria and yeast were isolated by aerobic culture. Histopathologic findings confirmed chronic active bacterial infections. Toxicologic analyses of livers revealed elevated concentrations of chlordane metabolites in two diseased turtles. A third turtle liver contained residues of endosulfan sulfate. Immunosuppressive effects of low-level exposure to organochlorines, including chlordane and endosulfan, could be involved in the pathogenesis of the observed infections. PMID:9226623

  15. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37-70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms.

  16. Organochlorine exposure and changes in the perinatal period: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Campos Bueno; Raphael Mendonça Guimarães; Paulo Guilherme Molica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review is to survey the state of the art on key perinatal outcomes associated with contamination by organochlorines. Data Source: This is an integrative review. A search was performed in MEDLINE / PubMed for the descriptors “organochlorine” AND “infertility”; “organochlorine” AND “fetal loss”; “organochlorine” AND “preterm delivery”; and “organochlorine” AND “low birth weight,” without time restrictions. As an exclusion criterion, we only considered the analytical s...

  17. Organochlorines, lead, and mercury in Akwesasne Mohawk youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Hubicki, Lech A; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Gallo, Mia V.; Ravenscroft, Julia; Tarbell, Alice; Jacobs, Agnes; David, Dawn; Worswick, Priscilla; ,

    2003-01-01

    Most humans have detectable body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and p,p'-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene p,p'-DDE), a metabolite of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Native American communities may be at increased risk of exposure through subsistence-based diets and greater physical contact with contaminated soil and water. In this article we describe the levels of toxicants (PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, mirex, lead, and mercury) among youth 10-17 years...

  18. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) near a municipal solid waste incinerator using black kites (Milvus migrans) as sentinel organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Merino, R. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Olie, K. [Univ. of Amterdam (Netherlands); Blanco, G.; Frias, O. [CSIC, IREC, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Wildlife has received much attention during last decades as an indicator of ecosystems health. Kubiak at al. (1989) showed that there are significant effect on reproductive success due to organochlorines, not only in hatching success, but also in chick health. Due to the widespread distribution of these xenoestrogens, there is a need for screening and risk evaluation of these endocrine disrupters in living organisms from the global point of view of ecosystems health. Aspects of the life history of the black kites (Milvus migrans) make them a useful species for contaminants monitoring. They are long-lived birds, adapt well to human areas and many feeds at dumps, garbage tips, etc. where a wide range of contaminants can be found3. Effects of chlorinated pollutants have not been widely studied in this species. In 2001, a monitoring program was initiated in order to evaluate the health of a population of black kites nesting in the Regional Park of the Southeastern of Madrid (RPSM), Spain. This study is part of a larger research investigation of the influence of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) on the kites'surroundings. Since Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are suspected to produce some highly toxic POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) as well as other short of toxic chemicals (e.g. PCBs and heavy metals) this study was initiated with the aim of investigating the potential toxicity of these compounds on the kites population. The purpose of this study was to conduct the evaluation in a non-destructive way. Since eggs are known to reflect the accumulation of lipophilic contaminants in birds, the study was based on the use of unhatched eggs obtained from black kites.

  19. Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, João Paulo Machado; Leite, Claudio; Krauss, Thomas; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    In 1997, the Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin (PCDD)/Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in dairy products in Germany and other European countries increased. The PCDD/PCDF source was contaminated lime used in Brazilian citrus pulp pellets. The contaminated lime was mined from an industrial dump site. However, the detailed origin of the PCDD/PCDFs in the lime was not revealed. This paper investigates the contamination origin and describes the link between lime milk from the dumpsite of a chlorine/organochlorine industry and the contaminated lime. The contaminated lime stem from mining at the corporate landfill of Solvay Indupa in Sao Paulo. The landfill was used for 40 years for deposition of production residues and closed in 1996. The factory operated/operates at least two processes with potentially high PCDD/PCDFs releases namely the oxychlorination process for production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and the chlor-alkali process. The main landfilled waste was lime milk (1.4 million tons) from the vinyl chloride monomer production (via the acetylene process) along with residues from other processes. The PCDD/PCDF fingerprint revealed that most samples from the chemical landfill showed an EDC PCDD/PCDF pattern with a characteristic octachlorodibenzofuran dominance. The PCDD/PCDF pattern of a Rio Grande sediment samples downstream the facility showed a chlor-alkali pattern with a minor impact of the EDC pattern. The case highlights that PCDD/PCDF- and persistent organic pollutants-contaminated sites need to be identified in a comprehensive manner as required by the Stockholm Convention (article 6) and controlled for their impact on the environment and human health. Landfill mining and reuse of materials from contaminated deposits should be prohibited. PMID:22828923

  20. Decontamination of organochlorine pesticides residue and heavy metal in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch by SFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunjie; Bai, Lu; Ou, Yingfu; Li, Dan; Xin, Chunhong

    2009-01-01

    A method involving the simultaneous extraction and decontamination of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and seven heavy metals (HM) from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch was established using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). A gas chromatography (GC) method with electron capture detection was employed for the determination of the OCPs. The quantitative determination of active constituents (iridoid glycoside and catalpol) in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was designed for the determination of seven HM, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Recovery of the determination of the 12 organochlorine pesticides in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch sample was 85.9%-101.4% by GC, and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.9%-6.0%. Catalpol determination with HPLC in a Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch sample was 0.2486 and 0.2559 mg/mL before and after decontaminating OCPs by SFE, respectively. Those were 0.2486 and 0.2632 mg/mL before and after decontaminating HM by SFE, respectively. After a series of experiments to optimize the final SFE, the following conditions were used to determine the OCPs: pure CO(2), extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, extraction temperature of 60 degrees C, extraction time of 30 min, flow rate at 35 kg/h, and the final SFE conditions of HM was pure CO(2), extraction pressure of 18 Mpa, extraction temperature of 50 degrees C, extraction time of 20 min, modifier at 2.5 mL/50 g. The SFE was used to remove the 12 OCP residues and seven HM residues from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch with less residue left and negligible loss of the active constituent catalpol. PMID:19930806

  1. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H2 to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products

  2. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  3. Consolidated PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] improves waste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolidation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is recommended for improving ownership control of wastes, eliminating PCB storage sites, and increasing cost-effectiveness of waste management. In Ontario, sites receiving the waste must be owned by the waste generator and registered as a PCB site. All PCBs must be removed from a site with no contaminated materials or wastes left behind, which requires a thorough site assessment to identify wastes prior to removal, a sampling and analytical scheme if necessary, and an approved plan for site cleanup. If large volumes of PCB-contaminated oil are involved, it may be cost-effective to put oil from several sites into bulk tanks and thus avoid the need to handle and decontaminate a large number of drums. With low volumes of oil, it may be possible to move the waste to another site where mobile PCB destruction is taking place. It also may be possible to get approval to blend high-level PCB liquids with mineral oil to reduce the PCB concentration to a level where chemical decontamination is allowed. For large volumes of high-level PCB wastes, consolidation will be necessary simply because of the high costs of mobilizing an incinerator and the requirement for public hearings for each incineration project. To make such a project cost-effective, PCB wastes will have to be concentrated from a large geographic area. 1 fig

  4. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: inferences from spatial and trophic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Anthony, Robert G

    2008-11-15

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (delta15N) and carbon source (delta13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Sigma PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Sigma PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Sigma PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with delta15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Sigma PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of

  5. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (δ15N) and carbon source (δ13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Σ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Σ PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Σ PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Σ PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with δ15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Σ PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric-oceanic processes

  6. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Mark A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center - Davis Field Station, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: mark_ricca@usgs.gov; Keith Miles, A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center - Davis Field Station, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Anthony, Robert G. [U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status ({delta}{sup 15}N) and carbon source ({delta}{sup 13}C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of {sigma} polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of {sigma} PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high {sigma} PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of {sigma} PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with {delta}{sup 15}N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of {sigma} PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from

  7. Strongly increasing blood concentrations of lipid-soluble organochlorines in high arctic common eiders during incubation fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Moe, Børge; Herzke, Dorte; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Nordstad, Tore; Sagerup, Kjetil; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Borgå, Katrine

    2010-04-01

    Female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) starve during the nesting stage and may loose 30-45% of their initial body mass, mostly through lipid mobilization. In this study, the effects of fasting on the blood concentrations of three lipid-soluble organochlorines (OCs: polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB]-153; 1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene [p,p'-DDE]; and hexachlorobenzene [HCB]) were examined in eiders breeding in the high Arctic. Blood samples were taken from females (n=47) at day 5 and day 20 of the incubation period. The mean wet weight concentrations of PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE increased strongly between day 5 and day 20 (3.6 and 8.2-fold, respectively), while HCB increased less (1.7-fold). There was a strong negative association between daily increase in PCB-153 and clutch size, and a weaker relationship for p,p'-DDE, suggesting that maternal transfer to the eggs is a significant pathway of elimination of OCs in eiders. Moreover, poor body condition (body mass controlled for body size) late in the incubation period was associated with strong daily increase of both p,p'-DDE and PCB-153, which may suggest that the release of these compounds increases when lipid reserves become depleted. For HCB, the increase was mainly associated with increase in blood lipid concentrations, and weakly to the amount of burned lipids. The causes for the differences between the compounds are, however, poorly understood. Although the absolute levels of OCs in eiders were relatively low, their rapid build up during incubation is worrying as it coincides with poor body condition and weakened immune systems. PMID:20156633

  8. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2070-AJ38 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations..., Hazardous substances, Labeling, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements..., 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the...

  9. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  10. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  11. Toxicity mechanisms and interactions of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, are widespread environmental contaminants as a result of anthropogenic activities and due to their persistency and resistance to degradation. Both groups of chemicals are placed on the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs, covered by the Stockholm convention which is aimed to limit or ban the production, use, emission, import and export of POPs in order to protect human health and the environment. Taking into account the structural similarity between PCBs and PBDEs, and the known effects of PCBs, these two groups of chemicals could have similar mechanisms of action. Also, because of real simultaneous exposure to these compounds, an examination of possible interactions is of great importance. Interactions of the compounds from these groups are likely at the system level of hormones, particularly thyroid and reproductive ones. As there are mechanisms of adverse effects of both groups of chemicals on the nervous system, including functional, neurological and behavioral changes, there are influences on neurotransmiters, changes in signal transduction and apoptosis. There are interactions affecting the occurrence of metabolic disorders as well. Data on the toxicity of mixtures of PCBs and PBDEs, as well as interactions of these chemicals would contribute to the processes of risk evaluation and risk characterisation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  12. Organochlorines, lead, and mercury in Akwesasne Mohawk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Lawrence M; Hubicki, Lech A; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia; Tarbell, Alice; Jacobs, Agnes; David, Dawn; Worswick, Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Most humans have detectable body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and p,p'-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene p,p'-DDE), a metabolite of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Native American communities may be at increased risk of exposure through subsistence-based diets and greater physical contact with contaminated soil and water. In this article we describe the levels of toxicants (PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, mirex, lead, and mercury) among youth 10-17 years old (n = 271) of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation. Ultratrace, congener-specific PCB analysis of human serum quantitated 83 PCB congeners (plus 18 as pairs/triplets), in addition to p,p'-DDE, HCB, and mirex, and included all major Aroclor-derived congeners typically present in human samples. Twenty congeners (in 16 chromatographic peaks) were detected in 50% or more of the individuals sampled [geometric mean (GM) of the sum of these congeners = 0.66 ppb]. Thirteen congeners (in 10 peaks) were detected in 75% or more of the samples (GM = 0.51 ppb). Of the 20 congeners detected in 50% or more of the samples, 17 had five or more chlorine substitutions. International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry congeners 118, 101(+90), and 153 were detected in nearly all participants (GM = 0.06 ppb, 0.05 ppb, 0.09 ppb, respectively). p,p'-DDE and HCB were detected in 100% and 98% of the samples (GM: p,p'-DDE = 0.37 ppb; HCB = 0.03 ppb). Mirex was detected in approximately 46% of the samples (GM = 0.02 ppb). No cases of elevated lead level were observed. One participant had a mercury level marginally higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's current level of concern (0.50 microg/dL). Although differences in analytic methods and participant ages limit comparability, toxicant levels from the Mohawk youth are lower than those associated with severe food contamination (Yusho and Yu-cheng) but similar to other chronically exposed groups. PMID:12782498

  13. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Sarah E., E-mail: sarah.hale@ncl.ac.u [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Martin, Timothy J., E-mail: t.j.martin@ncl.ac.u [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Goss, Kai-Uwe, E-mail: kai-uwe.goss@ufz.d [UFZ, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Arp, Hans Peter H., E-mail: Hans.Peter.Arp@ngi.n [Department of Environmental Engineering, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), P.O. Box 3930, Ulleval Stadion, N-0806, Oslo (Norway); Werner, David, E-mail: david.werner@ncl.ac.u [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k{sub O}, estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D{sub PE}, and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K{sub PE-water,} are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K{sub PE-water} values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, kO, estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, DPE, and PE-water partitioning coefficients, KPE-water, are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. KPE-water values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  17. Some organochlorine pesticide residues in fish species in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, Leyla; Agca, Ihsan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2009-02-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides were measured in 18 fish species from Konya markets, Turkey. These species were selected on the basis of their importance to local human fish consumption. The extracted residues were analyzed on a micro capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Total 14 different organochlorine pesticides were determined. These residues were detected in all fish species, except in trout, horse mackerel and bonito. DDT and its metabolites and HCH were the predominant contaminants in fish muscles. The mean concentrations of summation operator DDT were in the range between 0.0008 and 0.0828 microg g(-1). DDT was the predominant residue in Sparus aurata. Detectable levels of HCH, aldrin, and heptachlor were found in most samples. However, dieldrin, endrin, beta endosulfan, p-p' DDT, and p-p' DDD were not found in Salmo trutta. The mean of endrin ranged from 0.0040 microg g(-1) (Triglia lineate) to 0.0326 microg g(-1) (Trachurus trachurus). These results give no indication of important health risks associated with the consumption of these fishes in Konya markets. PMID:19103455

  18. A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

    2014-07-01

    Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. PMID:24733631

  19. Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P;

    2001-01-01

    High organochlorine concentrations have been found among the Inuit in eastern Canada and in Greenland. The present study was undertaken to assess the exposure to organochlorines in relation to age, sex, and diet in a general population sample of Inuit from Greenland. Survey data and plasma...... statistically significant positive associations with age, marine diet, and male sex in multiple linear regression analyses. The exceptionally high plasma concentrations of several organochlorines among the Inuit of Greenland are attributed to a lifelong high intake of seafood, in particular marine mammals...

  20. 75 FR 4759 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption for Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... commerce of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Under TSCA section 3(7), ``manufacture'' is defined to... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2050-AG42 Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption for...'s request in the proposed rule, Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption...

  1. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  2. Organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and mercury levels in six seabird species from the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada): Relationships with feeding ecology, migration and molt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Raphael A., E-mail: lavoie.raphael@gmail.co [Biology Department, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Wildlife and Landscape Science, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 1 141 Route de l' Eglise, C.P. 10 100, Quebec, QC, G1V 4H5 (Canada); Rail, Jean-Francois [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada, 1 141 Route de l' Eglise, C.P. 10 100, Quebec, QC, G1V 4H5 (Canada); Lean, David R.S. [Biology Department, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and mercury (Hg) were measured in eggs of six seabird species breeding in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Stable nitrogen (delta{sup 15}N) and carbon (delta{sup 13}C) isotopes were used as ecological tracers to measure trophic level and connectivity with benthos, respectively. Concentrations, patterns as well as ecological tracers varied significantly between species. The sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (SIGMAPCBs) was the most important group measured in all seabird species based on concentration followed generally by the sum of chlorinated pesticides (SIGMACPs), the sum of brominated flame retardants (SIGMABFRs) and finally total Hg (THg). SIGMAPCBs, SIGMACPs and SIGMABFRs increased with trophic level, whereas THg did not. Only SIGMABFRs increased with a higher connectivity with the benthos. Seabird species resident to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence ecosystem showed higher Hg and BFR levels than migratory species. Molt patterns were used to explain variations of contaminant levels. - Concentrations and patterns of contaminants in seabirds are highly species-specific and related to trophic position, migration and molt.

  3. Organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and mercury levels in six seabird species from the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada): Relationships with feeding ecology, migration and molt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and mercury (Hg) were measured in eggs of six seabird species breeding in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotopes were used as ecological tracers to measure trophic level and connectivity with benthos, respectively. Concentrations, patterns as well as ecological tracers varied significantly between species. The sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs) was the most important group measured in all seabird species based on concentration followed generally by the sum of chlorinated pesticides (ΣCPs), the sum of brominated flame retardants (ΣBFRs) and finally total Hg (THg). ΣPCBs, ΣCPs and ΣBFRs increased with trophic level, whereas THg did not. Only ΣBFRs increased with a higher connectivity with the benthos. Seabird species resident to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence ecosystem showed higher Hg and BFR levels than migratory species. Molt patterns were used to explain variations of contaminant levels. - Concentrations and patterns of contaminants in seabirds are highly species-specific and related to trophic position, migration and molt.

  4. Effects of energy conservation in major energy-intensive industrial sectors on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has set an ambitious target of increasing energy efficiency by 20% and reducing pollution discharges by 10% over the period 2006-2010. Promoting advanced technologies and closing outdated facilities are widely recognized as important measures to achieve these targets. These actions can also indirectly decrease release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The objectives of this paper are to identify and quantify reductions of PCDD/F emissions to air due to measures such as phasing out of obsolete facilities in the four most energy-intensive industrial sectors. Reductions in PCDD/F emissions from power generation were estimated to be 7, 33 and 38 g I-TEQ in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. For the cement industry, reductions were estimated to be 680 g I-TEQ between 2007 and 2008, and 740 g I-TEQ between 2009 and 2010. For the iron and steel industry, the reduction was estimated to be 113.3 g I-TEQ over the period 2007-2010, which includes 76.6 g I-TEQ in 2007. For the coke industry, the reduction was estimated to be 68 g I-TEQ in 2007 and 62 g I-TEQ in 2008.

  5. Organochlorine compounds and mercury in bald eagle eggs, Penobscot River, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus eggs from three nests on the Penobscot River, Maine, were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants and mercury. Eggs were...

  6. Organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted an ecological risk assessment to characterize organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife...

  7. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  8. Effects of organochlorine pollutants on black-crowned night herons in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan to determine the effects of organochlorine pollutants on blackcrowned night herons nesting in the Pacific Northwest, and to determine the wintering...

  9. Organochlorine contaminant and retinoid levels in blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) off northwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of age, sex, nutritive condition and organochlorine concentration on blubber retinoid concentrations was examined in 74 common dolphins incidentally caught off northwestern Spain. Age and blubber lipid content were strong determinants of the retinoid concentrations in males, while these variables did not account for the variation found in females. Retinoids were positively correlated with organochlorines in males and negatively in females. However, pollution levels were moderate and likely to be below threshold levels above that a toxicological response is to be expected. Thus, a cause-effect relationship between organochlorine and retinoid concentrations could not be properly established, and the observed correlation may be the result of an independent association of the two variables with age. Further research on the influence of the best predictor variables on retinoid dynamics is required to implement the use of retinoids as biomarkers of pollutant exposure in cetaceans. - Organochlorine contaminants and retinoids in common dolphins

  10. Organochlorine residues in some dolphin specimens stranded on Southern Adriatic Coasts (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the concentration of PCBs and organochlorine compounds and percentage composition of the different PCB congeners in various tissues from four different species of cetaceans stranded on the Adriatic coast of Italy in July-September 1995

  11. Determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues in honeys from Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Halil; Guler, Gokalp O; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Cakmak, Yavuz S; Ozparlak, Haluk

    2010-09-01

    In this study, 24 organochlorine pesticide residues in 109 different honey samples collected from stores and open markets in Konya, Turkey were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Aldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, oxy-chlordane, 2,4(')-DDE, and 4,4(')-DDE were found in all honey samples. The mean value was 0.0540 microg g(-1) for oxy-chlordane. In the 55 samples of 109, levels of organochlorine pesticide residues of oxy-chlordane were determined as higher than those of Turkish Alimentarius Codex maximum residual limits (MRLs). Other organochlorine pesticide residues also exceeded MRLs except for cis-heptachlor epoxide and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane. Since all of the honey samples are found contaminated and most of these samples exceeded MRLs, a control of organochlorine pesticide residues in honey is necessary for consumer health. PMID:19685151

  12. Current trends of some organochlorinated pesticides in Yamuna River sediments around Delhi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sethi, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Sarkar, A.

    Organochlorinated pesticides viz. DDTs, HCHs, and Cyclodiene compounds have been detected in the sediment samples of Yamuna River around Delhi, India during the three seasons namely pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. Five sampling sites were...

  13. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Nagarajan, R.; Chaphadkar, S.; Pal, S.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    The levels of contamination of various organochlorine pesticides in HCHs, DDTs aldrine dieldrin and endrin were determined in marine and estuarine sediments along the west coast of India. The concentration of various pesticides in sediments from...

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue as determinants of abdominal obesity in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana;

    2013-01-01

    explain the epidemic. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as PCBs is associated with the development of obesity but our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between...... circumference 5 years after enrolment. We examined ten polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) as potential determinants. All PCBs included were positively associated with increased abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data do not support the hypotheses of a link...

  15. Review of current evidence on the impact of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and selected metals on attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to investigate the association between attention defi cit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADHD- related symptoms and industrial chemicals, such as organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, lead, mercury and manganese. Medline, PubMed and EBSCO searches were performed to identify the studies that analyzed the association of prenatal and postnatal child exposure to such toxicants and ADHD or ADHD-related symptoms. The review is restricted to human studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals since 2000. Most of the presented studies focused on pesticides, PCB and lead. The impact of mercury and manganese was investigated less frequently. The fi ndings indicate that children’s exposure to organophosphate pesticides may cause symptoms consistent with pervasive developmental disorder, ADHD or attention problems. Exposures to organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were associated with ADHD-like behaviors such as alertness, quality of alert response, and cost of attention. The studies provided evidence that blood lead level below 10 μg/dl was associated with ADHD or ADHD-related symptoms. Information on the association between exposure to mercury and neurotoxicity is limited, and requires further confi rmation in future research. Two studies indicated that exposure to manganese is related to ADHD; such exposure and its impact on children neurodevelopment need to be further investigated. Future studies should use a prospective design with multiple biological samples collected over time for better assessment of exposure and its critical windows. Additionally, inclusion of potential confounding factors and co-exposures is crucial.

  16. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Inui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126 to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs.

  17. Characterization of Zebrafish Abcc4 as an Efflux Transporter of Organochlorine Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Lu; Yong Long; Li Lin; Rongze Sun; Shan Zhong; Zongbin Cui

    2014-01-01

    DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated t...

  18. The Potential Contribution of Phytoestrogens and Organochlorine Pesticides in an Experimental Fish Diet to Estrogenic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Munekazu; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Marie; Inudo, Makiko; Honda, Eiko; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Phytoestrogens and organochlorine pesticides in the diet of laboratory animals are a possible source of interference in bioassays that assess estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the levels of dietary phytoestrogens, organochlorine pesticides and the estrogenic activity of various diets for an experimental fish and discuss the potential contribution of these substances to estrogenic activity, in comparison with those used in previous studies. After hydrolysis with β-gluc...

  19. Investigation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in mollusks collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea from 2002 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollusks living in seas can accumulate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The residue levels of selected OCPs: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH) in gastropod and bivalve species collected from ten coastal cites along the Chinese Bohai Sea were investigated from 2002 to 2004. The species included nine kinds of mollusks: Rapana venosa, Neverita didyma, Scapharca subcrenata, Mytilus edulis, Amusium, Crassostrea talienwhanensis, Meretix meretrix, Sinonovacula constricta, Ruditapes philippinarum, Mactra veneriformis. The results showed that OCPs widely existed in the mollusks organisms. p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH were the major compounds. Statistical analysis (One-way ANOVA) showed that the contents of OCPs in these mollusks did not change obviously from 2002 to 2004. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used for determining the polluting characters existing in this selected field. - Concentration of organochlorine pesticides in mollusks collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea didn't change obviously from 2002 to 2004

  20. Investigation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in mollusks collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea from 2002 to 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yawei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Yang Ruiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: gbjiang@rcees.ac.cn

    2007-03-15

    Mollusks living in seas can accumulate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The residue levels of selected OCPs: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta}-HCH) in gastropod and bivalve species collected from ten coastal cites along the Chinese Bohai Sea were investigated from 2002 to 2004. The species included nine kinds of mollusks: Rapana venosa, Neverita didyma, Scapharca subcrenata, Mytilus edulis, Amusium, Crassostrea talienwhanensis, Meretix meretrix, Sinonovacula constricta, Ruditapes philippinarum, Mactra veneriformis. The results showed that OCPs widely existed in the mollusks organisms. p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, {beta}-HCH were the major compounds. Statistical analysis (One-way ANOVA) showed that the contents of OCPs in these mollusks did not change obviously from 2002 to 2004. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used for determining the polluting characters existing in this selected field. - Concentration of organochlorine pesticides in mollusks collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea didn't change obviously from 2002 to 2004.

  1. Reconstruction of organochlorine compound inputs in the Tagus Prodelta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vicente, Maria; Grimalt, Joan O; Micaelo, Cristina; Abrantes, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Twenty century time-resolved variability of riverine deposits of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was studied in three (210)Pb dated sediment cores collected in a depositional shelf area adjacent to the Tagus estuary (the Tagus Prodelta). The geographic and temporal distribution patterns were consistent with discharge of these organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the area associated with the Tagus mouth. Their concentrations were not correlated with the sedimentary total organic carbon. The PCB down-core profiles were dominated by CB138 and CB153 (hexa-CBs) congeners followed by CB180 (hepta-CBs). Principal Component Analysis of the congener distributions of these compounds did not define temporal down-core trends. The ratios of DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT) were consistent with recent DDT inputs into the environment and/or earlier applications and long-term residence in soils/sediments until these were eroded and remobilized. PMID:26210675

  2. Organochlorine compounds in ice melt water from Italian Alpine rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Sara; Negrelli, Christian; Finizio, Antonio; Flora, Onelio; Vighi, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemicals (OCs) (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and hexachlorobenzene) were measured in ice melt water from five glaciers in the Italian Alps. Even though the data collected may not be sufficient for a precise description of persistent organic pollutant release patterns from glacier melting, they have, however, highlighted the potential for surface water contamination. Concentrations were of the same order of magnitude in all glacial streams, indicating comparable contamination levels in different glaciers of the alpine region. OC levels in nonglacial springs sampled in the same areas are usually lower. Even if differences during the melting season (from spring to autumn) have been identified, a regular seasonal pattern in OC concentrations was not observed. Risk for the aquatic environment is excluded through direct water exposure, but it is likely to occur through biomagnification and secondary poisoning exposure. PMID:16054693

  3. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in a forest bog at Stubbetorp, Kolmården : -Indication for a natural formation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Sabina; Thomsen, Frida

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organochlorine compounds emitted from natural sources can participate in environmentally relevant processes affecting life on Earth, such as stratospheric ozone destruction and warming of the troposphere. The aim of this study was to investigate if forest bogs contribute to the environmental input of naturally produced volatile organochlorine compounds. The concentrations of four different volatile organochlorine compounds were determined in ambient air, rainwater, surface water, and...

  4. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and risk assessment in the urban and rural areas of Northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.U. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Koga, M. [Prefectural Univ. of Kumamoto (Japan). Fac. of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    In China, during the past 40 years, organochlorine pesticides (OPs) with impurity were produced and used in a large quantity. However, little is known on the OPs contamination status of the residents in mainland of China. To elucidate body burden of organochlorine compounds and factors associated with organochlorine levels of the residents in North China, we performed life style questionnaire and collected breast milk specimens at Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China.

  5. Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Development of Neuronal Cells in Growth Period; Structure-Activity Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Youngrok; Lee, Dong Kuck

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are accumulated in our body through food chain and cause a variety of adverse health effects including neurotoxicities such as cognitive deficits and motor dysfunction. In particular, neonates are considered as a high risk group for the neurotoxicity of PCBs exposure. The present study attempted to analyze the structure-activity relationship among PCB congeners and the mechanism of PCBs-induced neurotoxicity. We measured total protein kinase C (PKC) activities...

  6. Sequential Reductive Dechlorination of meta-Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Sediment Microcosms by Two Different Chloroflexi Phylotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Fagervold, Sonja K.; Watts, Joy E. M.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2005-01-01

    Three species within a deeply branching cluster of the Chloroflexi are the only microorganisms currently known to anaerobically transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the mechanism of reductive dechlorination. A selective PCR primer set was designed that amplifies the 16S rRNA genes of a monophyletic group within the Chloroflexi including Dehalococcoides spp. and the o-17/DF-1 group. Assays for both qualitative and quantitative analyses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and mo...

  7. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  8. 77 FR 54818 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2050-AG71 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting... manifesting requirements for PCBs under TSCA to the manifesting requirements for hazardous waste under RCRA... bring into alignment, as much as possible, the manifesting requirements for PCBs to those of...

  9. Gas-phase polychlorinated naphthalene formation from chlorophenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.H.; Mulholland, J.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (United States); Ryu, J.Y. [Institute for Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in combustion processes was observed along with other halogenated aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Recent studies indicated the strong correlation between several PCN and PCDF isomers in municipal waste incinerator (MWI) fly ash, suggesting that the reaction pathways for the formation of PCN and PCDF might be very similar. Sakai and co-workers also reported that the amount of PCNs formed from the pilot-scale solid wastes incinerator was of the same order of magnitude as PCDD/Fs4. In previous studies in this laboratory, formations of PCNs with PCDDs/PCDFs from chlorinated phenols were observed in gas-phase pyrolysis and oxidation. Recently, we proposed PCN formation pathways from monochlorophenols7 based on reactions known to be formation of naphthalene from the recombination of cyclopentadienyl (CPDyl) radical combining with phenoxy radical coupling. Proposed PCN formation pathways are further extended to explain the isomer distribution of PCN congeners produced during slow combustion of each of the six dichlorophenols (DCPs). In this paper, the congener-specific PCN measurements from DCPs are presented, and PCDD and PCDF measurements are also presented to investigate the correlation between PCN and PCDDs/Fs formation in combustion.

  10. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)], E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org

    2009-03-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time.

  11. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  13. FIBER OPTIC FLUOROIMMUNOSENSOR FOR THE DETECTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There currently exists a critical and growing need for cost-effective, real-time, and in situ methods for detection of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). erein reported is a evanescent wave Fluoroimmunosensor for measurement of PCBS. 2,4-5-Trichlor...

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sorption and Availability in Field-Contaminated Sediments†

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, David; Hale, Sarah E.; Ghosh, Upal; Luthy, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional and new relationships of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) distribution among the solid phases, the free aqueous phase, and biolipids are comprehensively reviewed using seven well-characterized freshwater and marine sediments polluted with PCBs. The traditional relationship relating free aqueous concentration and biolipid concentration to sediment total organic carbon, compound octanol−water partitioning coefficient, and solid-phase contaminant concentration overestimates measured fr...

  15. Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) Isomers in Soil Samples

    OpenAIRE

    PEHLİVAN, Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    This study presents an analytical method for the separation of a series of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emitted to the soil. PCDF contaminants were concentrated from soil samples and isolated from other materials by chromatographic methods and their quantitative determinations were performed by GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy).

  16. Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Wingren, Gun; Berglund, Marika

    2015-03-01

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg

  17. Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A; States, J Christopher; Coslo, Denise M; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Cave, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  18. Calcining process emission screening test for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1963, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has been using fluidized-bed technology to convert high-level radioactive liquid waste into a granular solid for interim storage before eventual long-term storage. The calcining process uses kerosene, oxygen, air and a cooling jacket to maintain the temperature of the fluidized bed at approximately 400 C. The solids are moved to storage bins and the combustion gases and fine particles are swept from the bed to an atmospheric protection system. This atmospheric protection system includes a cyclone to collect larger particles; a nitric acid scrubber to cool gases and collect small particles; a condenser to reduce water content; silica gel beds to adsorb volatile ruthenium, water, and hydrocarbons; and a series of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to collect minute particles. The calcination process solidifies waste solutions containing molar levels of acid, nitrate, fluoride, zirconium, aluminum, iron, boron, and cadmium; minor levels (<0.1%) of various fission products and organics; and trace levels (<50 ppm) of chloride and sulfate. Because the process burns kerosene in the presence of other organics and chloride salts; the calciner was considered a potential production source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). Therefore, it was necessary to determine if PCDD were being released from the calcination process. Because a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and PCDD standards were not available, a screening procedure using two gas chromatographs with electron capture detectors and no PCDD calibration standards was developed

  19. Calcining process emission screening test for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, S.D.

    1993-08-01

    Since 1963, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has been using fluidized-bed technology to convert high-level radioactive liquid waste into a granular solid for interim storage before eventual long-term storage. The calcining process uses kerosene, oxygen, air and a cooling jacket to maintain the temperature of the fluidized bed at approximately 400 C. The solids are moved to storage bins and the combustion gases and fine particles are swept from the bed to an atmospheric protection system. This atmospheric protection system includes a cyclone to collect larger particles; a nitric acid scrubber to cool gases and collect small particles; a condenser to reduce water content; silica gel beds to adsorb volatile ruthenium, water, and hydrocarbons; and a series of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to collect minute particles. The calcination process solidifies waste solutions containing molar levels of acid, nitrate, fluoride, zirconium, aluminum, iron, boron, and cadmium; minor levels (<0.1%) of various fission products and organics; and trace levels (<50 ppm) of chloride and sulfate. Because the process burns kerosene in the presence of other organics and chloride salts; the calciner was considered a potential production source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). Therefore, it was necessary to determine if PCDD were being released from the calcination process. Because a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and PCDD standards were not available, a screening procedure using two gas chromatographs with electron capture detectors and no PCDD calibration standards was developed.

  20. Hybrid pseudomonads engineered by two-step homologous recombination acquire novel degradation abilities toward aromatics and polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Hikaru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Bioproduction Research Inst.; Nonaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Furukawa, Kensuke [Beppu Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Fermentation and Food Science

    2010-10-15

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 possesses a chromosomally encoded bph gene cluster responsible for the catabolism of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls. Previously, we constructed chimeric versions of the bphA1 gene, which encodes a large subunit of biphenyl dioxygenase, by using DNA shuffling between bphA1 genes from P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. In this study, we demonstrate replacement of the bphA1 gene with chimeric bphA1 sequence within the chromosomal bph gene cluster by two-step homologous recombination. Notably, some of the hybrid strains acquired enhanced and/or expanded degradation capabilities for specific aromatic compounds, including single aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. (orig.)

  1. Does long term residency near industry have an impact on the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in older women?

    OpenAIRE

    Pless-Mulloli, T; Edwards, R; Howel, D; Wood, R.; Paepke, O; Herrmann, T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: For the retrospective study of environment and health linkages biomarkers of exposure are required. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been useful markers in some settings. This is the first study of PCDD/F body burden in a population based sample from the UK.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  3. Dechlorination of polychlorinated methanes by a sequential methanogenic-denitrifying bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z; Smith, G B

    2000-04-01

    A two-stage bioreactor has been developed to link dechlorination of halogenated methane compounds to the anaerobic processes of methanogenesis and denitrification. A digester methanogenic consortium was shown to dechlorinate chloroform (CF) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) to dichloromethane (DCM), and DCM was then mineralized by an acclimated denitrifying biological activated carbon consortium. Combining these two processes, a sequential methanogenic-denitrifying bioreactor (SMDB) system that completely degraded polychlorinated methanes including CT, CF, and DCM was developed. More than 95% of the added CT and CF was dechlorinated in the methanogenic bioreactor with methanol as the primary substrate, and the resultant DCM was biodegraded in the denitrifying bioreactor with nitrate as the electron acceptor. In the denitrifying bioreactor, the residual CF was completely removed, and the DCM removal efficiency was more than 95%. This novel bioreactor system eliminates the need for aeration and so avoids the air contamination associated with aerobic biotreatment of volatile chlorinated pollutants. This SMDB system provides an alternative to conventional biotreatment of wastewaters and other matrices contaminated with polychlorinated methanes and is, to our knowledge, the first report on such a sequential anoxic system. PMID:10803908

  4. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isosaari, Pirjo [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: pirjo.isosaari@ktl.fi; Laine, Olli [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tuhkanen, Tuula [Tampere University of Technology, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. {alpha}-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas {beta}-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  5. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. α-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas β-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples

  6. Contamination by Organochlorine Pesticides in the Estuaries of Southeast China* 06 A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants(POPs) such as organochlorine pesticides are of global concern due to their widespread occurrence and persistence. This paper reports recent research studying the distribution and fate of organochlorine pesticides in the Jiulong River, the Minjiang River and the Pearl River estuaries in Southeast China. Eighteen organochlorine pesticides were extracted from water, pore water and sediment samples, followed by analysis by GC-ECD. The results showed that the contamination levels were similar in these three estuaries.The levels of the total organochlorine pesticides in porewater were significantly higher than those in surface water, due to the high affinity of these hydrophobic compounds for sediment phase. Among the hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) compounds, β-HCH was found to be the most important isomer. The analysis of 1, 1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-chlorophenyl-ethane(DDT) and its metabolites showed that 1, 1-dichloro-2[o-chlorophenyl]-2[p-chlorophenyl]-ethylene (DDE) was dominant in the group.Koywords Organochlorine insecticides, DDT, Lindane, Jiulong River Estuary, Minjiang River Estuary, Pearl River Estuary, Water, Sediment

  7. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants. PMID:23998305

  8. Organochlorine compounds in bovine milk from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancini, Régia Maria; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; de Mesquita, Sueli Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    Organochlorines are highly hydrophobic, synthetic organic pollutants that accumulate in the environment and in food webs. The primary route of human exposure to organochlorines is through food-mainly fat-rich food of animal origin such as meat, fish, and dairy products. Here we determined the presence and concentration of organochlorine residues in pasteurized milk from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to monitor consumer exposure to these contaminants. Organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction in octadecyl silica-prepacked columns and identified by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. Of the 100 composite samples analyzed, more than 90% contained residues of organochlorine pesticides: aldrin was present in 44% of the samples, followed by ∑DDT (36%), mirex (34%), endosulfan (32%), chlordane (17%), dicofol (14%), heptachlor (11%) and dieldrin (11%). Compared to the values established by law, the concentration of the compounds in some samples was above the reference values. Given the importance that milk and its products have in the human diet, it is essential to know whether the levels of pesticide residues are kept well below the recommended levels to minimize the risk to human health. PMID:23177004

  9. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  10. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persky Victoria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  12. Contaminação por compostos organoclorados em salsichas hot-dog comercializadas na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil Contamination for organochlorine compounds in hot-dog sausages, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislau Bogusz Junior

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de monitorar os resíduos de compostos tóxicos em alimentos, verificou-se a freqüência e os níveis de praguicidas organoclorados (OC e bifenilas policloradas (PCBs em amostras de salsichas Hot-Dog, comercializadas na Cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e, compararam-se os valores com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises, procedeu-se a extração da gordura das amostras. A partir da purificação desta, obteve-se um extrato do qual se determinaram os resíduos organoclorados por cromatografia gasosa com detector de captura eletrônica (CG - µECD63Ni. Verificou-se que o lindano e o HCB foram os pesticidas que apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias (0,001798ppm e 0,001652ppm, respectivamente. O somatório dos níveis médios dos pesticidas organoclorados detectados foi de 0,015783ppm, sendo que deste total 0,011165ppm pertencia aos metabólitos do DDT. Quanto as bifenilas policloradas, as maiores concentrações médias corresponderam às PCBs 10 (0,001817ppm e 28 (0,000317ppm. O somatório das PCBs foi de 0,002172ppm. As concentrações de praguicidas organoclorados e PCBs encontradas nas amostras analisadas estavam abaixo dos limites máximos permitidos pela legislação.With the objective of monitoring toxic compounds residues in food, the frequency and levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were verified in sausage samples, hot dog type, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Values were compared with the ones established by Brazilian legislation. For the analyses the extraction of fat from the samples was done. From the purification of the fat, there was acquisition of an extract in which was determined the organochlorine contaminants residues by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (CG - µECD63Ni. It was learned that the lindane and HCB were the pesticides that presented the biggest concentration averages (0

  13. Status of organochlorine pesticides in Ganga river basin: anthropogenic or glacial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Mutiyar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrences of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs in Ganga river basin covering 3 states, i.e. Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar covering 72% of total river stretch consisting of 82 sampling points covered through 3 sampling campaigns. Samples were monitored for 16 major OCPs, including HCHs, Endosulfan group, Aldrin group, DDTs and Heptachlor group pesticides.

    The results showed the ng l−1 levels contamination of OCPs in all the stretches sampled during these campaigns. The results also revealed that different type of OCPs were dominating in different stretches in accordance to the land use practices and agricultural runoff generated from those stretches. HCHs were most frequently detected (detection rate = 75% in mountainous stretch; Endosulfans were prominent in UP (detection rate = 75% stretch while BR stretch Aldrin group pesticides were paramount (detection rate = 34%. Source apportionment of the OCP's revealed that in the upper reaches of the Ganges i.e. in the state of Uttarakhand, the glacial melt may be responsible for the presence of OCP's. In the lower reaches, intensive agriculture and industrial activities may be significantly contributing these pesticides. The sample from tributaries of Ganga river were found to contain higher number of pesticides as well as higher concentrations. The maximum total pesticide in an individual sample from these sampling campaigns was found in Son river sample (0.17 μg l−1, Location: Koilwar, Bhojpur, Bihar.

  14. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Surface Waters of Konya Closed Basin, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among all HCH isomers, β-HCH is the main isomer with a concentration range of 0.015–0.065 μg/L. DDE, DDD, and DDT were almost determined in all samples, in which DDE isomer had the highest concentration ranged from not detected to 0.037 μg/L. In all studied OCPs, aldrin showed the highest concentration at 0.220 μg/L. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were observed with order: Mn < Cu < Ni < As < Cr < Fe. In some samples, As, Fe, and Cr concentrations exceeded the drinking water quality recommended by EU, US EPA, WHO, and Turkish Regulation, while Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations are below the guideline values. The levels of both OCPs and heavy metals were also compared with other previously published data.

  15. Distribution and air-sea exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the North Pacific and the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minghong; Ma, Yuxin; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhong, Guangcai; MöLler, Axel; Yang, Haizhen; Sturm, Renate; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Meng, Xiang-Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Surface seawater and boundary layer air samples were collected on the icebreaker Xuelong (Snow Dragon) during the Fourth Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE2010) cruise in the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans during 2010. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including three isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and two isomers of heptachlor epoxide. The gaseous total HCH (ΣHCHs) concentrations were approximately four times lower (average 12.0 pg m-3) than those measured during CHINARE2008 (average 51.4 pg m-3), but were comparable to those measured during CHINARE2003 (average 13.4 pg m-3) in the same study area. These changes are consistent with the evident retreat of sea ice coverage from 2003 to 2008 and increase of sea ice coverage from 2008 to 2009 and 2010. Gaseous β-HCH concentrations in the atmosphere were typically below the method detection limit, consistent with the expectation that ocean currents provide the main transport pathway for β-HCH into the Arctic. The concentrations of all dissolved HCH isomers in seawater increase with increasing latitude, and levels of dissolved HCB also increase (from 5.7 to 7.1 pg L-1) at high latitudes (above 73°N). These results illustrate the role of cold condensation processes in the transport of OCPs. The observed air-sea gas exchange gradients in the Arctic Ocean mainly favored net deposition of OCPs, with the exception of those for β-HCH, which favored volatilization.

  16. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Feng, Yaqian; Shen, Xiaoli; Mei, Surong

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) could increase non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. However, results from epidemiological studies investigating this association remain controversial. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association between OCP exposure and NHL risk. Relevant publications were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase and identified according to the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies (6 nested case-control, 1 case-cohort, and 6 case-control) were selected for this meta-analysis. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the relationship between OCPs exposure and NHL risk. The summary OR for included studies was 1.40 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.56). No overall significant heterogeneity in the OR was observed (Ph = 0.253, I2 = 12.6%). Furthermore, OR estimates in subgroup analyses were discussed, and strong associations were observed for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.66), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.87), chlordane (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.48), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB, OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99). This meta-analysis had suggested that total OCPs of interest was significantly positively associated with NHL risk. PMID:27185567

  17. The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindoruk, S. Sıddık; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air-water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of Σ10OCPs.

  18. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Feng, Yaqian; Shen, Xiaoli; Mei, Surong

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) could increase non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. However, results from epidemiological studies investigating this association remain controversial. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association between OCP exposure and NHL risk. Relevant publications were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase and identified according to the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies (6 nested case-control, 1 case-cohort, and 6 case-control) were selected for this meta-analysis. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the relationship between OCPs exposure and NHL risk. The summary OR for included studies was 1.40 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.56). No overall significant heterogeneity in the OR was observed (Ph = 0.253, I(2) = 12.6%). Furthermore, OR estimates in subgroup analyses were discussed, and strong associations were observed for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.66), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.87), chlordane (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.48), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB, OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99). This meta-analysis had suggested that total OCPs of interest was significantly positively associated with NHL risk. PMID:27185567

  19. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed. PMID:25597683

  20. Use of Organic Solvents to Extract Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) from Aged Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mao; JIN Xin; JIANG Xin; YANG Xing-Lun; SUN Ming-Ming; BIAN Yong-Rong; WANG Fang; GU Cheng-Gang; WEI Hai-Jiang; SONG Yang; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Problems associated with organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-contaminated sites in China have received wide attention.To solve such problems,innovative ex-situ methods of site remediation are urgently needed.We investigated the feasibility of the extraction method with different organic solvents,ethanol,1-propanol,and three fractions of petroleum ether,using a soil collected from Wujiang (WJ),China,a region with long-term contamination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs).We evaluated different influential factors,including organic solvent concentration,washing time,mixing speed,solution-to-soil ratio,and washing temperature,on the removal of DDTs from the WJ soil.A set of relatively better parameters were selected for extraction with 100 mL L-1 petroleum ether (60-90 ℃):washing time of 180 min,mixing speed of 100 r min-1,solution-to-soil ratio of 10:1,and washing temperature of 50 ℃.These selected parameters were also applied on three other seriously OCP-polluted soils.Results demonstrated their broad-spectrum effectiveness and excellent OCP extraction performance on the contaminated soils with different characteristics.

  1. Evidence of local emission of organochlorine pesticides in the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Lin, Tian; Qi, Shihua; Zhang, Gan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Kechang

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the atmosphere of Lhasa, the capital city of Tibet, China, were monitored in an attempt to assess their concentration level and potential sources. Twenty air samples collected at two sites in Lhasa between 6 and 11 August 2006 were analyzed for OCPs. The mean concentrations of α-, γ-HCHs, HCB, trans-chlordane (TC), cis-chlordane (CC), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT were 49, 163, 182, 204, 128, 122, 46, 206, and 114 pg/m 3, respectively. The relatively low α-HCH/ γ-HCH ratios indicated that lindane is the current source of HCHs in Lhasa. A TC/CC ratio of ≈1.2 was observed for samples with relatively high chlordane concentrations, suggesting a current local use of technical chlordane. The isomer ratios of DDTs also implied present usages of DDT-containing dicofol and technical DDT in the city. Contrary to other OCPs, HCB displayed higher concentrations during nighttime than daytime, indicative of a dominant contribution from local combustion. We conclude that current use and local emissions may be important sources for OCPs in Lhasa and may contribute to OCP contamination in the environment of the populated agricultural Lahsa River basin.

  2. Seasonal variations in atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural areas of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyun-Gu; Choi, Minkyu; Sunwoo, Young

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in both rural (Ansung) and urban (Seoul) areas in Korea from July, 1999 to May, 2000. The chemicals measured in this study include heptachlor, chlordanes, DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and endosulfan. Endosulfan and α-HCH, with values of a few 100s to 1000s of pg m -3, were found to have higher concentrations than other compounds in both areas. Most OCPs showed higher concentrations in Ansung, with many potential sources, such as contaminated surfaces, relative to Seoul. The maximum and minimum concentrations of OCPs at both sites occurred in summer and winter, respectively. It can be partly explained by the variation of temperature. The correlation between atmospheric concentration and temperature was observed using Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) plots. The CC plots for most OCPs in both areas showed good linearity and steep slopes. It is hence inferred that their atmospheric concentrations might be mostly affected by re-volatilization from surfaces of local surroundings at the sampling sites.

  3. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in surface waters of Konya closed basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Ozcan, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including α -, β -, γ -, and δ -hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among all HCH isomers, β -HCH is the main isomer with a concentration range of 0.015-0.065 μ g/L. DDE, DDD, and DDT were almost determined in all samples, in which DDE isomer had the highest concentration ranged from not detected to 0.037 μ g/L. In all studied OCPs, aldrin showed the highest concentration at 0.220 μ g/L. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were observed with order: Mn

  4. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ted H; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; McMurry, Scott T; Anderson, Todd A

    2006-11-01

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n=175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. PMID:16504356

  5. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Yang; Baolu Han; Nandong Xue; Lingli Zhou; Fasheng Li

    2015-01-01

    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g.,in plastic and glass sheds),which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs).A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)).Air was sampled at 5,15,and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cyhnders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges.Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils.In addition,significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs.These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air.The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in chorioallantoic membranes of Morelet's crocodile eggs from belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Christopher B; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Dever, Jennifer A; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies examined the utility of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as a nonlethal, noninvasive indicator of environmental contaminant exposure in oviparous wildlife. The CAM is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane that functions as a site for respiration, nutrient transport, and waste storage during embryonic development. After hatching, the CAM is usually discarded with the eggshell and can be used for chemical residue analysis. Chorioallantoic membranes have been used successfully to examine contaminant exposure and predict chemical concentrations in multiple species of birds and reptiles. In this study, we examined organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in CAMs from eggs of Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize. Multiple OCs were detected in crocodile CAMs, including aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), heptachlor, lindane, and methoxychlor. Number and concentrations of OC compounds in CAMs were variable. The most prevalent contaminant detected was DDE, which occurred in 69% of CAMs, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 parts per billion (ppb) to 17.0 ppb. The OC burdens in crocodile CAMs confirm contamination of eggs and suggest exposure in embryos and maternal females. These results further support the use of CAMs as qualitative indicators of OC exposure in oviparous wildlife. The efficacy of this sampling technique in the field will depend on the logistics and cost associated with CAM collection and the specific life history traits of the wildlife species. PMID:15465717

  7. Organochlorine pollutants in Peregrine falcon eggs; Organochlorverbindungen in Eiern von Wanderfalken und anderen wild lebenden Vogelarten in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Gegenwaertige Belastungssituation und zeitlicher Trend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenck, K.T. von der [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baum, F.; Malisch, R. [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt Freiburg (Germany); Hartwig, H.; Zimmermann, R.D. [Fachhochschule Bingen (Germany); Schilling, F. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wanderfalkenschutz (AGW), Nuertingen (Germany); Straub, H.P. [Landratsamt Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Goal and Scope. Organochlorine pollutants such as some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and highly persistent compounds in the environment. As synthetic, man-made products they are not encountered in natural ecosystems. Due to their high lipid solubility these compounds can accumulate in animals and humans, where they may exert chronically toxic and carcinogenic effects or disrupt endocrine functions and/or interfere with reproduction. Sound environmental stewardship demands continuous monitoring of such substances, assessment of their ecotoxicological risk, and reduction of excessive risk by setting appropriate standards. Methods. The analysis of birds' eggs is one method for the detection of organochlorine pollutants in ecosystems. In the German state of Baden-Wuerttemberg eggs of some bird species, especially Peregrine falcons, have been collected and analysed for selected persistent organic pollutants [total DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane), HCB (hexachlorobenzene), HCEP (heptachloroepoxide), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), PCBs] since the 1970s. Long-term continuous investigations yield data concerning temporal changes and regional differences in the pollution of the bio-indicators. Results and Conclusion. Dioxin-like PCBs and total DDT were the most prominent pollutants. The Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) was the most polluted bird species within the project. During the 1970s and 1980s all of the mentioned substances showed an encouraging decrease, undoubtedly because their use was banned in Germany. Analyses for PCDD/F in a small number of Peregrine falcon eggs from the period of 2000 to 2003 revealed the high level of pollution of these samples with dioxin toxicity equivalents (WHO-TEQ) from PCB and PCDD/F, which in all eggs reached the no observed effect level (NOEL) determined in osprey chicks and surpassed this threshold fivefold in the most polluted ones. Because of their great variability the

  8. Dehalorespiration with Polychlorinated Biphenyls by an Anaerobic Ultramicrobacterium▿

    OpenAIRE

    May, Harold D.; Miller, Greg S.; Birthe V. Kjellerup; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial dechlorination is an important step in the detoxification and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but a microorganism capable of coupling its growth to PCB dechlorination has not been isolated. Here we describe the isolation from sediment of an ultramicrobacterium, strain DF-1, which is capable of dechlorinating PCBs containing double-flanked chlorines added as single congeners or as Aroclor 1260 in contaminated soil. The isolate requires Desulfovibrio spp. in...

  9. The Influence of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination on Soil Protein Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Zhang; Feng Li; Tingting Liu; Cheng Peng; Dechao Duan; Chen Xu; Shenhai Zhu; Jiyan Shi

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical representative of chlorinated organic pollutants. Given the toxicity of PCBs, there is an urgent need to select an appropriate indicator to monitor their biological effects on soil ecosystems. For this purpose, we investigated the impacts of PCBs on soil protein and the potential of using protein as a biological indicator to assess soil contamination due to PCBs. This study demonstrated that soil protein concentration and expression were negatively...

  10. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  11. Toxicity mechanisms and interactions of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers

    OpenAIRE

    Antonijević Biljana; Milovanović Vesna; Ćurčić Marijana; Janković Saša; Jaćević Vesna; Vučinić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), are widespread environmental contaminants as a result of anthropogenic activities and due to their persistency and resistance to degradation. Both groups of chemicals are placed on the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), covered by the Stockholm convention which is aimed to limit or ban the production, use, emission, import and export of POPs i...

  12. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Luotamo, M; Järvisalo, J; Aitio, A

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in the environment. Occupational exposure to PCBs takes place, e.g., in manufacture and repair of capacitors and transformers. A special type of exposure of workers to PCBs may occur in connection with accidents where capacitors or transformers containing PCBs products are damaged, as in the case of a fire or electric arcing. The quantitation of PCBs poses several problems: There are 209 different homologs and isomers of PCBs. The isomers ...

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdo...

  14. Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A B; Schloemer, J; Lowry, L K; Smallwood, A W; Ligo, R N; Tanaka, S.; Stringer, W; Jones, M; Hervin, R; Glueck, C J

    1982-01-01

    In surveys of three groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower chlorinated biphenyls (L-PCBs) and higher chlorinated biphenyls (H-PCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers employed in power capacitor manufacturing than exposed areas. Statistically significant positive correlations of symptoms suggestive of mucous membrane and skin irritation, of systemic malaise, and al...

  15. Gas chromatographic separation of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers

    OpenAIRE

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Vyas, Sandhya M.; Song, Yang; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites display axial chirality. Here we describe an enantioselective, gas chromatographic separation of methylated derivatives of hydroxylated (OH-)PCB atropisomers (MeO-PCB) using a chemically bonded β-cyclodextrin column (Chirasil-Dex). The atropisomers of several MeO-PCBs could be separated on this column with resolutions ranging from 0.42–0.87 under isothermal or temperature-programmed conditions. In addition, the enanti...

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed; Hesham Dahshan; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Amr Mohamed Mohamed Abd-Elall; Mariam Hassan Elbana; Ehab Nabawy; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB cong...

  17. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIROĞULLARI, Gül

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered in the late of the 19th century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The PCBs have been used commercially, since 1930, as dielectric and heat-exchange fluids and in a variety of other applications. They have become widely distributed in the environment throughout the world, and are persistent and accumulate in food webs. PCBs accumulate in the fatty tissues of humans and other animals an...

  18. Construction of a Bioluminescent Reporter Strain To Detect Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, A C; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M. M.; Sayler, G. S.

    1998-01-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307(pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/lit...

  19. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers for heptachlor: An organochlorine pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular Imprinting technology is a promising technique for creating recognition elements for selected compounds and has been successfully applied for synthesis of Environmental pollutants such as pesticides. Aim: Synthetic binding polymers were prepared by non-covalent imprinting technique using bulk polymerization method for heptachlor, which is an organochlorine pesticide. Materials and Methods: Three functional monomers and 2 cross-linkers were used for molecular imprinting. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs obtained were subsequently characterized in detail with rebinding investigation using batch rebinding. The results indicate that the imprinting was successfully done for heptachlor using methacrylic acid (MAA as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA as cross-linker. Results: The affinity order from rebinding results for the 3 polymers is heptachlor-co-MAA-co-EDMA > heptachlor-co-4-VP-co-DVB > heptachlor-co-Styrene-co-DVB. UV-visible spectrophotometric study for interaction of heptachlor with MAA in pre-polymerization mixture suggests the formation of H-bonding also contributing to the formation of good imprint. Conclusion: Molecular Imprinted polymers can be used as detection systems and as clean up materials for pesticides.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides in the soils and atmosphere of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Jantunen, Liisa M M; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    A survey of the contamination of the physical environment of Costa Rica with banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) relied on sampling air and soil at 23 stations acrossthe country in 2004. Average annual air concentrations, determined with XAD-based passive samplers, and surface soil concentrations were generally low when compared to values reported for North and Central America, which is consistent with relatively low historical domestic use and little atmospheric inflow from neighboring countries. Statistical analysis and concentration maps reveal three types of spatial distribution: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and p,p'-DDD had a relatively uniform distribution across the country; other DDT-related species were greatly elevated over the national average at Manuel Antonio, a National Park on the Pacific coast; and dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane-related species had higher concentrations in Costa Rica's populated Central Valley. An altitudinal transect of stations in the Central Valley shows declining air-soil concentration ratios with elevation for lindane, likely driven by atmospheric inversions and soil organic carbon content. Enantiomeric composition of chiral OCPs in air and soil was close to racemic, with slight depletion of (-)-alpha-HCH, (-)-cis-chlordane, and (+)-trans-chlordane. Estimated air-soil fugacity fractions are highly uncertain but indicate equilibrium conditions for most OCPs, net volatilization of lindane at some sites, and net deposition for p,p'-DDE. The study demonstrates an approach for quickly evaluating the spatial distribution of OCPs in an understudied area, identifying regionally important contaminants and areas of elevated concentrations. PMID:17593709

  1. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South Asian region: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are semi volatile organic compounds of global concern. During the last decades, their distribution, sources, transformation, toxicity and accumulation in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have gained significant attention. Many of these chemicals are characterized by long range atmospheric transport potential, and their occurrence in remote areas is attributed to transport of chemicals from places where OCPs are still in use. The South Asia region is a place where primarily emissions are still taking place and thus it is important to assess the status of OCPs pollution. This document provides the historical overview and country specific environmental legislation of OCPs from the South Asian region in the context of their illegal use and storage for extended periods and still until to date. In addition, the current review discusses the existing knowledge on the levels and distribution of OCPs in different environmental compartments of South Asian region. Data on OCPs also highlights the risk assessment of these organic contaminants in the regional environment and spans the long range atmospheric transport phenomena based on Himalayas and Northern mountainous glaciers. Paradoxically in the scientific literature sources, distribution and transport of these organic pollutants in South Asian region are very limited compared to the rest of the world. PMID:24522007

  2. EXAMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN GOAT’S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Tomovska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Examination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs was performed on samples of goat milk. Typical of  OCPs is that they accumulate in the milk fat, for this purpose during the examination analyzed the quantitiesof  OCPs in milk fat, and the quantities of OCPs depending on the temperature and storage time.In samples of raw goat's milk taken from 10 individual farms Pelagonija region, were determined seven OCPs .Value of fat was approximately 2.7%.The milk was kept at a temperature of 4°C for a week till decay. The OCPs was calculated in (w/w %, and was found that most present are Heptachlor average 0,091695, at least Dieldrin with value of 0,034547. Determination was made of the gas chromatograph (GS from "Agilent Technologies'', and calculated analytical yield, R varied in the range of 98,113599 to 101,83674%, which proves that the method is accurate and quantitative.The  maximum value at temperature of  63-65°C is DDT, than Endosulfan heated at a temperature of 71-74°C, while minimum value is Dieldrin at temperature of 89 -100ºC. The conclusion of examination is that in our region are still applied insecticides for the protection of plants.

  3. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in Brazilian human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, T. [INCQS/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Braga, A.M.C.B.; Rosa, J.M. [CESTEH/ENSP/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Kypke, K.; Malisch, R. [State Inst. for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Breastfeeding has been intensively encouraged, especially in developing countries, due to its beneficial properties, i.e., increase infant immune factors and resistance to chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes or allergies. In addition, human exposure to environmental pollution has led the scientific community to study the pathways of these contaminants and the possible risks they pose to human health. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCs), in special, has been the subject of great interest during recent years given their potential toxicity, resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation through the food chain. The major source of OC has been agriculture and public health campaigns to vector control. General population exposure occur mainly through the diet and human milk can be an indicator of exposure since OCs are lipophilic xenobiotics that accumulate in adipose tissue and breastfeeding is the main pathway of elimination through the fatty fraction of milk. In this study pooled samples of mothers living in the capitals of two different states of Brazil were evaluated in order to assess the trends of human exposure to persistent pollutants.

  4. Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A

    2000-03-01

    Non-viable eggs of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n = 24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and 29% of the eggs examined, respectively. Concentrations of individual OC contaminants ranged from 1 ppb (ng chemical/g egg) to > 0.5 ppm (microgram chemical/g egg). Total concentrations of OCs (sum of all OCs) for one egg collected from a nest at GBL reached as high as 0.7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDT, among others). Nest media (soil and plant material) collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs. Such exposure may present a health threat to populations of crocodiles in Central America. PMID:10705543

  5. Organochlorine and metal contaminant exposure and effects in hatching Black-Crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Schmidt, S.R.; Parsons, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93, the population of nine species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs, but has recently declined to about 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial, and municipal point and non-point sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, pipping (early hatching stage) black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware. There was no evidence of malformations or hepatic histopathological lesions in embryos, and their body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant, and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (p > 0.05) between sites, although activities of benzyloxy-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were somewhat elevated in 3 of the 15 embryos collected from Pea Patch Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites, with p,p'-DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (p < 0.05) in Pea Patch Island heron embryos, levels of arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and toxic equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Concentrations of Cd and Mn in pipping embryos from Pea Patch Island were slightly greater (p < 0.05) than values observed in Middle Island embryos, but levels of these and the other metals and metalloids (e.g., Hg and Se) were below values associated with toxicity. In conclusion, it seems unlikely that chlorinated hydrocarbon and metal

  6. Immune cell counts and risks of respiratory infections among infants exposed pre- and postnatally to organochlorine compounds: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnerud Per

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early-life chemical exposure may influence immune system development, subsequently affecting child health. We investigated immunomodulatory potentials of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and p,p'-DDE in infants. Methods Prenatal exposure to PCBs and p,p'-DDE was estimated from maternal serum concentrations during pregnancy. Postnatal exposure was calculated from concentrations of the compounds in mother's milk, total number of nursing days, and percentage of full nursing each week during the 3 month nursing period. Number and types of infections among infants were registered by the mothers (N = 190. White blood cell counts (N = 86 and lymphocyte subsets (N = 52 were analyzed in a subgroup of infants at 3 months of age. Results Infants with the highest prenatal exposure to PCB congeners CB-28, CB-52 and CB-101 had an increased risk of respiratory infection during the study period. In contrast, the infection odds ratios (ORs were highest among infants with the lowest prenatal mono-ortho PCB (CB-105, CB-118, CB-156, CB-167 and di-ortho PCB (CB-138, CB-153, CB-180 exposure, and postnatal mono- and di-ortho PCB, and p,p'-DDE exposure. Similar results were found for pre- and postnatal CB-153 exposure, a good marker for total PCB exposure. Altogether, a negative relationship was indicated between infections and total organochlorine compound exposure during the whole pre- and postnatal period. Prenatal exposure to CB-28, CB-52 and CB-101 was positively associated with numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes in infants 3 months after delivery. Prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE was negatively associated with the percentage of eosinophils. No significant associations were found between PCB and p,p'-DDE exposure and numbers/percentages of lymphocyte subsets, after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion This hypothesis generating study suggests that background exposure to PCBs and p,p'-DDE early in life modulate immune system

  7. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls from sintering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjing; Hou, Meifang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Haifeng; Han, Ying; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    The influence of desulfurization on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sintering plants was investigated. The concentrations of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, toxic equivalents (TEQs), indicator PCBs, and total tri- to deca-chlorinated PCB homolog groups (∑PCBs) in the flue gases at the desulfurization system inlets were 290-1906 pg m(-3) (2.4-18.8 pg World Health Organization (WHO) TEQ m(-3)), 420-2885 pg m(-3), and 6496-22,648 pg m(-3), respectively. Desulfurization reduced the values to 43.3-500 pg m(-3) (0.46-9.5 pg WHO-TEQ m(-3)), 183-587 pg m(-3), and 2383-11,639 pg m(-3), respectively. The removed PCBs were adsorbed by gypsum from the flue gas; the PCB concentration distributions at the inlets and outlets and in the gypsum samples were similar. The emission factors were 9.86 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for the flue gas and 8.37 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for gypsum. Desulfurization decreased the annual atmospheric PCB emissions from 48.6 to 30.7 g WHO-TEQ, and the estimated annual emissions in gypsum were 8.06 g WHO-TEQ. PCBs in the gypsum have not been effectively eliminated and will probably reenter the environment and in turn become a new source of PCB emission. The PCB concentrations in fly ashes from series-connected electrostatic precipitators clearly increased. PMID:26690582

  8. Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Sediments Using Soxhlet, Ultrasonic and Accelerated Solvent Extraction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Yinhai; CAO Zhengmei; NIE Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 μg g-1 to 0.004 μg g-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (> 80.7%). With a mass selective detector,better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1: 1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  9. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

    2005-04-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p‧-DDT, p, p‧-DDT and p, p‧-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  10. Monitoring of some organochlorine pesticide residues of butter in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamlioglu, Ferhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Kara, Huseyin; Dinc, Iffet

    2005-06-01

    Some organochlorine pesticide residues were investigated in the samples of all local commercial butter brands sold in the supermarket in Konya (Turkey). Some of the samples were found to have the DDT complex (DDT, DDD, DDE and isomers), total HCH complex (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH), aldrin, dieldrin and endosulfan (I and II). Nearly 94% of the butter samples were found to be contaminated. Endrin and heptachlorine were detected in three and two samples, respectively, while 87% of samples were contaminated by one or more HCH isomers. 78% of the organochlorine pesticide was DDT and/or its metabolites. These results confirmed that butters sold in Konya presented organochlorine pesticide residues indicating a human exposure. PMID:16334269

  11. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  12. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  13. Fate and transport of planar and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in Southern California sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, M. Indira

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are an important class of industrial pollutants that areubiquitous in the marine and freshwater environments (NAS, 1979). Although the “planar” or“non-ortho” PCB congeners are present in much lower concentrations than other PCBcongeners, they can be responsible for much of the dioxin-like (TCDD) toxicity in the marineecosystem. Further, their environmental fate may be different from other PCBs. Theirdetermination is, therefore, crucial for assessment of contam...

  14. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...... examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken...... at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters. RESULTS: A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0...

  15. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Osei Tutu; P.O. Yeboah, A.A. Golow, D. Denutsui and S. Blankson-Arthur

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14) different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, end...

  16. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds ( 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  17. Spatial variations and temporal trends between 1994 and 2005 in polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Flanders, the northern region of Belgium, European yellow eel muscle tissue was used as an indicator of environmental and potential human dietary exposure by hazardous chemicals of surface waters and sediments. Between 1994 and 2005, over 2800 eel captured at 365 stations were analysed for PCBs, pesticides and heavy metals. Contamination of eel in Flanders fell within the range of reported concentrations in other watersheds of Western Europe. A spatial analysis of the data demonstrated that the variation in pollutant concentration tended towards higher values. This was especially evident for PCBs, lindane, endrin, dieldrin and DDE. The concentration of almost all banned substances decreased significantly during the study period. - Although tissue concentrations of PCBs, pesticides and heavy metals decreased over time, they remain sufficiently high for the consumption of wild captured eel to still be discouraged

  18. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    -p-dioxin (TCDD). The toxic responses include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Toxic equivalency factors have been established for the other PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCB relative to TCDD, and the combined toxicity of a sample can be expressed as...... toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD...... during pregnancy. Because of the large difference between rats and humans in the biological half-life of TCDD, the assessment used a body burden approach to compare across species and derived a tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg TCDD/kg of body weight (bw), which was extended to include all the 2...

  19. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Major Rivers of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Naser Haji Samoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminations by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of inland water have been a global issue, since most of these compounds are very persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Due to the widespread use of DDT for malaria vector eradication programs in the past and no comprehensive works have been conducted to assess trace organic pollutants in river waters, this work is the first effort to assess the contamination levels of OCPs in the major rivers of Southern Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration levels of OCPs and oil and grease in the 3 major rivers and to compare the present results with surrounding regions for further assessment of OCPs contamination status in inland waters of Southern Thailand. The water samples were collected along the 3 major rivers (Saiburi, Patani and Tiba River during June 2007-February 2008. Water samples were solid phase extracted with Supelco C-18 cartridge (1g/6 mL and quantified by gas chromatograph (GC-ECD. The concentration of oil and grease was determined by gravimetric method and reported as hexane extractable material (HEM and silica gel treated hexane extractable material (SGT-HEM. Several parameters of waters such as total suspended solid, pH, turbidity, and conductivity were measured. The commonly found OCP residues in these rivers were β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan 1, p,p’- DDE and endrin aldehyde. The overall results showed that Saiburi River was more polluted with OCPs than Patani and Tiba River, especially p, p’-DDE which was detected in the wide range concentration of 9.6 to 203.1 ng/mL. For oil and grease contamination, Tiba River waters were found to be more polluted than either Patani or Saiburi River. The experimental procedures and analytical results together with the possible sources of OCPs and its environmental impacts are presented.

  20. Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen

    Atmospheric monitoring of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (e.g., HCHs, chlordanes, and DDTs) in Galveston Bay was conducted at Seabrook, Texas. Air and wet deposition samples were collected from 2 February 1995 and continued through 6 August 1996. Vapor total PCB ( tPCB) concentrations in air ranged from 0.21 to 4.78 ng m -3 with a dominance of tri-chlorinated PCBs. Dissolved tPCBs in rain ranged from 0.08 to 3.34 ng l -1, with tetra-chlorinated PCBs predominating. The predominant isomers found in air and rain were α- and γ-HCH, α- and γ-chlordanes, 4,4'-DDT, and dieldrin. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the air and rain revealed no clear seasonal trend. Elevated levels of PCBs in the air occurred when temperatures were high and wind came from urban and industrialized areas (S, SW, NW, and W of the site). Concentrations of HCHs were elevated in April, May, and October, perhaps due to local and/or regional applications of γ-HCH (lindane). Other pesticides showed no notable temporal variation. When winds originated from the Gulf of Mexico (southeasterly), lower concentrations of organochlorines were detected in the air. The direct deposition rate (wet+dry) of PCBs to Galveston Bay (6.40 μg m -2 yr -1) was significantly higher than that of pesticides by a factor of 5-10. The net flux from gas exchange estimated for PCBs was from Galveston Bay water to the atmosphere (78 μg m -2 yr -1). Gas exchange of PCBs from bay water to the atmosphere was the dominant flux.

  1. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Skaates, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ??g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ??g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ??g/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 ??g/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 ??g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  3. Assessment of current dietary intake of organochlorine contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in killer whales (Orcinus orca) through direct determination in a group of whales in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigaro, Costanza; Henríquez-Hernandez, Luis A; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Garcia-Hartmann, Manuel; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-02-15

    We determined the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of captive adult killer whales and in their food. The goal of this research was the assessment of the dietary exposure of killer whales to these pollutants to gain insight on what is the actual magnitude of the exposure in this species, which is considered among the most contaminated in the planet. Plasma median ∑OCP and ∑PCB contents were 3150.3 and 7985.9 ng g(-1)l.w., respectively. A total of 78.9% of the PCBs were marker-PCBs, and 21.1% were dioxin-like PCBs (6688.7 pg g(-1)l.w. dioxin toxic equivalents). This is the first report of the blood levels of PAHs in killer whales, and their median value was 1023.1 ng g(-1)l.w. In parallel, we also determined the levels of these contaminants in the fish species that are used to feed these animals to estimate the orcas' average daily dietary intake of pollutants. All the contaminants in the fish were detected in the plasma of the killer whales, and proportionality between the intake and the blood levels was observed in all the animals. The calculated intake was extremely high for certain contaminants, which is a concern, giving a glimpse of what possibly occurs in the wild, where exposure to these contaminants can be even higher. Therefore, although many of these chemicals have been banned for decades, even today, the levels of these chemicals could reach very toxic concentrations in the tissues of these endangered animals because of their diet. PMID:24345864

  4. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds and health effects in women and their infants. Epidemiological studies on birth-weight, cancer incidence, and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, L.

    1997-05-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other persistent organochlorine compounds is through consumption of fatty fish species from the Baltic Sea (the eastern coast of Sweden). Cohorts of fishermen`s wives from the Swedish east and west coasts were established. Interviewed east and west coast cohort women ate locally caught fish at least twice as often as women from the general population. The east coast cohort women displayed during the period 1968-1989 an increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in ischemic heart disease as compared with the west coast cohort. Due to lack of individual data on exposure and confounding factors, it is not possible to conclude that the differences were caused by fish intake. Infants from the east coast cohort had during the period 1973-1991 an increased risk for low birth weight, as compared with infants from the west coast cohort. A nested case-referent study within the east coast cohort indicated an increased risk of low birth weight among infants born to mothers who reported a relatively high current intake of fish from the Baltic Sea, as well as among mothers who had grown up in a fishing village. Moreover, maternal 2,2`,4,4`,5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153, which was showed to be a feasible biomarker for exposure to PCB) concentrations in plasma drawn in 1995 and the estimated concentrations during the year of childbirth showed effects on the risk for having an infant with low birth weight. Employing alternative plausible kinetic models, an increased risk for low birth weight was observed at a CB-153 concentration in plasma during year of childbirth around 300-400 ng/g lipid. 117 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  5. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: → Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. → OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. → Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. → Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. → Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  6. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyls in residents of 91 PCB-contaminated and 108 non-contaminated dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Göen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings.......In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings....

  7. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short-term study for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in ambient air in Green Bay, Wisconsin, has been completed. eneral Metals Works PS-1 air samplers equipped with particle filters and polyurethane foam (PUF)...

  8. Biodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs):I The Case Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places,such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed in 23/5/01 in order to cope with this international environmental problem. Although POPs were banned by most countries, there are still a lot of sites contaminated with these substances. The remediation of these sites is problematic and requires distinct considerations from those which are established for hydrocarbon remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and possible strategies to stimulate these processes. The degradation of the other POPs would be reviewed in additional texts.

  9. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Y., E-mail: inada@hvg.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T. [R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Company, 4-1 Egasaki-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8510 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H{sup +}, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  10. Applications of ionizing radiation to the remediation of materials contaminated with heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the removal from water of heavy metals and chelated heavy metal compounds using electron beam and gamma radiation. Parameter analyses include the effect of dissolved oxygen and the influence of adding various buffers and radical scavengers. Complete removal (>99%) of mercury, lead and cadmium ions, both free and chelated within EDTA, was achieved using radiation doses ranging from 3-100 kGy. We have also studied the radiation induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aqueous-organic and aqueous micellar systems. Rates and extent of dechlorination have been quantified in different solution matrices; reaction by-products and intermediate species have been identified; and the influences of dissolved oxygen and pH have been evaluated. The presence of a carbonate buffer was observed to significantly enhance PCB dechlorination yields by reducing concentrations of H3O+. Ionizing radiation was effective in degrading PCBs in micellar solutions but scavenging of eaq- by the surfactant lowered reaction efficiencies

  11. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  12. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana;

    2013-01-01

    cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is...... PCBs as potential determinants of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment and PCBs were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Median levels of the included PCBs were lower in women, except for PCB118 and all PCBs were positively associated with increased...... abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data indicate a positive link between PCBs and obesity. More work is needed to fully elucidate the complex role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic....

  14. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  15. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:17182086

  16. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  17. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  18. Different organochlorine contaminant profiles in groups of flounders (Platichthys flesus) from sampling locations around Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Rønsholdt, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    Flounders (Platichthys flesus) from the waters around Denmark were analysed for their organochlorine (OC) profile to study whether fish from the same genetic population could be separated into characteristic subpopulations, based on their feeding grounds. The chemical analysis of fish liver...

  19. Economic Consequences of Restricting the Use of Organochlorine Insecticides on Cotton, Corn, Peanuts, and Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Velmar W.; And Others

    The Department of Agriculture continually reviews needs for insecticides and recommends those which are effective with least hazard to people and the environment. This report estimates the economic effects of reducing the use of organochlorine insecticides. Using data from a 1966 Economic Research Service Survey, the report concludes that these…

  20. Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waliszewski Stefan M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradients of organochlorine pesticides between these compartments were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood serum samples from 64 volunteers admitted for cesarean delivery at Hospital Benito Coquet Lagunes were studied in Veracruz during 1997 and 1998. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography and results obtained from different sample groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and simple lineal regression. RESULTS: Significant results expressed on fat basis of organochlorine pesticides indicate that 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenylethane (DDT levels are higher in maternal adipose tissue (4.51 mg/kg DDE and 1.27 mg/kg pp'DDT, maternal blood serum (4.45 mg/kg DDE and 0.78 mg/kg pp'DDT, and umbilical blood serum (4.70 mg/kg DDE and 0.88 mg/kg pp'DDT, due to greater affinity of DDT for lipids. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical evaluation of results and the pairing of samples analyzed indicate that absorbed organochlorine pesticides cross the placental barrier and reach a balanced state between mother and fetus.

  1. Fate of organochlorine 14C-dicofol in a lab-scale wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime L. M. Oliveira; Langenbach, Tomaz; Dezotti, Márcia

    2008-01-01

    The fate of organochlorine 14C-dicofol in activated sludge process was investigated. Results showed that the major part of radioactivity remained adsorbed on biological sludge. Consequently, its final disposal deserves special attention. The small amounts of dicofol, biotransformed or not, which remained in the treated effluent could contaminate receiving bodies.

  2. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle- Aged Men

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Emeville; Frank Giton; Arnaud Giusti; Alejandro Oliva; Jean Fiet; Jean-Pierre Thomé; Pascal Blanchet; Luc Multigner

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavail...

  3. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Abete; G. Puzone; Fornasero, S; R Tarasco; B. Vivaldi; C. Biglia; S. Chiarelli; G. Amisano

    2009-01-01

    During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  4. Pharmaceuticals and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of an urban river in Florida, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Sediments from a rural to urban gradient along the Alafia River in Florida, United States were investigated to determine the risk of environmental contamination with legacy (organochlorine pesticides, OCPs) and new contaminants (pharmaceuticals). Materials and methods Bed sediments (0-10 cm)...

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Osei Tutu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14 different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endrin-ketone, alpha-endosulphan, endosulphan-sulphate, gamma-chlordane, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were identified and quantified in the individual breast milk samples using a Gas Chromatograph (GC with an Electron C apture detector. The GC recoveries of spiked samples were between 89 to 97%. P,p’- DDE recorded 100% incidence ratio. Also p,p’-DDT, delta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endosulfan sulfate recorded incidence ratios of 76.79, 95.25, 80.95 and 85.71%, respectively for the breast milk samples. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in the human breast milk samples ranged from 1.839 to 99.05 :μg/kg fats. With the exception of Endosulphan Sulphate whose mean concentration (99.052 :μg/kg was above the Australian Maximum Residue Limit (MRL of 20 :μg/kg for milk, the mean concentrations for all the other organochlorines detected were below their respective limits.

  6. Chloride – a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laturnus, F.; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2008), s. 119-125. ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 36Chloride * Volatile Organochlorines * VOCl Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2008

  7. Regional differences and sources of organochlorine pesticides in soils surrounding chemical industrial parks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, G; Lu, Y. L.; Li, J.; Wang, T. Y.; Han, Jingyi; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were investigated in 105 soil samples collected in vicinity of the chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. OCP concentrations significantly varied in the study area, high HCH and DDT levels were found close to the chemical industrial parks. The intensity of agricultural activity and distance from the potential OCP emitters have important infl...

  8. 10 Year trend of levels of organochlorine pollutants in Antarctic seabirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminants like PCBs and DDE have hardly been used Antarctica. Hence, this is an excellent place to monitor global background levels of these organochlorines. In this project concentrations in penguins and petrels will be compared to 10 years ago, which will show time trends of global background c

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher than 10 years. Sediments were studied in November 2001, April and June 2002 and organisms collected in April and July 2002, from the lacustric zone of Metzitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine possible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. The p,p'-DDD and δ-HCH were detected in the tilapias tissue. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the international limits for freshwater benthic fauna, although lindane, γ-HCH, was near the limit. The fish was above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993). (author)

  10. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  11. Sequential reductive and oxidative conditions used to biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by native bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Correa-Torres, S. N.; Plata, A.

    2016-07-01

    Despite restrictions and bans on the use of many organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s and 1980s, they continue to persist in the environment today. This is the case of Agustin Codazzi, Cesar where the organochlorine pesticides were buried without control in the soil in 1999, after being banned their use. Nowadays is necessary to find the best method, which allows remediation of this soils. Reductive dechlorination is the first and limiting step in the metabolism of many organochlorine pesticides by anaerobic bacteria. In this study the reductive conditions were enhanced by addition of biogas as an auxiliary electron donors.The soil sample was taken from the zone at Agustin Codazzi, Cesar, and their characteristics correspond to a loam soil with low nutrient and slight compaction. The experimental tests were performed by varying the exposure time of a reducer to oxidative environment. Reductive conditions were enhanced by methane from biogas and oxidative environment was generated by air blown to stimulate a metabolic process of the soil native bacteria. Removals between 70 and 78.9% of compounds such as 4,4'-DDT, 4, 4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, Endrin and Trans- Chlordane, detected by gas chromatography analysis, were achieved under reductive/oxidative conditions during 120 days. Furthermore, bacterial strains capable of degrading organochlorine pesticides were selected from the native bacteria, and identified by the purified and identified based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing.

  12. AT-SEA INCINERATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE WASTES ONBOARD THE M/T VULCANUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the incineration of 4100 tonnes of organochlorine wastes by the M/T Vulcanus in an EPA-designated burn area in the Gulf of Mexico under a special permit granted by EPA Region VI. The wastes, containing 63% chlorine, originated from manufacturing processes. Th...

  13. Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, A.; Borrell, A.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    The interpretation of the spatial and temporal patterns of variation in organochlorine concentrations in marine mammal populations is complex because of the lack of wide-scale, long-term surveys. Therefore the results from several surveys must be combined and this causes undesired heterogeneity due

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in transformer repair workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Emmett, E A

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-five present and past transformer repair workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 56 unexposed comparison workers were evaluated in a clinical-epidemiologic study. The groups were similar in most demographic variables. Adipose tissue lipid and serum PCBs concentrations were higher in current exposed workers (geometric means adipose 2.1 ppm, serum 12.2 ppb). Concentrations in comparison (0.6 ppm and 4.6 ppb) and previously exposed (0.83 ppm and 5.9 ppb) workers were lower....

  15. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B. [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  16. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  17. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  18. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  19. Levels and potential sources of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides at Korea background sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang-Zhu; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Su-Yeong; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Min-Jin; Sim, Ki-Tae; Kang, Hak-Gu; Kim, Il-Gyu; Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Hwang, Seung-Ryul

    2013-04-01

    Data are presented for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) measured by high volume air samplers at three background sites (monthly for one site, seasonally for two sites) in South Korea during June 2008 and December 2009, and levels, seasonal variations and potential sources of high levels of OCPs and impact of long-range transport (LRT) were discussed. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of OCPs in air samples (pg m-3) were highest for HCB (80, 15.0-256), HCH (71, 10.8-547), a currently used pesticide, DDT (3.50, ND-56.5), and Chlordane (1.15, ND-10.5). Other chemicals regularly detected included, Heptachlor (0.41, ND-2.59), Drins (0.61, ND-4.36) and Mirex (0.04, ND-0.78). Seasonal variation of OCPs was featured by higher concentrations in summer and lower in winter period. This could be associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization from historical source and recent application of some OCPs (such as dicofol, HCH etc). Ratios of specific OCPs isomers suggest that dominant source of air HCHs in Korea background sites is technical HCH with a little input of lindane in recent time, and dominant source of air DDT is old and used technical DDT with a little bit of dicofol type DDT, and current air chlordane in Korean background sites mainly come from the source of historically used chlordane. The results from this study will provide comparable and scientifically sound data of OCP in background air and will contribute to further long-term POPs monitoring program in East Asia.

  20. Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Morgan, Steven; Kuivila, Kathryn K.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log KOW of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays.

  1. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  2. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans on phagocytic response of Eisenia andrei coelomocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayet Belmeskine; Pauline Brousseau; Sami Haddad; Louise Vandelac; Michel Fournier

    2011-01-01

    The immunotoxicological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) mixtures on Eisenia andrei earthworms have never been studied. In this work we investigated these effects both for in vitro and in vivo exposure, using the viability and the phagocytic activity of coelomocytes as immunological biomarkers and the flow cytometry was used for analysis. The in vitro exposure revealed a cytotoxic effect of PCDD/Fs mixture (C2) containing 50¥10-3 ng/mL of 2, 3, 7, 8-TC...

  3. Organochlorine accumulation by Sentinel Mallards at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Sobiech, S.A.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Farm-raised l2-month-old female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were released at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana. Five mallards were sacrificed at the start of the study and at approximately 10-day intervals through day 100. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in carcasses increased linearly with time of exposure and exceeded 16 mcg/g wet weight by day 100; PCBs in breast muscle exceeded 3.9 mcg/g by day 100. These PCB values are among the highest recorded for wild or sentinel waterfowl. PCB concentrations in breast muscle (26-523 mcg/g lipid weight) were 50-1,000 times greater than human consumption guidelines for edible poultry in Canada (0.5 mcg/g lipid weight) and 9-176 times greater than consumption guidelines for edible poultry in the United States (3.0 mcg/g lipid weight). Additionally, PCB concentrations in carcass and breast muscle exceeded the threshold of the Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory 'do not eat' category (1.9 mcg/g wet weight) by day 20 and day 50, respectively. Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases including BROD (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), and PROD (pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase) were induced over 5-fold compared to reference mallards. BROD, EROD, and PROD were each significantly correlated to total PCBs and to the toxicity of selected PCB congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

  4. Reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunova, Tatyana I., E-mail: gorbunova@ios.uran.ru [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Subbotina, Julia O. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St., 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Saloutin, Viktor I.; Chupakhin, Oleg N. [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum chemical calculations were carried out for PCBs congeners. • Calculated descriptors were used to explain the PCBs reactivity in S{sub N} and S{sub E} substitutions. • Obtained data were used to estimate the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub N} reactions. • Calculated descriptors were insufficient to explain the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions. • New neutralization methods of the large-capacity PCBs were discussed. - Abstract: To explain the chemical reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic (S{sub N}) and electrophilic (S{sub E}) substitutions, quantum chemical calculations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the Density Functional Theory in gas phase. Carbon atomic charges in biphenyl structure were calculated by the Atoms-in-Molecules method. Chemical hardness and global electrophilicity index parameters were determined for congeners. A comparison of calculated descriptors and experimental data for congener reactivity in the S{sub N} and S{sub E} reactions was made. It is shown that interactions in the S{sub N} mechanism are reactions of the hard acid–hard base type, these are the most effective in case of highly chlorinated substrates. To explain the congener reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions, correct descriptors were not established. The obtained results can be used to carry out chemical transformations of the polychlorinated biphenyls in order to prepare them for microbiological destruction or preservation.

  5. Study of tritium labeling of complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for tritium labeling of technical mixture (commercial mark - SOVOL, USSR) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The influence of procedure of labeling by thermally activated tritium on the nativity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied. The method of labeling by thermally activated tritium has some factors, which are able to destroy organic compounds - photodegradation, thermo-degradation and degradation caused by reaction of substitution of organic compounds hydrogen atoms by activated tritium atoms. To develop a method of labeling of every organic compound by thermally activated tritium it is necessary to determine and optimize the conditions of labeling. In our case procedure of labeling is complicated because of technical mixture of PCBs consist from more than 20 isomers, chlorinated with different degree. We studied the dependence of appearance of products of degradation PCBs from duration of labeling procedure. It was found that some part of PCBs and product of its degradation were evaporated under vacuum and were collected on the glass flask cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that correlation between labeled of PCBs and products of degradation did not changed with increasing time of labeling, and radiochemical yield of tritium labeled of PCBs was stable - about 15-20 %. The optimum regime of labeling was selected. It was found that purification of labeled PCBs by TLC on silica gel with hexane allows obtaining tritium-labeled PCBs purified from by-products. Thus, TLC purification seems inexpensive, fast and suitable for purification of tritium-labeled PCBs

  6. Enzyme systems for biodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Munetsuna, Eiji [Toyama Prefectural Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2010-09-15

    The angular dioxygenase, cytochrome P450, lignin peroxidase, and dehalogenase are known as dioxin-metabolizing enzymes. All of these enzymes have metal ions in their active centers, and the enzyme systems except for peroxidase have each distinct electron transport chain. Although the enzymatic properties of the angular dioxygenase, lignin peroxidase, and cytochrome P450 have been studied well, the information about dehalogenase is much less than other enzyme systems due to its instability under the aerobic conditions. However, this enzyme system appears to be quite promising from the viewpoint of practical use for bioremediation, because dehalogenases are capable of degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) with more than four chlorine substituents, whereas the other three enzyme systems prefer low-chlorinated PCDDs. On the other hand, protein engineering of angular dioxygenase, lignin peroxidase, and cytochrome P450 based on their tertiary structures has great potential to generate highly efficient dioxin-metabolizing enzymes. Actually, we successfully generated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-metabolizing enzyme by site-directed mutagenesis of cytochrome P450. We hope that recombinant microorganisms harboring genetically engineered dioxin-metabolizing enzymes will be used for bioremediation of soil contaminated with PCDDs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in the near future. (orig.)

  7. Optimized cleanup method for the determination of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in sediments by high resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yuan; Zhang Haijun [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen Jiping, E-mail: chenjp@dicp.ac.cn [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang Qing; Tian Yuzeng; Qi Peipei; Yu Zhengkun [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-10-10

    Graphical abstract: The sediment sample could be purified by the optimized cleanup method, and satisfying cleanup efficiency was obtained. Highlights: {yields} The elution characters of sPCAs and interfering substances were evaluated on three adsorbents. {yields} An optimized cleanup method was developed for sPCAs with satisfying cleanup efficiency. {yields} The cleanup method combined with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS was applied for sPCAs analysis. {yields} The sPCAs levels range from 53.6 ng g{sup -1} to 289.3 ng g{sup -1} in tested sediment samples. - Abstract: The performances of three adsorbents, i.e. silica gel, neutral and basic alumina, in the separation of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs) from potential interfering substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were evaluated. To increase the cleanup efficiency, a two-step cleanup method using silica gel column and subsequent basic alumina column was developed. All the PCB and organochlorine pesticides could be removed by this cleanup method. The very satisfying cleanup efficiency of sPCAs has been achieved and the recovery in the cleanup method reached 92.7%. The method detection limit (MDL) for sPCAs in sediments was determined to be 14 ng g{sup -1}. Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.3% was obtained for the mass fraction of sPCAs by analyzing four replicates of a spiked sediment sample. High resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was used for sPCAs quantification by monitoring [M-HCl]{center_dot}{sup -} ions. When applied to the sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River, the optimized cleanup method in conjunction with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS allowed for highly selective identifications for sPCAs. The sPCAs levels in sediment samples are reported to range from 53.6 ng g{sup -1} to 289.3 ng g{sup -1}. C{sub 10}- and C{sub 11}-PCAs are the dominant residue in most of investigated sediment

  8. Optimized cleanup method for the determination of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in sediments by high resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The sediment sample could be purified by the optimized cleanup method, and satisfying cleanup efficiency was obtained. Highlights: → The elution characters of sPCAs and interfering substances were evaluated on three adsorbents. → An optimized cleanup method was developed for sPCAs with satisfying cleanup efficiency. → The cleanup method combined with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS was applied for sPCAs analysis. → The sPCAs levels range from 53.6 ng g-1 to 289.3 ng g-1 in tested sediment samples. - Abstract: The performances of three adsorbents, i.e. silica gel, neutral and basic alumina, in the separation of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs) from potential interfering substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were evaluated. To increase the cleanup efficiency, a two-step cleanup method using silica gel column and subsequent basic alumina column was developed. All the PCB and organochlorine pesticides could be removed by this cleanup method. The very satisfying cleanup efficiency of sPCAs has been achieved and the recovery in the cleanup method reached 92.7%. The method detection limit (MDL) for sPCAs in sediments was determined to be 14 ng g-1. Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.3% was obtained for the mass fraction of sPCAs by analyzing four replicates of a spiked sediment sample. High resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was used for sPCAs quantification by monitoring [M-HCl]·- ions. When applied to the sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River, the optimized cleanup method in conjunction with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS allowed for highly selective identifications for sPCAs. The sPCAs levels in sediment samples are reported to range from 53.6 ng g-1 to 289.3 ng g-1. C10- and C11-PCAs are the dominant residue in most of investigated sediment samples.

  9. Fluctuating concentrations of organochlorine pollutants during a breeding season in two antarctic seabirds: Adelie Penguin and Southern Fulmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Franeker, van J.A.; Ruiter-Dijkman, de E.M.

    1998-01-01

    During the reproductive cycle significant fluctuations of concentrations of organochlorine pollutants were detected in blood and uropygial oil from Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and southern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialoides) from Hop Island, Antarctica. In the Adelie penguin, concentrations of

  10. Addendum to study plan: Effects of organochlorine pollutants on black-crowned night herons in Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A revised version of the study designed to determine the effects of organochlorine pollutants on back-crowned night herons nesting in the Pacific Northwest and to...

  11. Organochlorine pesticides contamination in fish and raccoons of Hillside National Wildlife Refuge, Holmes and Yazoo Counties, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted this study because of the distinct possibility that DDTR (DDT and its metabolites) and other organochlorine pesticides...

  12. Organochlorine, Trace Element, and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants Investigation of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, 1985-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Organochlorine, trace element, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants were examined in sediment and biota from the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. The study was...

  13. Organochlorine pesticide contamination in fish and raccoons of the Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge, Holmes County Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted this study because of the possibility that DDTM (DDT and its metabolites) and other organochlorine pesticides were...

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  15. Relationship of Thyroid Hormone Levels to Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Lead, p,p′- DDE, and Other Toxicants in Akwesasne Mohawk Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Denham, Melinda; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is well documented that acute exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p′-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), can affect human health including thyroid function. Chronic exposure to multiple toxicants is common but difficult to analyze, and most prior studies have focused on adults or newborns, creating a gap in our understanding of multitoxicant effects among adolescents. Objective ...

  16. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  17. Mathematical modeling of human dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamov, J.; Vojinovic-Miloradov, M.; Jovetic, S.; Buzarov, D. [Univ. of Novi Sad, Chemistry Dept. (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-09-15

    In this paper a mathematical model for human dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls is postulated, based on the calculation of human exposure factors to PCBs via different members of the terrestrial food chain. On the basis of postulated model and experimental values for the atmospheric and soil concentration of PCBs it is possible to calculate the average daily exposure of a human organism to these ubiquitous environmental toxicants, which represent a constant threat to human health due to various chronic, developmental and genetic effects. Proposed model is the contribution to the development of exposure analysis, which is a part of a complex process of risk assessment, which gains its importance in the current situation of rapid development of industry and technology and the existence of innumerable anthropogenic hazardous chemicals.

  18. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  19. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (ku) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by Kow, and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  20. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2015-01-01

    Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries. PMID:25575291