WorldWideScience

Sample records for organochlorines including polychlorinated

  1. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  2. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  3. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  6. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, def...

  7. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  8. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  10. Specific accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Japanese common squid as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, D.; Inoue, S.; Ikeda, K.; Tanaka, H.; Yamada, H.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-01-01

    Japanese common squid is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring organochlorines pollution in waters around Japan. - Organochlorines (OCs) representing Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDTs (DDT and its metabolites), CHLs (chlordane compounds), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in the liver of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) collected from the waters around Japan (Japan Sea and western North Pacific Ocean). Among OCs concentrations, PCBs (upto 5600 ng/g lipid wt.) were the highest, and those of other OCs were in the order of DDT> CHLs > HCHs > HCB. Studies on growth trend and seasonal variation of OCs in this species suggest a rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected, regardless of body-length and time of collection. These results indicate that Japanese common squid is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring OCs pollution in waters around Japan. With regard to the geographical distribution of OCs in this species collected from waters around Japan, OCs concentrations in specimens from Japan Sea were higher than those from the Pacific Ocean. This result might reflect some existing of local pollution sources of OCs around Japan Sea, and slower water exchange between Japan Sea and open ocean

  11. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in herring from the southern Baltic, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J

    1986-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (BHC, HCH), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT (sigma DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 187 herring (Clupea harengus) netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The mean levels found for herring muscle tissue related to wet weight (microgram/kg) were: 14 HCB, 18 alpha-BHC, 23 beta-BHC, 14 gamma-BHC, delta-BHC remained undetected, 56 sigma BHC, 115 p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT remained undetected, 84 p,p'-DDD, 51 p,p'-DDT, 250 sigma DDT and 530 PCB. The levels of organochlorine pesticides determined in wet muscles or extractable lipids of herring are nearly 2-3 times as high as those noted in fish sampled in the same area in two years before, while for PCBs the wet weight levels were comparable, and when based on a lipid weight are somewhat higher. The results are compared with levels found in herring collected in different regions of the Baltic Sea during 1965-1983, and reported previously by other authors.

  13. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaward, Foday M; Zhang, Gan; Nam, Jae Jak; Sweetman, Andrew J; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Kobara, Yuso; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-11-15

    Asia is of global importance economically, yet data on ambient persistent organic pollutant levels are still sparse for the region, despite international efforts under the Stockholm Convention to identify and reduce emissions. A large-scale passive air sampling survey was therefore conducted in Asia, specifically in China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. Polyurethane foam disks were deployed simultaneously at 77 sites, between Sept 21 and Nov 16, 2004, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordane), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The meteorological conditions prevailing in the region at this time facilitated the assessment of local/regional differences in atmospheric emissions, because large-scale advection effects due to monsoons or dust storms did not occur. Air concentrations estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day ranged as follows (pg m(-3)): PCBs, 5-340; HCB, 10-460; DDTs, 0.4-1800; chlordanes, 1-660; PBDEs, < 0.13-340. South Korea and Singapore generally had regionally low concentrations. Elevated concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB occurred at sites in China, higher than reported in a similar recent sampling campaign in Europe. Chlordane was highest in samples from Japan (which also had elevated levels of PCBs and DDTs) and was also elevated in some Chinese locations. PBDE levels were generally low in the region.

  14. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs, and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively. The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBsusing World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1. However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1. The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Gardner, Susan C; Urbán R, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The present study reports unique data on concentrations of several classes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in blubber biopsies from healthy living fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California, Mexico, one of the most isolated and unstudied population in the world. OC levels in this population were generally lower than levels reported in fin whales from other regions. The rank order of OCs were SigmaDDTs (range from 300 to 2400 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaPCBs (range from 40 to 290 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaHCHs (range from or = SigmaCHLORs (from pesticide measured was the DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The PCBs 138, 153, and 180 were the most abundant PCBs congeners found in the fin whales samples. Males had significant higher concentrations of SigmaOC, SigmaDDTs and SigmaPCBs than females (P < 0.05), although the p,p'-DDE/SigmaDDTs ratios were similar between the sexes. Although the OC concentrations found in this population were generally below the levels that would be expected to cause deleterious health effects, the maximum values observed (2700 ng g(-1) lw) in some animals were higher than those associated with reproductive effects in whales. Given the small population size and highly isolated characteristics of Gulf of California fin whales, health effects in individuals could readily translate into population-level effects. Future research on this topic will be necessary to better understand the role that these compounds may have on the health of this population.

  16. Determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in pet cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Oguzhan; Arslan, Handan Hilal; Esin, Cagatay; Das, Yavuz Kursad; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21). The concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.12 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw) to 7.65 ng g -1 lw in cats and from 1.25 ng g -1 lw to 6.79 ng g -1 lw in dogs. In addition, mean PCB levels were 0.58-5.66 and 0.52-6.62 ng g -1 lw in cats and dogs, respectively. β-HCH, γ-HCH and PCB-138 levels were significantly higher in dogs ( p < 0.05). As far as could be determined, OCPs and PCBs were detected in the plasma samples of domestic cats and dogs in Turkey for the first time. Their concentrations were similar to those reported in earlier studies abroad. However, in contrast to other research, the levels of some OCPs were higher in dogs than in cats. It is concluded that, because of their high prevalence and potential health effects in animals and humans, OCP and PCB levels should be monitored systematically in domestic cats and dogs.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a one-off global survey of bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Strand, Jakob; Christensen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    During the Danish Galathea 3 expedition, bivalve samples were collected at the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Ghana, South Africa, Australia, Solomon Islands, New Zealand, Chile, US Virgin Islands, Boston, Newfoundland and Shetland Islands and analysed for organochlorines and PAHs. Concentration...... in terms of PCB and PAH levels, while other Greenland samples came closest to representing PAH background levels. Several locations had undetectable organochlorine levels, including Hobart and Chile, which had the lowest Sigma PAH concentrations (group the stations...

  18. Low dose organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls predict obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among people free of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hee Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs are important in the development of conditions predisposing to diabetes as well as of type 2 diabetes itself. We recently reported that low dose POPs predicted incident type 2 diabetes in a nested case-control study. The current study examined if low dose POPs predicted future adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among controls without diabetes in that study.The 90 controls were diabetes-free during 20 years follow-up. They were a stratified random sample, enriched with overweight and obese persons. POPs measured in 1987-88 (year 2 sera included 8 organochlorine (OC pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB. Body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment value for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were study outcomes at 2005-06 (year 20. The evolution of study outcomes during 18 years by categories of serum concentrations of POPs at year 2 was evaluated by adjusting for the baseline values of outcomes plus potential confounders. Parallel to prediction of type 2 diabetes, many statistically significant associations of POPs with dysmetabolic conditions appeared at low dose, forming inverted U-shaped dose-response relations. Among OC pesticides, p,p'-DDE most consistently predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 after adjusting for baseline values. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene also significantly predicted higher triglycerides. Persistent PCBs with ≥7 chlorides predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 with similar dose-response curves.Simultaneous exposure to various POPs in the general population may contribute to development of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, common precursors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases

  19. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100% concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD. Mean (standard deviation (SD lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21, 7.16 (1.71, 7.30 (1.74 and 28.15 (6.03 ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78 and 61.60 (70.76 ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in various tissues of waterbirds in Nalabana bird sanctuary, Chilika Lake, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, V

    2012-07-01

    In order to understand whether organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are responsible for the mortality of waterbirds in Nalaban bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake, the current investigation was carried out in tissues of 11 individuals comprising 7 species of birds. One or more residues were detected in all the tissues of birds analysed. Concentration of ∑HCH, ∑DDT, and ∑PCBs were ranged from below detectable level (BDL)-811 ng/g, BDL-1,987 ng/g and BDL-1,027 ng/g respectively. PCBs levels were less than the food and drug administration's (FDA) action limits. Although varying levels of residues were detected among tissues, they do not appear to be responsible for the mass mortality of waterfowl. However, the need for additional research is heightened when considering that some of the birds are classified as a globally protected species by the international bodies.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls pattern analysis: Potential nondestructive biomarker in vertebrates for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, N.W. van den; Ruiter-Dijkman, E.M. De; Broekhuizen, S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2000-03-01

    Biomarkers are valuable instruments to assess the risks from exposure of organisms to organochlorines. In general, however, these biomarkers are either destructive to the animal of interest or extremely difficult to obtain otherwise. In this paper, the authors present a nondestructive biomarker for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines. This marker is based on a pattern analysis of metabolizable and nonmetabolizable polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, which occur in several kinds of tissues (and even blood) that can be obtained without serious effects on the organism involved. The fraction of metabolizable PCB congeners is negatively correlated with exposure to PCBs, which are known to induce specific P450 isoenzymes. This relation can be modeled by a logistic curve, which can be used to define critical levels of exposure. In addition, this method creates an opportunity to analyze biomarker responses in archived tissues stored at standard freezing temperatures ({minus}20 C), at which responses to established biomarkers deteriorate. Furthermore, this method facilitates attribution of the enzyme induction to certain classes of compounds.

  2. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in muck soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fiona [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Bidleman, Terry F., E-mail: terry.bidleman@ec.gc.c [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was used as a non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muck soil. An optimized extraction method was developed which involved using a HPCD to soil mass ratio of 5.8 with a single extraction period of 20 h. An aging experiment was performed by spiking a muck soil with {sup 13}C-labeled OCs and non-labeled PCBs. The soil was extracted with the optimized HPCD method and Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane over 550 d periodically. The HPCD extractability of the spiked OCs was greater than of the native OCs. A decreased in HPCD extractability was observed for the spiked OCs after 550 d of aging and their extractability approached those of the natives. The partition coefficient between HPCD and soil (log K{sub CD-Soil}) was negatively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (log K{sub OW}) with r{sup 2} = 0.67 and p < 0.05. - The effect of aging on the extractability of organochlorine chemicals in muck soil was investigated using hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as a mild extractant.

  3. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian; Sun Quanhui; Song Jie; Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Hale, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. ΣTEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with ΣPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Quanhui [Beijing Raptor Rescue Center, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Beijing 100875 (China); Song Jie [Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hale, Robert C., E-mail: hale@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. SIGMATEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with SIGMAPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  6. Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl, trace element and metal residues in bird eggs from Salton Sea, California, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, T.W.; Crayon, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Salton Sea is a highly eutrophic, hypersaline terminal lake that receives inflows primarily from agricultural drainages in the Imperial and Coachella valleys. Impending reductions in water inflow at Salton Sea may concentrate existing contaminants which have been a concern for many years, and result in higher exposure to birds. Thus, waterbird eggs were collected and analyzed in 2004 and compared with residue concentrations from earlier years; these data provide a base for future comparisons. Eggs from four waterbird species (black-crowned night-heron [Nycticorax nycticorax], great egret [Ardea alba], black-necked stilt [Himantopus mexicanus], and American avocet [Recurvirostra Americana]) were collected. Eggs were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, and trace elements, with current results compared to those reported for eggs collected from the same species and others during 1985a??1993. The two contaminants of primary concern were p,pa??-DDE (DDE) and selenium. DDE concentrations in night-heron and great egret eggs collected from the northwest corner of Salton Sea (Whitewater River delta) decreased 91 and 95%, respectively, by 2004, with a concomitant increase in eggshell thickness for both species. Decreases in bird egg DDE levels paralleled those in tissues of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus ?? O. urolepis), an important prey species for herons and egrets. Despite most nests of night-herons and great egrets failing in 2004 due to predation, predicted reproductive effects based on DDE concentrations in eggs were low or negligible for these species. The 2004 DDE findings were in dramatic contrast to those in the past decade, and included an 81% decrease in black-necked stilt eggs, although concentrations were lower historically than those reported in night-herons and egrets. Selenium concentrations in black-necked stilt eggs from the southeast corner of Salton Sea (Davis Road) were similar in 1993 and 2004, with 4

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  8. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically 100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  9. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A.; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. - Highlights: • The monitoring system creation of the Moscow River is necessary. • The wastewater plant is the source of the river contamination with triclosan. • The Moscow River is contaminated with the low chlorinated biphenyls. • There is a background contamination of the Moscow River with phthalates. - The organic pollutants contamination levels of the Moscow River were investigated.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Niladri; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; O'Brien, Mike

    2007-01-01

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 ± 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 ± 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 ± 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects

  11. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Concentrations, distributions, and cancer risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Li; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Xiulan; Niu, Shan; Li, Lingling; Wu, Zhongxiang; Huang, Yeru

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has been quickly industrialized and urbanized. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in the YRD in 2010–2011 to investigate their spatiotemporal distributions and estimate the risk of cancer from their inhalation. Annual concentrations were 151, 168, 18.8, 110, 17.9, and 35.0 pg m −3 for HCB, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, mirex, and PCBs, respectively. The highest OCP and PCB concentrations were generally detected in the autumn and winter. The average concentrations of OCPs and PCBs for the different site groups followed the order urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. The lifetime excess cancer risks from the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs were −6 . The predicted cancer cases per lifetime associated with the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs are 12, 7, and 4 per ten thousand people for urban, urban–rural transition, and rural areas, respectively. Highlights: •Organochlorine pollutants were measured in the air in the Yangtze River Delta area. •Air PCB concentration declined in recent years comparing with previous results. •HCB and DDEs predominated, with the highest values in winter and autumn, respectively. •OCPs and PCBs followed the order: urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. -- A detailed study of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air across the Yangtze River Delta area using passive air samplers

  12. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE: 0.11–2163 ng g − 1 dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT: 0.36–345 ng g − 1 dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02–34 ng g − 1 dry wt.), ∑ PCBs (0.03–16 ng g − 1 dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01–0.13 ng g − 1 dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p′-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑ PCBs and ∑ DDTs were significantly different among species (both p < 0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p < 0.03). Only ∑ PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p < 0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) differed significantly (all p < 0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p = 0.22 for δ 13 C; p = 0.50 for δ 15 N). Concentrations of ∑ PCBs, ∑ DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p = 0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p < 0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ 13 C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in

  13. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Eulaers, Igor [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jaspers, Veerle L.B., E-mail: veerle.jaspers@ntnu.no [Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); WWF-Pakistan, Ferozpur Road, PO Box 5180, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Frantz, Adrien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d' Ecologie et des Sciences de l' Environnement de Paris, F-75005 Paris (France); Ambus, Per Lennart [Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 København K (Denmark); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE: 0.11–2163 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT: 0.36–345 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02–34 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.), ∑ PCBs (0.03–16 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01–0.13 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p′-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑ PCBs and ∑ DDTs were significantly different among species (both p < 0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p < 0.03). Only ∑ PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p < 0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) differed significantly (all p < 0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p = 0.22 for δ{sup 13}C; p = 0.50 for δ{sup 15}N). Concentrations of ∑ PCBs, ∑ DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p = 0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p < 0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ{sup 13}C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of

  14. Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Manh Hoai; Nguyen Thuy Ngoc; Nguyen Hung Minh; Pham Hung Viet; Berg, Michael; Alder, Alfredo C.; Giger, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence, temporal trend, sources and toxicity of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were investigated in sediment samples from the sewer system of Hanoi City, including the rivers Nhue, To Lich, Lu, Set, Kim Nguu and the Yen So Lake. In general, the concentrations of the pollutants followed the order DDTs > PCBs > HCHs (β-HCH) > HCB. However, the pollution pattern was different for the DDTs and PCBs when the sampling locations were individually evaluated. The concentrations of the DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, and HCB ranged from 4.4 to 1100, 1.3 to 384, <0.2 to 36 and <0.2 to 22 ng/g d.w., respectively. These levels are higher than at any other location in Vietnam. Compared to measurements from 1997, the DDTs, PCBs, β-HCH and HCB levels show an increasing trend with DDT/DDE ratios, indicating very recent inputs into the environment although these persistent compounds are banned in Vietnam since 1995. - Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were studied in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi.

  15. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Ashok D.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Dockum, Bruce W.; Brill, Richard W.; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6 years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  18. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. First worldwide UNEP interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with data on polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized, with a participation of 103 laboratories from Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Australia, of which the majority submitted data on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and

  20. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China: Assessment of mass loading, input source and environmental fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yufeng; Wang Jizhong; Ni Honggang; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale sampling program was conducted to simultaneously collect water samples at the eight major riverine runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China to assess the importance of riverine runoff in transporting anthropogenic pollutants from terrestrial sources to the coastal ocean. The concentrations of Σ 21 OCPs (sum of 21 OCP components) and Σ 20 PCBs (sum of 20 PCB congeners) were 2.57-41.2 and 0.12-1.47 ng/L, respectively. Compositional distributions of DDTs suggested the possibility of new input sources in the study area, but contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. The annual inputs of Σ 21 OCPs and Σ 20 PCBs were 3090 and 215 kg, with those of total HCHs and DDTs being 1110 and 1020 kg, respectively. A mass balance consideration indicated that riverine runoff is the major mode carrying OCPs from the PRD to the coastal ocean, and the majority of OCPs is further dissipated to open seas. - Mass loadings, input sources and environmental fate of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China are assessed

  2. Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dawei; Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Dunstan, Jody; Hagberg, Jessika; Wang, Thanh; Ruzzin, Jerome; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; van Bavel, Bert

    2016-07-01

    A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r(2))>0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4pg/μL) and CS 3 (4pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence and air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls at a CAWNET background site in central China: Implications for influencing factors and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lingxi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Zuwu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Gan; Lyu, Xiaopu; Cheng, Hairong

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m 3 in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil. A strong positive temperature dependence and average fugacity fraction value > 0.5 were observed for p,p'-DDT, suggesting that volatilization of residual DDT in the soil was the main influencing factor on atmospheric p,p'-DDT. Highly average fugacity fractions (>0.7) of trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC) and high TC/CC ratios both in the soil and atmosphere suggested fresh inputs. Higher gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were observed in winter and negative temperature dependence was directly attributed to the surrounding ongoing source (e.g. fuel consuming activities), especially in winter. Overall, most targeted OCPs and PCBs were influenced by long-range transport, and fugacity fraction values indicated highly volatile compounds (e.g. α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and lower chlorinated PCBs) were volatilized and low volatility compounds (e.g. p,p'-DDE and higher chlorinated PCBs) were deposited at the air-soil interface. Knowing the source and sink of OCPs and PCBs can help to control their pollution in this area and provide a reference for other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in young-of-the-year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dockum, Bruce W; Cleary, Thomas; Farrington, Cameron; Wieczorek, Daniel

    2013-07-15

    Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a PCB Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters. PCB concentrations in bluefish varied between different locations, and also among fish from a given location. A generally decreasing gradient in PCB concentrations was evident as the bluefish were collected away from the Superfund Site. The average sum of PCB concentrations were highest for bluefish collected in the Upper Harbor between Interstate-195 Bridge and Coggeshall Street Bridge (Upper Harbor), followed by bluefish in Lower Harbor from north of Popes Island Bridge (Lower Harbor), and bluefish from Outer Harbor south of Hurricane Barrier (Outer Harbor). The levels of PCBs in bluefish from Clarks Cove and PCBs in bluefish from Buzzards Bay were similar and lowest among all bluefish specimens analyzed in the present study. Pesticide concentrations were about one order of magnitude or lower than the PCB concentrations, and the gradient of pesticide concentrations generally followed the gradient of PCB concentrations. Some of the commonly detected pesticides in the order of decreasing concentrations included DDTs and metabolites, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan sulfate, and α-chlordane. Distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the tissues of YOY bluefish from Clarks Cove. PCBs and lipids in the brain samples of YOY bluefish were generally numerically greater than PCBs in the liver samples, but these differences were not statistically significant. PCBs and lipids in hypaxial muscle samples were numerically greater than PCBs in epaxial muscle samples, although these two groups of tissues were not statistically different. Despite the higher susceptibility of lighter PCB homologs to geophysical and biogeochemical weathering processes, the relative dominance of lighter homologs

  6. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  7. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sourthern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H.; Kannan, K.; Jing, L.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT), HCHs (α-, β-, γ-isomers), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA, during 1992–96. The contamination pattern of organochlorines in sea otters from several locations was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > > CHLs > HCHs > > HCB, whereas those from Monterey Harbor contained greater concentrations of PCBs than of DDTs. Hepatic concentrations of PCBs and DDTs were in the ranges of 58–8700 and 280–5900 ng/g, wet weight, respectively, which varied depending on the geographic location. Sea otters collected from Monterey Harbor contained the greatest concentrations of PCBs and DDTs. In general, accumulation of DDTs, CHLs and PCBs was greater in kidney than in liver, whereas that of HCHs was similar in both the tissues. The gender difference in organochlorine concentrations was less than those reported in cetaceans. The composition of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs compounds in sea otter tissues indicated no recent inputs of these compounds in coastal California. Sea otters that died from infectious diseases, neoplasia and emaciation contained higher concentrations of DDTs than those that died from trauma.

  8. Application of dispersive Liquid-Liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine, and pyrethroid pesticides in aqueous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Mei; Li, Man-Liang; Cheng, Jing; Matsadiq, Guzalnur; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Miao

    2012-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) technique was successfully applied for simultaneous assay of eight polychlorinated biphenyls, two organochlorine, and four pyrethroid pesticides multi-residue in aqueous samples by using GC-electron capture detection. The effects of various parameters such as kind of extractant and dispersant and volume of them, extraction time, effect of salt addition, and pH were optimized. As a result, 5.0 μL 1-dodecanol was chosen as extraction solvent, 600 μL methanol were used as dispersive solvent without salt addition, pH was adjusted to 7. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were ranged from 1.4 to 8.3 ng L -1 . Satisfactory linear range was observed from 5.0 to 2000 ng L -1 with correlation coefficient better than 0.9909. Good precisions were also acquired with RSD better than 13.6% for all target analytes. The enrichment factors of the method were ranged from 786 to 1427. The method can be successfully applied to simultaneous separation and determination of three class residues in real water samples and good recoveries were obtained ranging from 76 to 130, 73 to 129, and 78 to 130% for tap water, lake water, and industrial waste water, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere.

  10. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas of Nepal: spatial variation, sources, temporal trends, and long-range transport potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Balram; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Nath Khanal, Sanjay; Ren, Jiao; Wang, Chuanfei; Gao, Shaopeng; Yao, Tandong

    2018-02-01

    The study of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-latitude tropical and subtropical urban cities is necessary to assess their local and global impacts on ecosystems and human health. Despite studies on levels of POPs in water, soils, and sediments, analysis of the distribution patterns, seasonality, and sources of POPs in urban regions of Nepal remain limited. Polyurethane foam (PUF)-based passive air samplers were deployed in three major cities in Nepal: Kathmandu (the capital city), Pokhara, and Hetauda (agricultural cities). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were the dominant organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere at all sites. The average concentrations of POPs were ∑ DDTs, 8.7-1.0 × 103 pg m-3; ∑ HCHs, 5.3-3.3 × 103 pg m-3; HCB, 5.8-3.4 × 102 pg m-3; ∑ endosulfan, BDL-51 pg m-3; and ∑ 6PCBs, 1.4-47 pg m-3. Isomer and metabolite ratio analyses suggested that the concentrations present were from both new and historical applications of the POPs. Vegetable production sites and their market places appeared to be the major DDT and HCH source areas. Higher atmospheric concentrations of DDT and HCH occurred during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, and winter, respectively, closely associated with their local application for soil preparation and vegetable spraying. The estimated travel distances of the POPs (HCB, α-HCH, γ-HCH, and p, p'-DDT) under the Nepalese tropical climate were all above 1000 km, suggesting that high precipitation levels in the tropical climate were not enough to scavenge the POPs and that Nepal could be an important source region for POPs. Due to their close proximity and cold trapping (driven by low temperatures), the high Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are likely the key receptors of POPs emitted in Nepal. These results add to the information available on POPs from tropical developing countries.

  11. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas of Nepal: spatial variation, sources, temporal trends, and long-range transport potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pokhrel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in low-latitude tropical and subtropical urban cities is necessary to assess their local and global impacts on ecosystems and human health. Despite studies on levels of POPs in water, soils, and sediments, analysis of the distribution patterns, seasonality, and sources of POPs in urban regions of Nepal remain limited. Polyurethane foam (PUF-based passive air samplers were deployed in three major cities in Nepal: Kathmandu (the capital city, Pokhara, and Hetauda (agricultural cities. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH were the dominant organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere at all sites. The average concentrations of POPs were  ∑ DDTs, 8.7–1.0  ×  103 pg m−3;  ∑ HCHs, 5.3–3.3  ×  103 pg m−3; HCB, 5.8–3.4  ×  102 pg m−3;  ∑ endosulfan, BDL–51 pg m−3; and  ∑ 6PCBs, 1.4–47 pg m−3. Isomer and metabolite ratio analyses suggested that the concentrations present were from both new and historical applications of the POPs. Vegetable production sites and their market places appeared to be the major DDT and HCH source areas. Higher atmospheric concentrations of DDT and HCH occurred during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, and winter, respectively, closely associated with their local application for soil preparation and vegetable spraying. The estimated travel distances of the POPs (HCB, α-HCH, γ-HCH, and p, p′-DDT under the Nepalese tropical climate were all above 1000 km, suggesting that high precipitation levels in the tropical climate were not enough to scavenge the POPs and that Nepal could be an important source region for POPs. Due to their close proximity and cold trapping (driven by low temperatures, the high Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are likely the key receptors of POPs emitted in Nepal. These results add to the information available on POPs from

  12. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.T.; Traag, W.A.; Murk, A.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US

  13. Organochlorine pollutants in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups and their impact on plasma thyroid hormone and vitamin A concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Sørmo, Eugen Gravningen

    2005-01-01

    Studies on laboratory animals suggest that developing and newborn mammals are more vulnerable than the adults with respect to the harmful effects of organochlorine (OC) pollutants such polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and OC pesticides (Brouwer et al. 1995; 1998a; Colborn 2004). These effects include neurobiological and neurochemical effects, reproductive effects, reduced brain and circulatory thyroid hormone levels, impaired immune functions and vitamin A homeostasis (Brouwer et al. 1995; Co...

  14. Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sethuraman, Alagappan; Titenko, Alexei M.; Qui, Vo; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in migratory birds from Asia did not necessarily reflect only the pollution in the sampling area. - Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows: Japan-PCBs Philippines-PCBs and CHLs, India-HCHs and DDTs, Vietnam-DDTs, and Lake Baikal-PCBs and DDTs. The migratory birds from Philippines and Vietnam retained mostly the highest concentrations of DDTs among the organochlorines analyzed, indicating the presence of stopover and breeding grounds of those birds in China and Russia. On the other hand, migratory birds from India and Lake Baikal showed different patterns of organochlorine residues, reflecting that each species has inherent migratory routes and thus has exposure to different contaminants. Species which have breeding grounds around the Red Sea and Persian Gulf showed high levels of PCBs, indicating the presence of areas heavily polluted by PCBs in the Middle East

  15. The first countrywide monitoring of selected POPs: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the atmosphere of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Ugranli-Cicek, Tugba; Sofuoglu, Sait C.; Celik, Halil; Gungormus, Elif; Gedik, Kadir; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Okten, Hatice Eser; Birgul, Askın; Alegria, Henry; Jones, Kevin C.

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric levels of 43 PCBs, 22 OCPs, and 14 PBDEs were determined in 16 cities at urban and rural sites by passive sampling to generate the first large-scale nationwide dataset of POP residues in Turkey's atmosphere. Sampling campaign was performed from May 2014 to April 2015 with three-month sampling periods at locations on east-west and north-south transects through the country to investigate seasonal and spatial variations, including long range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Factor analysis was conducted to infer on the potential sources. Overall average Σ43PCBs concentration was 108 ± 132 pg/m3. PCB-118 (26.3 ± 44.6 pg/m3) was the top congener, and penta-CBs had the highest contribution with 54.3%. ΣDDTs had the highest annual mean concentration with 134 ± 296 pg/m3 among the OCP groups among which the highest concentration compound was p'p-DDE (97.6 ± 236 pg/m3). Overall average concentration of Σ14PBDEs was 191 ± 329 pg/m3 with the highest contribution from BDE-190 (42%). Comparison of OCPs and PCBs concentrations detected at temperatures which were above and below annual average temperature indicated higher concentrations in the warmer periods, hence significance of secondary emissions for several OCPs and Σ43PCBs, as well as inference as LRAT from secondary emissions. The first nationwide POPs database constructed in this study, point to current use, local secondary emissions, and LRAT for different individual compounds, and indicate the need for regular monitoring.

  16. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -14 (Shimadzu) equipped with ECD (Electron Captured Detector) mode and ... streams that carry pollutants generated by agro-industrial units located on the shores of these ecosystems. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... compartments of the environment (soil, water, air.) (Wu et al., 1999, Jiang ... toxicity and bioaccumulation through the food chain and their long-range ... they are used for fisheries, aquaculture, touristic and transport activities.

  18. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  19. Is Bone Mineral Composition Disrupted by Organochlorines in East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.; Dietz, R.; Born, E. W.

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs.......04) and SigmaCHL (p polar...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  20. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s......, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this....

  1. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  3. Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: Levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 wereanalysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers andh...

  4. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  5. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Dao, Q.T.; Leeuwen, van P.W.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has

  6. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  8. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  9. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  10. Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Begona; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Merino, Ruben; Gomez, Gema; Rivera, Laura; Jose Gonzalez, Maria; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p'-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, with 21 pg/g for house sparrows, and 7.7 pg/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in house sparrow and common ground doves were 58 and 254 pg/g, respectively, and are within the highest concentrations reported in species that are in the low levels of food webs. The major differences in organochlorine levels between species were found for ortho-PCBs and DDTs. ortho-PCB levels were higher in the seedeater species, whereas DDT levels were higher in the omnivorous species. Heavy metal levels were far below those associated with negative effects. - Capsule: The first data on contaminants in birds from Baja California is given

  11. Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Begona [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: bjimenez@iqog.csic.es; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Mar Bermejo 195, Apdo. Postal 128, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Merino, Ruben [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Gema [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rivera, Laura [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Mar Bermejo 195, Apdo. Postal 128, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Jose Gonzalez, Maria [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Abad, Esteban [Department of Ecotechnologies, Research and Development Center, CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Rivera, Josep [Department of Ecotechnologies, Research and Development Center, CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p'-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, with 21 pg/g for house sparrows, and 7.7 pg/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in house sparrow and common ground doves were 58 and 254 pg/g, respectively, and are within the highest concentrations reported in species that are in the low levels of food webs. The major differences in organochlorine levels between species were found for ortho-PCBs and DDTs. ortho-PCB levels were higher in the seedeater species, whereas DDT levels were higher in the omnivorous species. Heavy metal levels were far below those associated with negative effects. - Capsule: The first data on contaminants in birds from Baja California is given.

  12. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.L.H.; Xu, Y.; Lam, J.C.W.; Connell, D.W.; Lam, M.H.W.; Nicholson, S.; Richardson, B.J.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. - Fish tainted with dioxin-like PCBs might pose a risk to Hong Kong dolphins

  13. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.L.H. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, J.C.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Connell, D.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Public Health, Griffith University, Logan Campus, University Drive, Meadowbrook, QLD 4131 (Australia); Lam, M.H.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nicholson, S. [Meinhardt Mouchel Limited, 12/F, MLC Tower, 248 Queen' s Road East, Wanchai, Hong Kong (China); Richardson, B.J. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-11-15

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. - Fish tainted with dioxin-like PCBs might pose a risk to Hong Kong dolphins.

  14. Health risk assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Miyake, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Lau, Ridge K.F.; Chen Kun; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, M.K.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in common seafood in two Chinese coastal cities (Guangzhou and Zhoushan), and assessed the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated seafood. Twenty-six pooled samples, belonging to five food categories (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods), were purchased from local markets in Guangzhou and Zhoushan in 2003 and 2004. These samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- and mono-ortho-PCBs (coplanar PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). The concentrations of total PCBs and coplanar PCBs in fish samples were higher in Guangzhou than in Zhoushan, while the levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs were comparable between the two cities. The total daily intake values of dioxin-like compounds were 1.05 and 0.86 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, respectively. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk in the two cities were all less than unity. - Health risk assessment of organochlorine compounds associated with seafood consumption reveals low health risks for two coastal populations in China

  15. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høyer, Annette P; Jørgensen, Torben; Rank, Fritz; Grandjean, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78). The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN) tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01). Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7), but no dose-response relation was apparent. The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified

  16. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. ΣPCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. - Organochlorine pollutants in fish tissues tend to magnify up the food chain

  17. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, Erich H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  18. A new threat to public health: organochlorines and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R H

    1992-01-01

    Ambient levels of persistent toxic chemicals, chemicals that persist for decades in the environment, have reached levels high enough to affect the health of children. The organochlorines (PCBs, DDT and the dioxin family) accumulate in human adipose tissue. Pregnant women pass the contamination to their fetuses. The developing nervous system is the most vulnerable. Neurobehavioral deficits, including short-term memory loss, are detected in children born to mothers at the high end of the distribution curve of organochlorines. Humans are not alone in their susceptibility to these subtle effects. Wildlife exposed to the same spectrum of organochlorines as humans suffer a variety of behavioral changes. Rats and Rhesus monkeys fed diets containing the organochlorines under laboratory conditions exhibit behavioral changes that persist into adulthood. For humans, food provides 80 percent of organochlorine contamination. Meat, fish, dairy and commercial fruit are the main sources. A vegetarian diet including unsprayed fruit minimizes contamination. The ultimate solution to this public health problem is elimination of the organochlorines from the environment.

  19. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Tyler Pittman; William W. Bowerman; Leland H. Grim; Teryl G. Grubb; William C. Bridges; Michael R. Wierda

    2015-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs,...

  20. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in Irish farmed salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruemping, R.; Hamm, S.; Stegemann, D.; Maulshagen, A. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    A recent survey published by Hites in the journal Science compared the level of organochlorine contaminants including PCBs and dioxins in farmed versus wild salmon collected from around the world. Most organochlorine substances analysed in the study show a significantly higher concentration level in farmed than in wild salmon. While dioxin and PCB levels of wild fish mainly reflect the contamination level of the environment in which the fish is grown, the dioxin and PCB concentration in farmed fish may mainly be attributed to the fish feed used. In January 2004, the Irish Sea Fisheries Board (BIM) conducted the present study on the concentration of Polychlorinated Dibenzo(p)dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike PCBs (WHO-PCBs) in farmed salmon from two locations in Ireland. The present study should examine whether the PCDD/F and WHO-PCB levels of Irish farmed salmon correlate to the dioxin data for farmed Atlantic salmon from other countries in Northern Europe (e.g. Scotland, Faroe Islands and Norway) presented in the study by Hites. In the Hites survey, raw salmon filets with skin on were tested. Since PCBs, dioxins and other organic pollutants are mainly bound to the fish fat, a reduction of fat content by removal of the skin was supposed to lower the amount of organic contaminants. Thus, the effect of skin removal on the dioxin and PCB levels was also examined in the present study. In addition, the influence of cooking the fish meat was investigated.

  2. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation - 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable - DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during the

  3. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel’nikova, T V; Polyakova, L P; Oudalova, A A

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation – 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable – DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during

  4. Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E E; Ohlendorf, H M; Cromartie, E

    1980-12-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  5. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  6. Seasonal variations and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds in a high-altitude city: Evidence from four-year observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Jiujiang; Wang, Hailong; Yuan, Xiaohua; He, Yuanqing; Qian, Yun; Yao, Tandong

    2018-02-01

    Lijiang is a high-altitude city located on the eastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau, with complex seasonal atmospheric circulations (i.e. westerly wind, Indian Monsoon, and East Asia Monsoon). Very few previous studies have focused on seasonal variations and sources of organic pollutants in Lijiang. In this study, a four-year air campaign from June 2009 to July 2013 was conducted to investigate the temporal trends and the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds [including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)]. The atmospheric PAH concentrations in winter are 2-3 times of those in summer, probably because of the combined result of enhanced local emission and long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) during winter. Traffic pollution was the primary local source of PAHs, while biomass burning is the dominant LRAT source. Different from PAHs, OCPs and PCBs mainly underwent LRAT to reach Lijiang. The peak concentrations of most of OCPs occurred in pre-monsoon season and winter, which are carried by air masses from Myanmar and India through westerly winds. As compared with other sites of the Tibetan Plateau, without the direct barrier of the Himalaya, Lijiang is easily contaminated by the incursion of polluted air masses.

  7. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and predictors of exposure in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alzaga, B.; Lacasaña, M.; Hernández, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides and polych...... are no longer used. Their presence in children serum can be explained by their high lipophilicity and environmental persistence, leading to contamination of fatty food. In this line, fish consumption seemed to be the most relevant determinant of OC levels found in our study....... and polychlorinated biphenyls -PCBs-) in children living in agricultural communities from Almería (South-Eastern Spain), and to identify the main predictors of exposure related to socio-economic characteristics, diet and lifestyle. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 children aged 6-11 years...... selected from public schools of the study area. OCs compounds were determined in serum samples by GC/ECD. Anthropometric measures were obtained during sample collection. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, parental occupation, residential history, lifestyle and frequency of food consumption...

  8. Organochlorine contaminants and reproductive success of double-crested cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Gutreuter, S.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P. David; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, nesting success of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) was measured at Cat Island, in southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at pipping and unhatched eggs were collected and analyzed for organochlorines (including total polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in embryos, and eggshell thickness. Of 1,570 eggs laid, 32% did not hatch and 0.4% had deformed embryos. Of 632 chicks monitored from hatching to 12 d of age, 9% were missing or found dead; no deformities were observed. The PCB concentrations in sample eggs from clutches with deformed embryos (mean = 10.2 μg/g wet weight) and dead embryos (11.4 μg/g) were not significantly higher than concentrations in sample eggs from nests where all eggs hatched (12.1 μg/g). A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE, dieldrin, and PCB concentrations in sibling eggs identified DDE and not dieldrin or PCBs as a significant risk factor. A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE and eggshell thickness implicated DDE and not eggshell thickness as a significant risk factor. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in double-crested cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an effect on reproduction in this species.

  9. Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides from Plastic Pellets and Plastic Type Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Marilyne; Makorič, Petra; Kovač Viršek, Manca; Koren, Špela

    2017-07-01

    Plastic resin pellets, categorized as microplastics (≤5 mm in diameter), are small granules that can be unintentionally released to the environment during manufacturing and transport. Because of their environmental persistence, they are widely distributed in the oceans and on beaches all over the world. They can act as a vector of potentially toxic organic compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls) and might consequently negatively affect marine organisms. Their possible impacts along the food chain are not yet well understood. In order to assess the hazards associated with the occurrence of plastic pellets in the marine environment, it is necessary to develop methodologies that allow for rapid determination of associated organic contaminant levels. The present protocol describes the different steps required for sampling resin pellets, analyzing adsorbed organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and identifying the plastic type. The focus is on the extraction of OCPs from plastic pellets by means of a pressurized fluid extractor (PFE) and on the polymer chemical analysis applying Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The developed methodology focuses on 11 OCPs and related compounds, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its two main metabolites, lindane and two production isomers, as well as the two biologically active isomers of technical endosulfan. This protocol constitutes a simple and rapid alternative to existing methodology for evaluating the concentration of organic contaminants adsorbed on plastic pieces.

  10. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  11. Estimation of dietary intake of PCB and organochlorine pesticides for children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Højgård, A.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine substances, including a number of organochlorine pesticides and PCB, are monitored in food, including meat, fish and dairy products. The substances are slowly degradable and therefore persist for long periods in the environment, where they accumulate in the fatty tissues...... pesticides and 0.9 μg/day for the indicator PCB-sum. People with a relatively high intake of these substances (the 95th percentile) are estimated to consume approximately twice as much. In general, the highest contributions to the intake of the organochlorine environmental contaminants are from fish, meat...

  12. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Kasuga, Yoshio [Department of Surgery, Nagano Matsushiro General Hospital, 183 Matsushiro, Matsushiro-cho, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–1231 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1 Wakasato, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 380–8582 Japan (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki [Department of Respiratory Surgery and Breast Surgery, Nagano Municipal Hospital, 1333–1 Tomitake, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–8551 Japan (Japan); Kusama, Ritsu [Department of Surgery, Hokushin General Hospital, 1-5-63 Nishi, Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture 383–8505 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Teruhiko [Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazuhito [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Dierctor Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  13. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The

  14. Atmospheric Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides may still be in use in the Eastern African region for agricultural purposes and for the control of mosquitoes. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are expected to be higher in the tropics compared to temperate regions due to prevailing high temperatures. However, no study has ...

  15. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Joergensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-02-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age<=1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. - While organochlorine levels in W. Greenland harbour porpoises are low, their contribution to Inuit dietary intake should not be disregarded.

  16. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Joergensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age<=1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. - While organochlorine levels in W. Greenland harbour porpoises are low, their contribution to Inuit dietary intake should not be disregarded

  17. Prenatal organochlorine compound exposure, rapid weight gain, and overweight in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Michelle A; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Mónica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goñi, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-02-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ≥ the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed.

  18. Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, Michael [Aarhus Univ. (DK). Dept. of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Centre (iNANO); Lechner, Ute [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Biology/Microbiology

    2009-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most harmful environmental contaminants. Their widespread distribution due to unintentional or unknown release coincides with environmental persistence, acute and chronic toxicity to living organisms, and long-term effects due to the compounds' tendency for bioaccumulation and biomagnification. While microbial aerobic degradation of PCDD/Fs is mainly reported for the turnover of low chlorinated congeners, this review focuses on anaerobic reductive dehalogenation, which may constitute a potential remediation strategy for polychlorinated compounds in soils and sediments. Microorganisms in sediments and in microcosms or enrichment cultures have been shown to be involved in the reductive dechlorination of dioxins. Bacteria related to the genus Dehalococcoides are capable of the reductive transformation of dioxins leading to lower chlorinated dioxins including di- and monochlorinated congeners. Thus, reductive dehalogenation might be one of the very few mechanisms able to mediate the turnover of polychlorinated dioxins by reducing their toxicity and paving the way for a subsequent breakdown of the carbon skeleton. (orig.)

  19. Effects of fish oil replacement and re-feeding on the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) of market size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; López, Francisco J; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in raw materials, fish feeds and fillets from fish exposed through the productive cycle (14 months) to experimental diets with different percentages of fish oil replacement with vegetable oils. Detectable amounts of organochlorine compounds were found in raw materials derived from fish sources with none being detected in vegetable ingredients. Fish feeds presented trace concentrations of contaminants at the ng/g level, which varied according to the contribution of the different resources used in their manufacture. Contaminants did not accumulate during the first 11 months of exposure, and low concentrations of organochlorine compounds were found both at the start and at the end of this feeding period. Fillets from fish fed the fish oil diet presented the highest concentrations of organochlorine compounds, with these decreasing in proportion to fish oil replacement. Three months of fish oil re-feeding during the finishing phase only produced significant bioaccumulation over the course of the first month. By optimizing fish meal and fish oil replacement with vegetable oils alternative feeds can contribute to significantly reduce the risk of organochlorine uptake by consumers.

  20. Pollution level and human health risk assessment of some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Nantong of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Li Yi; Lili Shi; Deyang Kong; Daoji Cai; Donghua Wang; Zhengjun Shan

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption is one of the key exposure routes of humans to contaminants.This article evaluated the residue levels of 51 pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected fish and food items which were commonly consumed in the Nantong area of Jiangsu Province,Southeast China.The 51 pesticides and 16 PCBs were analyzed by highly sensitive gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).The results showed that organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs),hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs),hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex and other pesticides including chlorpyrifos,pyrethroid pesticides,metolachlor,pyridaben and trifluralin were frequently detected in the samples,which was consistent with the accumulation level and characteristics of these toxic chemicals in human adipose tissue of people living in Nantong.Meanwhile,correlation of the residue level of toxic chemicals with their physical chemical properties and historic use pattern in Nantong area was observed.Combined with dietary survey results at the same sampling locations,human health risk assessment of ingestion through the dietary route was performed.The results suggested that the non-cancer risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in the Nantong area,however,the cancer risks from lifetime dietary exposure to DDTs and HCB have exceeded the acceptable levels.

  1. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in freshwater systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    determined in water and sediment samples of freshwater systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa that ... The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water and sediments ...... Test Methods For Evaluating Solid Waste (3rd edn.) ...

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian Coast. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo e Silva, C E; Azeredo, A; Meire, R; Torres, J P [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos E.P.F., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ; Brito, Jr, J L; Malm, O [Projeto Mamiferos Aquaticos, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia, UERJ

    2004-09-15

    There is conclusive evidence showing that, in general, fish in meals human diet contributes with a significant proportion of the total intake of PCBs and others organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat content. Thus, human exposure to PCBs is predominantly via diet, and especially from fish and seafood products. Comparatively, little is know about organochlorine contaminants in elasmobranch species, although they are also top predators. Characteristically, sharks are live longer, with comparatively slow rates of growth that in conjuction with their high trophic position may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of pollutants. Blue shark and swordfish are carnivorous fishes of great economic importance. This study investigate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in samples of muscle tissues of blue shark (Prionace glauca) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Brazilian Coast.

  4. Sentinel California sea lions provide insight into legacy organochlorine exposure trends and their association with cancer and infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistara Randhawa

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Organochlorine contamination has significant associations with health outcomes in California sea lions, raising concerns for humans and other animals eating tainted seafood. While environmental exposure to these organochlorines appears to be decreasing over time based on levels in sea lion tissues, their persistence in the environment and food web for all predators, including humans, and the associated serious health risks, warrant monitoring, possibly through sentinel species like marine mammals.

  5. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  6. Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Mafumi; Abe, Takao; Nakatsu, Susumu; Kawauchi, Sakio; Sano, Akihiko; Horii, Akira; Kano, Yasumasa; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and their metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds were determined in genital organs of pet dogs and cats and pet foods from Japan. Levels of OCs in dogs were relatively lower than those in cats, while residue levels in their diets were almost similar, implying that accumulation and elimination mechanisms of these contaminants are different between dogs and cats. When bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated from concentrations of OCs in dogs, cats, and their diets, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs exceeded 1.0 in cats. On the other hand, in all the dogs, BCFs of DDTs were below 1.0, suggesting that dogs do not bioconcentrate DDTs. Furthermore, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs in dogs were notably lower than those in cats, suggesting that dogs have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for these contaminants than cats. When residue levels of OCs in livers, adipose tissue, and genital organs of two pet dogs were examined, hepatic sequestration of PCDD/DFs and oxychlordane was observed. - Pet dogs may have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for organochlorines than pet cats

  7. Relationships between reproductive performance and organochlorine contaminants in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helberg, Morten; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Kristiansen, Kai Ove; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2005-01-01

    The great black-backed gull Larus marinus is a top predator in subarctic and temperate marine ecosystems, and the aim of this study was to investigate if organochlorines (OCs) were related to reproductive performance in this species at the subarctic parts of the Norwegian Coast. We measured blood levels of various OCs in 53 breeding birds. The OC levels were relatively low compared to levels found in nearby arctic areas. In females, however, there was a significant positive relationship between blood concentrations of OCs, especially hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and egg laying date, and a positive relationship between the probability of nest predation and blood concentration of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), oxychlordane, and DDE. In females with high levels of OCs, especially persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there was also a decline in egg volume as egg laying progressed; i.e. the second and third laid egg were relatively smaller, compared to females with low OC levels. No relationships between reproductive parameters and OC levels were found in males. - Elevated blood concentrations of organochlorine contaminants correlate with poor reproductive performance in female great black-backed gulls

  8. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.T. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lee, T.K.M. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, K. [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 353, Yan-an Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310031 (China); Wong, H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, J.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Giesy, J.P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lo, K.K.W. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Lam, P.K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2005-07-15

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China.

  9. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.T.; Lee, T.K.M.; Chen, K.; Wong, H.L.; Zheng, J.S.; Giesy, J.P.; Lo, K.K.W.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China

  10. Evaluation of the quality of measurement of organochlorine contaminants in the marine environment: the QUASIMEME experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in marine environmental test materials have been included in QUASIMEME Laboratory Performance Studies since 1996. The methods of data assessment include the Cofino model, which provides a sound basis for obtaining a reliable assigned value from the wide range of data

  11. Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvad Gert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p 2 = 0.39; p Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention.

  12. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide in pet cats and dogs: Assessment of toxicological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena, E-mail: m.m.storelli@veterinaria.uniba.it [Pharmacological-Biological Department, Chemistry and Biochemistry Section, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy); Storelli, Arianna; Barone, Grazia [Pharmacological-Biological Department, Chemistry and Biochemistry Section, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy); Franchini, Delia [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DEOT), Division of Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov. le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    PCB and DDT concentrations were determined in the adipose tissue of cats and dogs from Southern Italy. In cats p,p'-DDE was the most abundant DDT component (95.0%), while in dogs these compounds were absent, except in two specimens. PCB concentrations were higher in cats (199.02 ng g{sup -1} lipid weight) than in dogs (41.61 ng g{sup -1} lipid weight). Also there were inter-specific differences in the contribution of the different congeners to PCBs, although PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 were the most representative congeners in both species. Animals from one location, Taranto City, had significantly elevated concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs compared to the other locations. Consequently the estimated mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs were higher in these animals (cats: 0.65 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight; dogs 0.29 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight) than in the other ones (cats: 0.12 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight; dogs: 0.001 pg g{sup -1} lipid weight).

  13. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide in pet cats and dogs: Assessment of toxicological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Storelli, Arianna; Barone, Grazia; Franchini, Delia

    2009-01-01

    PCB and DDT concentrations were determined in the adipose tissue of cats and dogs from Southern Italy. In cats p,p'-DDE was the most abundant DDT component (95.0%), while in dogs these compounds were absent, except in two specimens. PCB concentrations were higher in cats (199.02 ng g -1 lipid weight) than in dogs (41.61 ng g -1 lipid weight). Also there were inter-specific differences in the contribution of the different congeners to PCBs, although PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 were the most representative congeners in both species. Animals from one location, Taranto City, had significantly elevated concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs compared to the other locations. Consequently the estimated mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs were higher in these animals (cats: 0.65 pg g -1 lipid weight; dogs 0.29 pg g -1 lipid weight) than in the other ones (cats: 0.12 pg g -1 lipid weight; dogs: 0.001 pg g -1 lipid weight).

  14. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food.

  15. Bioaccumulation and distribution of organochlorine residues across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues were measured in the water, sediment, plankton, benthic invertebrates and fish in various sections of the Lagos Lagoon in 2014 to investigate their bioaccumulation and distribution in the food web. The analysis was done using gas chromatography with an electron capture ...

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecher, R.; Smith, C.; Montemayor, B. [GlobalTox International Consultants Inc., Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    A brief characterization of PCBs is provided, summarizing their toxicity, acute and chronic effects, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity. A quick reference chart which includes a description of the class of compounds, synonyms, uses, environmental fate, sources, exposure and selected regulatory information, is also included.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL"−"1 for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL"−"1 for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL"−"1 for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g"−"1 and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g"−"1 in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic

  18. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Lirong, E-mail: gaolr@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-09-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL{sup −1} for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL{sup −1} for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL{sup −1} for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g{sup −1} and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g{sup −1} in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and

  19. Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.H.; Abu-Elamayem, M.M.; El-Sebae, A.B.; Sharaf, I.P.

    1981-01-01

    Lake Mariut, a brackish water lake adjoining the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt, has suffered much from intensive pollution in recent years due to the successive increase of human population and industry around it (Saad, 1980). The occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the water of Lake Mariut during a period of one year were studied. This study represents an essential part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The major organochlorine pesticides detected in the water of Lake Mariut were Lindane, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT. The mean concentrations of these pesticides were 2.091, 4.493, 0.009 and 0.134 ppb, respectively. The mean concentration of the calculated total DDT (Σ DDT) was 5.1 PPb

  20. Preliminary studies on the effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijani, A.S.M.; Katondo, J.M.; Malulu, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies to investigate the effects of organochlorine pesticides on birds was conducted in Lower Moshi, NAFCO West Kilimanjaro, Arusha seed farm, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, Manyara ranch and areas around Lake Victoria as well as in the TPRI laboratory in Tanzania. Large quantities of the pesticides particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops as well as disease vectors in the country. Several groups of birds including waterbirds, African Fish Eagles, Marabou storks, Oxpecker, ducks, etc. were found feeding, roosting and swimming in the water and exposed to other substances that were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and were presumably at risk. Analytical results from the tissues of the African Fish Eagles collected from Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p' DDE and o,p' DDE at levels of 0.4 ng g -1 and 1.45 ng g -1 respectively. These organochlorine insecticides as well as β-HCH were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of the organochlorine residues were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for bird raptors reported in the literature. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  2. Intercomparison study of sampling methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Bull, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The determination of organic pollutants in seawater is a serious problem, as their concentrations in the water column are typical in the fg - ng/L range. Available methods therefore includes extensive sampling and laboratory work. The development of simple sampling techniques for organochlorines (e.g. passive sampling with semipermeable membrane device (SPMD), mussel watch) is required. Three methods for the measurement of trace organochlorines in seawater were investigated: (1) the filtration (GF/F) and extraction (XAD-2 resin) of seawater with an in-situ pumping system, (2) biological-accumulation by mussels (mytilus edulis) and (3) passive sampling with SPMD

  3. Placental markers of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucier, G.W.; Nelson, K.G.; Everson, R.B.; Wong, T.K.; Philpot, R.M.; Tiernan, T.; Taylor, M.; Sunahara, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    These studies have evaluated biochemical changes in placentae from humans exposed to rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Taiwan. Placentae were obtained from nonsmoking women 4 to 5 years after the exposure had occurred. The exposed individuals ingested approximately 1 to 3 g PCBs and 5 mg PCDFs, and many exhibited symptoms characteristic of PCB poisoning. This disease was termed Yu-Cheng in Chinese. Based on data from experimental animals models, the authors examined a number of parameters in placentae from control and exposed women, including arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, cytochrome P-450 isozymes, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding properties and actions, and Ah receptor. They also quantified concentrations of various PCB and PCDF congeners known to be present in the contaminated rice oil. The results revealed a dramatic elevation in placental AHH activity in samples from PCB/PCDF-exposed women. This increase in enzyme activity was associated with a parallel increase in placental microsomal protein immunochemically related to cytochrome P-450 form 6. EGF receptor-mediated autophosphorylation capacity was significantly diminished in PCB/PCDF placentae, but this effect was not associated with changes in plasma membrane EGF receptor binding properties. Two PCDF congeners were detected in Yu-Cheng placentae but not controls. Several PCBs were also detected in much higher concentrations in Yu-Cheng placentae. Surprisingly, placental concentrations of PCBs correlated better with effects than did the PCDFs. The findings are discussed in relation to the risk assessment process

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  5. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and placental CYP1A1 activity in Inuit women from northern Québec.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereg, Daria; Dewailly, Eric; Poirier, Guy G; Ayotte, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are CYP1A1 inducers, and induction of this enzyme in the placenta has been linked to adverse effects on fetal development. The objective of this study was to determine if the body burden of PCBs is related to placental CYP1A1 activity in Inuit women from Nunavik (northern Québec), a population highly exposed to organochlorines. Placenta and cord blood samples were obtained from 35 Inuit women and 30 women from a southern Québec community exposed t...

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  7. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjornoya (Bear Island) freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm N.; Kallenborn, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjornoya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjoen. In Lake Oyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjoen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. δ 15 N-values were 7-10%o higher in organisms from Ellasjoen as compared to Oyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjoen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. - Elevate levels of chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants have been measured in biota from a Norwegian Arctic lake

  8. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Infanzon, R; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in 150 adipose tissue samples of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. In analyzed samples, the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of the samples at mean 1.643 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 99.3.% of the samples at mean 0.227 mg/kg; β-HCH in 97.3% of the samples at mean 0.063 mg/kg; and op'DDT in 93.3% of the samples at mean 0.022 mg/kg. Comparing mean, median and geometric mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides shows a decrease in values from mean to median and to geometric mean which points out a prevalence of lower concentrations among the total samples and the existence of occasional cases of extreme exposure expressed in range values. The pooled samples divided according to sex, showed only significant differences of pp'DDE median concentrations between sexes. The other organochlorine pesticides indicated no statistical differences between sexes, including the pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio. The samples grouped according to age, showed that the third tertile was more contaminated for both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants. Comparing organochlorine pesticide levels between 2008 and 2010 years, a decreased tendency for β-HCH, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT and pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio levels was observed.

  9. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.

    2015-01-01

    ® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age......BACKGROUND: Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal......-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. METHODS: The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p...

  10. Degradation of persistent organochlorine pollutants by gamma-radiation and the possible use for waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollner, L.; Rohleder, H.; Korte, F.

    1975-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and related chemicals have become ubiquitous pollutants by their persistence and are common contaminants in waste waters. Since gamma-radiation represents a possible treatment for decontamination, radiation yield and degradation chemistry were investigated. The pattern of hexane extractable compounds obtained from acetone-water and from pure water solutions are not very different when compared by GC-analysis. Dechlorination and dehydrochlorination were found to be the most important mechanisms of the first attack. The complete destruction of chlorine pesticides and of other chlorinated hydrocarbons (as PCBs) at the ppm-level demand considerable radiation doses. G-values for dieldrin and its hexane extractable degradation products are 1 x 10 -3 in deionized water and 3.6 x 10 -5 in twice-distilled water. G-values for aldrin, lindane, chlordane and PCBs are in the same order of magnitude. (orig./HK) [de

  11. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  12. Characterization of population exposure to organochlorines: A cluster analysis application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Guimarães (Raphael Mendonça); S. Asmus (Sven); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to show the results from a cluster analysis application in the characterization of population exposure to organochlorines through variables related to time and exposure dose. Characteristics of 354 subjects in a population exposed to organochlorine pesticides residues

  13. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organochlorinated pesticides widely applied and still remains in soils, has become toxic to ginseng production in Jilin Province. In this study, 19 trace organochlorinated pesticide residues in five types of ginseng products and soil samples from four ginseng production areas were analyzed using a gas ...

  14. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakata@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2005-02-01

    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dibenzodioxin, and furan concentrations in common snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) in Akwesasne, Mohawk Territory, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, S R; Bishop, C A; Lickers, H; Jock, K

    2001-04-01

    Subsamples of eight clutches of common snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) were collected from four sites from the territory of the Mohawk Nation, Akwesasne, on the shore of the St. Lawrence River. Egg contents were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins, and furans. The sites were 2 to 13 km downstream from PCB-contaminated landfill sites. Maximum concentrations of total PCBs in snapping turtle clutches were extremely high, and ranged from 2 378.2 ng/g to 737 683 ng/g (wet weight) and are among the highest recorded in any tissue of a free-ranging animal. Similarly, in a pooled sample of eggs from all four sites, the summed concentrations of non-ortho PCBs (n = 6 congeners) was also very high at 54.54 ng/g and the summed dioxin and furan concentrations (n = 11 congeners) was 85.8 ng/g. Sum organochlorine pesticide levels varied from 28 to 2,264 ng/g among the four sites. The levels of PCBs found in turtle eggs exceed concentrations associated with developmental problems and reduced hatching success in snapping turtles and other species and also exceed the Canadian tissue residue guidelines for toxic equivalency concentrations. The extremely high levels of organochlorine contaminants demonstrate the high degree of contamination in the environment in the Akwesasne area.

  16. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from shark in our study were relatively lower than those reported in other studies. Aggressive shark species and species inhabiting the Indian Ocean had the highest levels of OCs. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of OCs among shark species could be explained by differences in feeding habit and sampling locations. Several confounding factors such as growth velocity, trophic position, and regional contamination status may affect the bioaccumulation of OCs in sharks. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk for all the OCs were below one, whereas the hazard ratios of lifetime cancer risks of PCBs and DDTs exceeded one, implying potential carcinogenic effects in the general population in Korea. This is the first report to document the occurrence of OCs in sharks from Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, and petroleum-based paint were tested in small environmental chambers to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB sorption and estimate the key parameters required by a barrier model. Wipe samples were collected from PCB contaminated surface encapsulated with the coating materials to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB migration from the source. A barrier model was used to calculate the PCB concentrations in the sources and the encapsulant layers, and at the exposed surfaces of the encapsulant and in the room air at different times. The performance of the encapsulants was ranked by those concentrations and PCB percent reductions. Overall, the three epoxy coatings performed better than the other coatings. Both the experimental results and the mathematical modeling showed that selecting proper encapsulants can effectively reduce the PCB concentrations at the exposed surfaces. The encapsulation method is most effective for contaminated surfaces that contain low levels of PCBs. This study answers some of these questions by using a combination of laboratory testing and mathematical modeling. The results should be useful to mitigation engineers, building owners and managers

  18. Optical detection of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncova, Gabriela; Berkova, Daniela; Burkhard, Jiri; Demnerova, Katerina; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Triska, Jan; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we describe the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which is based on the measurement of changes of optical absorption at 400 nm of the medium in an aerobic bioreactor with immobilized cells Pseudomonas species 2. The rate of production, composition and the concentration of yellow intermediates are influenced by concentration and composition of PCB mixtures, concentration of cells and by the methods of immobilization. The method was applied in the detection of commercial mixture D103. It was found that the advantageous carriers were inorganic or organic-inorganic matrices, which sorbed PCBs and a cell outgrowth from their surface was low. In water contaminated with transformer oil and chlorinated hydrocarbons the detection limit is 10-2 gD103/kg. In transformer oil the upper limit for degradation of D103 by sodium dehalogenation (1.5 gD103 /kgoil) was determined also in the presence of the same concentration of trichloroethylene. The employment to of a liquid core waveguide spectrophotometer instead of a diode array spectrophotometer increased the sensitivity of the measurement of yellow intermediates by a factor of 100. An extrinsic fiber-optic sensor was used for in-situ measurement during biodegradation of PCBs in bioreactors.

  19. Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of testicular germ cell carcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Mary L; Davis, Mark D; Eaton, David L; Weiss, Noel S; Barr, Dana B; Doody, David R; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2008-08-01

    Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men ages 20 to 34 years. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, suboptimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess antiandrogenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p'-DDE, and whether the p,p'-DDE-TGCC association is modified by CAG or GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 18- to 44-year-old male residents of three Washington State counties. Cases (n = 246) were diagnosed during 1999 to 2003 with a first, primary TGCC. Controls (n = 630) were men of similar age with no history of TGCC from the same population identified through random-digit telephone dialing. Questionnaires elicited information on demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A blood specimen provided serum for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues and DNA for genotyping. We observed no clear patterns between TGCC risk and concentrations of any of the organochlorines measured, nor did we observe that the risk associated with p,p'-DDE was modified by androgen receptor CAG ( or =23 repeats) or GGN ( or =17 repeats) genotype. This study does not provide support for the hypothesis that adult exposure to organochlorine pesticides is associated with risk of TGCC. Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy.

  20. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications, PCB's have become a persistent... unavoidable environmental or industrial contaminants are established for a sufficient period of time following...

  1. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Roque [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)], E-mail: serrano@qfa.uji.es; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2008-01-25

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. {delta}{sup 15}N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. {delta}{sup 13}C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens.

  2. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Roque; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. δ 15 N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. δ 13 C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens

  3. Geochemical distribution of trace metals and organochlorine contaminants of a lake ontario shoreline marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glooschenko, W A; Capocianco, J; Coburn, J; Glooschenko, V

    1981-02-01

    Rattray Marsh, an 8 ha marsh on the Lake Ontario shoreline at Mississauga, Ontario, is an important local habitat for waterfowl and shorebirds during spring and fall migration. A study was conducted to determine the distribution of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) and potential trace metal and organochlorine pollutants in the marsh as evidenced by the sedimentary concentrations of these compounds. Generally, copper, zinc, lead, and mercury were higher in concentration in local soils than in Lake Ontario sediments. Metals and organic carbon levels did not correlate, and the metals appeared to be associated with silts and clays. Organochlorine contaminants include p,p1-DDE, p,p1-DDD, p,p1-DDT, alpha-chlordane, PCB, mirex, and HCB.

  4. Organochlorines in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongli; Atkinson, Shannon; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Lee, Sung-Eun; Li, Qing X.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, heptachlor and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues collected from the Gulf of Alaska during 2000-2001. ΣPCBs (16-728 ng/g lw) and ΣDDTs (14-368 ng/g lw) were the predominant pollutants followed by ΣHCHs (0.56-93 ng/g lw) and heptachlor (≤0.068-6.0 ng/g lw). Concentrations of the above organochlorines (OCs) in the liver, kidney and blubber tissues correlated with ages, sex, body weight and blubber thickness of the harbor seals. The OC concentrations were similar between the samples collected from two different regions - Prince William Sound, and Kodiak Island and Southern Alaska Peninsula. Mean levels of OCs in nursing female adults were much lower than those in male adults, which indicate that lactation transfer OCs from mother seals to newborns. - Σ28 PCB congeners, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH and heptachlor in harbor seal tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska are reported

  5. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  6. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  7. Storage of organochlorine inseticides in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wassermann

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a survey on OCI storage in people in Bahia, Brasil. In this survey 11 samples of adipose tissue were taken from people who underwent splenectomy for hepato splenic schistosomiasis. In these patients, total DDT averaged 10.66 ppm as compared to 4,83 ppm of total DDT found in presumably healthy people. The difference was statistically significant. It is considered that the increased DDT storage in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiass may be the result of a reduced metabolzation of p,p'-DDT and reduced excretion of its metabolites. Another possíbility is the increased exposure to organochlorine nsectedes by hepatosplenc patients who frequently come from irrigation zones, where these compounds are more used in intensive cultivatíon.

  8. Organochlorine compounds: Progress and results to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeneuve, J.P.; Marchand, M.; Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.; LaRosa, J.; Duursma, E.K.; Vas, D.; Parsi, P.

    1976-01-01

    Following preparation of reference materials 1 through 4 (1. Oyster homogenate (MA-M-1), 2. Sea Plant homogenate (SP-M-1), 3. Sediment (SD-M-1), 4. XAD-2 resin (AB-M-1)), homogeneity tests were conducted at the Monaco Laboratory by analyzing sample sizes that would yield sufficient amounts of organochlorine compounds for quantitation. In the case of the oyster sample, 10 samples weighing 10 grams each showed acceptable homogeneity for all compounds determined, i.e. a standard deviation of ≈ ± 20% from the mean value obtained. The highest standard deviation was observed for pp'DDE (23%) while the lowest standard deviation was recorded for pp'DDT (2.8%)

  9. Preparation of reference material for organochlorine pesticides in a herbal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yiu Chung; Wong, Siu Kay; Kam, Tat Ting

    2008-12-01

    The development of reference material for four organochlorine pesticides, namely hexachlorobenzene and three isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), in a ginseng root sample is presented. Raw materials (Panax ginseng) were purchased from a local market and confirmed to contain certain levels of incurred organochlorine pesticide residues by a validated gas chromatography-mass selective detection method. A total of more than 300 bottles each containing 25 g of samples were prepared after the materials had been freeze-dried, milled and thoroughly mixed. The homogeneity and stability of samples from randomly selected bottles were verified and the reference values were characterized using a highly precise isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID-GCMS) method that was recently developed by our laboratory. The purity of standard organochlorine chemicals was determined against certified reference materials to establish the accuracy of the ID-GCMS analysis. The concentrations (+/- expanded uncertainty) of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in the reference material were 0.198 +/- 0.015, 0.450 +/- 0.022, 0.213 +/- 0.011 and 0.370 +/- 0.032 mg kg(-1), respectively. A portion (70 bottles) of the samples was also used in a proficiency testing (PT) scheme for assessing the testing capabilities of field laboratories. The consensus mean values of the PT obtained from the 70 participants were on the same order but deviated by -2.7 to -14.1% from those of the assigned reference values. Because of the wide spread of participants' data (relative standard deviation ranging from 44 to 56%), the PT results were not included in the calculation of the assigned values of the reference materials. The materials served as suitable reference materials to ascertain the quality control and validation processes for the

  10. Biomonitoring of organochlorines in women with benign and malignant breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.K.J.; Anand, M.; Mehrotra, P.K.; Sarangi, R.; Mathur, N.

    2005-01-01

    Established risk factors for breast cancer explain breast cancer risk only partially. Organochlorines are considered to be a possible cause for hormone-dependent cancers. A hospital-based case-control study, the first from India, was conducted among 50 women undergoing surgery for breast disease to examine the association between organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk. Blood, tumor, and surrounding adipose tissue of the breast were collected from the subjects with benign (control) and malignant breast (study) lesions and analyzed to determine organochlorine insecticides using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The α, β, γ, and δ isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p'-DDT, p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were frequently detected in three specimens. Total HCH and total DDT levels were higher in the blood of the study group (25 cases) than in those of the controls (25 cases) with only γ-HCH being significantly different (P0.05). However, both total HCH and total DDT were higher in the tumor tissues of the controls than in those of the study group; γ-HCH was significantly different (P0.05). The level of total HCH (α-HCH was significantly different, P0.05) was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the study group, whereas total DDT was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the control group. The distribution of known confounders of breast cancer including age, body mass index, age at menarche and menopause, duration of breast feeding, and family history related to breast disease did not differ significantly between benign and malignant groups. This pilot study with limited statistical power does not support a positive association between exposure to organochlorines and risk of breast cancer but paves the way for a larger Indian study with greater statistical power encompassing different regions of the country to enable

  11. Associations of polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and endogenous hormones with diabetes in post-menopausal women previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel; McCann, Kenneth

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing body of literature showing associations of organochlorine exposure with risk of diabetes and insulin resistance. Some studies suggest that associations differ by gender and that diabetes risk, in turn, may be affected by endogenous steroid hormones. This report examines the relationships of serum PCBs and endogenous hormones with history of diabetes in a cohort of persons previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant. A total of 118 women were post-menopausal with complete data, of whom 93 were not using steroid hormones in 1996, at the time of examination, which included a survey of exposure and medical history, height, weight and collection of blood and urine for measurements of lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. This analysis examines relationships of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), work exposure and endogenous hormones with self-reported history of diabetes after control for potential confounders. All PCB exposure groups were significantly related to history of diabetes, but not to insulin resistance as measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetics. Diabetes was also independently and inversely associated with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and triiodothyronine (T3) uptake. HOMA-IR was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and inversely associated with sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and T3 uptake after control for PCB exposure. Possible biologic mechanisms are discussed. This study confirms previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggests possible hormonal pathways deserving further exploration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant enzymes in metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromá, L.; Moeder, M.; Kučerová, P.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 291-295 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * plants * peroxidases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  13. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  14. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  15. Toxics release inventory: List of toxic chemicals within the polychlorinated alkanes category and guidance for reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires certain facilities manufacturing, processing, or otherwise using listed toxic chemicals to report their environmental releases of such chemicals annually. On November 30, 1994 EPA added 286 chemicals and chemical categories. Six chemical categories (nicotine and salts, strychnine and salts, polycyclic aromatic compounds, water dissociable nitrate compounds, diisocyanates, and polychlorinated alkanes) are included in these additions. At the time of the addition, EPA indicated that the Agency would develop, as appropriate, interpretations and guidance that the Agency determines are necessary to facilitate accurate reporting for these categories. This document constitutes such guidance for the polychlorinated alkanes category.

  16. Immunotoxicity of environmentally relevant mixtures of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons with methyl mercury on rat lymphocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omara, F.O.; Brochu, C.; Flipo, D.; Denizeau, F.; Fournier, M. [Univ. of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of methyl mercury (MHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well established at higher exposure levels but unclear at low exposure levels. The authors exposed Fischer 344 rat splenocytes, thymocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro for 72 h to MHg of three PCDDs and two PCDFs PCB mixtures, or combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures Mitogenic responses of lymphocytes to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, or lipopolysaccharide/dextran sulfate were determined by {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake; cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were determined by flow cytometry. Methylmercury mixtures with 2 {micro}g/ml MHg decreased the viability of splenocytes to 57 and 40% at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Basal intracellular calcium ion levels were unaffected by the treatments. Methylmercury suppressed the responses of lymphocytes to T and B cell mitogens. All combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures decreased mitogenic responses to levels similar to those to MHg alone. In contrast, PCB and PCDD/PCDF mixtures did not suppress but augmented responses of splenocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes to T cell mitogens. Overall, no interactive toxicity was observed with MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures on cytotoxicity and lymphocyte mitogenic responses. Therefore, MHg may pose a greater threat than organochlorines to the mammalian immune system.

  17. Phytoremediation of organochlorine pesticides: Concept, method, and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanvi; Singh, Dileep K

    2017-09-02

    Rapid increase in industrialization of world economy in the past century has resulted in significantly high emission of anthropogenic chemicals in the ecosystem. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a great risk to the global environment and endanger the human health due to their affinity for dispersion, transportation over long distances, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Phytoremediation is a promising technology that aims to make use of plants and associated bacteria for the treatment of groundwater and soil polluted by these contaminants. Processes known to be involved in phytoremediation of OCPs include phytoaccumulation, rhizoremediation, and phytotransformation. Vegetation has been accounted to considerably amplify OCP elimination from soil, in contrast to non-planted soil, attributable to both, uptake within plant tissues and high microbial degradation of OCP within the root zone. Developing transgenic plants is a promising approach to enhance phytoremediation capabilities. Recent advances in the application of phytoremediation technique for OCPs, including uptake by plants and plant-microbe association in the rhizosphere for the enhanced degradation and mineralization of these pollutants, is presented in this review. Additionally, some attempts to improve this technique using transgenesis and role of certain enzymes are also discussed.

  18. Fish consumption and plasma levels of organochlorines in a female population in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sandanger, Torkjel; Thune, Inger; Burkow, Ivan C; Lun, Eiliv

    2002-02-01

    Increased cancer incidence and mortality have been found among humans exposed to high levels of organochlorines (OCs), either accidentally or as industrial workers. In order to assess levels of OCs in Norwegian women north of the Arctic Circle and validate self-reported fish consumption as a surrogate measure of organochlorine body burden, concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners [IUPAC Nos. CB-105, CB-118, CB-138 (+ CB-163), CB-153, CB-180, CB-183, CB-187], beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), 2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and cis- and trains-chlordane (c-CD and t-CD) were examined in plasma samples of middle-aged women attending for health screening. Altogether, 47 of those invited (81%) completed a questionnaire and donated a suitable blood sample. The ability of questionnaire data to predict plasma levels of OCs was tested in linear and logistic regression analyses. Measured plasma concentrations were in the range reported for the general female population of other Western countries and the relative amounts of PCBs were similar to the circumpolar pattern. Intake of seagulls' eggs was a predictor of PCB congeners CB-138 (+CB-163) (p<0.05) and CB-153 (p<0.01). No other food category was positively associated with any compound. In contrast, duration of residence in the study municipality, body mass index (BMI) and lifetime lactation (months) were the best univariate predictors. There was an increase in beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE and most of the PCBs (p<0.05 for all) with increasing length of time a subject had lived in the municipality. BMI was a positive predictor for beta-HCH (OR=3.10, 95% CI 1.50-6.43, per 5 kgm(-2)), chlordane (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.05, per 5 kgm(-2)) and CB-105 and CB-153 (p<0.05 for both). Lactation was negatively associated with all OCs (p<0.05), except chlordane and two of the PCB congeners. Time living in the municipality and lactation explained 34%, of the variance in concentration of total

  19. Assessing the relationship and influence of black carbon on distribution status of organochlorines in the coastal sediments from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Junwen, Liu; Sánchez-García, Laura; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Arshad, Masood; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) were determined together with those of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the selected eighteen coastal sites (n = 285) along the Arabian Sea from Pakistan. Results showed that the total concentration of TOC, BC, ∑OCPs and ∑ 26 PCBs ranged between 0.3 and 2.9% dw, 0.1–0.2% dw, 0.9–110 ng g −1  dw and 6.2–1200 ng g −1  dw, respectively. Correlation analysis of BC (r = 0.26–0.89) and TOC (r = 0.06–0.69) revealed a stronger association with studied compounds. The sedimentary depositional fluxes (D) for ∑OCPs and ∑ 26 PCBs were calculated as 1.7 and 4.9 tons yr −1 , respectively. In the coastal belt of Pakistan, sedimentary mass inventories (I) indicated the presence of 13 and 37 metric tons of ∑OCPs and ∑ 26 PCBs, respectively. - Highlights: • First study to describe the sedimentary distribution of OCs and BC from coastal belt of Pakistan. • Higher levels of OCs and carbon contents were found in the sediments from Karachi coast. • Correlation analysis proved that BC has a significant impact on the fate and distribution of OCs in the study area. - Findings of the present study revealed that black carbon has a significant impact on the distribution of organochlorines in the coastal belt of Pakistan

  20. Skull pathology in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1892 to 2002 in relation to organochlorine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonne, Christian; Riget, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Wiig, Oystein; Kirkegaard, Maja; Born, Erik W.

    2007-01-01

    East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are heavily polluted with long-range transported organochlorines such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). To investigate the negative health impacts, a time-trend study of skull pathology was conducted on 269 East Greenland and 241 Svalbard polar bears. The skulls were sampled during 1892-2002 and 1964-1992, respectively. Seven different pathological changes were found: adonti, displacement of teeth, caries, osseous proliferations, exostosis, tooth wear and periodontitis. Only tooth wear and periodontitis was in a prevalence that allowed statistical treatment. The most severe cases of tooth wear and periodontitis were accompanied by a substantial loss of alveolar bone structure. The prevalence of tooth wear and periodontitis increased significantly with age (p < 0.001) with incisor wear being more severe than in canines, premolars and molars (p < 0.001). No sex difference was found for tooth wear (p = 0.22) while a significant difference between sexes was found for periodontitis (p = 0.01) with males having higher prevalence than females (odds ratio of 2.5 for males:females). In East Greenland, the prevalence of tooth wear was significantly higher in polar bears collected in the pre pollution period (< 1960) than in bears sampled during polluted periods (1960-1980 and 1981-2002) (p < 0.001). Regarding periodontitis, the prevalence was not significantly different between pre-pollution and pollution periods (p = 0.309). Polar bears from Svalbard had significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear (p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.02) than polar bears from East Greenland. The tooth wear and periodontitis odds ratios for Svalbard:East Greenland were 135 and 2.6, respectively. Hence, we found a clear age/sex link and geographical difference but no evidence for an association between skull pathology and exposure to organochlorines in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears

  1. Skull pathology in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1892 to 2002 in relation to organochlorine pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Buelowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)]. E-mail: csh@dmu.dk; Riget, Frank F. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wiig, Oystein [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172 Blindern, N-0562 Oslo (Norway); Kirkegaard, Maja [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Born, Erik W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are heavily polluted with long-range transported organochlorines such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). To investigate the negative health impacts, a time-trend study of skull pathology was conducted on 269 East Greenland and 241 Svalbard polar bears. The skulls were sampled during 1892-2002 and 1964-1992, respectively. Seven different pathological changes were found: adonti, displacement of teeth, caries, osseous proliferations, exostosis, tooth wear and periodontitis. Only tooth wear and periodontitis was in a prevalence that allowed statistical treatment. The most severe cases of tooth wear and periodontitis were accompanied by a substantial loss of alveolar bone structure. The prevalence of tooth wear and periodontitis increased significantly with age (p < 0.001) with incisor wear being more severe than in canines, premolars and molars (p < 0.001). No sex difference was found for tooth wear (p = 0.22) while a significant difference between sexes was found for periodontitis (p = 0.01) with males having higher prevalence than females (odds ratio of 2.5 for males:females). In East Greenland, the prevalence of tooth wear was significantly higher in polar bears collected in the pre pollution period (< 1960) than in bears sampled during polluted periods (1960-1980 and 1981-2002) (p < 0.001). Regarding periodontitis, the prevalence was not significantly different between pre-pollution and pollution periods (p = 0.309). Polar bears from Svalbard had significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear (p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.02) than polar bears from East Greenland. The tooth wear and periodontitis odds ratios for Svalbard:East Greenland were 135 and 2.6, respectively. Hence, we found a clear age/sex link and geographical difference but no evidence for an association between skull pathology and exposure to organochlorines in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears.

  2. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Peripubertal Serum Organochlorine Concentrations and Semen Parameters in Young Men: The Russian Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Smigulina, Luidmila; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical phases of testicular development may be related to poorer semen parameters. However, few studies have assessed the association between childhood organochlorine (OC) exposure and adult semen parameters. Objective: We examined whether peripubertal serum OC concentrations are associated with semen parameters among young Russian men. Methods: From 2003 through 2005, 516 boys were enrolled at age 8–9 years and followed for up to 10 years. Serum OCs were measured in the enrollment samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry. At 18–19 years, 133 young men provided 1 or 2 semen samples (256 samples) collected approximately 1 week apart, which were analyzed for volume, sperm concentration, and motility. Unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models were used to examine the associations of quartiles of lipid-standardized concentrations of dioxins [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)], furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and corresponding toxic equivalents (TEQs) with semen parameters. Results: The median (range) for TCDD was 2.9 (0.4–12.1) pg/g lipid and PCDD TEQ was 8.7 (1.0–36.0) pg TEQ/g lipid. Higher quartiles of TCDD and PCDD TEQs were associated with lower sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count (p-trends ≤ 0.05). The highest quartile of peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations was associated with a decrease (95% CI) of 40% (18, 66%), 29% (3, 64%), and 30% (2, 70%) in sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile. Similar associations were observed for serum PCDD TEQs with semen parameters. Serum PCBs, furans, and total TEQs were not associated with semen parameters. Conclusion: Higher peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations and PCDD TEQs were associated with poorer semen parameters. Citation: Mínguez-Alarcón L, Sergeyev O, Burns JS

  4. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  5. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  6. Organochlorine residues in harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait: An evaluation of contaminant concentrations and burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, G.G.; Smith, T.G. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)); Addison, R.F. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and burdens were evaluated in blubber samples from 50 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) obtained from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait, Canada between December 1988 and December 1989. The concentration and burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) increased significantly during the winter months for males occupying the St. Lawrence estuary. The potential for rapid accumulation of contaminants in the estuary was also observed among females: nine postpartum females (1 month after weaning) had higher organochlorine levels than prepartum females from the same location. The lowest observed contaminant concentrations and burdens were in seals from Hudson Strait in autumn. In winter specimens, males had DDT and PCB concentrations about 4 and 2 times as great, respectively, as females of similar age distribution and collection date. Congeners with IUPAC Nos. 138 and 153 accounted for more than 50% of total identifiable PCBs, which is consistent with their prevalence in other marine biota. The concentration of PCBs has declined and the percent p,p'-DDE of total DDT has increased between 1982 and the present study. Unlike the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), harp seals occupy the more polluted waters of the estuary only seasonally, and this may account for their lower residue concentrations. 59 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds of Belgium: levels, patterns, tissue distribution and condition factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspers, V.L.B.; Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Dauwe, T.; Eens, M.; Schepens, P.

    2006-01-01

    Liver and muscle samples from 7 species of aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds from Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PCBs were the predominant compounds in our samples, which showed highest concentrations in the liver of barn owl (Tyto alba) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (up to 1000 μg/g lipid weight). PBDEs could be determined in most samples at lower concentrations than PCBs (up to 64 μg/g lipid in sparrowhawk liver). Sparrowhawks had the highest levels of hexachlorobenzene, DDTs and PBDEs. In contrast, kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) had relatively low levels of most measured organochlorines. BDE 47 was the most abundant congener in heron (Ardea cinerea) and grebe (Podiceps cristatus), while BDE 47, 99 and 153 were equally important in the terrestrial species. BDE 183 and BDE 209 were only measured in the terrestrial birds. These results indicate that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than aquatic species. - Aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds show different accumulation profiles of PBDEs

  8. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ∑OCPs content was 3.87 ng g⁻¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ∑PCBs value was 3.93 ng g⁻¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g⁻¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  10. Smoking as a Determinant of High Organochlorine Levels in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2003-01-01

    diet, and smoking or plasma cotinine in multiple linear-regression models (p smoking status. These findings confirm that the source of POPs among the Inuit in Greenland is diet, but smoking......The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine...... is an important determinant of POP bioaccumulation. Smoking cessation may provide a means to lower the body burden of POPs....

  11. Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

    2000-01-01

    Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air–grass–yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p′-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air–butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. - Highlights: • Air, grass and butter POPs in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were at the lower end of the global levels. • The pasture of the TP was found to be a “sink” of DDTs. • Bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the food chain: air–grass–yak. • The TF A:B was tested to be an excellent tool to predict air OCPs and PCBs in the TP. - Transfer and bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the terrestrial food chain: air–grass–yak (butter)

  13. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackmann, G.-M.; Schaller, K.-H.; Angerer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 μg/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 μg/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 μg/l; ΣPCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 μg/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 μg/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 μg/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any health risks for our

  14. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.-M.; Schaller, K.-H.; Angerer, J

    2004-08-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 {mu}g/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 {mu}g/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 {mu}g/l; {sigma}PCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 {mu}g/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 {mu}g/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 {mu}g/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any

  15. PCDDs/PCDFs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides in eggs of Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), hobbies (Falco subbuteo), and northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) collected in the area of Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmüller, T; Sömmer, P; Volland, M; Schlatterer, B

    2002-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in unsuccessfully hatched eggs of three different kinds of predatory birds: 3 eggs of sparrowhawks, 7 eggs of hobbies, and 16 eggs of goshawks collected in the German region of Berlin-Brandenburg. Using toxic equivalency factors for birds, eggs of hobbies contained mean concentrations of 478 pg TEQ/g fat and 551 pg TEQ/g fat contributed by PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs, respectively. For sparrowhawks the respective TCDD equivalents were 424 and 1278 pg/g fat; those for goshawks were 211 and 935 pg/g fat. The mean value of the summed concentrations of the PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180 amounted to 11 microg/g fat in eggs of hobbies, 9.5 microg/g fat for sparrowhawks, and 16.1 microg/g fat for goshawks. Of the analyzed organochlorine pesticides the concentration of p,p'-DDE was highest (up to 273 microg/g); the concentration of the other OCs, with the exception of methoxychlor in eggs of goshawks (highest level of 10.6 microg/g fat), were negligible. In all cases the calculated toxicity of the coplanar PCBs surpassed the toxicity of the PCDD/Fs, at least by a factor of two. Due to the higher concentration of the coplanar PCB 77 compared to PCB 126 in eggs of hobbies, it is concluded that its metabolic excretion in this species is much lower than in sparrowhawks and goshawks.

  16. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Someya, Masayuki; Kayama, Fujio; Jin Yihe; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    The present study determined the concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China during 2002. In addition, dioxins and related compounds in pooled samples of human breast milk from Dalian and Shenyang were also analyzed. OCs were detected in all the human breast milk samples analyzed in this study. The predominant contaminants in human breast milk were HCHs, DDTs and HCB, and the levels were relatively higher than those in other countries. On the other hand, concentrations of dioxins and related compounds, PCBs, and CHLs were relatively low. Concentrations of OCs in human breast milk from Dalian, which is located along the coast of Bo Hai Strait, were significantly higher than those from Shenyang, implying that the residents in Dalian might be mainly exposed to these contaminants from seafood. When the relationship between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of primiparae was examined, no significant correlation was observed. This might be caused by the limited sample numbers and narrow range of mother's age and/or recent ban of DDT and HCH production and use. Significant correlation between concentrations of TCPMe and DDTs in human breast milk suggested that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in the Chinese population. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through human breast milk were estimated, human breast milk from Dalian showed significantly higher contribution than Shenyang, implying that infants in Dalian might be at higher risk by these contaminants

  17. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  18. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Miquel; Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers

  19. Organochlorine Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels and compositions of organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in soil samples collected from a former formulation plant in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania, were determined. Extraction was performed by pressurized fluid extraction using n-hexane:acetone (75:25) mixture. Clean-up of extracts was ...

  20. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  1. Organochlorines in common dolphins caught in shark nets during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of organochlorines were determined in blubber and liver samples from common dolphins inhabiting the coastal waters of the south-east coast of southern Africa. Liver levels of PCBs and DDTs are far lower and do not appear directly associated with those in blubber. In males, blubber residue ...

  2. Partition distribution of selected organochlorine pesticides in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in surface water, pore water and surface sediment samples collected from the uMngeni River, which is one of the largest rivers in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the analytes from water and pore water samples and ...

  3. Organochlorine residues in tissues of marine fauna along the coast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings highlight evidence of pollution of marine fauna at the Kenyan coastal sites. It is necessary to have thorough waste management programs as a strategy to minimize marine pollution. KEY WORDS: Environmental samples; Marine samples; Kenya-Mombasa coastline; Marine fauna, Organochlorine, Pesticides.

  4. Assessment and review of organochlorine pesticide pollution in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichuev, Rakhmanbek Mamatkadyrovich; Zhilova, Liudmila Victorovna; Makambaeva, Gulsanam Bakhtiyarovna; Payzildaev, Timur Rashidinovich; Pronk, Wouter; Bouwknegt, Matthijs; Weber, Roland

    2017-09-06

    The current study describes the preliminary assessment and securing activities of the largest and most hazardous POPs-contaminated sites in Kyrgyzstan. In 2010, cattle died and population were found with high pesticide levels in blood, human milk, and placenta. In the first phase of the study, a historic assessment of the pesticide dumping at the landfill/dump sites have been conducted. In the second phase, soil analysis for organochlorine pesticides in the areas of the pesticide disposal sites, the former pesticides storehouses, agro-air strips, and the cotton-growing fields were conducted. By this assessment, a first overview of the types and sources of pollution and of the scale of the problem is compiled including information gaps. From major pesticides used, DDT, DDE, and HCH were measured in the highest concentrations. With the limited analytical capacity present, a reasonable risk assessment could be performed. This paper also reports on practical risk reduction measures that have been carried out recently at the two major pesticide disposal sites with support of a Dutch environmental engineering company, an international NGO (Green Cross Switzerland) and local authorities from the Suzak region within an UN project. Local population living near the sites of the former pesticide storehouses and agro-airstrips are advised not to cultivate vegetables and melons or to raise cattle on these areas. Instead, it is recommended to grow technical crops or plant trees. Further recommendations on monitoring and assessment is given including the suggestion to consider the findings in the National Implementation Plan of Kyrgyzstan.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  6. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.R.; Green, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm 2 , allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  7. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A.; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia

  8. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  9. A mechanistic overview of health associated effects of low levels of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P.; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides are compounds that can be detected in human populations as a result of occupational or residential exposure. Despite their occurrence in considerably low levels in humans, their biological effects are hazardous since they interact with a plethora of enzymes, proteins, receptors and transcription factors. In this review we summarize the cell and molecular effects of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides with respect to their toxicity, with particular emphasis on glucose and lipid metabolism, their interaction with some members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, including the steroid and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors that changes the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. More importantly, evidence regarding the metabolic degradation of pesticides and their accumulation in tissues is presented. Potential non-cholinergic mechanisms after long-term low-dose organophosphate exposure resulting in neurodevelopmental outcomes and neurodegeneration are also addressed. We conclude that the mechanism of pesticide-mediated toxicity is a combination of various enzyme-inhibitory, metabolic and transcriptional events acting at the cellular and molecular level

  10. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in conifer needles in the southeast Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruiqiang; Yao Tandong; Xu Baiqing; Jiang Guibin; Zheng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine conifer needles in mountain-valley areas from the southeastern Tibet were collected with altitude span from 1520 to 4340 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Concentrations of OCPs in samples ranged from 0.69 to 4.3 ng/g, from 0.39 to 4.9 ng/g and from 1.9 to 20.5 ng/g (dry weight) for HCB, total HCHs and DDTs, respectively. The levels of DDTs found here were noticeably higher than those from other high mountainous regions. Composition of HCH isomers and DDTs was analyzed, and it was found that the high ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT might be caused by the application of dicofol in adjacent regions. A number of environmental factors controlling the distribution of OCPs in regional scale were also discussed in this paper. - Conifer needles in southeastern Tibet indicate several organochlorine pesticides are transported from the Indian continent by the southern Asian monsoon

  11. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ted H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6160 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, PO Box 764, Jefferson, TX 75657 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Math and Science, Oglala Lakota College, 490 Piya Wiconi Road, Kyle, SD, 57752 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch.

  12. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waliszewski, S.M. (Univ. of Veracruz, (Mexico)); Szymczynski, G.A. (Medical Academy, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

    1991-06-01

    Since organochlorine pesticides were introduced for plant protection and sanitation, they have been of great benefit in the control of pest populations and in combating the spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, they accumulate in the environment and this has resulted in a ban on their use. Nevertheless, they are still widely used in tropical countries as the insecticides of choice. An analytical procedure was elaborated to find out the extent of contamination of the human body by persistent residues of organochlorine pesticides and to determine the gradient between adipose tissue and biological fluids, which correlates with bioaccumulation and dissipation processes. The method has two important advantages: it is a simple, low-cost semi-micro, and it makes it possible to determine free and bound pesticides.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  14. Hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced magnetic nanoparticles: preparation and application in magnetic solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a novel hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced magnetic nanoparticle, magnetic poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (HLB-MPNP) was successfully synthesized and applied for the extraction and determination of triazine and organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples. The specific ratio of two monomers, hydrophilic N-vinylpyrrolidone and lipophilic divinylbenzene, endowed the magnetic nanoparticles with hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced character, which made it capable of extracting both polar and nonpolar analytes. The experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency, including desorption conditions, sample pH, sample volume and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.20-10 μg L(-1) for triazine herbicides and 5.0-100 ng L(-1) for organochlorine pesticides, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.994 to 0.999. The limits of determination were between 0.048 and 0.081 μg L(-1) for triazine herbicides and 0.39 and 3.26 ng L(-1) for organochlorine pesticides. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of triazine and organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples (ground, river and reservoir). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, B.; Crespo, Jorge; Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Olea-Serrano, M.F.; Olea, N.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic compounds that persist in the environment. Because of their lipid solubility and resistance to metabolism, some of these chemicals accumulate in human tissues. The largest area of intensive greenhouse agriculture in Europe is near the Mediterranean coast of Southern Spain, where this type of farming has greatly expanded since the 1960s. We determined and compared the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue and blood of 200 women living in Southern Spain. Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, methoxychlor, endosulfans, and DDT and its metabolites were identified. Detectable concentrations of p,p'-DDE were found in 100% of adipose tissue and serum samples. Among the remaining DDTs, p,p'-DDT was the most common, being detected in 39% of adipose tissue and 76.5% of serum samples, followed by endosulfans I and II, which also were found in both adipose tissue and serum samples but at lower concentrations. Endosulfans were followed in frequency by lindane, aldrin, and dieldrin. Endrin and methoxychlor were present at a much lower frequency compared to those of the other organochlorines. Serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE o,p'-DDD, and endosulfan -I, -sulfate, -lactone, and -diol were significantly correlated with their adipose tissue concentrations. No significant relationships were found between the serum and adipose tissue concentrations of the remaining nine compounds determined, raising doubts about the equivalent use of fat/serum samples for the exposure assessment of some pesticides in epidemiological studies. The results suggested that women of reproductive age in Southern Spain have been and are currently exposed to organochlorine pesticides. Because many of these chemicals can mobilize during pregnancy and lactation, further research is warranted to interpret the health consequences for the children of such exposure

  16. Organochlorine insecticide poisoning in Golden Langurs Trachypithecus geei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Pathak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine insecticide poisoning was recorded in three Golden Langurs (Trachypithecus geei in Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS in Kokrajhar district of Assam during the month of December, 2008. The poisoning was due to prolonged ingestion of rubber plant leaves sprayed with the insecticide in a rubber plantation adjacent to the sanctuary. Though no specific gross lesions were observed, histopathologically, centilobular hepatic necrosis, mild renal degeneration, necrotic enteritis, pulmonary congestion and neuronal degeneration were recorded in all three animals.

  17. Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhao, Zhenyong; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2011-12-01

    Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides.

  18. Determination of vaporization enthalpies of polychlorinated biphenyls by correlation gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, S; Chickos, J S; Welsh, W J

    2001-04-01

    The vaporization enthalpies of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls have been determined by correlation gas chromatography. This study was prompted by the realization that the vaporization enthalpy of the standard compounds used in previous studies, octadecane and eicosane, were values measured at 340 and 362 K, respectively, rather than at 298 K. Adjustment to 298 K amounts to a 7-8 kJ/mol increment in the values. With the inclusion of this adjustment, vaporization enthalpies evaluated by correlation gas chromatography are in good agreement with the values determined previously in the literature. The present results are based on the vaporization enthalpies of several standards whose values are well established in the literature. The standards include a variety of n-alkanes and various chlorinated hydrocarbons. The vaporization enthalpies of PCBs increased with the number of chlorine atoms and were found to be larger for meta- and para-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls.

  19. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and its analogues, are organic contaminants widespread throughout the terrestrial and oceanic environments due to their common use and their resistance to degradation. Since harmful effects have been associated to these chemicals and well documented, they are classified as priority pollutants by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union. Because of the very low solubility in water and the tendency to adsorb onto sediment particles, the ultimate fate of both PCBs and DDTs in the marine environment is the incorporation into sediments. Hence, the concentrations of these chlorinate chemicals in bottom sediments can provide an insight on the quality of the environment and the potential threat to marine organisms and human beings. The Ligurian Sea belongs to the north part of the western Mediterranean. The coastal morphology of the Liguria Region is rather variable, and frequently cliffs drop sheer to the sea. The limited width of the coastal zone, comprised between the sea and the mountains, determined a gathering of the urban areas with a consequent concentration of both civil and industrial presence in a narrow but highly populated territory. In particular Genova, but also other cities have a long history of industrial and harbour activities, whereas long tracts of the coast are dedicated to tourism. The circulation of the Ligurian Sea is rather well known. In particular, surface and intermediate currents follow a cyclonic circulation. However local circulation is the true responsible of the dispersion of sediment material along the coast, and these alongshore currents often cause an eastward oriented transport. The Ligurian coastal zone is very developed, and hosts all sort of industrial, agricultural and tourist activities that can be sources of persistent organochlorine chemicals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess concentrations, distributions

  1. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  2. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Éric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning S.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We rep...

  3. Metabolic syndrome is associated with exposure to organochlorine pesticides in Anniston, AL, United States☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Silverstone, Allen E.; Sjödin, Andreas; Pavuk, Marian

    2017-01-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study, was undertaken in 2005–2007 to study environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and health outcomes among residents of Anniston, AL, United States. The examination of potential risks between these pollutants and metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia) was the focus of this analysis. Participants were 548 adults who completed the survey and a clinic visit, were free of diabetes, and had a serum sample for clinical laboratory parameters as well as PCB and OC pesticide concentrations. Associations between summed concentrations of 35 PCB congeners and 9 individual pesticides and metabolic syndrome were examined using generalized linear modeling and logistic regression; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Pollutants were evaluated as quintiles and as log transformations of continuous serum concentrations. Participants were mostly female (68%) with a mean age (SD) of 53.6 (16.2) years. The racial distribution was 56% white and 44% African American; 49% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In unadjusted logistic regression, statistically significant and positive associations across the majority of quintiles were noted for seven individually modeled pesticides (p,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDE, HCB, β-HCCH, oxychlor, tNONA, Mirex). Following adjustment for covariables (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, positive family history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, liver disease, BMI), significant elevations in risk were noted for p,p′-DDT across multiple quintiles (range of ORs 1.61 to 2.36), for tNONA (range of ORs 1.62–2.80) and for p,p′-DDE [OR (95% CI)] of 2.73 (1.09–6.88) in the highest quintile relative to the first. Significant trends were observed in adjusted logistic models for log

  4. Metabolic syndrome is associated with exposure to organochlorine pesticides in Anniston, AL, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paula F; Weinstock, Ruth S; Silverstone, Allen E; Sjödin, Andreas; Pavuk, Marian

    2017-11-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study, was undertaken in 2005-2007 to study environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and health outcomes among residents of Anniston, AL, United States. The examination of potential risks between these pollutants and metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia) was the focus of this analysis. Participants were 548 adults who completed the survey and a clinic visit, were free of diabetes, and had a serum sample for clinical laboratory parameters as well as PCB and OC pesticide concentrations. Associations between summed concentrations of 35 PCB congeners and 9 individual pesticides and metabolic syndrome were examined using generalized linear modeling and logistic regression; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Pollutants were evaluated as quintiles and as log transformations of continuous serum concentrations. Participants were mostly female (68%) with a mean age (SD) of 53.6 (16.2) years. The racial distribution was 56% white and 44% African American; 49% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In unadjusted logistic regression, statistically significant and positive associations across the majority of quintiles were noted for seven individually modeled pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, HCB, β-HCCH, oxychlor, tNONA, Mirex). Following adjustment for covariables (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, positive family history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, liver disease, BMI), significant elevations in risk were noted for p,p'-DDT across multiple quintiles (range of ORs 1.61 to 2.36), for tNONA (range of ORs 1.62-2.80) and for p,p'-DDE [OR (95% CI)] of 2.73 (1.09-6.88) in the highest quintile relative to the first. Significant trends were observed in adjusted logistic models for log 10 HCB [OR=6

  5. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in eggs of little owls (Athene noctua) from Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspers, Veerle; Covaci, Adrian; Maervoet, Johan; Dauwe, Tom; Voorspoels, Stefan; Schepens, Paul; Eens, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Residues of brominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 40 eggs of little owls (Athene noctua), a terrestrial top predator from Belgium. The major organohalogens detected were PCBs (median 2,600 ng/g lipid, range 790-23000 ng/g lipid). PCB 153,138/163, 170, 180 and 187 were the predominant congeners and constituted 71% of total sum PCBs. PBDEs were measurable in all samples, but their concentrations were much lower than for PCBs, with a range from 29-572 ng/g lipid (median 108 ng/g lipid). The most prevalent PBDE congeners in little owl egg samples were BDE 47, 99 and 153. This profile differs from the profile in marine bird species, for which BDE 47 was the dominant congener, indicating that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than marine birds. The fully brominated BDE 209 could be detected in one egg sample (17 ng/g lipid), suggesting that higher brominated BDEs may accumulate in terrestrial food chains. Brominated biphenyl (BB) 153 was determined in all egg samples, with levels ranging from 0.6 to 5.6 ng/g lipid (median 1.3 ng/g lipid). Additionally, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) could be identified and quantified in only two eggs at levels of 20 and 50 ng/g lipid. OCPs were present at low concentrations, suggesting a rather low contamination of the sampled environment with OCPs (median concentrations of sum DDTs: 826 ng/g lipid, sum chlordanes: 1,016 ng/g lipid, sum HCHs: 273 ng/g lipid). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) were also found at low median levels of 134 and 3.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. Concentrations of most analytes were significantly higher in eggs collected from deserted nests in comparison to addled (unhatched) eggs, while eggshell thickness did not differ between deserted and addled eggs. No significant correlations were found between eggshell thickness and the analysed organohalogens. - PBDEs are measurable

  6. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  7. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

    2003-01-01

    Diet composition must be considered in programs designed to detect temporal changes in chemical contamination. - Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn

  8. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH). A high level of β-HCH and low α-HCH/β-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of β-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (γ-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of γ-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region.

  9. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  10. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  11. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

    2003-04-01

    Diet composition must be considered in programs designed to detect temporal changes in chemical contamination. - Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn.

  12. Analysis of polychlorinated n-alkanes in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F J; Parera, J; Galceran, M T

    2006-10-01

    Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs), also known as chlorinated paraffins (CPs), are highly complex technical mixtures that contain a huge number of structural isomers, theoretically more than 10,000 diastereomers and enantiomers. As a consequence of their persistence, tendency to bioaccumulation, and widespread and unrestricted use, PCAs have been found in aquatic and terrestrial food webs, even in rural and remote areas. Recently, these compounds have been included in regulatory programs of several international organizations, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Union. Consequently, there is a growing demand for reliable methods with which to analyze PCAs in environmental samples. Here, we review current trends and recent developments in the analysis of PCAs in environmental samples such as air, water, sediment, and biota. Practical aspects of sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and detection are covered, with special emphasis placed on analysis of PCAs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The advantages and limitations of these techniques as well as recent improvements in quantification procedures are discussed.

  13. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jim A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, PO Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, PO Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H{sub 2} to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products.

  14. Consolidated PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] improves waste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1991-01-01

    Consolidation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is recommended for improving ownership control of wastes, eliminating PCB storage sites, and increasing cost-effectiveness of waste management. In Ontario, sites receiving the waste must be owned by the waste generator and registered as a PCB site. All PCBs must be removed from a site with no contaminated materials or wastes left behind, which requires a thorough site assessment to identify wastes prior to removal, a sampling and analytical scheme if necessary, and an approved plan for site cleanup. If large volumes of PCB-contaminated oil are involved, it may be cost-effective to put oil from several sites into bulk tanks and thus avoid the need to handle and decontaminate a large number of drums. With low volumes of oil, it may be possible to move the waste to another site where mobile PCB destruction is taking place. It also may be possible to get approval to blend high-level PCB liquids with mineral oil to reduce the PCB concentration to a level where chemical decontamination is allowed. For large volumes of high-level PCB wastes, consolidation will be necessary simply because of the high costs of mobilizing an incinerator and the requirement for public hearings for each incineration project. To make such a project cost-effective, PCB wastes will have to be concentrated from a large geographic area. 1 fig

  15. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, I.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  16. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Jim A.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H 2 to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products

  17. Health risk assessment of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls contaminations in dairy products from selected farms in Greater Accra Region - Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, D.

    2013-07-01

    The residual concentrations of synthetic chemicals such as organochlorines pesticides (OCPs), pyrethroids and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy products (milk, yoghurt, cheese) from selected farms in Greater Accra were analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC). A total of 50 samples of dairy products (9 cheese, 25 cow milk and 16 yogourt) were analyzed for OCPs, prethroids and PCBs. Of the numerious pesticides evaluated, detectable levels of OCPs (β-HCH, endrin, heptachlor, endosulfan, p ' p-DDT and methoxchlor); synthetic prethroids (permathrin, allethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and PCBs (18, 28, 52, 101, 153, 138, and 180) were found in all the dairy product samples analysed. Milk samples were found to be the most contaminated with respect to the OCPs and the levels ranged between 0.0001µg/ml and 0.0407µg/ml. ß-HCH was the highest OCP with concentration of 0.0407µg/ml while cyfluthrin was the highest synthetic prethroids recorded in yoghurt sample (0.0318µg/ml). The highest PCB 18 (2,2,5-Trichlorobiphenyl) recorded (0.2668µg/ml) in yoghurt samples. (Data obtained from the field survey regarding safe use of pesticides, toxicity awareness and symptoms among farmers indicated that a very high proportion of animal farmers were at a high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 70% of farm workers did not practise safety precaution during pesticide mixing and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness including nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, abdominal cramps, dizziness, diarrhoea and headaches in this agricultural community. The presence of pesticide residues in dairy products was of further concern because milk is the main protein diet for infants. The estimated dose for γ-chlordane(8.5x10 5 µ/ml), endrin(0.0114 µg/ml) p ' p ' -DDT(8.5x10 5 µg/ml), DDE(8.5x10 5 µg/ml),heptachlor(2.5x10 5 µg/ml), dieldrin(6.8x10 5 µg/ml) do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present

  18. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues from a total of 45 grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) meat samples obtained from the Gomoa district, a vegetable farming area in the Central Region of Ghana. All samples were analyzed for their residue content of the following organochlorine pesticides; DDT, DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane (γ-HCH) and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load. All organochlorine pesticides investigated were detected in the muscle tissues of the grasscutter at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.833μg /kg, heptachlor 0.695μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.283μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.108μg /kg, dieldrin 0.040 μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.019μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.014μg /kg, endrin 0.018μg /kg, endrin aldehyde 0.090μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.340μg /kg, α-endosulfan 0.162μg /kg, endosulfan sulfate 0.183μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.174μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.101μg /kg wet weight. The organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in the liver tissues at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.315μg /kg, heptachlor 0.530μg /kg, dieldrin 0.050μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.233μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.070μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.123μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.043μg /kg endrin aldehyde 0.110μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.115μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.093μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.128μg /kg wet weight. No endrin was however detected in the liver. The highest concentrations of γ-HCH, δ-HCH, endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde were measured in the kidney. The mean concentrations of γ-HCH and δ-HCH in the kidney were 0.435μg /kg and 0.107μg /kg respectively. Endrin aldehyde was detected at 0.135μg /kg in

  19. Comparing Mini-Mental State Examination and Attention and Digit Span in elderly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kao-Chang; Huang, Po-Chang; Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Ke, Der-Shin

    2010-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are known to affect central nervous functioning. In recent studies, elderly patients who have been exposed to these have been noted to have psychological deficits. There is little known about which test is sensitive to neurotoxins in cognitive evaluation. The objective of the present study was to compare the significance between selective psychological tests in cognitive assessment in PCB-laden elderly. A retrospective PCB/PCDF exposed cohort was observed. Exposed elderly aged ≥ 60 years and registered in Central Health Administration were enrolled, and similar age- and sex-matched subjects served as non-exposed controls. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Attention and Digit Span (ADS) were tested in both groups. Student's t-test, χ(2) -test and linear regression models were used for statistical analysis.  A total of 165 exposed patients and 151 controls were analyzed. The exposed group included 49% men, a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.4 years and an education level of 4.0 ± 3.9 years. The controls included 52% men, a mean age of 69.9 ± 5.5 years and an education level of 4.5 ± 3.2 years. There was no statistical difference in MMSE before and after adjusting for the confounding variables of age, sex and education (P= 0.16 vs P= 0.12). However, ADS-forward and ADS-total scores showed a significant decline in the exposed subjects (P= 0.0001 vs P= 0.001). Using a linear regression among stratified PCB and cognitive functioning (≤30 ppb; 31-89; ≥90), a dose effect was found at the medium (31-89 ppb) and high exposure (≧90 ppb) levels. Our observations showed attention and short-term memory were impaired in PCB-laden elderly patients. Higher exposure level showed lower cognitive functioning in ADS. The MMSE was insensitive to neurotoxins. The present study shows that the selective test has a decisive role in toxic-related cognitive assessments. © 2010 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics

  20. Evaluation of Organochlorine Compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) in Two Raptor Species Inhabiting a Mediterranean Island in Spain (8 pp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Rubén; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Olie, Kees

    2007-01-01

    -: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2006.01.015 Species that are at high levels of the food web have often been used as bioindicators to evaluate the presence of persistent contaminants in ecosystems. Most of these species are long-lived, so pollutant burdens may be integrated in some complex way over time. This makes them particularly sensitive to deleterious effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Birds have been suggested as useful organisms for monitoring pollutant levels. Traditionally such studies have been carried out with raptors such as osprey (Pandion haliaetus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), bald eagle (Haliaetus leucocephalus), etc. In this paper we present the results of a monitoring study conducted on two raptor species, osprey (Pandion haliaetus) and red kite (Milvus milvus), inhabiting a Mediterranean island (Menorca, Spain). These two species have different feeding habits; ospreys prey on fish and red kites feed on terrestrial species. This study constitutes a good opportunity to investigate if differences in feeding habits (aquatic vs. terrestrial) influences the contaminants pattern in two species inhabiting the same area. The study was conducted in a non-destructive way, using only failed eggs, to avoid the damage of the population stability. Eggs were collected during the period 1994-2000. The contaminants examined were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs, including DDT and its main metabolite, DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including ortho PCBs (PCBs with at least one Chlorine atom in the ortho position): #28, 52, 95, 101, 123+149, 118, 114, 153, 132+105, 138, 167, 156, 157, 180, 170, 189, 194; and non ortho PCBs (PCBs with no Chlorine atom in the ortho position): #77, 126, 169 and all the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) with Chlorine atoms at the 2,3,7 and 8 position (2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs). The analysis of organochlorine compounds was performed

  1. Emissions control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans at municipal waste combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, S.C.; Jozewicz, W.; Sedman, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives the results of an analysis of available emission data of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to evaluate the effectiveness of various air pollution control devices on PCDD/PCDF removal. The effects of flue gas temperature, recycling fabric filter ash, and process additives such as ammonia and Tesisorb powder were also analyzed. The analysis shows that MWCs equipped with a spray dryer followed by fabric filters can achieve PCDD/PCDF removal efficiencies (REs) of 97% and higher. A RE of 94% has been achieved at a combustor equipped with a Thermal DeNO x system followed by a spray dryer and fabric filters. MWCs equipped with a duct sorbent injection system followed by fabric filters can potentially achieve a RE of 99%. A combustor equipped with a spray dryer followed by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) has achieved a RE of 64%. Neither a duct sorbent injection system followed by ESPs nor a furnace sorbent injection system followed by ESPs could effectively remove PCDD/PCDF. PCDD/PCDF were not effectively removed from MWCs equipped with ESPs as the only devices to control air pollution

  2. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  3. Activated carbon immobilizes residual polychlorinated biphenyls in weathered contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Valérie S; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has recently been shown to be effective in sequestering persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from aquatic sediments. Most studies have demonstrated significant reductions of POP concentrations in water and in aquatic organisms; however, limited data exist on the possibility of using AC to immobilize remaining POPs at terrestrial contaminated sites. Under greenhouse conditions, pumpkin ssp cv. Howden) were grown, and red wiggler worms () were exposed to an industrial contaminated soil containing a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e., Aroclors 1254 and 1260) treated with one of four concentrations of AC (0.2, 0.8, 3.1, and 12.5%) for 2 mo. The addition of AC to contaminated soils virtually eliminated the bioavailability of PCBs to the plant and invertebrate species. There were reductions in PCB concentrations of more than 67% in ssp and 95% in . These data suggest that AC could be included as part of comprehensive site closure strategy at PCB-contaminated sites. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Spatial distribution of organochlorine contaminants in soil, sediment, and fish in Bikini and Enewetak Atolls of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Caccamise, Sarah A L; Wu, Liejun; Woodward, Lee Ann; Li, Qing X

    2011-08-01

    Several nuclear tests were performed at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. The events at Bikini Atoll involved several ships that were tested for durability during nuclear explosions, and 24 vessels now rest on the bottom of the Bikini lagoon. Nine soil samples were collected from different areas on the two islands of the atoll, and eighteen sediment, nine fish, and one lobster were collected in the vicinity of the sunken ships. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in these samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS). The average recoveries ranged from 78% to 104% for the different PCB congeners. The limits of detection (LOD) for PCBs, PCTs, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin ranged 10-50 pg g(-1). Some fish from Enewetak contained PCBs at a concentration range of 37-137 ng g(-1), dry weight (dw), and most of the soils from Enewetak showed evidence of PCBs (22-392 ng g(-1)dw). Most of the Bikini lagoon sediment samples contained PCBs, and the highest was the one collected from around the Saratoga, an aircraft carrier (1555 ng g(-1)dw). Some of the fish samples, most of the soil samples, and only one of the sediment samples contained 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs. In addition to PCBs, the soils from Enewetak Atoll contained PCTs. PCTs were not detected in the sediment samples from Bikini Atoll. The results suggest local pollution sources of PCBs, PCTs, and OCPs. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) near a municipal solid waste incinerator using black kites (Milvus migrans) as sentinel organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Merino, R. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Olie, K. [Univ. of Amterdam (Netherlands); Blanco, G.; Frias, O. [CSIC, IREC, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Wildlife has received much attention during last decades as an indicator of ecosystems health. Kubiak at al. (1989) showed that there are significant effect on reproductive success due to organochlorines, not only in hatching success, but also in chick health. Due to the widespread distribution of these xenoestrogens, there is a need for screening and risk evaluation of these endocrine disrupters in living organisms from the global point of view of ecosystems health. Aspects of the life history of the black kites (Milvus migrans) make them a useful species for contaminants monitoring. They are long-lived birds, adapt well to human areas and many feeds at dumps, garbage tips, etc. where a wide range of contaminants can be found3. Effects of chlorinated pollutants have not been widely studied in this species. In 2001, a monitoring program was initiated in order to evaluate the health of a population of black kites nesting in the Regional Park of the Southeastern of Madrid (RPSM), Spain. This study is part of a larger research investigation of the influence of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) on the kites'surroundings. Since Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are suspected to produce some highly toxic POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) as well as other short of toxic chemicals (e.g. PCBs and heavy metals) this study was initiated with the aim of investigating the potential toxicity of these compounds on the kites population. The purpose of this study was to conduct the evaluation in a non-destructive way. Since eggs are known to reflect the accumulation of lipophilic contaminants in birds, the study was based on the use of unhatched eggs obtained from black kites.

  6. Potential use of Vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in Peregrine falcon exposed to organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Mori, G.; Concejero, M.A.; Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Many different classes of environmental contaminants such as industrial chemicals (e.g. alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans), ''can cause adverse effects in the reproductive functions of intact organisms or their progenies, consequent to changes in endocrine functions'' showing a so-called Endocrine disruptor activity. Avian raptor species, such as peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) for their peculiar position in the food web are potentially at risk in relation to the accumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals. Recent studies carried out with Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Spain reveal a contamination with organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) which could be responsible of the decrease of successful pairs observed during the last ten years. Thus there is a need to develop sensitive diagnostic monitoring tools for the evaluation of toxicological risk and potential effects on the reproductive function and population dynamic of avian top predator species. Two markers for the detection of EDs effects in oviparous vertebrates are induction of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (ZR). Vtg, a complex phospholipoglycoprotein, is the major egg-yolk protein precursor and is normally synthesized by females in response to estradiol. ZR together with Zona Pellucida (ZP) constitutes in birds part of the eggshell. These proteins (Vtg, ZR and ZP) are normally synthesised in the liver as a response to an estrogen signal given by Estradiol. Males and sexually undifferentiated specimens also have the Vtg and ZR genes but do not express them unless exposed to estrogenic compounds. The main aim of this preliminary study was to develop methods for the detection of Vtg and ZR in plasma obtained from peregrine falcon as a specific biomarker for the evaluation of the effects of EDCs.

  7. Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, João Paulo Machado; Leite, Claudio; Krauss, Thomas; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    In 1997, the Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin (PCDD)/Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in dairy products in Germany and other European countries increased. The PCDD/PCDF source was contaminated lime used in Brazilian citrus pulp pellets. The contaminated lime was mined from an industrial dump site. However, the detailed origin of the PCDD/PCDFs in the lime was not revealed. This paper investigates the contamination origin and describes the link between lime milk from the dumpsite of a chlorine/organochlorine industry and the contaminated lime. The contaminated lime stem from mining at the corporate landfill of Solvay Indupa in Sao Paulo. The landfill was used for 40 years for deposition of production residues and closed in 1996. The factory operated/operates at least two processes with potentially high PCDD/PCDFs releases namely the oxychlorination process for production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and the chlor-alkali process. The main landfilled waste was lime milk (1.4 million tons) from the vinyl chloride monomer production (via the acetylene process) along with residues from other processes. The PCDD/PCDF fingerprint revealed that most samples from the chemical landfill showed an EDC PCDD/PCDF pattern with a characteristic octachlorodibenzofuran dominance. The PCDD/PCDF pattern of a Rio Grande sediment samples downstream the facility showed a chlor-alkali pattern with a minor impact of the EDC pattern. The case highlights that PCDD/PCDF- and persistent organic pollutants-contaminated sites need to be identified in a comprehensive manner as required by the Stockholm Convention (article 6) and controlled for their impact on the environment and human health. Landfill mining and reuse of materials from contaminated deposits should be prohibited.

  8. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O' Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G

    2003-04-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by {delta}{sup 15}N) is positively correlated with increasing {delta}{sup 13}C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCB) > chlordane-related compounds ({sigma}CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane ({sigma}HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) {>=}chlorobenzenes ({sigma}ClBz) > DDT-related isomers ({sigma}DDT). In liver, {sigma}CHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by {sigma}PCB > TOX > {sigma}HCH > {sigma}ClBz > {sigma}DDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of {delta}{sup 15}N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While {sigma}PCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs.

  9. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O'Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by δ 15 N) is positively correlated with increasing δ 13 C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) > chlordane-related compounds (ΣCHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) ≥chlorobenzenes (ΣClBz) > DDT-related isomers (ΣDDT). In liver, ΣCHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by ΣPCB > TOX > ΣHCH > ΣClBz > ΣDDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of δ 15 N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While ΣPCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs

  10. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Sánchez, Marina; Bray, George A; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Peters, John C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss.

  11. The Rate of Success of the Accelerated Solvent Extraction (Ase of Fat and Organochlorine Pesticides from Dried Fish Meat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of conventional sample preparation techniques with newer techniques which are automated, faster and more eco-friendly, is nowadays desired in every analytical laboratory. One of the techniques with the attributes mentioned above is the Accelerated Solvent Extraction. In order to evaluate how successful this method is for the extraction of fat and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs from dried fish meat samples, we have tested two series of diverse fish using Dionex™ 350 ASE provided by Thermo Scientific™ (Germany. For a more interesting approach, we added to our investigation 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs, 3 thricholorobenzenes, 2 tetrachlorobenzenes, 1 pentachlorobenzenes and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. The study focused on comparing the recoveries of these analytes from different fish samples, after replacing the conventional reference method of the laboratory with ASE. The ASE parameters tested were previously used for the extraction of fat and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE from fish samples: temperature: 120 ° C; static time: 5 min; number of cycles: 3; flushing volume: 25%; rinse with nitrogen: 90 s; solvent: cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (ratio 1:1. The ASE method provided similar and in some cases better results when compared to the standard reference method, more rapidly, eco-friendly and safer. Any high or low recoveries of the analytes taken into study are attributed to random or systematic errors during the Clean-up step of the extracts and the quantification with Gas Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass-Spectrometry (GC MS/MS.

  12. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  13. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Sarah E.; Martin, Timothy J.; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Werner, David

    2010-01-01

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k O , estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D PE , and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K PE-water, are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K PE-water values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, Henry; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  15. Determination of persistent cyclic organochlorine residues in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-08

    Jul 8, 2010 ... cis and trans chlordane at concentrations of up to 0.003 mg/kg, while ... able for absorption into the biological system may be lower, due ... (Fig. 1; Table 1), were purchased from Riedel-de-Haën (Seelze- ... the samples were ground first with a mortar and pestle, before .... These included: hexane (polarity.

  16. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  17. Effects of energy conservation in major energy-intensive industrial sectors on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jing; Lu Yonglong; Wang Tieyu; Giesy, John P.; Chen Chunli

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target of increasing energy efficiency by 20% and reducing pollution discharges by 10% over the period 2006-2010. Promoting advanced technologies and closing outdated facilities are widely recognized as important measures to achieve these targets. These actions can also indirectly decrease release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The objectives of this paper are to identify and quantify reductions of PCDD/F emissions to air due to measures such as phasing out of obsolete facilities in the four most energy-intensive industrial sectors. Reductions in PCDD/F emissions from power generation were estimated to be 7, 33 and 38 g I-TEQ in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. For the cement industry, reductions were estimated to be 680 g I-TEQ between 2007 and 2008, and 740 g I-TEQ between 2009 and 2010. For the iron and steel industry, the reduction was estimated to be 113.3 g I-TEQ over the period 2007-2010, which includes 76.6 g I-TEQ in 2007. For the coke industry, the reduction was estimated to be 68 g I-TEQ in 2007 and 62 g I-TEQ in 2008.

  18. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective......% CI = 2-17%), respectively, of giving birth to a boy. In conclusion, maternal exposure to ΣPCB, DDE and methylmercury was associated with a slightly increased secondary sex ratio. The impact of paternal exposures could not be taken into account and deserves attention....

  19. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2015-01-01

    integrity, epididymal and accessory sex gland function, and Y:X chromosome ratio. We evaluated multipollutant models with sparse partial least squares (sPLS) regression, a simultaneous dimension reduction and variable selection approach which accommodates joint modelling of correlated exposures. RESULTS......; and inverse associations between DiNP metabolites and testosterone, between polychlorinated biphenyl-153 and progressive sperm motility, and between a DEHP metabolite and neutral α-glucosidase, a marker of epididymal function. CONCLUSIONS: This global assessment of a mixture of environmental contaminants...

  20. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in Euphausia superba and unhatched eggs of Pygoscelis genus penguins from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica) and estimation of biomagnification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides are compounds that do not occur naturally in the environment and are not easily degraded by chemical or microbiological action. In the present work, those compounds were analysed in unhatched penguin eggs and whole krill collected in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica in the austral summers of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The compounds found in higher levels (in a wet weight basis) were, in most of the egg samples, the PCBs (2.53-78.7 ng g(-1)), DDTs (2.07-38.0 ng g(-1)) and HCB (4.99-39.1 ng g(-1)) and after Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, the occurrence seemed to be species-specific for the Pygoscelis genus. In all of the cases, the levels found were not higher than the ones in Arctic birds in a similar trophic level. The krill samples analysis allowed estimating the biomagnification factors (which resulted in up to 363 for HCB, one order of magnitude higher than DDTs and chlordanes and two orders of magnitude higher than the other groups) of the compounds found in eggs, whose only source of contamination is the female-offspring transfer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Development of an Automated Clean-up for Fat Extracts in the Routine Analysis of Organochlorine Compounds in Fish Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a new, automatic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC Clean-up step, in the methodology of sample preparation and multi-residue determination of organochlorine compounds (OCs in fish meat. 24 OCs were taken into study. In addition 7 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, 7 chlorobenzene compounds and one 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD were investigated. The HPLC conditions were established in accordance with the validated traditional Clean-up step of the laboratory. The technique was applied on a dilution of analytes of interest in order to establish the period of time in which the compounds are eluted. Another set of experiments involved fish oil, in order to identify and separate the fat fraction from the analytes. To confirm the findings of the experiments mentioned above, extracts of fish samples obtained after Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE were examined. The samples were spiked with the analytes of interest before HPLC clean-up step and quantified through Gas Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. A HPLC clean-up technique lasting 38 minutes/sample was developed. The method is not suitable for OCs such as Endosulfansulfat and Endrine Ketone due to the very low recovery results.Â

  3. Development of a reference material for routine performance monitoring of methods measuring polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selliah, S S; Cussion, S; MacPherson, K A; Reiner, E J; Toner, D

    2001-06-01

    Matrix-matched environmental certified reference materials (CRMs) are one of the most useful tools to validate analytical methods, assess analytical laboratory performance and to assist in the resolution of data conflicts between laboratories. This paper describes the development of a lake sediment as a CRM for polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs). The presence of DLPCBs in the environment is of increased concern and analytical methods are being developed internationally for monitoring DLPCBs in the environment. This paper also reports the results of an international interlaboratory study involving thirty-five laboratories from seventeen countries, conducted to characterize and validate levels of a sediment reference material for PCDDs, PCDFs and DLPCBs.

  4. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals...... was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated...... to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with being skinny at birth and with higher infant levels of circulating IGF1 as well as accelerated early childhood growth (rapid catch-up growth)....

  6. Review of current evidence on the impact of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and selected metals on attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to investigate the association between attention defi cit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADHD- related symptoms and industrial chemicals, such as organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, lead, mercury and manganese. Medline, PubMed and EBSCO searches were performed to identify the studies that analyzed the association of prenatal and postnatal child exposure to such toxicants and ADHD or ADHD-related symptoms. The review is restricted to human studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals since 2000. Most of the presented studies focused on pesticides, PCB and lead. The impact of mercury and manganese was investigated less frequently. The fi ndings indicate that children’s exposure to organophosphate pesticides may cause symptoms consistent with pervasive developmental disorder, ADHD or attention problems. Exposures to organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were associated with ADHD-like behaviors such as alertness, quality of alert response, and cost of attention. The studies provided evidence that blood lead level below 10 μg/dl was associated with ADHD or ADHD-related symptoms. Information on the association between exposure to mercury and neurotoxicity is limited, and requires further confi rmation in future research. Two studies indicated that exposure to manganese is related to ADHD; such exposure and its impact on children neurodevelopment need to be further investigated. Future studies should use a prospective design with multiple biological samples collected over time for better assessment of exposure and its critical windows. Additionally, inclusion of potential confounding factors and co-exposures is crucial.

  7. Organochlorine contaminant and retinoid levels in blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) off northwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornero, Victoria; Borrell, Assumpcio; Aguilar, Alex; Forcada, Jaume; Lockyer, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The effect of age, sex, nutritive condition and organochlorine concentration on blubber retinoid concentrations was examined in 74 common dolphins incidentally caught off northwestern Spain. Age and blubber lipid content were strong determinants of the retinoid concentrations in males, while these variables did not account for the variation found in females. Retinoids were positively correlated with organochlorines in males and negatively in females. However, pollution levels were moderate and likely to be below threshold levels above that a toxicological response is to be expected. Thus, a cause-effect relationship between organochlorine and retinoid concentrations could not be properly established, and the observed correlation may be the result of an independent association of the two variables with age. Further research on the influence of the best predictor variables on retinoid dynamics is required to implement the use of retinoids as biomarkers of pollutant exposure in cetaceans. - Organochlorine contaminants and retinoids in common dolphins

  8. Organochlorine residues in some dolphin specimens stranded on Southern Adriatic Coasts (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Giacominelli Stuffler, R.; Ceci, E.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the concentration of PCBs and organochlorine compounds and percentage composition of the different PCB congeners in various tissues from four different species of cetaceans stranded on the Adriatic coast of Italy in July-September 1995

  9. Organochlorine compounds and ultrasound measurements of fetal growth in the INMA cohort (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); M. Murcia (Mario); A. Iñiguez (Andrés); E. Vizcaino (Esther); O. Costa (Olga); A. Fernández-Somoano (Ana); M. Basterrechea (Mikel); A. Lertxundi (Aitana); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); M. Gascon (Mireia); F. Goñi-Irigoyen (Fernando); J.O. Grimalt (Joan O.); A. Tardón (Adonina); F. Ballester (Ferran)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs), but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments. Objective: We examined the relationship

  10. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  12. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  13. Congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls and the effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of freshwater as a point source of PCBs contributing to a marine outfall region. Inflowing and outflowing water from the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, was collected to determine the contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mussels at the outflow to the sea were also ...

  14. Metabolic Pathways of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Degradation by Pseudomonas sp. 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komancová, M.; Jurčová, Irena; Kochánková, L.; Burkhard, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2003), s. 537ů543 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * biodegradation * aerobic bacteria Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2003

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and deiodinase activity in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, Shalini D.; Berghuis, Sietske A.; Visser, Theo J.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on serum thyroid hormone levels in pregnant woman and their infants, while other studies did not find such effects. How PCBs might affect thyroid hormone metabolism, is still unclear. Potential mechanisms are direct

  16. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  17. Transgenic plants to improve rhizoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sylvestre, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2009), s. 242-247 ISSN 0958-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bacterial dioxygenases * GM- plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 7.820, year: 2009

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  19. Photochemical of Polychlorinated biphenyl by the photolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure mercury lamp. The whole Lamp was immersed in a reactor thermostat controlling the temperature at 32 ± 2 °C. The Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed by GC/ECD. The degradation of PCBs in terms of one, two and three lamp ...

  20. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  1. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p < 0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries. - Brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins/furans in Hong Kong and Korean waters are emitted from industrial activities

  2. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  3. Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

    2012-03-01

    The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity Mexico.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk in Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Dávila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2014-09-01

    In Mexico, organochlorine pesticides were used in public health and agriculture programs, causing chronic exposure to the population. Human breast milk samples were collected from 171 mothers who were residents from Guerrero, Mexico. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. Median concentrations (mg/kg on fat basis) for the following pesticides were: HCB, 0.009; β-HCH, 0.004; pp'DDE, 0.760; op'DDT, 0.016; pp'DDT, 0.045; and Σ-DDT, 0.833. These values are lower than in other States in Mexico, and in some countries where the use of these pesticides was banned more than 30 years ago. Differences were found in HCB, pp'DDE and pp'DDT concentrations in groups divided according to age (p pesticide levels in human milk is expected in a few years.

  5. Phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides by aquatic macrophytes and algae in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ghazala; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Iqbal, Shakir; Yasar, Abdullah; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Mahfooz, Yusra; Baqar, Mujtaba

    2017-10-03

    Extensive use of Pesticides in agriculture and its surface runoff in river water is a major environmental concern. The present study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of Eichornia crassipes, Pistia strateotes and algae (Chaetomorpha sutoria, Sirogonium sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. Water and plant samples were extracted by liquid phase and solid phase extraction respectively and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven treatments (T1-T11) with and without plants were used for phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. During the experiment, P. strateotes, E. crassipes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) showed the highest removal efficiency with 62 (71% root, 29% shoot), 60 (67% root, 33% shoot), and 58% respectively for organochlorine and 76 (76% root, 24% shoot), 68 (69% root, 31% shoot), and 70% respectively for pyrethroids for the respective aquatic plants. Dissipation rate constant of treatments with plants (T2, T3, T5, T6, T8, and T9) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to that of treatments without plants (T10 and T11, control) for both organochlorine and pyrethroid. The bioconcentration factor of pyrethroid treatments (T3, T6, and T9) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to that of organochlorine treatments (T2, T5 and T8). The removal efficiency of E. crassipes, P. strateotes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for pyrethroids was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to that of organochlorine.

  6. PCDD, PCDF, dl-PCB and organochlorine pesticides monitoring in São Paulo City using passive air sampler as part of the Global Monitoring Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M Y; Silva, C R; Melo, J P; Niwa, N A; Plascak, D; Souza, C A M; Sato, M I Z

    2016-11-15

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, are ordinarily monitored in the aquatic environment or in soil in the environmental quality monitoring programs in São Paulo, Brazil. One of the core matrices proposed in the POPs Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) from the Stockholm Convention list is the ambient air, which is not a usual matrix for POPs monitoring in the country. In this study POP levels were evaluated in the air samples from an urban site in São Paulo City over five years, starting in 2010 as a capacity building project for Latin America and the Caribbean region for POP monitoring in ambient air using passive samplers. Furthermore, after the end of the Project in 2012, the monitoring continued in the same sampling site as means to improving the analytical capacity building and contribute to the GMP data. The POPs monitored were 17 congeners of 2,3,7,8 chloro-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, indicator PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and toxaphene. The results show a slight decrease in PCDD/F, dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs levels along the five years. The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was present at its highest concentration at the beginning of the monitoring period, but it was below detection level in the last year of the monitoring. Some other organochlorine pesticides were detected close to or below quantitation limits. The compounds identified were dieldrin, chlordane, α-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene and DDTs. Toxaphene congeners were not detected. These results have confirmed the efficacy of passive sampling for POP monitoring and the capacity building for POP analysis and monitoring was established. However more needs to be done, including expansion of sampling sites, new POPs and studies on sampling rates to be considered in calculating the concentration of POPs in ambient air using a passive sampler. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson's disease neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I; Miller, Gary W; Pennell, Kurt D

    2012-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson's disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson's disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson's disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and laboratory studies

  8. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson’s disease neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M.; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I.; Miller, Gary W.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson’s disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson’s disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson’s disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and

  9. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Talidda, A.; Malisch, R.; Kotz, A.; Tritsher, A.; Fiedler, H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Kooijman, M.; Wienk, K.J.H.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

  10. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and risk assessment in the urban and rural areas of Northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.U. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Koga, M. [Prefectural Univ. of Kumamoto (Japan). Fac. of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    In China, during the past 40 years, organochlorine pesticides (OPs) with impurity were produced and used in a large quantity. However, little is known on the OPs contamination status of the residents in mainland of China. To elucidate body burden of organochlorine compounds and factors associated with organochlorine levels of the residents in North China, we performed life style questionnaire and collected breast milk specimens at Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China.

  11. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  12. Hybrid pseudomonads engineered by two-step homologous recombination acquire novel degradation abilities toward aromatics and polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Hikaru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Bioproduction Research Inst.; Nonaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Furukawa, Kensuke [Beppu Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Fermentation and Food Science

    2010-10-15

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 possesses a chromosomally encoded bph gene cluster responsible for the catabolism of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls. Previously, we constructed chimeric versions of the bphA1 gene, which encodes a large subunit of biphenyl dioxygenase, by using DNA shuffling between bphA1 genes from P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. In this study, we demonstrate replacement of the bphA1 gene with chimeric bphA1 sequence within the chromosomal bph gene cluster by two-step homologous recombination. Notably, some of the hybrid strains acquired enhanced and/or expanded degradation capabilities for specific aromatic compounds, including single aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. (orig.)

  13. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deziel, N.C.; Nuckols, J.R.; Colt, J.S.; Roos, A.J. de; Pronk, A.; Gourley, C.; Severson, R.K.; Cozen, W.; Cerhan, J.R.; Hartge, P.; Ward, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources,

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  15. Motor development following in utero exposure to organochlorines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2015-01-01

    of child age at the first time of crawling, standing-up and walking. RESULTS: We saw no associations between tertiles of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE or log-transformed exposures and retrospective reports of the developmental milestones crawling, standing-up and walking in infancy or the motor skills measured...... as developmental coordination disorder at young school age. CONCLUSIONS: In utero exposure to CB-153 and p,p'-DDE was not associated with parentally retrospectively assessed developmental milestones in infancy or parentally assessed motor skills at young school age. The use of a more sensitive outcome measure may......BACKGROUND: Prior studies on the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and child motor development have found contradicting results. Using data collected in the INUENDO cohort in Kharkiv (Ukraine), Warsaw (Poland...

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g - 1 wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g - 1 wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  17. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl reduction in lake trout by irradiation and broiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, R.F.; Zabik, M.E.; Weaver, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental contaminants surveys (1974-1975) have concluded that excessive concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in a specific species of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Over 30 ppM of PCBs have been detected in the edible fillet of this fat trout. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation combined with broiling on the levels of PCBs in lake trout fillets

  19. Catalytic Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of New Polychlorinated Natural Terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ighachane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various unsaturated natural terpenes were selectively converted to the corresponding polychlorinated products in good yields using iron acetylacetonate in combination with nucleophilic cocatalyst. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The antifungal bioassays showed that 2c and 2d possessed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc, and Verticillium dahliae (Vd.

  20. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-01-01

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. α-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas β-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples

  1. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isosaari, Pirjo [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: pirjo.isosaari@ktl.fi; Laine, Olli [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tuhkanen, Tuula [Tampere University of Technology, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. {alpha}-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas {beta}-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  2. Effects of cooking on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds in fish and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tsuguhide; Nakagawa, Reiko; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takao; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake

    2005-11-02

    We investigated the cooking-induced changes in concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (dioxins) using mackerel and beef. The concentrations of dioxins (29 congeners) were determined by isomer specific analyses and were compared between uncooked and cooked samples. The cooking procedures examined in this study included grilling as a fillet, boiling as a fillet, and boiling as tsumire (small, hand-rolled balls) for mackerel and boiling as a slice, broiling as a slice, and broiling as a hamburger for beef. Three trials were carried out for each cooking method. Generally, concentrations of dioxins were reduced in every cooking trial. When nondetected congener concentrations were assumed to be half the limit of detection for mackerel, the maximum percentage reductions of total concentrations given as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQ) were 31% in grilling as a slice, 14% in boiling as a slice, and 21% in boiling as tsumire under the conditions of this study. In contrast, for beef, the reductions were 42% in boiling as a slice, 42% in broiling as a slice, and 44% in broiling as a hamburger. These results suggest that ordinary cooking processes with heating undoubtedly reduce the dioxin content in animal products, and the reductions estimated should be considered when dioxin intake is evaluated using contamination data for individual food items.

  3. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  5. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  6. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  7. Natural Organochlorines as Precursors of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters in Vegetable Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Soon Huat; Saparin, Norliza; Teh, Huey Fang; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Md Zain, Mohd Zairey Bin; Neoh, Bee Keat; Md Noor, Ahmadilfitri; Tan, Chin Ping; Lai, Oi Ming; Appleton, David Ross

    2018-01-31

    During high-temperature refining of vegetable oils, 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters, possible carcinogens, are formed from acylglycerol in the presence of a chlorine source. To investigate organochlorine compounds in vegetable oils as possible precursors for 3-MCPD esters, we tested crude palm, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, coconut, and olive oils for the presence of organochlorine compounds. Having found them in all vegetable oils tested, we focused subsequent study on oil palm products. Analysis of the chlorine isotope mass pattern exhibited in high-resolution mass spectrometry enabled organochlorine compound identification in crude palm oils as constituents of wax esters, fatty acid, diacylglycerols, and sphingolipids, which are produced endogenously in oil palm mesocarp throughout ripening. Analysis of thermal decomposition and changes during refining suggested that these naturally present organochlorine compounds in palm oils and perhaps in other vegetable oils are precursors of 3-MCPD esters. Enrichment and dose-response showed a linear relationship to 3-MCPD ester formation and indicated that the sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds are the most active precursors of 3-MCPD esters.

  8. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia; Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos; Fernandes, Daniella R.; Souza Avelar, Andre de; Erthal Santelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  9. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in Brazilian human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, T. [INCQS/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Braga, A.M.C.B.; Rosa, J.M. [CESTEH/ENSP/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Kypke, K.; Malisch, R. [State Inst. for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Breastfeeding has been intensively encouraged, especially in developing countries, due to its beneficial properties, i.e., increase infant immune factors and resistance to chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes or allergies. In addition, human exposure to environmental pollution has led the scientific community to study the pathways of these contaminants and the possible risks they pose to human health. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCs), in special, has been the subject of great interest during recent years given their potential toxicity, resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation through the food chain. The major source of OC has been agriculture and public health campaigns to vector control. General population exposure occur mainly through the diet and human milk can be an indicator of exposure since OCs are lipophilic xenobiotics that accumulate in adipose tissue and breastfeeding is the main pathway of elimination through the fatty fraction of milk. In this study pooled samples of mothers living in the capitals of two different states of Brazil were evaluated in order to assess the trends of human exposure to persistent pollutants.

  10. Reconstruction of organochlorine compound inputs in the Tagus Prodelta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vicente, Maria; Grimalt, Joan O; Micaelo, Cristina; Abrantes, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Twenty century time-resolved variability of riverine deposits of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was studied in three (210)Pb dated sediment cores collected in a depositional shelf area adjacent to the Tagus estuary (the Tagus Prodelta). The geographic and temporal distribution patterns were consistent with discharge of these organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the area associated with the Tagus mouth. Their concentrations were not correlated with the sedimentary total organic carbon. The PCB down-core profiles were dominated by CB138 and CB153 (hexa-CBs) congeners followed by CB180 (hepta-CBs). Principal Component Analysis of the congener distributions of these compounds did not define temporal down-core trends. The ratios of DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT) were consistent with recent DDT inputs into the environment and/or earlier applications and long-term residence in soils/sediments until these were eroded and remobilized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry; Bidleman, Terry F; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador

    2006-04-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use.

  12. Pollutants in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). I. Organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald, K; Frank, R J; Dougan, J L; Frank, R; Braun, H E

    1984-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1978, 248 harp seals were sampled from 5 locations in the Northwest Atlantic and Arctic for organochlorine (OC) residue analysis in tissue. Blood, kidney, brain, muscle and blubber samples were analysed for PCB, DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide. Levels were generally greatest in blubber tissue. Overall, mean levels of DDT and PCB were greater than those of other OC. A barrier prevented OC compounds from accumulating in the brain to the level one might expect in lipid tissues. Positive correlations were found between 1: DDT and PCB, 2: DDT and dieldrin, and 3: PCB and deildrin. Male harp seals bioaccumulated DDT, PCB, heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin with age. As a group, adult males sampled in the Gulf of St. Lawrence carried the highest concentrations of all OC, except that chlordane did not appear to bioaccumulate and levels of hexachlorobenzene were minimal. Females generally ceased exhibiting significant bioaccumulation once breeding age was reached, due to transplacental and transmammary residue transfer of OC from mother to pup. There were some significant differences in OC levels between locations with DDT: Gulf greater than Front; PCB: Gulf greater than Front; dieldrin: Gulf greater than Front; heptachlor epoxide: Front greater than Gulf. No significant differences were found, however, when northern locations (Grise Fiord, Northwest Greenland, Pangnirtung) were compared to southern (Gulf, Front) on a group basis.

  13. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  14. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  15. Contaminação por compostos organoclorados em salsichas hot-dog comercializadas na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil Contamination for organochlorine compounds in hot-dog sausages, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislau Bogusz Junior

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de monitorar os resíduos de compostos tóxicos em alimentos, verificou-se a freqüência e os níveis de praguicidas organoclorados (OC e bifenilas policloradas (PCBs em amostras de salsichas Hot-Dog, comercializadas na Cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e, compararam-se os valores com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises, procedeu-se a extração da gordura das amostras. A partir da purificação desta, obteve-se um extrato do qual se determinaram os resíduos organoclorados por cromatografia gasosa com detector de captura eletrônica (CG - µECD63Ni. Verificou-se que o lindano e o HCB foram os pesticidas que apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias (0,001798ppm e 0,001652ppm, respectivamente. O somatório dos níveis médios dos pesticidas organoclorados detectados foi de 0,015783ppm, sendo que deste total 0,011165ppm pertencia aos metabólitos do DDT. Quanto as bifenilas policloradas, as maiores concentrações médias corresponderam às PCBs 10 (0,001817ppm e 28 (0,000317ppm. O somatório das PCBs foi de 0,002172ppm. As concentrações de praguicidas organoclorados e PCBs encontradas nas amostras analisadas estavam abaixo dos limites máximos permitidos pela legislação.With the objective of monitoring toxic compounds residues in food, the frequency and levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were verified in sausage samples, hot dog type, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Values were compared with the ones established by Brazilian legislation. For the analyses the extraction of fat from the samples was done. From the purification of the fat, there was acquisition of an extract in which was determined the organochlorine contaminants residues by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (CG - µECD63Ni. It was learned that the lindane and HCB were the pesticides that presented the biggest concentration averages (0

  16. Organochlorine pollutants in Peregrine falcon eggs; Organochlorverbindungen in Eiern von Wanderfalken und anderen wild lebenden Vogelarten in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Gegenwaertige Belastungssituation und zeitlicher Trend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenck, K.T. von der [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baum, F.; Malisch, R. [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt Freiburg (Germany); Hartwig, H.; Zimmermann, R.D. [Fachhochschule Bingen (Germany); Schilling, F. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wanderfalkenschutz (AGW), Nuertingen (Germany); Straub, H.P. [Landratsamt Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Goal and Scope. Organochlorine pollutants such as some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and highly persistent compounds in the environment. As synthetic, man-made products they are not encountered in natural ecosystems. Due to their high lipid solubility these compounds can accumulate in animals and humans, where they may exert chronically toxic and carcinogenic effects or disrupt endocrine functions and/or interfere with reproduction. Sound environmental stewardship demands continuous monitoring of such substances, assessment of their ecotoxicological risk, and reduction of excessive risk by setting appropriate standards. Methods. The analysis of birds' eggs is one method for the detection of organochlorine pollutants in ecosystems. In the German state of Baden-Wuerttemberg eggs of some bird species, especially Peregrine falcons, have been collected and analysed for selected persistent organic pollutants [total DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane), HCB (hexachlorobenzene), HCEP (heptachloroepoxide), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), PCBs] since the 1970s. Long-term continuous investigations yield data concerning temporal changes and regional differences in the pollution of the bio-indicators. Results and Conclusion. Dioxin-like PCBs and total DDT were the most prominent pollutants. The Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) was the most polluted bird species within the project. During the 1970s and 1980s all of the mentioned substances showed an encouraging decrease, undoubtedly because their use was banned in Germany. Analyses for PCDD/F in a small number of Peregrine falcon eggs from the period of 2000 to 2003 revealed the high level of pollution of these samples with dioxin toxicity equivalents (WHO-TEQ) from PCB and PCDD/F, which in all eggs reached the no observed effect level (NOEL) determined in osprey chicks and surpassed this threshold fivefold in the most polluted ones. Because of their great variability the

  17. Mortality after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: a meta-analysis of two highly exposed cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Furue, Masutaka; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Guo, Yue Leon

    2015-09-15

    Both Yucheng and Yusho were events of accidental exposure to highly doses of polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans in Asian people. Mortality experiences caused by various diseases were reported in both cohorts with similar and dissimilar findings. We thus conducted a meta-analysis of two cohorts to reevaluate the effects of PCBs and PCDFs on major causes of mortalities. Two recently updated Yucheng and Yusho mortality studies were included. For selected diseases, standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model only when heterogeneity (I(2)  > 50% and/or p value <0.10 by the Q test) was not found. A total of 1,803 Yucheng subjects (male, N = 830; female, N = 973) with 48,751 person-years of follow-up and 1,664 Yusho subjects (male, N = 860; female, N = 804) with 50,773 person-years are included. An increase in all-cause mortality (pooled SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3, I(2)  = 0.0%), all cancers (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6, I(2)  = 0.0%), lung cancer (pooled SMR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, I(2) =0.0%), heart disease (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7, I(2)  = 43.4%) and hepatic disease (pooled SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8, I(2)  = 0.0%) were found in pooled males. Significant elevation from liver cancer was found in pooled females (pooled SMR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6, I(2)  = 0.0%). This meta-analysis of Yucheng and Yusho cohorts showed similar elevation from all cancer, lung cancer, heart disease and hepatic disease mortalities in exposed men. Furthermore, a new finding of elevated liver cancer mortality in exposed women was identified. © 2015 UICC.

  18. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  19. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  20. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L; Heitmann, Berit L; Jensen, Tina K; Vinggaard, Anne M; Madsbad, Sten; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Nielsen, Flemming; Andersen, Helle R

    2015-10-01

    Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal POP exposures and increased BMI, waist circumference and change in BMI from 5 to 7 years of age, though only among girls with overweight mothers. In the same birth cohort, we investigated whether prenatal POP exposure was associated with serum concentrations of insulin and leptin among 5-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in maternal pregnancy serum and breast milk. Children were followed-up at the age of 5 years where a non-fasting blood sample was drawn; 520 children (273 boys and 247 girls) had adequate serum amounts available for biomarker analyses by Luminex® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age 5 while taking into account confounders. Girls with highest prenatal POP exposure were more likely to have high non-fasting insulin levels (PCBs 4th quartile: OR=3.71; 95% CI: 1.36, 10.01. DDE 4th quartile: OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.90. HCB 4th quartile: OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.69) compared to girls in the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed with leptin, or among boys. A mediating effect of insulin or leptin on later obesity was not observed. These findings suggest, that for girls, prenatal

  1. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in farmed salmon of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kiel (Germany); Schwind, K.H.; Jira, W. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    With a market share of 8.4% in 2001 (approx. 100,000 t) farmed salmon is one of the most important fish species on the German market. The world wide production of salmon in 2001 was approximately 1.2 Mio t. Norway has produced around 450,000 t of Atlantic salmon of which 60,000 t has been exported to Germany. Other important suppliers of salmon to the German market are Scotland, Denmark, Chile and Ireland. The annual amount from Ireland is relatively small, being approximately 2,000 t. Most salmon is raised under conventional farming conditions. During the last years also high priced organically grown salmon is available on the German market, mainly produced in Ireland. With 800 t per year the market share of organically farmed salmon is less than 1%. Within the context of a study to develop methods for the detection of organically produced products taking salmon as example it was checked if the contaminant levels and/or the contaminant patterns are suitable to differentiate between organically and conventionally farmed salmon. Conventionally farmed salmon, referred as to farmed salmon, was collected from different European farms; organically farmed salmon, referred as to organic salmon, came from Ireland as well as wild Atlantic salmon, which was included into the study. In the present study dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs and a range of organochlorine pesticides (toxaphene, chlordane, DDT, HCB etc.) in the muscle meat of salmon were investigated.

  2. Organochlorines in urban soils from Central India: probabilistic health hazard and risk implications to human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupander; Mishra, Meenu; Verma, V K; Rai, Premanjali; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-04-21

    This study presents distribution of organochlorines (OCs) including HCH, DDT and PCBs in urban soils, and their environmental and human health risk. Forty-eight soil samples were extracted using ultrasonication, cleaned with modified silica gel chromatography and analyzed by GC-ECD. The observed concentrations of ∑HCH, ∑DDT and ∑PCBs in soils ranged between < 0.01-2.54, 1.30-27.41 and < 0.01-62.8 µg kg -1 , respectively, which were lower than the recommended soil quality guidelines. Human health risk was estimated following recommended guidelines. Lifetime average daily dose (LADD), non-cancer risk or hazard quotient (HQ) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for humans due to individual and total OCs were estimated and presented. Estimated LADD were lower than acceptable daily intake and reference dose. Human health risk estimates were lower than safe limit of non-cancer risk (HQ < 1.0) and the acceptable distribution range of ILCR (10 -6 -10 -4 ). Therefore, this study concluded that present levels of OCs (HCH, DDT and PCBs) in studied soils were low, and subsequently posed low health risk to human population in the study area.

  3. Bioindicators of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Western Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K

    2017-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O. keta, chinook O. tshawytscha, and sockeye O. nerka) were collected near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. The total OCPs concentration (HCHs + DDTs) was found in each organism, including the Pacific walrus (70-90,263 ng/g lipid), the seabirds (29-16,095 ng/g lipid), and the Pacific salmon (41-7103 ng/g lipid). The concentrations and possible sources of OCPs in marine organisms as biological indicators are discussed.

  4. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  6. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds ( 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  7. Certification of Mass Fractions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Organochlorines and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in IAEA-459 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication describes the production of certified reference material IAEA-459, which is produced following ISO Guides 34:2009 and 35:2006. This certified reference material is a sediment sample with certified mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The assigned final values and their associated uncertainties were derived from robust statistics on the results provided by selected laboratories with demonstrated technical and quality competence, following the guidance given in the ISO Guides. The material is used for quality control and assessment of method performance for a number of organic analytes listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants as well as other pollutants listed as priority substances included in many environment monitoring programmes.

  8. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample and large marine fish (0.6. In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60–65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13–40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future.

  9. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Major Rivers of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Naser Haji Samoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminations by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of inland water have been a global issue, since most of these compounds are very persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Due to the widespread use of DDT for malaria vector eradication programs in the past and no comprehensive works have been conducted to assess trace organic pollutants in river waters, this work is the first effort to assess the contamination levels of OCPs in the major rivers of Southern Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration levels of OCPs and oil and grease in the 3 major rivers and to compare the present results with surrounding regions for further assessment of OCPs contamination status in inland waters of Southern Thailand. The water samples were collected along the 3 major rivers (Saiburi, Patani and Tiba River during June 2007-February 2008. Water samples were solid phase extracted with Supelco C-18 cartridge (1g/6 mL and quantified by gas chromatograph (GC-ECD. The concentration of oil and grease was determined by gravimetric method and reported as hexane extractable material (HEM and silica gel treated hexane extractable material (SGT-HEM. Several parameters of waters such as total suspended solid, pH, turbidity, and conductivity were measured. The commonly found OCP residues in these rivers were β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan 1, p,p’- DDE and endrin aldehyde. The overall results showed that Saiburi River was more polluted with OCPs than Patani and Tiba River, especially p, p’-DDE which was detected in the wide range concentration of 9.6 to 203.1 ng/mL. For oil and grease contamination, Tiba River waters were found to be more polluted than either Patani or Saiburi River. The experimental procedures and analytical results together with the possible sources of OCPs and its environmental impacts are presented.

  10. Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen

    Atmospheric monitoring of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (e.g., HCHs, chlordanes, and DDTs) in Galveston Bay was conducted at Seabrook, Texas. Air and wet deposition samples were collected from 2 February 1995 and continued through 6 August 1996. Vapor total PCB ( tPCB) concentrations in air ranged from 0.21 to 4.78 ng m -3 with a dominance of tri-chlorinated PCBs. Dissolved tPCBs in rain ranged from 0.08 to 3.34 ng l -1, with tetra-chlorinated PCBs predominating. The predominant isomers found in air and rain were α- and γ-HCH, α- and γ-chlordanes, 4,4'-DDT, and dieldrin. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the air and rain revealed no clear seasonal trend. Elevated levels of PCBs in the air occurred when temperatures were high and wind came from urban and industrialized areas (S, SW, NW, and W of the site). Concentrations of HCHs were elevated in April, May, and October, perhaps due to local and/or regional applications of γ-HCH (lindane). Other pesticides showed no notable temporal variation. When winds originated from the Gulf of Mexico (southeasterly), lower concentrations of organochlorines were detected in the air. The direct deposition rate (wet+dry) of PCBs to Galveston Bay (6.40 μg m -2 yr -1) was significantly higher than that of pesticides by a factor of 5-10. The net flux from gas exchange estimated for PCBs was from Galveston Bay water to the atmosphere (78 μg m -2 yr -1). Gas exchange of PCBs from bay water to the atmosphere was the dominant flux.

  11. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  12. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    -p-dioxin (TCDD). The toxic responses include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Toxic equivalency factors have been established for the other PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCB relative to TCDD, and the combined toxicity of a sample can be expressed...... as toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD......,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF, and the dioxin-like PCB, and expressed as a group tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHC-TEQ/kg bw. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a similar assessment whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has paid more attention to human data...

  13. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B. [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  14. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  15. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  16. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds and health effects in women and their infants. Epidemiological studies on birth-weight, cancer incidence, and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, L

    1997-05-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other persistent organochlorine compounds is through consumption of fatty fish species from the Baltic Sea (the eastern coast of Sweden). Cohorts of fishermen`s wives from the Swedish east and west coasts were established. Interviewed east and west coast cohort women ate locally caught fish at least twice as often as women from the general population. The east coast cohort women displayed during the period 1968-1989 an increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in ischemic heart disease as compared with the west coast cohort. Due to lack of individual data on exposure and confounding factors, it is not possible to conclude that the differences were caused by fish intake. Infants from the east coast cohort had during the period 1973-1991 an increased risk for low birth weight, as compared with infants from the west coast cohort. A nested case-referent study within the east coast cohort indicated an increased risk of low birth weight among infants born to mothers who reported a relatively high current intake of fish from the Baltic Sea, as well as among mothers who had grown up in a fishing village. Moreover, maternal 2,2`,4,4`,5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153, which was showed to be a feasible biomarker for exposure to PCB) concentrations in plasma drawn in 1995 and the estimated concentrations during the year of childbirth showed effects on the risk for having an infant with low birth weight. Employing alternative plausible kinetic models, an increased risk for low birth weight was observed at a CB-153 concentration in plasma during year of childbirth around 300-400 ng/g lipid. 117 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Prenatal organochlorine and methylmercury exposure and memory and learning in school-age children in communities near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Sara T C; Thurston, Sally W; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel D; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Altshul, Larisa M; Korrick, Susan A

    2014-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg) are environmentally persistent with adverse effects on neurodevelopment. However, especially among populations with commonly experienced low levels of exposure, research on neurodevelopmental effects of these toxicants has produced conflicting results. We assessed the association of low-level prenatal exposure to these contaminants with memory and learning. We studied 393 children, born between 1993 and 1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Cord serum PCB, DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), and maternal peripartum hair mercury (Hg) levels were measured to estimate prenatal exposure. Memory and learning were assessed at 8 years of age (range, 7-11 years) using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), age-standardized to a mean ± SD of 100 ± 15. Associations with each WRAML index-Visual Memory, Verbal Memory, and Learning-were examined with multivariable linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Although cord serum PCB levels were low (sum of four PCBs: mean, 0.3 ng/g serum; range, 0.01-4.4), hair Hg levels were typical of the U.S. fish-eating population (mean, 0.6 μg/g; range, 0.3-5.1). In multivariable models, each microgram per gram increase in hair Hg was associated with, on average, decrements of -2.8 on Visual Memory (95% CI: -5.0, -0.6, p = 0.01), -2.2 on Learning (95% CI: -4.6, 0.2, p = 0.08), and -1.7 on Verbal Memory (95% CI: -3.9, 0.6, p = 0.14). There were no significant adverse associations of PCBs or DDE with WRAML indices. These results support an adverse relationship between low-level prenatal MeHg exposure and childhood memory and learning, particularly visual memory.

  19. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  20. Organochlorine and trace element contamination in wintering and migrating diving ducks in the southern Great Lakes, USA, since the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the potential for increased trophic transfer of contaminants by zebra mussels (Dreissena sp.) to higher trophic levels, we collected four species of waterfowl (n = 65 ducks) from four locations in Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Michigan, USA, between 1991 and 1993 for organochlorine contaminant and trace element analyses. Geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were 1.35 and 0.15 I?g/g wet weight in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) carcasses and were below known effect levels. Total PCBs in 80% of carcasses, however, were above the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's threshold of 3.0 I?g/g lipid weight for consumption of poultry. With the exception of selenium, trace elements were also at background or no-effect levels. Selenium concentrations in livers of 95% of lesser scaup, 90% of bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and 72% of common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) were in the elevated (>10 I?g/g dry wt) or potentially harmful range (>33 I?g/g dry wt). The effects of these high selenium concentrations are unknown but should be investigated further based on reproductive effects observed in field and laboratory studies of dabbling ducks and because lesser scaup populations are declining. Concentrations of total PCBs in dreissenid mussels in western Lake Erie were 10 times higher than in the upper Mississippi River but were similar to concentrations in other industrialized rivers in Europe and the United States. Metal concentrations were similar to other industrialized sites where zebra mussels have been sampled.

  1. Assessment of current dietary intake of organochlorine contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in killer whales (Orcinus orca) through direct determination in a group of whales in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigaro, Costanza; Henríquez-Hernandez, Luis A; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Garcia-Hartmann, Manuel; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-02-15

    We determined the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of captive adult killer whales and in their food. The goal of this research was the assessment of the dietary exposure of killer whales to these pollutants to gain insight on what is the actual magnitude of the exposure in this species, which is considered among the most contaminated in the planet. Plasma median ∑OCP and ∑PCB contents were 3150.3 and 7985.9 ng g(-1)l.w., respectively. A total of 78.9% of the PCBs were marker-PCBs, and 21.1% were dioxin-like PCBs (6688.7 pg g(-1)l.w. dioxin toxic equivalents). This is the first report of the blood levels of PAHs in killer whales, and their median value was 1023.1 ng g(-1)l.w. In parallel, we also determined the levels of these contaminants in the fish species that are used to feed these animals to estimate the orcas' average daily dietary intake of pollutants. All the contaminants in the fish were detected in the plasma of the killer whales, and proportionality between the intake and the blood levels was observed in all the animals. The calculated intake was extremely high for certain contaminants, which is a concern, giving a glimpse of what possibly occurs in the wild, where exposure to these contaminants can be even higher. Therefore, although many of these chemicals have been banned for decades, even today, the levels of these chemicals could reach very toxic concentrations in the tissues of these endangered animals because of their diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  3. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective...... data from three Faroese birth cohorts, with a total of 2,152 healthy mother-child dyads recruited between 1986 and 2009. The Faroe Islands is a subarctic fishing community, where pilot whale meat and blubber are part of the traditional marine diet. Exposures were measured in maternal hair, serum...... or umbilical cord blood. Confounder adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between maternal exposures and the secondary sex ratio. A doubling in ΣPCB, p,p'-DDE and mercury concentrations were associated with increased odds by 8% (95% CI = 0-16%), 7% (95% CI = 0-14%) and 9% (95...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years. Obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle and possibly the widespread...... cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans...... is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ≥ 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten...

  5. Current trends of some organochlorinated pesticides in Yamuna River sediments around Delhi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sethi, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Sarkar, A.

    selected for the purpose of study. Among the organochlorine pesticides detected, t-DDT was the most predominant in the sediments of Yamuna River. The concentration of t-DDT was in the range of 63.0-236.0 ng/g during the pre-monsoon and decreased...

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bringas, Laura M; Ponce-Vélez, Guadalupe; Calva, Laura G; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazamamberth; Botello, Alfonso V; Díaz González, Gilberto

    2008-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002) and organisms collected in April and July (2002) from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p'-DDD y delta-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (gamma-HCH) was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993).

  7. Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waliszewski Stefan M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradients of organochlorine pesticides between these compartments were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood serum samples from 64 volunteers admitted for cesarean delivery at Hospital Benito Coquet Lagunes were studied in Veracruz during 1997 and 1998. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography and results obtained from different sample groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and simple lineal regression. RESULTS: Significant results expressed on fat basis of organochlorine pesticides indicate that 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenylethane (DDT levels are higher in maternal adipose tissue (4.51 mg/kg DDE and 1.27 mg/kg pp'DDT, maternal blood serum (4.45 mg/kg DDE and 0.78 mg/kg pp'DDT, and umbilical blood serum (4.70 mg/kg DDE and 0.88 mg/kg pp'DDT, due to greater affinity of DDT for lipids. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical evaluation of results and the pairing of samples analyzed indicate that absorbed organochlorine pesticides cross the placental barrier and reach a balanced state between mother and fetus.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide levels in umbilical cord blood of newborn in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2010-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich compartments of organisms. During pregnancy, the compounds pass through the placental barrier appear in cord blood. The aim of this study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides in 70 umbilical cord blood samples taken during deliveries in Veracruz in 2009. For organochlorine pesticides, only the presence β-HCH (4%, 3.9 μg/L median concentration on wet weight), pp'DDE (100%, 0.7 μg/L) and pp'DDT (4%, 1.4 μg/L) were detected. The total pool of samples divided according to sex of new born babies, showed no statistical differences among median concentrations. The number of deliveries considered as a determinant contamination factor affirmed there were no statistical differences among median concentrations; however pp'DDE levels increased from the one to two childbirth groups. Age of pregnant women as a discriminate factor manifests in a significant increase in contamination levels among first, second and third tertile. In general, umbilical cord blood samples in Veracruz contained organochlorine pesticides, especially pp'DDE, confirming the presence of these compounds in the environment and their transfer from the mother to the developing fetus.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Bringas, Laura M.; Ponce-Velez, Guadalupe; Botello, Alfonso V.; Calva B, Laura G.; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaias Hazamamberth; Diaz Gonzalez, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher than 10 years. Sediments were studied in November 2001, April and June 2002 and organisms collected in April and July 2002, from the lacustric zone of Metzitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine possible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. The p,p'-DDD and δ-HCH were detected in the tilapias tissue. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the international limits for freshwater benthic fauna, although lindane, γ-HCH, was near the limit. The fish was above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993). (author)

  10. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  11. Chloride – a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laturnus, F.; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2008), s. 119-125 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 36Chloride * Volatile Organochlorines * VOCl Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2008

  12. Determination of organochlorine pesticides in Indian coastal water using a moored in-situ sampler

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    An attempt has been made to determine the concentration of different organochlorine pesticides in the seawater off the central West Coast of India using an in-situ-sampler. The Seastar in-situ sampler is an instrument, which is designed to pump...

  13. Reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunova, Tatyana I., E-mail: gorbunova@ios.uran.ru [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Subbotina, Julia O. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St., 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Saloutin, Viktor I.; Chupakhin, Oleg N. [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum chemical calculations were carried out for PCBs congeners. • Calculated descriptors were used to explain the PCBs reactivity in S{sub N} and S{sub E} substitutions. • Obtained data were used to estimate the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub N} reactions. • Calculated descriptors were insufficient to explain the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions. • New neutralization methods of the large-capacity PCBs were discussed. - Abstract: To explain the chemical reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic (S{sub N}) and electrophilic (S{sub E}) substitutions, quantum chemical calculations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the Density Functional Theory in gas phase. Carbon atomic charges in biphenyl structure were calculated by the Atoms-in-Molecules method. Chemical hardness and global electrophilicity index parameters were determined for congeners. A comparison of calculated descriptors and experimental data for congener reactivity in the S{sub N} and S{sub E} reactions was made. It is shown that interactions in the S{sub N} mechanism are reactions of the hard acid–hard base type, these are the most effective in case of highly chlorinated substrates. To explain the congener reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions, correct descriptors were not established. The obtained results can be used to carry out chemical transformations of the polychlorinated biphenyls in order to prepare them for microbiological destruction or preservation.

  14. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D.S.; Mora, M.A.; Sericano, J.L.; Blankenship, Alan L.; Kannan, K.; Giesy, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April–May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlor-inated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlo-rophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119–453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404–3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos

  15. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  16. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  17. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  18. Organochlorine accumulation by Sentinel Mallards at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Sobiech, S.A.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Farm-raised l2-month-old female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were released at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana. Five mallards were sacrificed at the start of the study and at approximately 10-day intervals through day 100. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in carcasses increased linearly with time of exposure and exceeded 16 mcg/g wet weight by day 100; PCBs in breast muscle exceeded 3.9 mcg/g by day 100. These PCB values are among the highest recorded for wild or sentinel waterfowl. PCB concentrations in breast muscle (26-523 mcg/g lipid weight) were 50-1,000 times greater than human consumption guidelines for edible poultry in Canada (0.5 mcg/g lipid weight) and 9-176 times greater than consumption guidelines for edible poultry in the United States (3.0 mcg/g lipid weight). Additionally, PCB concentrations in carcass and breast muscle exceeded the threshold of the Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory 'do not eat' category (1.9 mcg/g wet weight) by day 20 and day 50, respectively. Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases including BROD (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), and PROD (pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase) were induced over 5-fold compared to reference mallards. BROD, EROD, and PROD were each significantly correlated to total PCBs and to the toxicity of selected PCB congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

  19. Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from northern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Morgan, Steven; Kuivila, Kathryn K

    2010-11-01

    Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log K(OW) of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays. © 2010 SETAC.

  20. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated lake sediment using activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shan; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yao, Fu-Bing; Guo, Min; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediment were a potential damage for humans and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of carbon materials remedy hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in sediment. Two different carbon materials including activated carbon (AC) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used in the present research. Sediment treated with 2 wt% AC and MWCNTs after 150 d contact showed 97%, and 75% reduction for HCH, and 93% and 59% decrease for DDTs in aqueous equilibrium concentration, respectively. Similarly, the reduction efficiencies of DDT and HCH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) treated with AC (MWCNTs) were 97% (75%) and 92% (63%), respectively under the identical conditions. Furthermore, for 2 wt% AC (MWCNTs) system, a reduction of XAD beads uptake up to 87% (52%) and 73% (67%) was obtained in HCH and DDT flux to overlying water in quiescent system. Adding MWCNTs to contaminated sediment did not significantly decrease aqueous equilibrium concentration and DDTs and HCH availability in SPMDs compared to AC treatment. A series of results indicated that AC had significantly higher remediation efficiency towards HCH and DDTs in sediment than MWCNTs. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of two organic pollutants improved with increasing material doses and contact times. The greater effectiveness of AC was attributed to its greater specific surface area, which was favorable for binding contaminants. These results highlighted the potential for using AC as in-situ sorbent amendments for sediment remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distinct toxic interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with four coexisting organochlorine contaminants on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Deng, Rui; Lin, Daohui; Wu, Fengchang

    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly discharged into the environment. After discharge, these nanoparticles can interact with co-existing organic contaminants, resulting in a phenomena referred to as 'joint toxicity'. This study evaluated joint toxicities of TiO 2 nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) with four different (atrazine, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) organochlorine contaminants (OCs) toward algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa). The potential mechanisms underlying the joint toxicity were discussed, including TiO 2 NPs-OC interactions, effects of TiO 2 NPs and OCs on biophysicochemical properties of algae and effects of TiO 2 NPs and OCs on each other's bioaccumulation in algae. The results indicate that coexposure led to a synergistic effect on the joint toxicity for TiO 2 NPs-atrazine, antagonistic effect for TiO 2 NPs-hexachlorobenzene and TiO 2 NPs-3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and an additive effect for TiO 2 NPs-pentachlorobenzene. There was nearly no adsorption of OCs by TiO 2 NPs, and the physicochemical properties of TiO 2 NPs were largely unaltered by the presence of OCs. However, both OCs and NPs affected the biophysicochemical properties of algal cells and thereby influenced the cell surface binding and/or internalization. TiO 2 NPs significantly increased the bioaccumulation of each OC. However, with the exception of atrazine, the bioaccumulation of TiO 2 NPs decreased when used with each OC. The distinct joint toxicity outcomes were a result of the balance between the increased toxicities of OCs (increased bioaccumulations) and the altered toxicity of TiO 2 NPs (bioaccumulation can either increase or decrease). These results can significantly improve our understanding of the potential environmental risks associated with NPs.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  3. Optimized cleanup method for the determination of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in sediments by high resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Zhang Haijun; Chen Jiping; Zhang Qing; Tian Yuzeng; Qi Peipei; Yu Zhengkun

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sediment sample could be purified by the optimized cleanup method, and satisfying cleanup efficiency was obtained. Highlights: → The elution characters of sPCAs and interfering substances were evaluated on three adsorbents. → An optimized cleanup method was developed for sPCAs with satisfying cleanup efficiency. → The cleanup method combined with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS was applied for sPCAs analysis. → The sPCAs levels range from 53.6 ng g -1 to 289.3 ng g -1 in tested sediment samples. - Abstract: The performances of three adsorbents, i.e. silica gel, neutral and basic alumina, in the separation of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs) from potential interfering substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were evaluated. To increase the cleanup efficiency, a two-step cleanup method using silica gel column and subsequent basic alumina column was developed. All the PCB and organochlorine pesticides could be removed by this cleanup method. The very satisfying cleanup efficiency of sPCAs has been achieved and the recovery in the cleanup method reached 92.7%. The method detection limit (MDL) for sPCAs in sediments was determined to be 14 ng g -1 . Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.3% was obtained for the mass fraction of sPCAs by analyzing four replicates of a spiked sediment sample. High resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was used for sPCAs quantification by monitoring [M-HCl]· - ions. When applied to the sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River, the optimized cleanup method in conjunction with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS allowed for highly selective identifications for sPCAs. The sPCAs levels in sediment samples are reported to range from 53.6 ng g -1 to 289.3 ng g -1 . C 10 - and C 11 -PCAs are the dominant residue in most of investigated sediment samples.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnhoorn, IEJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo-chlorine...

  5. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion.

  7. Cholesterol biosynthesis in polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, D.; Gamble, W.

    1982-01-01

    After administration of polychlorinated biphenly (PCB) at 0.055 (w/w) of the diet to Wistar rats for 30 days, followed by intraperitioneal injection of tritiated water, [ 14 C]mevalonate, and [ 14 C]acetate, there was a decrease in cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver. No significant change in cholesterol formation was observed when PCB was administered at 0.01% (w/w) of the diet. In vitro inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by rat liver microsomes was observed with PCB. Squalene 2,3-oxidocyclase activity of rat liver microsomes was not significantly altered. Desmosterol delta 24 reductase activity was inhibited only at relatively high concentrations of PCB. There was increased incorporation of radioactivity into squalene and lanosterol, in vitro, in the presence of PCB. The primary inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be at the demethylation and rearrangement reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol in the biosynthetic pathway

  8. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, S.; Dominici, L.; Fatigoni, C.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  9. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E.; Tew, Kwee S.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k u ) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K ow , and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  10. Analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in transformer oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S.K. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Chung, D.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, Y.H.; Chung, I.R.

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a chlorinated biphenyl compound with the general formula C{sub 12}H{sub 10-n}/Cl{sub n}. PCBs generally occur as mixtures, where n can vary from 1 to 10. The 10 sites available for possible chlorine substitution result in 209 possible PCB congeners. There is now considerable concern regarding; the presence of PCB congeners in insulating oils used within large-scale electrical supply systems. Due to its outstanding chemical and thermal stabilities and electrical insulation properties, the commercial and industrial products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors, Kaneclors, Clophens, Phenaclors etc., had been widely used as thermal oil and transformer oil from 1930s until the 1970s. PCBs from a group of persistent organic pollutants of the environment, especially dangerous to living organisms due to high toxicity, persistency, and bio-concentration in adipose tissue. Despite of this fact, PCB-contaminated oils are still commonly encountered partly because PCBs used as dielectric liquids in transformer and condenser. The source of PCBs in environments can range from used transformer oils or dielectric liquids to liquid wastes, and some PCBs contamination is occurred due to the re-use of incompletely reconditioned oil. The current action plan of Republic of Korea dictates that organizations with electrical equipment contaminated with more than 2 mg/L PCBs will need to treat as PCBs-containing wastes, and 50mg/L of PCBs or PCBs equivalent to be treated as a pure PCB preparation. In this study, transformer oils analyzed based on guideline for PCBs analytical method of transformer oil in Korea.

  11. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  12. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...

  13. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-01-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  14. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins-dibenzofurans and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Kaori; Arikawa, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2002-11-22

    2,3,7,8-Substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) account for almost all of the total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in environmental samples. Activated carbon columns are used to fractionate the samples for GC-MS analysis or bioassay. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon is highly selective for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs and can improve the conventional activated carbon column clean-up. Along with sulfuric acid-coated diatomaceous earth columns, micropore-free surface-activated carbon provides a rapid, robust, and high-throughput sample preparation method for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs analysis.

  15. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides in sediment and biological samples from the coastal lagoons of Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, S.; Lacayo, M.; Picado, F.; Lopez, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua to investigate the contamination of the coastal lagoons with residues of agricultural pesticides. Samples were taken during 1995 from the areas of Estero Real, Padre Ramos, Maderas Negras, Naranjo and Paso Caballos, and during 1996 from Aposentillo to Estero Barquito - Posoltega River. Analysis of the samples of sediment and aquatic life (fishes, oysters and bivalves) showed that they were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. The pesticides found in the highest concentrations were toxaphene (1,734 μg.kg -1 ) and p,p-DDE (275 μg kg -1 ). These data indicate widespread contamination of the ecosystem with organochlorine pesticides in the main Pacific coastal lagoons of Nicaragua, resulting from intensive agricultural use of pesticides during the past decades. The contamination has been carried from the agricultural areas to the coastal lagoons by the rivers passing through the cultivated areas. (author)

  18. Investigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in samples of 40 nursing mothers residing in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides are a group of persistant compounds which have been used for a long time. Due to their stability, some of them such as DDT, BHC and their derivatives are still used in the areas with malaria epidemic condition, hence the chance of food contamination always exists. The present survey demonstrated that human milk is one of the best indicator substances in monitoring the environment and human body contamination by organochlorine compounds. We studied the level of residues in the milk of nursing mothers who could be exposed to these compounds through food chain in their contaminated environment. In this investigation, we collected 40 samples from the nursing mothers of two hospitals located in the north and south of Tehran. Detection was carried out by Gas chromatography (GC with 3% OV17 column and Ni63 ECD (Electron Capture Detector. Reference substances were obtained from WHO. Results are discussed in the text.

  19. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G

    2003-04-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere.

  1. CYP polymorphisms and pathological conditions related to chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oana Docea

    Full Text Available The association between genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 (CYP family genes and pathological conditions related to long-term exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs deserves further elucidation. OCs are persistent organic pollutants with bioaccumulative and lipophilic characteristics. They can act as endocrine disruptors and perturb cellular mechanisms. Prolonged exposure to OCs has been associated with different pathological manifestations. CYP genes are responsible for transcribing enzymes essential in xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, polymorphisms in these genetic sequences a. alter the metabolic pathways, b. induce false cellular responses, and c. may provoke pathological conditions. The main aim of this review is to define the interaction between parameters a, b and c at a mechanistic/molecular level, with references in clinical cases. Keywords: Organochlorine compounds, Cytochrome P450, Genetic polymorphisms, Pathogenesis, Environmental pollutants

  2. Residues, Sources and Potential Biological Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Sediments of Qiandao Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayun; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Weidong; Liu, Qi; Tu, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed to comprehensively characterize the concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of organochlorine pesticides in Qiandao Lake, China. Concentrations of sumHCH and sumDDT in sediments ranged from 0.03 to 5.75 ng/g dry weight and not detected to 14.39 ng/g dry weight. The predominant β-HCH and the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs were derived not only from historical technical HCH use but also from additional usage of lindane. Ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT and DDD/DDE suggested that both dicofol-type DDT and technical DDT applications may be present in most study areas. Additionally, based on two sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT could be the main organochlorine pesticides species of ecotoxicological concern in Qiandao Lake.

  3. Uptake and excretion of organochlorine pesticides by Nereis virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haya, K.; Burridge, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    The marine polychaete worm, Nereis virens, is resistant to organochlorine pesticides. When exposed to each of five pesticides (endosulfan, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT) in concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/L (DDT) to 22.0 mg/L (chlordane), only endosulfan and chlordane killed Nereis. In comparison, the same compounds were much more toxic to another marine invertebrate, Crangon septemspinosa. The authors wondered if the resistance of N. virens to organochlorines was related to their response to hypoxia. N. virens is a sediment dweller often found in intertidal regions and consequently may experience periods of severe oxygen deprivation; varying degrees of hypoxia can initiate a switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. When N. virens encounter hypoxic conditions, they can also exhibit a compensatory ventilation response. In the present study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT by N. virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

  4. Organochlorine compounds and the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine in soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Makarov, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    Chloride ions in soil may interact with soil organic matter and form organochlorine compounds in situ. The biotic chlorination of soil organic substances takes places under aerobic conditions with participation of H2O2 forming from peroxidases released by soil microorganisms (in particular, by microscopic fungi). The abiotic chlorination results also from the redox reactions with the participation of Fe3+/Fe2+ system, but it develops several times slower. Chlorination of soil organic substances is favored by Cl- coming to soil both from natural (salinized soil-forming rocks and groundwater, sea salt) and anthropogenic sources of chlorides, i.e., spills of saline water at oil production, road deicing chemicals, mineral fertilizers, etc. The study of the biogeochemical chlorine cycle should take into account the presence of organochlorine compounds in soils, in addition to transformation and migration of chloride ions.

  5. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and female reproductive function in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Ernst, Erik

    2016-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects on female reproduction following intrauterine exposure to selected biopersistent organochlorines. METHODS: We used data from a Danish pregnancy cohort with follow-up on 436 eligible daughters at approximately 20years of age. Information on age of menarche (n=335), menstrual...... cycle length (n=230) and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones (n=243) was obtained. Number of antral follicles was counted by vaginal ultrasound (n=147). Of 244 daughters who attended clinical examination, 170 used hormonal contraceptives and 74 were non-users. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB...... and six PCB congeners were analysed in maternal serum samples obtained in pregnancy week 30. RESULTS: Age of menarche and menstrual cycle length were found not to be statistically significant associated with prenatal organochlorine exposure. Among non-users of hormonal contraceptives with information...

  6. Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Ravindran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.

  7. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  8. Persistent organochlorines in high-Antarctic fish; Persistente chlororganische Verbindungen in hochantarktischen Fischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, S.

    1997-11-01

    24 chlorinated hydrocarbons from different classes (PCB, HCH, DDT, Chlordane, Hexachlorobenzene and Octachlorostyrene) were analyzed in four species of high-Antarctic fish (Aethotaxis mitopteryx, Pleuragramma antarcticum, Trematomus lepidorhinus, and Chinodraco myersi). The concentrations were in the order of 1 {mu}g/kg wet weight or 10 {mu}g/kg lipid weight, respectively. Highest concentrations were measured for HCB in all species. The species showed different distribution patterns for the organochlorines studied. Compared with concentrations in fish from other regions the organochlorine levels measured in Antarctic fish are rather low. It is unlikely that the burden of organochlorines will cause any toxic effects in high-Antarctic fish yet. Nevertheless, with regard to the sensitive Antarctic ecosystem, even small concentrations carry a high risk of harm for Antarctic life. Environmental pollution in Antarctica should be observed with a monitoring program using standardized methods. For this purpose, the fish species studied are very useful as bioindicators for organochlorine contamination. (orig.) [Deutsch] 24 persistente Chlorkohlenwasserstoffe verschiedener Schadstoffgruppen (PCB, HCH, DDT, Chlordan, Hexachlorbenzol und Octachlorstyrol) wurden in vier hochantarktischen Fischarten (Aethotaxis mitopteryx, Pleuragramma antarcticum, Trematomus lepidorhinus und Chionodraco myersi). Die Konzentrationen der nachgewiesenen Schadstoffe im Ganzfisch liegen jeweils in der Groessenordnung von 1 {mu}g/kg Feuchtgewicht bzw. 10 {mu}g/kg Lipidgewicht mit erheblichen Schwankungen je nach Schadstoff und Art. Die Spezies zeigen artspezifische Schadstoffverteilungsmuster. Die Konzentrationen sind gegenueber denen in Fischen aus Gebieten mit staerkerem zivilisatorischem Einfluss eher niedrig. Die Fremstoffbelastungen der hochantarktischen Fische fuehren wahrscheinlich noch nicht zu messbaren toxischen Effekten bei den Fischen. Dennoch geht von den Schadstoffen in Hinblick auf das

  9. Organochlorine insecticides DDT and chlordane in relation to survival following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Humberto; Wolff, Mary S; Engel, Lawrence S; White, Alexandra J; Eng, Sybil M; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Khankari, Nikhil K; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine insecticides have been studied extensively in relation to breast cancer incidence, and results from two meta-analyses have been null for late-life residues, possibly due to measurement error. Whether these compounds influence survival remains to be fully explored. We examined associations between organochlorine insecticides [p,p'-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), its primary metabolite, p,p'-DDE, and chlordane] assessed shortly after diagnosis and survival among women with breast cancer. A population-based sample of women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997 and with available organochlorine blood measures (n = 633) were followed for vital status through 2011. After follow-up of 5 and 15 years, we identified 55 and 189 deaths, of which 36 and 74, respectively, were breast cancer-related. Using Cox regression models, we estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lipid-adjusted organochlorine concentrations with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. At 5 years after diagnosis, the highest tertile of DDT concentration was associated with all-cause (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.67) and breast cancer-specific (HR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.13) mortality. At 15 years, middle tertile concentrations of DDT (HR = 1.42; 95% CI 0.99, 2.06) and chlordane (HR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.94, 2.12) were modestly associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Third tertile DDE concentrations were inversely associated with 15-year all-cause mortality (HR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.99). This is the first population-based study in the United States to show that DDT may adversely impact survival following breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies are warranted given the high breast cancer burden and the ubiquity of these chemicals. © 2015 UICC.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in blood serum of inhabitants from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB; α-, β-, γ-HCH; pp'DDE; op'DDT; and pp'DDT in blood serum of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 150 blood serum samples that constituted that which remained after clinical analyses, using gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as milligrams per kilogram on fat basis and micrograms per liter on wet weight. Only the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in 100% of samples at mean 15.8 mg/kg and 8.4 μg/L; p,p'-DDT was presented in 41.3.% of monitored samples at mean 3.1 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L; β-HCH was found in 48.6% of the samples at mean 4.9 mg/kg and 2.7 μg/L; op'DDT was determined to be in only 3.3% of monitored samples at mean 2.7 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L. The pooled samples divided according to sex showed significant differences of β-HCH and pp'DDE concentrations in females. The samples grouped according to age presented the third tertile as more contaminated in both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with serum organochlorine pesticide levels in Veracruz inhabitants.

  11. Organochlorines and heavy metals in pregnant women from the Disko Bay area in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Hansen, J C

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies from Greenland and the Canadian Arctic have shown high concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, and organochlorines in the blood and fatty tissue of the Inuit. This is attributed in particular to their high consumption of the meat and blubber of marine mammals. In the present...... systems but the high concentrations of pollutants have so far not been shown to influence health in Greenland....

  12. Organochlorine insecticide poisoning in Golden Langurs Trachypithecus geei

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Pathak

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine insecticide poisoning was recorded in three Golden Langurs (Trachypithecus geei) in Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) in Kokrajhar district of Assam during the month of December, 2008. The poisoning was due to prolonged ingestion of rubber plant leaves sprayed with the insecticide in a rubber plantation adjacent to the sanctuary. Though no specific gross lesions were observed, histopathologically, centilobular hepatic necrosis, mild renal degeneration, necrotic enteritis, pu...

  13. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  14. Inhibition of E2-induced expression of BRCA1 by persistent organochlorines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Thomas; Gjermandsen, Irene; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    and PCB#180]) was measured by a reporter gene construct carrying 267 bp of the BRCA1 promoter. A twofold concentration range was analyzed in MCF-7, and the results were supported by northern blot analysis of BRCA1 mRNA using the highest concentrations of the chemicals. RESULTS: All three polychlorinated...

  15. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, M., E-mail: kirchner@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Faus-Kessler, T.; Jakobi, G.; Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kotalik, J.; Zsolnay, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardy (Italy); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, W. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Uhl, M.; Weiss, P. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude. - Caused by temperature-dependent processes regarding deposition, re-volatilization and decomposition of POPs, the concentration of organochlorine pesticides varies in the Alpine region with altitude.

  16. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  18. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  19. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  20. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, γ-HCH (cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of new cleanup method of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in fish by freezing-lipid filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yun Gyong [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jungju [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeoung Hwa [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jeehyeong [Department of Civil Environment Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jongki [College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-Dong, Dongdaemoon-Ku, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhong@khu.ac.kr

    2006-08-18

    Freezing-lipid filtration as a new method has been developed for the rapid determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in biological samples. This method can effectively reduce the time of sample pretreatment, labor and amount of solvents compared with conventional methods. By freezing-lipid filtration procedure, about 90% of lipids in extract could be removed without any significant loss of PCDD/Fs. For further cleanup of extracts after freezing-lipid filtration, automatic parallel LC columns including silica gel, alumina and carbon columns were applied. During automatic parallel LC columns cleanup, most of co-extracted interferences such as residue lipids and fatty acids could be eliminated and dioxins could be separated from many other dioxin-like congeners such as polychlorinated biphenyls by this procedure. The extracts after cleanup were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) using an isotope dilution method. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 17 native congeners in the spiked fish samples at 8-80 pg/g (n = 3) were ranged between 85.3 and 117.2% and 5.7-20.3%, respectively.

  2. Development of new cleanup method of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in fish by freezing-lipid filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yun Gyong; Seo, Jungju; Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Khim, Jeehyeong; Hong, Jongki

    2006-01-01

    Freezing-lipid filtration as a new method has been developed for the rapid determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in biological samples. This method can effectively reduce the time of sample pretreatment, labor and amount of solvents compared with conventional methods. By freezing-lipid filtration procedure, about 90% of lipids in extract could be removed without any significant loss of PCDD/Fs. For further cleanup of extracts after freezing-lipid filtration, automatic parallel LC columns including silica gel, alumina and carbon columns were applied. During automatic parallel LC columns cleanup, most of co-extracted interferences such as residue lipids and fatty acids could be eliminated and dioxins could be separated from many other dioxin-like congeners such as polychlorinated biphenyls by this procedure. The extracts after cleanup were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) using an isotope dilution method. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 17 native congeners in the spiked fish samples at 8-80 pg/g (n = 3) were ranged between 85.3 and 117.2% and 5.7-20.3%, respectively

  3. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination (PCBs), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in the southwestern portion of Area 25 on the NTS in Jackass Flats (adjacent to Test Cell C [TCC]), CAU 528 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Test Cell C was built to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (operational between 1959 and 1973) activities including conducting ground tests and static firings of nuclear engine reactors. Although CAU 528 was not considered as a direct potential source of PCBs and petroleum contamination, two potential sources of contamination have nevertheless been identified from an unknown source in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. This CAU's close proximity to TCC prompted Shaw to collect surface soil samples, which have indicated the presence of PCBs extending throughout the area to the north, east, south, and even to the edge of the western boundary. Based on this information, more extensive field investigation activities are being planned, the results of which are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  5. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in the soils of the Campania Plain, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chengkai; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Piccolo, Alessandro; Arienzo, Michele; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    For the last several decades, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been introduced into the environment through anthropogenic activity. Due to their volatility and persistence, OCPs may undergo long-range atmospheric transport and, as a result, can be redistributed globally. Exposure to OCPs can pose serious health risks, including certain cancers, birth defects, respiratory illness, dysfunctional reproductive and immune systems, greater susceptibility to disease and damages to the central and peripheral nervous systems. To date, only a handful of studies, have reported the OCPs contamination level in water, sediment and organisms in the Campania Region, however a regional study of the soil contamination is still lacking. In our study, the distribution, inventory and potential risk of OCPs, including Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and their correlation with environmental and anthropological factors were investigated in soils of the Campania Plain. The specific objectives of this study were to (I) investigate the residual levels, distribution and possible sources of legacy OCPs, and further estimate their mass inventories in soils of the Campania Plain, (II) analyze the impact of soil properties on contaminant distribution, and (III) evaluate the potential ecological and health risks of OCPs. The total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs has a geometric mean (GM) of 0.05 ng/g, and 14.4 ng/g, respectively. The significant difference in spatial variations of OCPs (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05) was observed in the Campania Plain. Two specific areas exhibited higher concentrations of OCP residues: one situated in the Acerra-Marigliano conurbation with elevated HCHs and DDTs; and the other in the Sarno River basin which contains elevated levels of DDTs. The recent application of technical HCHs and DDTs in large quantities appears unlikely in light of the ratio of α-HCH/β-HCH and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, and the prohibition of the use

  6. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls using mesoporous iron-based spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Linyan; Su, Guijin, E-mail: gjsu@rcees.ac.cn; Zhang, Aiqian; Shi, Yali; Xia, Chaobo; Lu, Huijie; Li, Liewu; Liu, Sha; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} had the highest activity in degradation of CB-209, followed by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Hydroxyl species, organic acids, PCBs and chlorobenzenes were identified as products. • Three degradation reactions and one combination reaction competitively occurred. • Hydrodechlorination of CB-209 was more favored over Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} than NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Oxidation reaction of CB-209 was more favored over NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. -- Abstract: A series of mesoporous iron-based spinel materials were synthesized to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with CB-209 being used as a model compound. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), pore structure analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparison of the dechlorination efficiencies (DEs) of the materials revealed that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} had the highest DE, followed by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Newly produced polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated benzenes, hydroxyl species and organic acids were detected by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and ion chromatograph. Identification of the intermediate products indicates that three degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination, the breakage of C-C bridge bond and oxidative reaction, accompanied by one combination reaction, are competitively occurring over the iron-based spinels. The relative amounts of produced three NoCB isomers were illustrated by the C-Cl BDEs of CB-209 at meta-, para- and ortho-positions, and their energy gap between HOMO and LUMO. The consumption of the reactive oxygen species caused by the transformation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} reaction system, and the existence of the highly reactive O{sub 2}{sup −}· species in the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} reaction system, could provide a reason why the oxidation reaction was more favored over NiFe{sub 2}O

  7. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumbado, Manuel; Goethals, Muriel; Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Cabrera, Felix; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Dominguez-Boada, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the 'Canary Islands Nutrition Survey' (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant

  8. Toxic influence of organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides on cellular metabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    Pesticides, including organophosphate (OP), organochlorine (OC), and carbamate (CB) compounds, are widely used in agricultural and indoor purposes. OP and CB act as acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that affect lots of organs such as peripheral and central nervous systems, muscles, liver, pancreas, and brain, whereas OC are neurotoxic involved in alteration of ion channels. There are several reports about metabolic disorders, hyperglycemia, and also oxidative stress in acute and chronic exposures to pesticides that are linked with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. In this respect, there are several in vitro and in vivo but few clinical studies about mechanism underlying these effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for the years 1963-2010 and resulted in 1652 articles. After elimination of duplicates or irrelevant papers, 204 papers were included and reviewed. Results indicated that OP and CB impair the enzymatic pathways involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein within cytoplasm, mitochondria, and proxisomes. It is believed that OP and CB show this effect through inhibition of AChE or affecting target organs directly. OC mostly affect lipid metabolism in the adipose tissues and change glucose pathway in other cells. As a shared mechanism, all OP, CB and OC induce cellular oxidative stress via affecting mitochondrial function and therefore disrupt neuronal and hormonal status of the body. Establishing proper epidemiological studies to explore exact relationships between exposure levels to these pesticides and rate of resulted metabolic disorders in human will be helpful.

  9. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  12. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Liu, Ling; Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Pan, Cheng; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment and afield trial were conducted to study the remediation of an aged field soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7.67 +/- 0.51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 369 +/- 1 mg kg(-1) Cu in pot experiment; 8.46 +/- 0.31 mg kg(-1) Cd, 468 +/- 7 mg kg(-1) Cu, 323 +/- 12 microg kg(-1) PCBs for field experiment) under different cropping patterns. In the pot experiment Sedum plumbizincicola showed pronounced Cd phytoextraction. After two periods (14 months) of cropping the Cd removal rates in these two treatments were 52.2 +/- 12.0 and 56.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively. Total soil PCBs in unplanted control pots decreased from 323 +/- 11 to 49.3 +/- 6.6 microg kg(-1), but with no significant difference between treatments. The field microcosm experiment intercropping of three plant species reduced the yield of S. plumbizincicola, with a consequent decrease in soil Cd removal. S. plumbizincicola intercropped with E. splendens had the highest shoot Cd uptake (18.5 +/- 1.8 mg pot(-1)) after 6 months planting followed by intercropping with M. sativa (15.9 +/- 1.9 mg pot(-1)). Liming with S. plumbizincicola intercropped with M. sativa significantly promoted soil PCB degradation by 25.2%. Thus, adjustment of soil pH to 5.56 combined with intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and M. sativagave high removal rates of Cd, Cu, and PCBs.

  13. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  14. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: a neuropsychologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H

    2009-01-01

    A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual-spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies.

  15. Isolation and identification of aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs degrading bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in lab scale aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Polyurethane foams were used as bio-carrier and synthetic wastewater was prepared with PCBs in transformer oil as the main substrate (20-700 μg/l and acetone as a solvent for PCBs as well as microelements. After achieving to adequate microbial population and acclimation of microorganisms to PCB compounds with high efficiency of PCB removal, identification of degrading microbial species was performed by 16s rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacteria. Results: Gene sequencing results of the isolated bacteria showed that Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoxanthomonas spp., Agromyces spp., and Brevibacillus spp. were dominant PCB-degrading bacteria. Conclusion: PCB compounds can be degraded by some microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions or at least be reduced to low chlorinated congeners, despite their chemical stability and toxicity. Based on the results of the study, five bacterial species capable of degrading PCBs in transformer oil have been identified.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  17. Remediation of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] -contaminated soils from scrapyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKnight, S.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the recent attention on contamination of the environment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has focused on liquid PCB spills from electrical equipment. A new, and possibly more serious, source of PCB contamination is the scrap yard, typically located in or near major urban centers, where the local scrap dealer would purchase used transformers or other PCB-containing electrical equipment, recover copper and other metals, and dump the PCB-containing oils on the ground. With the rising value of urban and suburban lands, these scrap yards may be slated for redevelopment, making the cleanup of contaminated soils necessary. The heterogeneous distribution of scrap yard contaminants requires a very detailed site assessment, and the heterogeneous mixture of typical scrap yard contaminants (not only PCB) cannot be treated in a simple fashion. These problems are illustrated for the case of the assessment and cleanup of a scrap yard site in Nova Scotia. A grid block system was used to sample soil at the site, and samples were analyzed for PCB, metals, and hydrocarbons. The most severely contaminated spots were mapped; groundwater patterns were also examined. The remediation process can be divided into 5 phases: physical separation of uncontaminated material; three stages of separation of materials into those having single, several-but-similar, and multicomponent mixed contaminations; and selection of appropriate process technologies. Since there is currently no approved PCB destruction facility in Atlantic Canada, excavated soils containing PCB are stored securely on the site to await approval for some type of incineration process

  18. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginawati, K.; Pratama, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin.

  19. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oginawati, K; Pratama, M A

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin. (paper)

  20. Different transfer pathways of an organochlorine pesticide across marine tropical food webs assessed with stable isotope analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte R Dromard

    Full Text Available Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide used in the banana fields of the French West Indies from 1972 to 1993. Three marine habitats (mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs of two study sites located downstream contaminated rivers were chosen to evaluate the level of contamination of marine food webs. On each habitat, the food chain collected included suspended organic matter, primary producers (macroalgae, algal turf, seagrass, zooplankton, symbiotic organisms (corals, sea anemones, primary consumers (herbivores, suspension feeders, biofilm feeders, omnivores and detritivores (lobsters, fish, secondary consumers (carnivores 1: invertebrate feeders, planktivores and tertiary consumers (carnivores 2: invertebrate and fish feeders, piscivores. Log-linear regressions of the concentrations of chlordecone versus nitrogen isotopic ratios (δ15N were used to assess the bioaccumulation of chlordecone along trophic food webs. At each site, bioconcentration and bioamplification take part on the transfer of chlordecone in marine organisms. In mangroves (i.e. close to the source of pollution, lower trophic magnification factors (TMF indicated that bioconcentration prevailed over bioamplification phenomenon. The opposite phenomenon appeared on coral reefs in which bioconcentration processes were less important and bioamplification pathway became dominant. Far from the source of pollution, molecules of chlordecone seemed to be transfered to organisms mostly via trophic interactions rather than water contact.

  1. Dramatic declines of DDE and other organochlorines in spring migrant Peregrine Falcons from Padre Island, Texas, 1978-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Yates, M.A.; Seegar, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured in the spring at Padre Island, Texas, nest across the arctic and subarctic from Alaska to Greenland and winter throughout Latin America. Padre Island, located immediately north of the Mexican border, is the peregrines' first landfall in the U.S.A. after spending about 6 mo in Latin America. Blood plasma was collected from spring migrants at Padre Island between 1978 and 2004 to monitor trends in organochlorine (OC) pesticides and their metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE (??g/g, ww) decreased throughout the study: 1978-1979 (0.879), 1980 (0.617), 1984 (0.551), 1994 (0.406) and 2004 (0.013). Most other OC pesticides, with detection limits used during the earlier portion of this study, were no longer detected during the last two sampling periods. The reduced concentrations of OC pesticides suggest that other pesticides (including carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) are likely being used as replacements. These replacement compounds are not as persistent and cannot be readily evaluated at migration sites like Padre Island. However, concentrations of flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs) have recently increased in bird eggs in many regions and have been reported in blood plasma. Concentrations of PBDEs in peregrine plasma could be evaluated at Padre Island for assessment of trends in the Americas. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  2. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and usage and recent input. Agricultural plastic film was considered to be an important source of PAEs. Discharge from furniture industry was potential major source of PBDEs in this region. The selected pollutants showed quite different spatial distributions within the studied region. It is worth noting that much higher concentrations of the EDCs were found on the borders between Shanghai and the two neighboring provinces, where agriculture and industry developed rapidly in recent years. Contaminants from both agricultural and industrial activities made this area a pollution hotspot, which should arouse more stringent regulation to safeguard the environment and food security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Composition, distribution and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Jing [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Woodward, Lee Ann [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Reefs NWRC, Honolulu, HI 96850 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wangjun@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (e.g., DDE and DDD), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in 111 soil samples from the Midway Atoll. OCPs were found in all samples analyzed, with predominance of α-HCH, p,p′-DDD and p,p′-DDT. The total concentrations ranged from 0 to 127 ng g{sup −1} with a median concentration of 17 ng g{sup −1} for HCHs and 1.4 to 643 ng g{sup −1} with a median concentration of 168 ng g{sup −1} for DDTs. The possible degradation pathways and potential sources of DDTs and HCHs were investigated. The total concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were used to evaluate the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ΣDDTs and ΣHCHs. - Highlights: • Contamination levels of DDTs and HCHs were studied in the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. • Potential sources of DDTs and HCHs in soils of the Midway Atoll were investigated. • Possible degradation modes of o,p′-DDT in soils of the Midway Atoll were analyzed. • Cancer risks of DDTs and HCHs in soils of the Midway Atoll were assessed.

  4. Method and means for filtering polychlorinated biphenyls from a gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of filtering, adjacent to an end user-customer's residence or business in which at least a single gas appliance is located, a natural gas stream in which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and degraded PCB products have been concentrated at sufficient levels to be a health threat in a natural gas gathering and distributing network. It comprises: introducing the natural gas stream to a filter selected from a group that includes impingement, absorbing and adsorbing media whereby PCB's and degraded PCB products concentrated in the gas stream at sufficient levels to be a health threat by a periodic loading of the natural gas within the gathering and distributing network, are filtered from the gas stream and captured irrespective of mode of transport, passing the filtered natural gas stream to the customer's gas appliance wherein safe use of the energy associated with the stream occurs; periodically and safely removing the filter, inserting a new filter in place of the removed filter

  5. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies.

  6. Forecasting long-range atmospheric transport episodes of polychlorinated biphenyls using FLEXPART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Anne Karine; Eckhardt, Sabine; Schlabach, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Breivik, Knut

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air is costly and can only be done for a limited number of samples. It is thus beneficial to maximize the information content of the samples analyzed via a targeted observation strategy. Using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as an example, a forecasting system to predict and evaluate long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) episodes of POPs at a remote site in southern Norway has been developed. The system uses the Lagrangian particle transport model FLEXPART, and can be used for triggering extra ("targeted") sampling when LRAT episodes are predicted to occur. The system was evaluated by comparing targeted samples collected over 12-25 h during individual LRAT episodes with monitoring samples regularly collected over one day per week throughout a year. Measured concentrations in all targeted samples were above the 75th percentile of the concentrations obtained from the regular monitoring program and included the highest measured values of all samples. This clearly demonstrates the success of the targeted sampling strategy.

  7. Biofilms at work: Bio-, phyto- and rhizoremediation approaches for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merily Horwat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been released into the environment for decades due to anthropogenic activities, but are also naturally produced in small amounts through volcanic eruptions and geochemical processes. Although toxic to humans and other organisms, the natural production of these compounds has resulted in the evolution of naturally occurring organohalide-respiring bacteria that possess the enzymes necessary to degrade PCB compounds to non-toxic products. The efficiency of PCB degradation can be improved by facilitating the formation of organohalide-respiring biofilms. During biofilm colonization on a surface or interface, bacteria are encased in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS or “slime,” which allows them to share nutrients and remain protected from environmental stresses. Effective bioremediation of PCBs involves facilitation of biofilm growth to promote cooperation between bacteria, which can be further enhanced by the presence of certain plant species. This review aims to give an overview of biofilm processes involved in the detoxification of PCBs including anaerobic and aerobic PCB degradation by bacteria as well as the ability of plants to stimulate microbial activity and degradation (rhizoremediation and phytoremediation.

  8. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the North American atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Wania, Frank; Lei, Ying D.; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C.G.; Xiao, Hang

    2006-01-01

    To assess the spatial concentration variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the atmosphere on a large continental scale, their annually integrated air concentrations were determined in 2000/2001 using XAD-based passive air samplers (PAS). The network included 40 stations in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize and Costa Rica, and covered 72 degrees of latitude and longitude. Total concentrations of PCB and PBDE congeners ranged from below the detection limit to 130 ng PAS -1 and 24 ng PAS -1 , respectively. PCBs displayed a large variation between urban, rural and remote sites, whereas PBDEs did not follow such a pattern. Open burning of 'Penta'-containing waste may have contributed to the PBDEs detected in the air samples from rural and remote areas. Air from the Canadian Arctic had a relatively higher percentage of lighter PCB congeners than air sampled in the tropical region, which is interpreted as evidence for global fractionation. - A continental passive air sampling network reveals atmospheric distribution patterns of two classes of industrial chemicals

  10. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. Inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithwick, L. Ashley; Smith, Andrew; Quensen, John F.; Stack, Allison; London, Lucille; Morris, Pamela J.

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants, and their ubiquitous nature has prompted studies of their potential health hazards. As a result of their lipophilic nature, PCBs accumulate in breast milk and subsequently affect the health of offspring of exposed individuals. Biological effects of PCBs in animals have mostly been attributed to coplanar congeners, although effects of ortho congeners also have been demonstrated. To investigate the relationship of immunotoxicity and chlorine substitution pattern, the effects of PCB congeners and mixtures of ortho and non-ortho-substituted constituents of Aroclor 1242 on splenocytes from C57B1/6 mice were examined. The immunotoxic endpoints investigated included splenocyte viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocyte proliferation, and LPS-induced antibody secretion. Congeners with multiple ortho chlorines preferentially inhibited splenocyte proliferation as compared with non- or mono-ortho-substituted congeners. However, mixtures of non- and mono-ortho-substituted congeners and multi-ortho-substituted congeners inhibited LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation and antibody secretion at similar concentrations. Exposure of splenocytes to these mixtures did not activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signal transduction pathway. These results suggest individual multi-ortho-substituted congeners preferentially inhibit LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation, while congeners not exhibiting an effect individually may have additive effects in a mixture to produce an immunotoxic response through an AhR-independent pathway

  12. Advances and perspective in bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra K; Gautam, Ravindra K; Nanekar, Sneha V; Weber, Roland; Singh, Brajesh K; Singh, Sanjeev K; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, microbial degradation and bioremediation approaches of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied extensively considering their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistency potential in the environment. In this direction, different catabolic enzymes have been identified and reported for biodegradation of different PCB congeners along with optimization of biological processes. A genome analysis of PCB-degrading bacteria has led in an improved understanding of their metabolic potential and adaptation to stressful conditions. However, many stones in this area are left unturned. For example, the role and diversity of uncultivable microbes in PCB degradation are still not fully understood. Improved knowledge and understanding on this front will open up new avenues for improved bioremediation technologies which will bring economic, environmental and societal benefits. This article highlights on recent advances in bioremediation of PCBs in soil. It is demonstrated that bioremediation is the most effective and innovative technology which includes biostimulation, bioaugmentation, phytoremediation and rhizoremediation and acts as a model solution for pollution abatement. More recently, transgenic plants and genetically modified microorganisms have proved to be revolutionary in the bioremediation of PCBs. Additionally, other important aspects such as pretreatment using chemical/physical agents for enhanced biodegradation are also addressed. Efforts have been made to identify challenges, research gaps and necessary approaches which in future, can be harnessed for successful use of bioremediation under field conditions. Emphases have been given on the quality/efficiency of bioremediation technology and its related cost which determines its ultimate acceptability.

  13. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Human Breast Milk from the Middle Governorates in Jordan in 2013/2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Antary, Tawfiq M; Alawi, Mahmoud A; Estityah, Hussein; Haddad, Nizar

    2017-07-01

    One hundred samples of mother breast milk were gathered from six middle governorates and districts in Jordan in 2013/2014 to monitor Organochlorine pesticides pollutants. The results showed clearly that banned organochlorine pesticides are still detected in the monitored samples in low concentration despite banning of these persistent pollutants in Jordan since 36 years ago. However, the results indicated that 1% of the contaminated samples contained β-HCH, 5% γ-HCH, 3% p,p'-DDD, 2% heptachlor, 45% p,p'-DDE and 3% p,p'-DDT. In addition, these monitored samples had no residues of aldrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, HCB, o,p'-DD, o,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDE. In conclusion, there was a decline in the residues of Organochlorine pesticides, particularly DDT group members.

  14. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  15. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  16. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  17. Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides from Plastic Pellets and Plastic Type Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pflieger, Maryline; Makorič, Petra; Kovač Viršek, Manca; Koren, Špela

    2017-01-01

    Plastic resin pellets, categorized as microplastics (≤5 mm in diameter), are small granules that can be unintentionally released to the environment during manufacturing and transport. Because of their environmental persistence, they are widely distributed in the oceans and on beaches all over the world. They can act as a vector of potentially toxic organic compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls) and might consequently negatively affect marine organisms. Their possible impacts alo...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  19. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  1. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by iron and its oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Kainuma, Masashi; Wang, Wei; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    The decomposition efficiency of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined using elemental iron (Fe) and three iron (hydr)oxides, i.e., α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and α-FeOOH, as catalysts. The experiments were performed using four distinct PCB congeners (PCB-209, PCB-153, and the coplanar PCB-167 and PCB-77) at temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 380 °C and under an inert, oxidizing or reducing atmosphere composed of N2, N2+O2, or N2+H2. From these three options N2 showed to provide the best reaction atmosphere. Among the iron compounds tested, Fe3O4 showed the highest activity for decomposing PCBs. The decomposition efficiencies of PCB-209, PCB-167, PCB-153, and PCB-77 by Fe3O4 in an N2 atmosphere at 230 °C were 88.5%, 82.5%, 69.9%, and 66.4%, respectively. Other inorganic chlorine (Cl) products which were measured by the amount of inorganic Cl ions represented 82.5% and 76.1% of the reaction products, showing that ring cleavage of PCBs was the main elimination process. Moreover, the dechlorination did not require a particular hydrogen donor. We used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the elemental distribution at the catalyst's surface. The O/Fe ratio influenced upon the decomposition efficiency of PCBs: the lower this ratio, the higher the decomposition efficiency. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra showed that α-Fe2O3 effectively worked as a catalyst, while Fe3O4 and α-FeOOH were consumed as reactants, as their final state is different from their initial state. Finally, a decomposition pathway was postulated in which the Cl atoms in ortho-positions were more difficult to eliminate than those in the para- or meta-positions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sources and pathways of selected organochlorine pesticides to the Arctic and the effect of pathway divergence on HCH trends in biota: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.F.; Macdonald, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Historical global usage and emissions for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), toxaphene and endosulfan, are presented. Relationships between the air concentrations of these OCPs and their global emissions are also discussed. Differences between the pathways of α- and β-HCH to the Arctic Ocean are described in the context of environmental concentrating and diluting processes. These concentrating and diluting processes are shown to control the temporal and spatial loading of northern oceans and that the HCH burdens in marine biota from these oceans respond accordingly. The HCHs provide an elegant example of how hemispheric-scale solvent switching processes can alter the ocean into which an HCH congener partitions, how air-water partitioning controls the pathway for HCHs entering the Arctic, and how the various pathways impact spatial and temporal trends of HCH residues in arctic animals feeding out of marine and terrestrial foodwebs

  3. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  4. Evaluation of organochlorine pesticides in serum from students in Coimbra, Portugal: 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, Celeste Matos; Silveira, M. Irene Noronha da

    2006-01-01

    In 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of a Portuguese population, organochlorine pesticide residues were evaluated in human serum from students of the University of Coimbra. Concentrations of selected organochlorine pollutants (α-, β-, and γ-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, HE, HCB, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD) and endosulfan sulfate was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Our objective is to point out the general levels of pesticide contamination and the differences between the four populations; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender or the residence area of the subjects. Endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently identified residues. Endosulfan sulfate present the highest concentrations for all subjects, 42.6 μg/l, with concentrations ranging from undetected to 1295.5 μg/l. Between DDT, isomers, and analogues, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT presented the highest levels, 24.8 and 21.9 μg/l, respectively. Mean total DDT levels were higher than mean total HCH levels. For Σ-DDT, the highest levels were found among female gender and urban samples. An opposite situation was found in Σ-HCH: males presented higher levels than females. The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues, present in the student populations, showed that it is among the highest levels of contamination, when compared with others from Europe, Asia, and America

  5. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 6. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Octanol-water partition coefficient of two hundred and six polychlorinated biphenyls was model by the use of an original method based on complex information obtained from compounds structure. The regression analysis shows that best results are obtained in four-varied model (r2 = 0.9168. The prediction ability of the model was studied through leave-one-out analysis (r2cv(loo = 0.9093 and in training and test sets analysis. Modeling the octanol-water partition coefficient of polychlorinated biphenyls by integration of complex structural information provide a stable and performing four-varied model, allowing us to make remarks about relationship between structure of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated octanol-water partition coefficients.

  6. Contrastive Analysis of the Raman Spectra of Polychlorinated Benzene: Hexachlorobenzene and Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated benzene in environment in trace amounts is challenging, but important. It is more difficult to distinguish homologues and isomers of organic pollutantd when present in trace amounts because of their similar physical and chemical properties. In this work we simulate the Raman spectra of hexachlorobenzene and benzene, and figure out the vibration mode of each main peak. The effect on the Raman spectrum of changing substituents from H to Cl is analyzed to reveal the relations between the Raman spectra of homologues and isomers of polychlorinated benzene, which should be helpful for distinguishing one kind of polychlorinated benzene from its homologues and isomers by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  7. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence of Organochlorines Contaminants in Coastal Fish from Sepetiba Bay: Levels and Human Health Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs in white mullet (Mugil curema, common snook (Centropomus undecimalis, and acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa, collected at Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March-August 2013. PCBs and PCDD/Fs were determined by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS as stated by the US EPA 1613B, 1668B, and 8290A methods. The concentration of total PCBs ranged from 0.589688 ~ 0.6981629 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww and PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.134037 ~ 0.242573 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. The concentrations of these contaminants on fish species currently appear to fall below critical values, and the dietary consumption of these species did not represent a risk for human health. However, seeking to avoid future problems, systematic monitoring can prevent complications to the environment, marine wildlife and public health impacts.

  9. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide contamination of ground water in the city of Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gangesh; Kumar, Anoop; Bhanti, Mayank; Joseph, P E; Taneja, Ajay

    2006-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants used widely throughout the world. Due to the extensive use in agriculture, organic environmental contaminants such as HCH, DDT along with other organochlorine pesticides are distributed globally by transport through air and water. The main aim of present study is to determine contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides in the ground water of Hyderabad City. Water samples were collected from 28 domestic well supplies of the city. For this study, random sampling technique was applied, all the samples were collected in high purity glass bottles and refrigerated at 4 degrees C until analysis. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is used for the extraction of organochlorine pesticide residues in water sample. The collected water samples were pre-filtered through a 0.45 microg glass fiber filter (Wattman GF/F) to remove particulate matter and were acidified with hydrochloric acid (6N) to pH 2.5. Methanol modifier (BDH, for pesticide residue analysis, 10 mL) was added to water sample for better extraction. SPE using pre-packed reversed phase octadecyl (C-18 bonded silica) contained in cartridges was used for sample preparation. Prior to the extraction, the C-18 bonded phase, which contains 500 mg of bonded phase, was washed with 20 mL methanol. The sample was mixed well and allowed to percolate through the cartridges with flow rate of 10-15 mL/min under vacuum. After sample extraction, suction continued for 15 min to dry the packing material and pesticides trapped in the C-18 bonded phases were eluted by passing 10 mL hexane and fraction was evaporated in a gentle steam of Nitrogen. In all samples pesticide residues were analyzed by GC (Chemito-8510) with Ni63 ECD detector. Helium was used as carrier gas and nitrogen was used as make up gas. The injection technique was split/split less. All the samples analyzed were found to be contaminated with four pesticides i.e. DDT, beta-Endosulfan, alpha

  11. Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    2001-01-01

    statistically significant positive associations with age, marine diet, and male sex in multiple linear regression analyses. The exceptionally high plasma concentrations of several organochlorines among the Inuit of Greenland are attributed to a lifelong high intake of seafood, in particular marine mammals....... Concentrations of PCB adjusted for the consumption of marine food increased until approximately 40 yr of age, which is equivalent to the birth cohorts of the early 1950s. The age pattern indicates that bioaccumulation of PCB started in the 1950s, which is a likely date for the introduction of the compounds...

  12. Organochlorine residues in sediments from selected tributaries to Manila Bay, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajet, C.M.; Varca, L.M.; Navarro, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment borne pesticides are the major route of transport of pesticides in the marine environment and benthic dwellers, filter feeders and the flora/fauna closely associated with the sediments could greatly be affected. This paper focuses on the monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in sediments collected from the mouth of rivers draining to Manila Bay and relate to the contribution of inland activities to the overall pollution of the Bay. Sediments from 14-25 tributaries were collected in 1996 to 1998 and analyzed for the presence of HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, lindane, DDT, DDE, DDD, endosulfan I, endosulfan II and endosulfan sulfate using GLC-ECD

  13. Organochlorines and heavy metals in 17-year cicadas pose no apparent dietary threat to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in 17-year cicadas from Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland, were well below levels known to be harmful to birds. Cicadas contained concentrations of metals similar to or less than other local invertebrates except they contained more copper than did earthworms. Copper and lead concentrations in cicadas from one site may have been elevated by sewage plant effluent deposited during river floodings. Cicadas from the median of a major highway did not contain more lead than cicadas from non-traffic sites.

  14. Efeitos tardios dos praguicidas organoclorados no homem Delayed effects of organochlorine pesticides in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vannucci Nunes

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se relacionar as informações disponíveis sobre os organoclorados e os efeitos crônicos provocados pela exposição. Os compostos organoclorados são os praguicidas mais persistentes já fabricados. Embora sejam geralmente eficientes no controle das pragas, são importantes poluentes ambientais e potenciais causas de problemas de saúde para o homem, tendo sido proibidos ou controlados na maioria dos países. Com poucas exceções, os efeitos tardios desses compostos sobre a saúde humana são difíceis de detectar, em função de dificuldades metodológicas e da extrapolação dos resultados. A genotoxicidade está entre os mais sérios dos possíveis danos causados por esses compostos e merece atenção especial, devido à natureza irreversível do processo. Outro ponto a ser considerado é o aumento na incidência de alterações no desenvolvimento do trato reprodutivo e na fertilidade masculina observada nas últimas décadas provavelmente decorrente do aumento da exposição intra-uterina a compostos estrogênicos e anti-androgênicos, como os organoclorados.Available information on organochlorines and the chronic effects of exposure to them are set out. Organochlorinated compounds are the most persistent pesticides and can be found in all ecosystems. Although they are generally efficient in pest control, they are also a potent environment pollutant and can provoke health problems in man. The evidences of the carcinogenic potential of organochlorines are controversial and insufficient, but they have been related to an increase in the incidence of some kinds of tumors, such as leukemia and solid tumors. Reproductive effects, due to anti-androgenic and estrogenic action, on embryonic virilization, the incidence of abortion and the frequency of prematurity, have also been observed. The accumulation of the organochlorines in the adipous tissue is positively correlated to the increase in aging and could be implicated in the

  15. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN FISH OF THE KILIYA DELTA OF THE DANUBE (2003–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Sytnik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of the content of organochlorine pesticides (OCP in organs and tissues of benthivorous and predatory fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube (Eastern mouth and their comparison with previous years. Methodology. The analysis of the samples of aquatic organisms for the content of residual organochlorine pesticides was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography (GLH based on a unified methodology. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on the gas chromatograph "Color 5" with electron capture detector at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Findings. The effect of stable organochlorine pesticides on aquatic organisms is characterized by marked persistence in the environment and by high ability for migration and accumulation on different levels of food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The continuous presence of OCP in all investigated organs and tissues of selected species with the presence of a certain amount of fat and consequently, the fixation of residual organochlorine pesticides. Among benthivorous fishes, the content of OCP in organs and tissues (total is as follows: vimba → roach → wild carp → bream → gibel carp. Among the predators: asp → perch → European catfish → pikeperch. Originality. Recently, a significant number of scientists all around the world returns to the problem of the accumulation and distribution (redistribution of OCP in the components of aquatic ecosystems. This is associated with certain threats to the environment and human health, that could lead to negative consequences as a result of the consumption of fish as the highest trophic level in fresh waters of Ukraine. Practical value. The obtained data indicate that the major commercial fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube river contains residual quantities of pesticides. This indicates to the need for continuous hygienic and toxicological monitoring of fish caught

  16. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) in coastal environments of Southeast Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Botello, A.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Rueda-Quintana, L.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses to determine the presence and concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) were carried out in sediments and estuarine organisms (Crassostrea virginica) from five coastal lagoons of the Southeast Gulf of Mexico. The results of this study show high levels of POP's in sediments with high concentration of Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin and ppDDT, either in sediments or biological tissues. According to national regulations, the use and dispersion of these chemical have been severely restricted or totally prohibited in developed countries, however their presence in coastal areas indicate an extensive use and recent application of them. (author)

  17. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vorkamp, Katrin; Skov, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (North Greenland) in the period 2008–2013. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs...... for neutral PFAS we present for the first time a multiyear series of measurements for North Greenland. The average sum of the seven measured neutral PFAS (∑7PFAS) ranged from 1.82 to 32.1 pg m−3. The most abundant compound was 8:2 FTOH (44% of ∑7PFAS), followed by 6:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH. Perfluoroalkyl...

  18. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  19. Rapid measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and planar chlorobiphenyls using microcolumn chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, T.L.; Haines, B.K.; Tokarczyk, R.; Uthe, J.F. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch

    1997-05-01

    The concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran classes and chlorobiphenyl in lobster from Atlantic Canada was measured using a newly developed quick and low-cost measuring method. The method is based on saponification followed by extraction into hexane, clean-up by gel-permeation chromatography and sulfuric acid treatment, and the separation of the non-ortho-chlorinated chlorobiphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from other chlorinated compounds. Detection limits as low as 1-5 pg.g{sup -1} wet wt. were achieved for some of the chlorinated compounds.

  20. Selection of polychlorinated plastics in plastic waste by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumasaki, H.; Shinozaki, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence method using a small source of 55 Fe was examined and found to be applicable for the selection of polychlorinated plastics from plastic waste in model areas in Tokyo designated for investigating their content in the waste. The weight ratios of soft and hard polychlorinated plastics to the total plastic waste estimated by this method were found to be 15.6% and 0.29% respectively. These values agree well with the results obtained with the Beilstein method. (author)

  1. organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in soil around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    quantification criteria included confirmation ... blanks. Recoveries of 13C-labelled and deuterated internal standards varied between. 69% and 119% ... 6–18%. The detection limit was defined as ... detection and every signal below this limit.

  2. Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Argiriadis, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; De Pieri, Silvia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Air samples were collected in Venice during summer 2009 and 2012 to measure gas and particulate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). PCB-11, considered a marker for non-Aroclor contamination of the environment, was found for the first time in the Venetian lagoon and in Europe. An investigation on sources has been conducted, evidencing traffic as the major source of PAHs, whereas PCBs have a similar composition to Aroclor 1248 and 1254; in 2009 a release of PCN-42 has been hypothesized. Toxicological evaluation by TCA and TEQ methods, conducted for the first time in Venice air samples, identified BaP, PCB-126 and PCB-169 as the most important contributors to the total carcinogenic activity of PAHs and the total dioxin-like activity of PCBs and PCNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Current data on the background burden to the persistent organochlorine pollutants HCB, p,p'-DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 in plasma of the general population in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettgen, Thomas; Alt, Anne; Esser, Andre; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Despite their long-term ban, persistent organochlorine compounds like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still of environmental concern. For the evaluation of potential occupational or environmental exposures to these substances, it is essential to know the current background burden of the general population. As representative and up-to-date information is missing for Germany, we have analysed a large dataset generated in studies on potential exposure to lower chlorinated PCBs to fill this gap for the levels of HCB, DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180. We have investigated n=2750 plasma samples of persons of the general population living in North Rhine-Westfalia and Hesse aged 6-65 years and sampled between September 2010 and March 2014. For evaluation of the age-dependent accumulation in the general population we have generated seven age groups in the collective. Our laboratory used a validated and quality controlled procedure using GC/MS for quantification of the organochlorine compounds in plasma (LOQ: 0.01μg/L). The median (95th percentile) levels for ∑ PCB 138+PCB 153+PCB 180 were 0.14 (0.73); 0.30 (0.82); 0.38 (0.88); 0.50 (1.14); 0.92; 1.58 (3.54) and 2.41 (4.82)μg/L plasma in the age groups 6-10 years (n=102), 11-17 years (n=499), 18-25 years (n=157), 26-35 years (n=710), 36-45 years (n=400), 46-55 years (n=525) and 56-65 years (n=357), respectively. Similarly, the median (95th percentile) levels of p,p'-DDE were 0.18 (1.24); 0.18 (0.74); 0.24 (0.85); 0.30 (1.20); 0.45 (1.74); 0.64 (3.25) and 0.94 (4.7)μg/L plasma. Finally, the median (95th percentile) of HCB in plasma in these age groups was 0.05 (0.10); 0.06 (0.11); 0.08 (0.15); 0.08 (0.15); 0.11 (0.22); 0.14 (0.42) and 0.20 (0.68)μg/L plasma. Our results prove an overall substantial reduction in the body burden to organochlorine compounds in Germany compared to earlier studies. However, 15% and 3.6% of the examined

  4. Organochlorine compounds in soils and sediments of the mountain Andean Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghini, Francesca; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C.; Barra, Ricardo; Garcia, Carlos J. Torres; Focardi, Silvano

    2005-01-01

    Semi-volatile organochlorine compounds (OC) were analyzed in remote Andean soils and lake sediments. The sampling sites covered a wide latitudinal gradient from 18 deg. S to 46 deg. S along Chile and an altitudinal gradient (10-4500 m). The concentrations were in the order of background levels, involving absence of major pollution sources in the high mountain areas. Significant correlations were found between log-transformed concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in soils and total organic content (TOC). In addition, TOC-normalized concentrations of the most volatile OC showed a significant linear dependence with air temperature. This good agreement points to temperature as a significant factor for the retention of long range transported OC in remote ecosystems such as the Andean mountains, although other variables should not be totally excluded. The highest concentrations of OCs were achieved in the sites located at highest altitude and lowest temperature of the dataset. - Distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds in the Andean Mountain lakes is influenced by temperature

  5. Organochlorines in the Vaccares Lagoon trophic web (Biosphere Reserve of Camargue, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.f [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vollaire, Y.; Persic, A.; Buet, A. [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Oliveira-Ribeiro, C. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19031, CEP: 81.531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Coulet, E. [Nature Reserve of Camargue, La Capeliere, F13200 Arles (France); Banas, D.; Ramade, F. [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2009-08-15

    During a decade (1996-2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccares Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in the course of prohibition (or restriction) (PCB, lindane, pp'-DDE, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan...) and some substances likely still used in the Rhone River basin (diuron, fipronil). The results confirmed the ubiquity of contamination. It proves to be chronic, variable and tends to regress; however contamination levels depend on the trophic compartment. A biomagnification process was showed. A comparison of investigation methods used in other Mediterranean wetlands provides basis of discussion, and demonstrates the urgent need of modelling to assess the ecotoxicological risk in order to improve the management of such protected areas. - The Vaccares Lagoon trophic web biomagnifies organochlorine pollutants.

  6. Organochlorine pollution in tropical rivers (Guadeloupe): Role of ecological factors in food web bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coat, Sophie, E-mail: coatsophie@gmail.com [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Monti, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.monti@univ-ag.fr [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Legendre, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.legendre@umontreal.ca [Departement de Sciences Biologique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bouchon, Claude, E-mail: claude.bouchon@univ-ag.fr [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Massat, Felix, E-mail: fmassat@ladrome.fr [LDA26, laboratoire Departemental d' Analyses de la Drome, 27 avenue Lautagne, 26000 Valence (France); Lepoint, Gilles, E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be [MARE Centre, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Universite de Liege, Bat. B6, 4000 Sart Tilman, Belgique (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon were measured in a tropical freshwater ecosystem to evaluate the contamination level of biota and examine the bioaccumulation patterns of pollutants through the food web. Chemical analyses showed a general and heavy contamination of the entire food web. They revealed the strong accumulation of pollutants by juveniles of diadromous fishes and shrimps, as they re-enter the river. The role of ecological factors in the bioaccumulation of pesticides was evaluated. Whereas the most persistent pollutants (chlordecone and monohydro-chlordecone) were related to the organisms diet and habitat, bioaccumulation of {beta}-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. The biomagnification potential of chlordecone through the food chain has been demonstrated. It highlighted the importance of trophic transfer in this compound bioaccumulation process. In contrast, bioconcentration by passive diffusion from water seemed to be the main exposure route of biota to {beta}-HCH. - Highlights: > We measured OC pesticides and stable isotope ratios in a tropical stream. > Results showed a strong and ubiquitous contamination of the entire food web. > Diadromous juveniles strongly accumulated pollutants when they re-enter the river. > The most persistent pollutant (chlordecone) was related to species diet and habitat. > {beta}-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. - This paper determines the bioaccumulation and transfer processes of organochlorine pesticides within the stream food web in Guadeloupe (Caribbean).

  7. Determination of soil content in chlordecone (organochlorine pesticide) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Didier, E-mail: didier.brunet@ird.f [IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols), Montpellier SupAgro, Batiment 12, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France); Woignier, Thierry [IRD, UMR Eco and Sols, PRAM (Pole de Recherche Agronomique de la Martinique), BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Montpellier 2, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphael [CIRAD (Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement), PRAM, BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); Rangon, Luc [IRD, UMR Eco and Sols, PRAM (Pole de Recherche Agronomique de la Martinique), BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); Barthes, Bernard G. [IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols), Montpellier SupAgro, Batiment 12, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France)

    2009-11-15

    Chlordecone is a toxic organochlorine insecticide that was used in banana plantations until 1993 in the French West Indies. This study aimed at assessing the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining chlordecone content in Andosols, Nitisols and Ferralsols from Martinique. Using partial least square regression, chlordecone content conventionally determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be correctly predicted by NIRS (Q{sup 2} = 0.75, R{sup 2} = 0.82 for the total set), especially for samples with chlordecone content <12 mg kg{sup -1} or when the sample set was rather homogeneous (Q{sup 2} = 0.91, R{sup 2} = 0.82 for the Andosols). Conventional measures and NIRS predictions were poorly correlated for chlordecone content >12 mg kg{sup -1}, nevertheless ca. 80% samples were correctly predicted when the set was divided into three or four classes of chlordecone content. Thus NIRS could be considered a time- and cost-effective method for characterising soil contamination by chlordecone. - Soil content in chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, can be determined time- and cost-effectively using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

  8. Exposure to organochlorine pollutants and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Though exposure to organochlorine pollutants (OCPs is considered a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM, epidemiological evidence for the association remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was applied to quantitatively evaluate the association between exposure to OCPs and incidence of T2DM and pool the inconsistent evidence. DESIGN AND METHODS: Publications in English were searched in MEDLINE and WEB OF SCIENCE databases and related reference lists up to August 2013. Quantitative estimates and information regarding study characteristics were extracted from 23 original studies. Quality assessments of external validity, bias, exposure measurement and confounding were performed, and subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the heterogeneity sources. RESULTS: We retrieved 23 eligible articles to conduct this meta-analysis. OR (odds ratio or RR (risk ratio estimates in each subgroup were discussed, and the strong associations were observed in PCB-153 (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.94, PCBs (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.53-2.99, and p,p'-DDE (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.15-1.54 based on a random-effects model. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence supporting the conclusion that exposure to organochlorine pollutants is associated with an increased risk of incidence of T2DM.

  9. Organophosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides Bioaccumulation by Eichhornia crassipes in Irrigation Canals in an Urban Agricultural System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Borrayo, B M; Cram Heydrich, Silke; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Hernández Quiroz, Manuel; De León Hill, Claudia Ponce

    2015-01-01

    A natural wetland in Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the main suppliers of crops and flowers, and in consequence its canals hold a high concentration of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. There is also an extensive population of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is considered a plague; but literature suggests water hyacinth may be used as a phytoremediator. This study demonstrates bioaccumulation difference for the OC in vivo suggesting their bioaccumulation is ruled by their log K(ow), while all the OP showed bioaccumulation regardless of their log K(ow). The higher bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of the accumulated OC pesticides cannot be explained by their log K(ow), suggesting that the OC pesticides may also be transported passively into the plant. Translocation ratios showed that water hyacinth is an accumulating plant with phytoremediation potential for all organophosphorus pesticides studied and some organochlorine pesticides. An equation for free water surface wetlands with floating macrophytes, commonly used for the construction of water-cleaning wetlands, showed removal of the pesticides by the wetland with room for improvement with appropriate management.

  10. Determination of soil content in chlordecone (organochlorine pesticide) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Didier; Woignier, Thierry; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphael; Rangon, Luc; Barthes, Bernard G.

    2009-01-01

    Chlordecone is a toxic organochlorine insecticide that was used in banana plantations until 1993 in the French West Indies. This study aimed at assessing the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining chlordecone content in Andosols, Nitisols and Ferralsols from Martinique. Using partial least square regression, chlordecone content conventionally determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be correctly predicted by NIRS (Q 2 = 0.75, R 2 = 0.82 for the total set), especially for samples with chlordecone content -1 or when the sample set was rather homogeneous (Q 2 = 0.91, R 2 = 0.82 for the Andosols). Conventional measures and NIRS predictions were poorly correlated for chlordecone content >12 mg kg -1 , nevertheless ca. 80% samples were correctly predicted when the set was divided into three or four classes of chlordecone content. Thus NIRS could be considered a time- and cost-effective method for characterising soil contamination by chlordecone. - Soil content in chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, can be determined time- and cost-effectively using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

  11. Influence of Breastfeeding Time on Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Milk of a Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Sampedro-Rosas, Laura; López-Silva, Saúl; Santiago-Moreno, Agustín; Rosas-Acevedo, José L; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between pp'DDE (r = -0.216) and Σ-DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of pp'DDT and pp'DDE levels was observed, as well as the Σ-DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of pp'DDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of Σ-DDT per week was obtained. HCB, β-HCH and op'DDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in soils of Mexico and the potential for soil-air exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fiona [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario L01 1N0 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alegria, Henry A. [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Geography, University of South Florida St. Petersburg, 140 7th Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bidleman, Terry F., E-mail: terry.bidleman@ec.gc.c [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario L01 1N0 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in soils and their potential for soil-air exchange was examined. The most prominent OCs were the DDTs (Geometric Mean, GM = 1.6 ng g{sup -1}), endosulfans (0.16 ng g{sup -1}), and toxaphenes (0.64 ng g{sup -1}). DDTs in soils of southern Mexico showed fresher signatures with higher F{sub DDTe} = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and more racemic o,p'-DDT, while the signatures in the central and northern part of Mexico were more indicative of aged residues. Soil-air fugacity fractions showed that some soils are net recipients of DDTs from the atmosphere, while other soils are net sources. Toxaphene profiles in soils and air showed depletion of Parlar 39 and 42 which suggests that soil is the source to the atmosphere. Endosulfan was undergoing net deposition at most sites as it is a currently used pesticide. Other OCs showed wide variability in fugacity, suggesting a mix of net deposition and volatilization. - Chemical profiles of residues and soil-air fugacities are used to assess the potential of soil as a source of organochlorine pesticides to the air of Mexico.

  13. Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in human adipose tissue, data from Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Rodríguez Díaz, S S; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Infanzón, R

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT in 150 adipose tissue of inhabitants of Tabasco, Mexico. The following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.034 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.7% at mean 0.116 mg/kg; o,p'-DDT in 78.7% at mean 0.022 mg/kg and β-HCH in 58.0% at mean 0.049 mg/kg. The pooled sample was divided according to sex of donors (75 female and 75 male). Significantly higher levels of all organochlorine pesticides in females were found. The sample was divided into three age's ranges (15-28, 29-45 and 46-84 years). The mean and median levels of β-HCH, p,p'-DDE and Σ-DDT increase significantly (p pesticide residues in Tabasco inhabitants is still observed, indicating sources of exposure to the pesticides.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in soils of Mexico and the potential for soil-air exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Bidleman, Terry F.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in soils and their potential for soil-air exchange was examined. The most prominent OCs were the DDTs (Geometric Mean, GM = 1.6 ng g -1 ), endosulfans (0.16 ng g -1 ), and toxaphenes (0.64 ng g -1 ). DDTs in soils of southern Mexico showed fresher signatures with higher F DDTe = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and more racemic o,p'-DDT, while the signatures in the central and northern part of Mexico were more indicative of aged residues. Soil-air fugacity fractions showed that some soils are net recipients of DDTs from the atmosphere, while other soils are net sources. Toxaphene profiles in soils and air showed depletion of Parlar 39 and 42 which suggests that soil is the source to the atmosphere. Endosulfan was undergoing net deposition at most sites as it is a currently used pesticide. Other OCs showed wide variability in fugacity, suggesting a mix of net deposition and volatilization. - Chemical profiles of residues and soil-air fugacities are used to assess the potential of soil as a source of organochlorine pesticides to the air of Mexico.

  15. Characteristic trend of persistent organochlorine contamination in wildlife from a tropical agricultural watershed, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Tanabe, S; Kannan, K; Subramanian, A N; Kumaran, P; Tatsukawa, R

    1992-07-01

    The residue levels of persistent organochlorines, such as HCH (BHC: 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane] compounds, PCBs (polychlorobiphenyls) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene), were measured in wildlife. The wildlife were sampled from terrestrial and aquatic habitats in and around the agricultural watershed of Parangipettai, South India. On the basis of overall concentrations sigma HCH ranked first followed by sigma DDT, sigma PCB and HCB, reflecting the increasing usage of HCH in recent years in India. The residue levels of organochlorines in birds varied according to their feeding habits and showed the following pattern: inland piscivores and scavengers greater than coastal piscivores greater than insectivores greater than omnivores greater than granivores. High levels of HCH and DDT residues were recorded in Pond heron and Cattle egret which feed in the agricultural fields. Comparison of HCH concentrations in fish and birds in the study area to other locations was made to further understand the dynamics of contaminant accumulation in tropical wildlife. Regarding birds, a wide variation in residue levels could be seen among various countries, with tropical regions registering high levels. In contrast, the variation is not prominent in the case of fish. The residue levels in fish measured in the present study were generally comparable to values reported from other locations. This suggests that the bioavailability of contaminants to the aquatic fauna is less due to the smaller flux and shorter residence time of these chemicals in the tropics.

  16. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  17. [Influence of organochlorine pesticides in wastewater on the soil along the channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Liu, Min; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Lin-Lin; Li, Jia-Le; Xiang, Qing-Qing

    2013-08-01

    Nine profile soil samples and two sewage water samples were collected from Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Taiyuan city, concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined by the gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to analyze the influence of the leakage of sewage water. The result shows that OCPs in sewage water were mainly composed of HCHs. Concentrations of DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides were very low or out of the detection limit. Concentrations of sigmaOCPs and HCHs in eight profiles near irrigation channels to some extend decreased with the increasing of the linear distance off the channel, which shows influences of the leakage of sewage water on the soil nearby. Concentrations of HCHs clearly decreased with the increasing of soil depth in most profile soils. For the horizontal direction, concentrations of HCHs also decreased with the increasing of the linear distance off the channel. The correlation between HCHs and TOC was positive, but no correlation between pH and HCHs was found.

  18. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Sinjari, T.; Joensson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14 C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14 C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14 C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14 C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  19. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2017-11-10

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  1. Photochemical oxidation of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkane mixtures using H2O2/UV and the photo-Fenton reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ken J. Friesen; Taha M. El-Morsi; Alaa S. Abd-El-Aziz

    2004-01-01

    The photochemical oxidation of a series of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkane (PCA) mixtures was investigated using H2O2/UV and modified photo-Fenton conditions (Fe3+/H2O2/UV) in both Milli-Q and lake water. All PCA mixtures, including chlorinated (Cl5 to Cl8) decanes, undecanes, dodecanes and tridecanes degraded in 0.02 M H2O2/UV at pH 2.8 in pure water, with 80±4% disappearance after 3 h of irradiation using a 300 nm light source. Degradation was somewhat enhanced under similar conditions...

  2. Accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine food chains: Field measurements and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, K.; Hendriks, J.; Huijbregts, M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Vethaak, D.

    2005-01-01

    Food chain accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine environments is compared to model estimations and fresh water field data. The food chain consists of herbivores, detritivores and primary and secondary carnivores i.e. fish, fish-eating birds and

  3. Body mass index in young school-age children in relation to organochlorine compounds in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, B B; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Henriksen, T B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal pregnancy and estimated postnatal serum concentrations of the organochlorines 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in 5- to 9-year-old ch...

  4. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk and placenta are higher in Denmark than in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, H.; Main, K.M.; Andersson, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    , oxychlordane (OXC), cis-heptachloroepoxide (c-HE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) were the other main organochlorines detected. Danish samples had significantly higher concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, HCB, dieldrin, c-HE and OXC than did the Finnish samples. Levels...

  5. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L.E.; Castro-Chan, R.A.; Rivero-Perez, N.E.; Trejo-Acevedo, A.; Guillen-Navarro, G.K.; Geissen, V.; Bello-Mendoza, R.

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes)

  6. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of obsolete banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface ...

  7. Progressive risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls through a Total Diet Study in the Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun-su; Nguyen, Khanh-Hoang; Kim, Jongchul; Kim, Cho-il; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from foods was investigated through a Total Diet Study (TDS) for the first time in Korea. A representative food list was developed from food intake data. Non-selected foods were also included in the TDS through the mapping process to anticipate practical risk assessment. For better representativeness, data (2008–2011) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were combined with the TDS data set. And also, we estimated the dietary exposure to PCBs from various food items using a ‘best-fit’ mapping process and assessed the differences in PCB exposures by sex and age. In this study, we examined total PCBs (62 congeners) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and indicator PCBs, which are congeners that are mainly detected in various environmental matrices. The average dietary exposure (3.94 ng/kg body weight/day) that was estimated through food intake was 19.7% of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. - Highlights: • A total of 282 samples, composed of the most consumed foodstuffs in Korea, were analysed and shown in detail. • The contamination status of total PCBs in food was assessed, through their various condition on cooking methods. • The dietary intakes of PCBs in various food groups were estimated in different region, gender and age groups. • The improved and systematic food selection process was applied such as ‘mapping process’. - This study is to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCBs with the improved risk assessment method.

  8. Determination of levels of organochlorine pesticides in plastic resin pellets on selected beaches in the Greater Accra region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoatey, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in beached plastic resin pellets were determined with the objective of assessing the status of OCP pollution in the marine ecosystem in selected beaches in Ghana. Samples of plastic resin pellets were collected at seven beaches in Accra (namely Art centre, Sakumono, Osu castle, Labadi, Korle-Gonno, Independence Square and Tema Mighty beaches) and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, total chlorine and extractable chlorine. The plastic pellets were subjected to Soxhlet extraction and the extracts analyzed using Gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detected compounds were alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, hexachlorobenzene, o, p' -DDE, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT, heptachlor, trans-heptachlor epoxy, trans-chlordane, trans-nanochlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, endosulphan sulphate and methoxychlor. Analysis of the virgin pellets recorded no organochlorine pesticides present. However, plastics pellets collected from all seven beaches were found to contain OCPs with the highest recorded on the Art Centre beach with a total concentration of 106.26 ng/g. Plastic pellets collected on the Labadi beach recorded the lowest OCPs with a concentration of 20.2 ng/g. Total chlorine and extractable organochlorine (EOCI) were also determined in the plastic resin pellets by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The concentrations of total chlorine analyzed by INAA were between 2.82 and 50.25 mg/kg whereas the EOCR concentrations ranged from 1.67 to 30.90 mg/kg. EOCR accounted for 48.05% of the total chlorine in plastic pellets, suggesting that chlorine in the beached pellet relatively existed as organic and are extractable. The relative proportion of known or identified organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDT s, chlordane compounds, endosulphans, HCB and methoxychlor) to the total extractable organochlorine(EOCI) was averagely 7.4% which suggested

  9. Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; O'Hara, T.M.; Fisk, A.T.; Borgaa, K.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    The trophic status and biomagnification of persistent OCs within the near-shore Beaufort-Chukchi Seas food web from Barrow, AK is discussed. - Stable isotope values (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas (1999-2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), along with marine mammals, including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). The isotopically derived trophic position of biota from the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas marine food web, avian fauna excluded, is similar to other coastal food webs in the Arctic. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals were significantly greater than in fish and corresponded with determined trophic level. In general, OCs with the greatest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were those either formed due to biotransformation (e.g. p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane) or considered recalcitrant (e.g. β-HCH, 2,4,5-Cl substituted PCBs) in most biota, whereas concentrations of OCs that are considered to be readily eliminated (e.g. γ-HCH) did not correlate with trophic level. Differences in physical-chemical properties of OCs, feeding strategy and possible biotransformation were reflected in the variable biomagnification between fish and marine mammals. The FWMFs in the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas region were consistent with reported values in the Canadian Arctic and temperate food webs, but were statistically different than FWMFs from the Barents and White Seas, indicating that the spatial variability of OC contamination in top-level marine Arctic predators is

  10. Neurological condition in 18-month-old children perinatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanderPaauw, CG; Tuinstra, LGMT; Fidler, [No Value; WeisglasKuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1995-01-01

    The neurological optimality of 418 Dutch children was evaluated at the age of 18 months, in order to determine whether prenatal and breast milk mediated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins affected neurological development, Half of the infants were breast-fed, the other half

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction

    The work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may

  12. EFFECTS OF POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AND DIOXINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAUER, PJJ; HUISMAN, M; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; MORSE, DC; SMITSVANPROOIJE, AE; VANDEBERG, KJ; TUINSTRA, LGMT; VANDERPAAUW, CG; BOERSMA, ER; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; LAMMERS, JHCM; KULIG, BM; BROUWER, A

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are potentially toxic compounds which occur widely in the environment. Their effects on the growth and development of infants at the levels currently found in highly industrialised western countries is not well known. This Dutch multicenter study,

  13. Preparation of plants containing bacterial enzyme for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, K.; Surá, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Szekeres, M.; Bancos, S.; Demnerová, K.; Sylvestre, M.; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 309-313 ISSN 1018-4619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : transgenic plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * phytoremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Paauw, CG; Essed, CE; Boersma, ER

    We analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in s.c. adipose tissue, liver, and brain of nine fetuses who died in utero. Their median (range) gestational ages and birth weights were 34 (17-40) wk and 2050 (162-3225) g. Three fetuses were small for gestational age. The levels of PCB congener nos.

  15. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A. I.; Leppänen, M. T.; Akkanen, J.; Sormunen, A. J.; Leonards, P. E.G.; van Hattum, B.; van Vliet, L. A.; Brack, W.; Smedes, F.; Kukkonen, J. V.K.

    2016-01-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in

  16. Effects of black carbon on bioturbination-induced benthic fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether carbonaceous geosorbents, such as black carbon (BC) affect bioturbation by benthic invertebrates, thereby possibly affecting sediment–water exchange of sediment-bound contaminants. Here, we assess the effects of oil soot on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mass transfer from

  17. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of

  18. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  19. Allee effect in polar bears: A potential consequence of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlová, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Dietz, R.; Sonne, C.; Grimm, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1843 (2016), č. článku 20161883. ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : allee effect * polychlorinated biphenyls * polar bears * male reproduction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016

  20. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  1. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-11-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g -1 lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey wer