WorldWideScience

Sample records for organizations transparency governance

  1. Effects of transparency on the perceived trustworthiness of a government organization : Evidence from an online experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G.; Meijer, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the effect of government transparency on trust is heavily debated, our theoretical and empirical understanding of this relationship is still limited. The basic assumption tested in this article is whether transparency leads to higher levels of perceived trustworthiness. This article uses

  2. Budget transparency in local governments

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Perona, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 This work will study the socio-demographic determinants, political, budgetary and economic, that affect the transparency of local entities. To perform the study, we have chosen the transparency index data for the 110 largest municipalities of Spain, in 2012 has been chosen from the information offered by the website of the organization Transparency International Spain. The results indica...

  3. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  4. 3 CFR - Transparency and Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy... public. Government should be participatory. Public engagement enhances the Government's effectiveness and...

  5. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  6. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  7. Towards Transparency in Finance and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Tara Vishwanath; Daniel Kaufmann

    2003-01-01

    The study of transparency is increasingly a more topical, broadly relevant, but also more under-researched enterprise. The Asian financial crisis has highlighted not only the welfare consequences of financial sector transparency, sparking a series of yet unresolved debates, but has also linked this relatively narrow problem to the broader context of transparency in governance. Its significance has broadened geographically as well as across different sectors. It has been observed that curtailm...

  8. Transparency in Global Environmental Governance: A Coming of Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article draws on the contributions to this special issue to consider the implications of a transparency turn in global environmental and sustainability governance. Three interrelated aspects are addressed: why transparency now? How is transparency being institutionalized? And what

  9. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  10. Does Corporate Governance or Transparency Affect Foreign Direct Investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Haksoon Kim

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between the foreign direct investment (FDI) and the corporate governance or transparency by investigating the country-level FDI flows, FDI inward performance, corporate governance and transparency variables. From the regression analysis with Newey-West estimator of 28 country panel data from 1990- 2002, we find strong positive relationships between corporate governance or transparency level of hosting countries and FDI inward performance within hosting ...

  11. Multidirectional Networks of Government Transparency: A Preliminary Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Subhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some literature in theoretical level regarding two concepts: governance network and government transparency, in order to search for theoretical linkages and to build an alternative framework that can support the implementation of public disclosure. Transparency agenda has been implemented in various forms at international, national, and local level. Transparency application was also followed by Indonesia with the implementation of Public Information Disclosure Law since 2008. This enthusiasm is quite reasonable because transparency is believed to be one of the human rights principles; as well as a key to better governance, that can help democracy consolidation, prevent corruption, strengthen the legitimacy and improve efficiency. In order to maximize transparency, the government can use a network approach because of some changes at this time, such as democratization, decentralization, and liberalization has placed the government in a position where there is not one actor who manages the state power without stakeholder’s participation. In this context, the government needs to build synergies with other institutions in a reciprocal relationship with all stakeholders. Therefore, adopting the theory of government networks can be one of the strategies to strengthen government transparency. The findings of this article indicate that the government transparency application needs to develop networks in all directions: intragovernmental, intergovernmental and collaborative networks. These three types of network in contrast with the popular belief that government transparency is interpreted only as a procedural activity to outside parties. A preliminary model in this article gives an overview about the arena of government transparency with multi-directional networks more comprehensively.

  12. Transparency Under Scrutiny: Information Disclosure in Global Environmental Governance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Although transparency is a key concept of our times, it remains a relatively understudied phenomenon in global environmental politics. The link between transparency and accountable, legitimate and effective governance is assumed, yet the nature and workings of this link require further scrutiny.

  13. Transparency, corporate governance and firm performance in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusichem, Herman Clasinus; de Jong, Abe; DeJong, Douglas; Mertens, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    We explore the relations between transparency, corporate governance, and performance for Dutch exchange-listed firms over 1997-2007. Our measure for transparency is based on annual report information. In 2005 a new accounting standard (IFRS) became mandatory and applicable to the annual reports of

  14. Governing China’s food quality through transparency: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In coping with food quality problems, China relies heavily on state institutions, such as laws and regulations, governmental standards and certification, and inspections and enforcement. Recently, transparency (or information disclosure) has been introduced in China’s governance framework to cope

  15. Transparency and information disclosure in China's environmental governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; He, G.

    2016-01-01

    Given its past as a so-called information-poor and authoritarian country, China has recently made remarkable progress in information disclosure and environmental transparency. Since enacting the Open Government Information Regulations and the Environmental Information Disclosure Measures in 2008,

  16. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  17. Numerical Operations, Transparency Illusions and the Datafication of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Krause

    2015-01-01

    Building on conceptual insights from the history and sociology of numbers, media and surveillance studies, and theories of governance and risk, this article analyzes the forms of transparency produced by the use of numbers in social life. It examines what it is about numbers that often makes...... their ‘truth claims’ so powerful, investigates the role that numerical operations play in the production of retrospective, real-time and anticipatory forms of transparency in contemporary politics and economic transactions, and discusses some of the implications resulting from the increasingly abstract...

  18. Common Practices of Transparency in the Nuclear Regulatory Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee; Oh, Kju Myeng

    2010-01-01

    Along with greater access to information, particularly through the Internet, there is the increasing demand of the public for transparency, particularly in matters and decisions affecting their lives. The public demands to know more about Nuclear Regulatory Organization's (NROs) and their activities resulting in more interactions with the public to help make nuclear safety activities more understandable and transparent. As a general concept, 'transparency' means literally that something can be seen through. The definition tells us that it is, more actively, to provide the public with factual information about our activities, and to respond promptly to 'the public's right to know' about the information acquired by NROs. NROs around the world recognize the importance of openness and transparency to the success of their programs to protect public health and safety. All agree that good practice in transparency and being proactive with information help to protect against perceptions of secrecy and to instil public confidence and accountability in what they do. On the other hand, NROs face many challenges in their quest to be open and transparent with their stakeholders. government, nuclear operators, NGOs, media, our colleagues, and particularly with the general public. The most frequently identified challenge was striking the right balance between openness and security-related considerations with many responders citing the need to protect proprietary information whilst still accommodating the public's desire to be well informed. Other challenges include deciding how much transparency is needed to satisfy the public and how information, that is often highly technical and complex, can be presented in a meaningful way through the use of clear and simple language. In this paper, we summarize the survey results done by WGPC on relevant practices of NRO's flux of work concerning public communication matters. By comprehensively searching the international status, we may have

  19. 78 FR 77132 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Government Accountability and Transparency Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ...] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Government Accountability and Transparency Board AGENCY: Office of... Government Accountability and Transparency (GAT) Board will host a meeting for the public to make... Accountability and Transparency Board's mandate appears in Executive Order 13576 (June 13, 2011), which in short...

  20. Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Mason, M.

    2015-01-01

    Transparency, as information disclosure, is becoming a widely accepted norm and set of practices in global climate governance. Disclosure of climate-related information is mainly seen as a way to monitor and/or reward various actors’ climate mitigation actions, thereby contributing, at least in

  1. Developing and Testing a Theoretical Framework for Computer-Mediated Transparency of Local Governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Welch, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging literature on transparency by developing and empirically testing a theoretical framework that explains the determinants of local government Web site transparency. It aims to answer the following central question: What institutional factors determine the

  2. Disclosing or obscuring? The politics of transparency in global climate governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Aarti; Mason, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Transparency is increasingly evoked within public and private climate governance arrangements as a key means to enhance accountability and improve environmental outcomes. We review assumed links between transparency, accountability and environmental sustainability here, by identifying four

  3. Analysis of Local Financial Management Transparency Based on Websites on Local Government in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Adriana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze financial management transparency of local governments in Java using scoring and rating. The financial management transparency of the local governments is scored based on presentation of local financial information uploaded on each local government’s official website in Jawa in the fiscal years 2016.This research is a qualitative research with the object of research is all local government in Java. Data analysis in two levels, namely the transparency of local government financial management and identification of local government characteristics based on transparency of financial management. Data analysis in two levels, namely the transparency of local government financial management and identification of local government characteristics based on transparency of financial management. The results show that the Special Capital Region of Jakarta obtained the highest transparency index, at 58, 02% whereas Madiun Regency received the lowest transparency index, at 3, 40%. The average transparency index in Jawa for the fiscal years 2016 was still low, at only 19, 59%.The conclusion of this research is that Java regional governments consider the transparency of local financial management using less important websites because it is considered as a better thing not delivered to the public.

  4. THE PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPARENCY AND INCLUSIVENESS AS PILLARS OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: THE BRICS APPROACH TO THE UNITED NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transparency of governance is not only a necessary and sufficient condition for bringing about accountability, but also the basis for the possibility of democracy in the global sphere. Although there is no automatic progress from transparency to democratic global governance, this principle helps to create more democratic, open and fair societies. Recently, the importance of inclusiveness, transparency and procedural safeguards has emerged as a critical theme. The practical implementation of fair global governance mechanisms, procedures, and institutions will always depend on the level of participation, contestation, or solidarity among the different stakeholders represented at the local, national or international level. Recent years have clearly shown a trend towards increasing transparency and inclusiveness in international organizations’ activities and operations, in contrast to opaqueness or lack of transparency which was a very common practice in diplomacy during past centuries. The inclusion of transparency and inclusiveness elements in the decision-making rules of an international organization are fundamental for these norms to be considered not only ‘more legal,’ but also to have a higher level of legitimacy. The General Assembly decided in its Resolution 60/251 of 2006 that the methods of work of the Human Rights Council should be transparent, fair and impartial and should enable genuine dialogue. Finally, the role played by the BRICS countries at the Security Council and the Human Rights Council is critical in regards to its working methods.

  5. Government Procurement : Market Access, Transparency, and Multilateral Trade Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.; Hoekman, Bernard M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examine the effects on national welfare and market access of two public procurement practices-discrimination against foreign suppliers of goods and services and nontransparency of the procedures used to allocate government contracts to firms. Both types of policies have become prominent in international trade negotiations, including the Doha Round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) trade talks. Traditionally, the focus of international trade agreements has been on market access...

  6. Incorporating transparency into the governance of deep-seabed mining in the Area beyond national jurisdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Ardron, Jeff A.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Jones, Daniel O.B.

    2018-01-01

    In the governance of natural resources, transparency has been linked to improved accountability, as well as enforceability, compliance, sustainability, and ultimately more equitable outcomes. Here, good practices in transparency relevant to the emerging governance of deep-seabed mining in the Area beyond national jurisdiction are identified and compared with current practices of the International Seabed Authority (ISA). The analysis found six areas of good transparency practice that could imp...

  7. Political Will and Strategic Use of YouTube to Advancing Government Transparency: An Analysis of Jakarta Government-Generated YouTube Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Chatfield , Akemi ,; Brajawidagda , Uuf

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Open Government Data and Transparency; International audience; Government transparency is critical to cut government bureaucracy and corruption, which diminish political accountability and legitimacy, erode trust in government, and hinder citizen engagement and government performance. Previously, Jakarta’s local governments lacked government transparency, holding high-level meetings under a close-door policy, sustaining a critical and fundamental flaw in policy-making and fueling gove...

  8. Transparency and trust. An experimental study of online disclosure and trust in government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Transparency has been trumpeted by many as the key to trust in government. The assumption is that if government organisations open up and show the public what decisions are made, how they are made and what the results are, people will automatically have more trust in government. But does

  9. Transparency to what End? Governing by disclosure through the Biosafety Clearing House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although transparency is a key concept in the social sciences, it remains an understudied phenomenon in global environmental governance. This paper analyzes effectiveness of ‘governance by transparency’ or governance by information disclosure as a key innovation in global environmental and risk

  10. Promoting Sustainability Transparency in European Local Governments: An Empirical Analysis Based on Administrative Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro-Galera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the transparency of governments with respect to the sustainability of public services is a very interesting issue for stakeholders and academics. It has led to previous research and international organisations (EU, IMF, OECD, United Nations, IFAC, G-20, World Bank to recommend promotion of the online dissemination of economic, social and environmental information. Based on previous studies about e-government and the influence of administrative cultures on governmental accountability, this paper seeks to identify political actions useful to improve the practices of transparency on economic, social and environmental sustainability in European local governments. We perform a comparative analysis of sustainability information published on the websites of 72 local governments in 10 European countries grouped into main three cultural contexts (Anglo-Saxon, Southern European and Nordic. Using international sustainability reporting guidelines, our results reveal significant differences in local government transparency in each context. The most transparent local governments are the Anglo-Saxon ones, followed by Southern European and Nordic governments. Based on individualized empirical results for each administrative style, our conclusions propose useful policy interventions to enhance sustainability transparency within each cultural tradition, such as development of legal rules on transparency and sustainability, tools to motivate local managers for online diffusion of sustainability information and analysis of information needs of stakeholders.

  11. Transparency in decision-making processes governing hazardous activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B.; Jensen, K.K.; Sandøe, P.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent decisions are decisions in which the decision maker clearly presents to others the normative and factual premises behind the conclusions and explains the reasoning leading from these premises to the conclusion. Transparency thus involves uncovering, describing, documenting...... and communicating all the argumentative steps in the line of reasoning. It also involves acknowledging the weighting of any evidence drawn upon in reaching the final decision. It is recommended that each decision should be accompanied by an audit trail describing the premises justifying it. Uncertainties should...

  12. Industry Issue Paper: Cross-Cultural Factors and Corporate Governance Transparency in Global Airline Strategic Alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Giapponi, Catherine C.; Scheraga, Carl A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that a critical dimension in understanding the factors that inhibit the effectiveness and benefits of airline alliances is corporate transparency. Specifically, the issue of transparency in corporate governance is considered. Corporate governance is the set of institutional arrangements affecting corporate decision making, and deals with the relationship among various participants in determining the direction and performance of corporations. However, airline strategic allian...

  13. Does corporate governance affect financial communication transparency? Empirical evidence in the Tunisian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maali Kachouri Ben Saad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on investigating the relationship between intentional governance mechanisms (Directors’ boards, Ownership structure and audit quality and financial communication transparency. For this purpose, a model is used and applied to Tunisian firms’ sample observed over the period 2006–2013. The achieved results reveal that intentional governance mechanisms are positively related to a higher transparency level noticeable in financial communication (voluntary disclosure and quality information. In addition, empirical tests indicate that financial communication transparency is highly dependent on the board size, ownership concentration, as well as on audit quality.

  14. Transparency and Accountability of Government Regulations as an Integral Part of Social Responsibility Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Frolova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author's view on the role of government in promoting social responsibility of business and the individual is described. The main features of the socio-economic situation in Russia today are presented (horizontal and vertical mobility of the population, a small number of organizations and the extra-centralized public authorities, the predominance of personal relations between economic agents. The necessity of increasing the role of individuals and businesses in the social system is substantiated and the basic directions of activity are suggested (prosocial preferences, interpersonal trust, redistribution of social responsibility. Transparency and accountability of public authorities are very powerful tool to improve the quality of governance and it is one of the important conditions for the social responsibility, as well as to economic performance in modern Russia. The legitimacy of government is a multidimensional issue. And if we take into account the Russian features it is necessary to point out public control and enforcement, quality of formal institutions, and effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms. Also governance is important to enhance quality of regulation.

  15. Open government: collaboration, transparency, and participation in practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lathrop, Daniel; Ruma, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    ... 7: Lead by Example Practical Steps for Government Agencies About the Author BY THE PEOPLE by Carl Malamud About the Author THE SINGLE POINT OF FAILURE by Beth Simone Noveck The Closed Model of Decision Making New Technologies and Civic Life Participatory Democratic Theory in the Age of Networks About the Author ENGINEERING GOOD GOVERNMENT by Ho...

  16. Fostering Good Governance at School Level in Honduras: The Role of Transparency Bulletin Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Frédéric; Caprio, Temby

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is at the core of weak governance. In the education sector, corruption is a threat to the quality of and access to education. Although the diagnosis is straightforward, effective reforms are more difficult to implement. The principles of good governance (transparency, participation, accountability, and integrity) provide us guidance,…

  17. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2016-08-08

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag/Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm{sup 2}/V s and 0.027 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  18. Diclosure and transparency in public sector: an analysis of convergence of the principles of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Zorzal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on disclosure of private institutions are common, but do not occur when it comes to public institutions, where the disclosure of management is still very limited. Purpose: The article is part of doctorate research in Information Science in progress and investigates the principles of disclosure and transparency in the light of good governance practices applied to the public sector, to reduce information asymmetry and presents part of this research. Methodology: The methodological procedures were performed literature search and content analysis to identify the principles and standards of good governance practices recommended for public administration, aiming to systematize these recommendations as instruments of governance and verify the convergence of the principles of disclosure and transparency. Results: Partial results show convergence of disclosure and transparency principles. Conclusions: Indicate that public institutions should worry about performing the practices of good governance as a way to mitigate the informational asymmetry.

  19. MEASURING TRANSPARENCY TO IMPROVE GOOD GOVERNANCE OF PHARMACEUTICALS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suryawati, Sri

    2013-01-01

    A national survey has been conducted to assess thetransparency in public pharmaceutical sector in Indonesia. Thesurvey was conducted during 2007, and writer was appointedby the government as independent assessor. The assessmentcovered five functions of government in pharmaceutical sector,i.e., registration, control of promotion, inspection of production,selection of essential medicines, and central procurement ofnational buffer stock. Key informants were selected based onfirst-hand knowledge ...

  20. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE- A TRANSPARENCY INDEX FOR THE ROMANIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuc Sunhilde

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the corporate governance information disclosed by Romanian listed companies on the internet, with the objective of assessing the extent and the influence of several corporate characteristics on the level of infor

  1. Corporate Governance and Institutional Strategic Transparency in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Choi, C.J.; Hilton, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper posits that differences in corporate governance structure partly result from differences in institutional arrangements linked to business systems. We developed a new international triad of business systems: the Anglo-American, the Communitarian and the Emerging system, building on the

  2. Transparency of Accounting Information in Achieving Good Corporate Governance. True View and Fair Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Man

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the key factors affecting the efficient use of resources, the increase of shareholders confidence in the managers of the company, the success in achieving objectives and economic efficiency is the system of corporate governance by which a company is managed and controlled. We cannot talk about a culture of corporate governance without thinking of the criteria of transparency, of responsibility in ensuring the accuracy of data from financial reports. Transparency is a prerequisite of good communication between the company and the interested parties. This paper examines the concepts of true image and fair value as premises of transparency of the accounting information in order to accomplish good corporate governance.

  3. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the view of transparency as a matter of providing openness, insight, and clarity by conceptualizing it as a form of visibility management. We tend to think of transparency as a process of ensuring accountability through the timely and public disclosure of information...

  4. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Albu, Oana Brindusa

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is an increasingly prominent research topic in many scholarly disciplines and offers valuable insights for organizational communication. This entry provides an overview of the historical background and identifies some themes that presently inform the transparency literature. The entry...... then outlines the most important dimensions of the concept of transparency by highlighting two paradigmatic positions underpinning contemporary research in this area: namely, informational approaches that focus on the sharing of information and the perceived quality of that information and social process...... orientations that explore the dynamics of transparency in organizational settings. The entry highlights emergent methodological and conceptual insights concerning transparency as a dynamic and paradoxical social process with performative characteristics – an approach that remains underexplored....

  5. The Hidden Side of Transparency Among Government Agency Bloggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    This paper shows and discusses blogs as social action in a corporate context by investigating and seeking to understand organizational bloggers’ motivations and discursive behaviors in the contextual and cultural diversity of a blog-setting. Providing empirical findings on the possibilities...... and limitations that are embedded in an organizational blog in a government agency context, traced through focus group interviews of the organizational bloggers, the paper shows that culturally bound limitations exist and are exposed when implementing an open-source social technology like the weblog.The paper...... its members and create subgroups for appropriate blog behaviors and changing behavior due to self-censorship, as well as identification with the key actors in the group....

  6. Openness, transparency and public participation in the governance of uranium mining in Greenland:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cécile; Basse, Ellen Margrethe; Loukacheva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of the principles of openness, transparency and public participation in the decision-making regarding the conditions for uranium mining in Greenland from a legal and political perspective. The time frame covers the period from the exploration for minerals...... before the Second World War to 2016-17 where the current Greenlandic authorities prepared a license for a project of extraction of rare earth elements and uranium in Kvanefjeld. It is shown that the issue of openness, transparency and public participation in Greenland is a long-standing issue...... to it - has impacted the design of governance in Greenland, and that the constraints put today on a full implementation of the legal principles of openness, transparency and public participation in the governance of uranium mining in Greenland, amongst other factors, point to a current hybrid political...

  7. Some considerations on Transparency, Accountability and Good Governance in Church Finances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2013-01-01

    Also churches and religious communities need to be accountable for the ressources they are taking care of. Transparency and accountability both internally and externally seems inescapable, but also dimensions of good governance are relevant unless freedom of religion sets clear boundaries...

  8. Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  9. ICT governance, management and organization 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Th.J.G. Thiadens

    2009-01-01

    Vertaling van Sturing en organisatie van ICT voorzieningen. This book deals with the topic ICT governance, management and organization. Basis of the book is the control paradigm. This paradigm makes a distinction between the organization and its governance. So first an ICT organzation is built up.

  10. Government Spending and Legislative Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Peter; Köthenbürger, Marko

    This paper presents empirical evidence of a positive effect of council size on government spending using a data set of 2,056 municipalities in the German state of Bavaria over a period of 21 years. We apply a regression discontinuity design to avoid an endogeneity bias. In particular, we exploit ...

  11. Government spending and legislative organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Peter; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence of a positive effect of council size on government spending using a dataset of 2,056 municipalities in the German state of Bavaria over a period of 21 years. We apply a regression discontinuity design to avoid an endogeneity bias. In particular, we exploit d...

  12. Blueprints for Disaster: Balancing Secrecy and Transparency of Government Continuity Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ISO/IEC 31010:2009; COSO 2004; and OCEG “Red Book” 2.0: 2009. Institute of Risk Management , “ Risk Management Standards,” accessed June 26, 2015...Information Act (FOIA), protective security, risk management , Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21), National Security Presidential Directive 51 (NSPD...BLUEPRINTS FOR DISASTER: BALANCING SECRECY AND TRANSPARENCY OF GOVERNMENT CONTINUITY PLANS Stephen Scott Vollbrecht State Risk Manager for

  13. Government influence on patient organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, H.M.; Trappenburg, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Patient organizations increasingly play an important role in health care decision-making in Western countries. The Netherlands is one of the countries where this trend has gone furthest. In the literature some problems are identified, such as instrumental use of patient organizations by care

  14. Urgency of Community Supervision Organization by Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wibowo Budi Santoso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urgency Surveillance Study of Social Organization aims to describe the reality of the problems in the a real of Social Organization; describe the implementation of the role of government (including local government in controlling the Social Organization; and provider recommendations on matters that need to be regulated in the draft regulations on the supervision of organizations. This study used a qualitative approach, with the aim that can be obtained in-depth and complete information about matters relating to the existence and dynamics in regional organizations. The study results presented can be: that on the one hand the existence of organizations that do not contribute little in development, but on the other hand there are many community organizations that act an archaic and disturbing in society; for the entire operational provisions for the implementation of Social Organization must be available; things that need to be arranged substantially in the surveillance by the government.

  15. Continuous, Highly Flexible, and Transparent Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Schlenker, Cody W.; Ryu, Koungmin; Thompson, Mark E.; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-01-01

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD

  16. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Solution-Processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junbo; Agrawal, Mukul; Becerril, Héctor A.; Bao, Zhenan; Liu, Zunfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical estimates indicate that graphene thin films can be used as transparent electrodes for thin-film devices such as solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, with an unmatched combination of sheet resistance and transparency. We

  17. Identifying Motivation of the Local Governments to Improve the Sustainability Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés NAVARRO GALERA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sustainability tran-sparency of governments, i.e., the disclosure of information on the sustainability of their ac-tions. To do so, we identify contributory factors to the online disclosure of environmental, social, economic and general information by local gov-ernments in Nordic countries. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors inf uencing the online dissemination of government infor-mation on sustainability; a factor analysis, as a precursor to linear regression, led us to reduce 14 explanatory variables to four factors: f nancial risk, demography, professional qualif cations and local government resources. The results obtained show that local f -nancial priorities have a greater impact on the sustainability-related content of governmental websites than does concern for the needs of the population. Furthermore, an organization’s dis-closure of its f nancial risks, together with greater awareness of stakeholders’ demands, could pro-mote transparency in the f eld of environmental, social and economic sustainability, while local demographic characteristics could foster the publication of information on environmental sus-tainability.

  18. Report of the Committee on Government Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, R. Stephen; And Others

    This report presents in detail a unicameral government structure with supporting student and faculty caucuses, recommended for the University of New Hampshire by its Committee on Government Organization to (1) provide maximum participation to all members of the university community on a fair and equitable basis, and (2) provide a more efficient…

  19. Public management: organizations, governance, and performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Toole, Laurence J; Meier, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    ...? Can their separable contributions to performance be estimated? The fate of public policies in today's world lies in the hands of public organizations, which in turn are often intertwined with others in latticed patterns of governance...

  20. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF TRANSPARENT BARRIER MODIFIED WITH ORGANIC PCMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MUSIAŁ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are increasingly often applied in civil engineering as a mean to reduce buildings energy demand for heating. One of the ways to reduce HVAC energy demand is to limit heat transfer and excessive solar gain through building's glazed barriers. Preliminary results of the research conducted on organic PCM-modified transparent barrier are presented in this paper. Multiple publications concerning PCMs application in structural materials have recently appeared. Most of them are focused on modification of structure of non-transparent sections of buildings' envelope. Augmenting a glazed barrier with PCMs increases its heat capacity and thermal resistance. The most important feature of the assembly is the thermal buffer, a product of PCM's considerable value of specific latent heat. Research were conducted on a triple-pane transparent rectangular barrier, that constituted one of the faces of cubic chamber. Internal volume of the chamber was 1m3. The applied PCM was a mixture of saturated and non-saturated hydrocarbons. The described assembly was subjected to temperature and radiation that occur in Poland during winter. Glazing temperature, melted/total PCM ratio were measured, as well as energy demand for keeping internal temperature at constant level. Measurements were made in steady states, for various PCM layer thickness. The influence of the modification on energy demand was determined, along with the most effective and rational thickness of PCM layer to be applied. Conducted research enabled to develop a basis for further investigation of PCMs application in civil engineering.

  1. Emerging Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Bin Song

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have attracted much attention in recent years as next generation lighting and displays, due to their many advantages, including superb performance, mechanical flexibility, ease of fabrication, chemical versatility, etc. In order to fully realize the highly flexible features, reduce the cost and further improve the performance of OLED devices, replacing the conventional indium tin oxide with better alternative transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs is a crucial step. In this review, we focus on the emerging alternative TCE materials for OLED applications, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs, metallic nanowires, conductive polymers and graphene. These materials are selected, because they have been applied as transparent electrodes for OLED devices and achieved reasonably good performance or even higher device performance than that of indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Various electrode modification techniques and their effects on the device performance are presented. The effects of new TCEs on light extraction, device performance and reliability are discussed. Highly flexible, stretchable and efficient OLED devices are achieved based on these alternative TCEs. These results are summarized for each material. The advantages and current challenges of these TCE materials are also identified.

  2. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  3. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE-THE ROLE AND APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF TRANSPARENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulop Melinda Timea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current research is to clarify the concept of corporate governance as we believe it is a relatively new concept at national level. At the same time, our analysis focused on the manner in which the principle of transparency has been incorporated into the recommendations and regulations/provisions of the Bucharest Stock Exchange (Romanian: BVB and how this principle has been applied by the companies listed with the BVB. In order to accomplish the objectives of our research, we adopted a deductive approach, from general to specific, by means of which we were able to combine qualitative with quantitative studies. Therefore, our approach started from the definition found within the principles of OECD according to which corporate governance is the system by which companies are run and controlled. In Romania, the concept of corporate governance was first advanced in 1999 by the Strategic Alliance of the Business Associations (Romanian: ASAA, which drew up a Voluntary code of corporate governance in association with the Confederation of Private Entrepreneurs in Timis county and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania and Bucharest. Another facet of our research is the principle of transparency and the manner in which entities should put it to practice in order to ensure efficient corporate governance. To this effect, since the beginning of 2009 the entities listed with the BVB have been under obligation to report which recommendations of the new Corporate Governance Code have actually been implemented by the company in the current financial year by disclosing to BVB the Comply or Explain Statement. The findings of our research show that the concept of corporate governance has lately been a matter for intense debate due to the famous financial failures in recent years. In 2009, Transelectrica was the only company in tier I of the BVB which filled in and submitted the Comply or Explain Statement. Therefore, we believe that

  4. Does modern organization and governance threat solidarity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Karin; van Emmerik, Hetty

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on solidarity behaviours of employees to team members (horizontal solidarity behaviour) and to their manager (vertical solidarity behaviour). The question is asked to what extend and how are both types of solidarity related to three aspects of modern organization and governance:

  5. Transparency in corporate governance: Extent of directors duty to declare interest in company’s transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony O. Nwafor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The realization that the directors occupy important position in corporate governance, and as business men and women, cannot be prevented from having dealings with the company, demand a close scrutiny of corporate transactions in which they are directly or indirectly involved or have an interest to ensure that such interest is not placed above their duty to the company. One of the ways in which the law strives to achieve this balance is by imposing a duty on the director to disclose to the board any interest he has in company’s transactions. This requirement which was previously governed by the common law and the company’s articles, is presently increasingly finding a place in companies statutes in different jurisdictions. The paper examines, through a comparative analysis, the provisions on the duty of the director to disclose interest in company’s transactions in South Africa and United Kingdom with the aim of discovering the extent to which the statute in both jurisdictions upholds the common law prescriptions. The paper argues that the need for transparency in corporate governance and the preservation of the distinct legal personality of the company demand that the duty to disclose interest should be upheld even in those cases of companies run by a sole director.

  6. INFORMATION TRANSPARENCY AS THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Maksimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the question of information transparency as the quality characteristics of the organizational culture.The author describes the new propertiesof the organizational culture arising in theconditions of informatization of economic relations, the relation between information content and organizational culture, the roleand functions of information transparencyin a modern company. In study elaborated a model of interaction between the components of organizational culture throughinformation transparency.

  7. Knowledge Governance in Project-Based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna; Müller, Ralf

    This paper conceptualizes knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs) and its methodological approaches for empirical investigation. Three key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced. These contributions include a defini......This paper conceptualizes knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs) and its methodological approaches for empirical investigation. Three key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced. These contributions include...... a definition of KG in PBOs, a conceptual framework to investigate KG and a methodological framework for empirical inquiry into KG in PBO settings. Our definition highlights the contingent nature of KG processes in relation to their organizational context. The conceptual framework addresses macro- and micro...

  8. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL AND REGIONAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE PUBLICATION OF PROCUREMENT PLAN WEB SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šušnjar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to determine whether there is a Procurement Plan for 2016, on the website of local and regional selfgovernment units in the Republic of Croatia. After having applied the method of analysis, the hypothesis that local and regional self-governments in the Republic of Croatia fulfilled their legal obligation to publish the procurement plan to websites, was not confirmed. The research results show that all counties except for Međimurje County have a Procurement Plan for 2016 available on their respective websites. Out of the total of 127 cities in the Republic of Croatia, ten cities (Belišće, Čabar, Donji Miholjac, Drniš, Ilok, Imotski, Nova Gradiška, Pleternica, Popovača and Vrgorac did not publish their Procurement Plans for 2016. In addition, the survey results show that 61 municipalities do not have a published Procurement Plan for 2016 on their respective websites. This study may contribute to the knowledge of the local and regional self- government units’ websites contents in the Republic of Croatia, and encourage the employees to comply with the legal obligation to publish the procurement plan on their websites for the purpose of conducting transparent procurement.

  9. Reconciliation Model of Transparency Value and Bureaucracy Secretion in Management of Local Government Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Yoga Bumi Pradana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present a reconciliation model of bureaucratic principles (Secretion and democracy (Transparency through the mapping of public information about managing a local government budget which is accessible to the public and which ones are excluded (secret based on bureaucracy and public perceptions. This study uses a mixed method with sequential exploratory design and data collection research procedures using surveys, depth interviews, and documents. The validation data use source of triangulation techniques. The subjects of this study was divided into 2 (two information assembling that is government bureaucracy and public Kupang determined by purposive. The results of this research showed that Kupang Goverment bureaucracy has 22 types of information perception (33,85% in category information which is open and 42 types of information (64,62% in category information that are closed while the public perceives 29 types of information (44,62% in category information which is open and 26 types of information (40% in the category of information that are closed. Therefore, to achieve the main of reconciliation to end of conflict between bureaucracy and public, later on the amount of information is open budget of management that are 32 types of information (49,2% and the amount of information that is enclosed which includes 33 types of information (50,8 % of the 65 types of management budget information by egulation No. 13 of 2006 on local Financial Management.

  10. Transparent conducting oxide top contacts for organic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Franklin, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    A versatile method for the deposition of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers directly onto conjugated polymer thin film substrates is presented. Using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) we identify a narrow window of growth conditions that permit the deposition of highly transparent, low sheet resistance aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) without degradation of the polymer film. Deposition on conjugated polymers mandates the use of low growth temperatures (<200°C), here we deposit AZO onto poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin films at 150°C, and investigate the microstructural and electrical properties of the AZO as the oxygen pressure in the PLD chamber is varied (5-75 mTorr). The low oxygen pressure conditions previously optimized for AZO deposition on rigid substrates are shown to be unsuitable, resulting in catastrophic damage of the polymer films. By increasing the oxygen pressure, thus reducing the energy of the ablated species, we identify conditions that allow direct deposition of continuous, transparent AZO films without P3HT degradation. We find that uptake of oxygen into the AZO films reduces the intrinsic charge carriers and AZO films with a measured sheet resistance of approximately 500 Ω □-1 can be prepared. To significantly reduce this value we identify a novel process in which AZO is deposited over a range of oxygen pressures-enabling the deposition of highly transparent AZO with sheet resistances below 50 Ω □-1 directly onto P3HT. We propose these low resistivity films are widely applicable as transparent top-contacts in a range of optoelectronic devices and highlight this by demonstrating the operation of a semi-transparent photovoltaic device. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014.

  11. Voice lessons : local government organizations, social organizations, and the quality of local governance

    OpenAIRE

    Alatas, Vivi; Pritchett, Lant; Wetterberg, Anna

    2003-01-01

    As part the Local Level Institutions study of local life in villages in rural Indonesia information was gathered on sampled household's participation in social activities. We classified the reported activities into four distinct types of social activity: sociability, networks, social organizations, and village government organizations. Respondents were also asked about questions about thei...

  12. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  13. Better governance through more transparency on advance cross-border tax rulings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Brodzka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the challenge posed by tax fraud and tax evasion has increased considerably and has become a major concern within the European Union. As a consequence, in the European initiatives a special emphasis has been laid on the actions aimed at reinforcing the anti-abuse provisions in bilateral tax treaties, national legislation and EU corporate legislation. Any artificial arrangement carried out for tax avoidance purposes would be ignored and companies would be taxed instead on the basis of actual economic substance. The aim of the article is presenting the European initiative aimed at implementing the automatic mode of the exchange of information on cross-border tax rulings and advance pricing arrangements. The paper investigates if the implemented measure can help Member States to detect certain abusive tax practices taken by companies, and to take the effective actions in response. It also tries to answer the question whether the initiative can result in more transparency and – as a consequence – in much better governance, both at the states’ and the corporations’ level.

  14. Studies on organic binders with high infrared transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-Wu, Fu; Hao-Shen, Zhou; Ming-Qing, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that two kinds of polymers with high infrared transparency and good mechanical and physical properties have been prepared. An internal standard method is used to evaluate the infrared transparency of the binders. The physical and mechanical properties of the binders are measured according to corresponding standards. The results show the absorbance of polymer A in 8–14 μm range is 26% that of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and polymer B is 9% that of the EVA correspondingly. The film of polymer A shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 2. The film of polymer B shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 1. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Solution-Processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junbo

    2010-01-26

    Theoretical estimates indicate that graphene thin films can be used as transparent electrodes for thin-film devices such as solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, with an unmatched combination of sheet resistance and transparency. We demonstrate organic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed graphene thin film transparent conductive anodes. The graphene electrodes were deposited on quartz substrates by spincoating of an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a vacuum anneal step to reduce the sheet resistance. Small molecular weight organic materials and a metal cathode were directly deposited on the graphene anodes, resulting in devices with a performance comparable to control devices on indium-tin-oxide transparent anodes. The outcoupling efficiency of devices on graphene and indium-tin-oxide is nearly identical, in agreement with model predictions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Fully transparent conformal organic thin-film transistor array and its application as LED front driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nan; Ren, Hang; Tang, Qingxin; Zhao, Xiaoli; Tong, Yanhong; Hu, Wenping; Liu, Yichun

    2018-02-22

    A fully transparent conformal organic thin-film field-effect transistor array is demonstrated based on a photolithography-compatible ultrathin metallic grid gate electrode and a solution-processed C 8 -BTBT film. The resulting organic field-effect transistor array exhibits a high optical transparency of >80% over the visible spectrum, mobility up to 2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , on/off ratio of 10 5 -10 6 , switching current of >0.1 mA, and excellent light stability. The transparent conformal transistor array is demonstrated to adhere well to flat and curved LEDs as front driving. These results present promising applications of the solution-processed wide-bandgap organic semiconductor thin films in future large-scale transparent conformal active-matrix displays.

  17. A Comparison of Female Supervisors in Business and Government Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Nicholas; Whitsitt, Susan E.

    1975-01-01

    This exploratory study compared the life style and interpersonal need orientation, leadership style, and perception of the organization structure of female supervisors in business and government organizations. (Author)

  18. Strategic transparency and informed trading : will capital market integration force convergence of corporate governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2002-01-01

    Dominant investors can influence the publicly available information about firms by affecting the cost of information collection. Under strategic competition, transparency results in higher variability of profits and output. Thus lenders prefer less transparency, since this protects firms when in a

  19. An Outsourcing Expert System for Governing Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Shahbazi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Making the right decision about doing activities in-house vs. outsourcing is one of the important management decisions. The considerable effect of this decision on organizational performance and responsiveness is supported by theoretical and empirical evidence. In this study, using the experts’ knowledge extraction and modeling, we have designed a logical framework for deciding about outsourcing in governing organizations and accordingly an expert system has been developed. As an applied research a descriptive approach and case study method have been used. Objectives, inevitable circumstances, requirements, background conditions and facilitators have been identified as the underlying components of the system. The system provides a recommendation for each activity and prioritizes them based on readiness for outsourcing. An implementation in IT department of a sample organization is provided and the results are analyzed.  In the end, the proposed system for activities of IT Management was carried out in one of the organizations and consequently the obtained outputs and results were analyzed.

  20. Private governance, public purpose? Assessing transparency and accountability in self-regulation of food advertising to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda

    2013-06-01

    Reducing non-core food advertising to children is an important priority in strategies to address childhood obesity. Public health researchers argue for government intervention on the basis that food industry self-regulation is ineffective; however, the industry contends that the existing voluntary scheme adequately addresses community concerns. This paper examines the operation of two self-regulatory initiatives governing food advertising to children in Australia, in order to determine whether these regulatory processes foster transparent and accountable self-regulation. The paper concludes that while both codes appear to establish transparency and accountability mechanisms, they do not provide for meaningful stakeholder participation in the self-regulatory scheme. Accordingly, food industry self-regulation is unlikely to reflect public health concerns or to be perceived as a legitimate form of governance by external stakeholders. If industry regulation is to remain a feasible alternative to statutory regulation, there is a strong argument for strengthening government oversight and implementing a co-regulatory scheme.

  1. A tunable lighting system integrated by inorganic and transparent organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Ya-fang; Liu, Shi-shen; Yuan, Shi-dong; Cui, Zhao; Zhang, Li; Wang, Wei-hui

    2014-05-01

    A tunable surface-emitting integrated lighting system is constructed using a combination of inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and transparent organic LEDs (OLEDs). An RB two-color LED is used to supply red and blue light emission, and a green organic LED is used to supply green light emission. Currents of the LED and OLED are tuned to produce a white color, showing different Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperatures with a wide adjustable range. Such an integration can compensate for the lack of the LED's luminance uniformity and the transparent OLED's luminance intensity.

  2. Alternative transparent electrodes for organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yuto

    2008-07-01

    In this work, two types of alternative transparent electrodes, ZnO:Al and PEDOT, were studied for OLEDs. The ZnO:Al films were fabricated with a conventional DC magnetron sputtering. Optimised ZnO:Al with low resistivity was obtained by a high carrier concentration supplied mainly from the oxygen vacancies and Al impurity, and a high mobility by the improvement of crystallinity. The film thickness of the ZnO:Al was altered to achieve good optoelectronic characteristics. With a thickness of approximately 190nm, it reached a low sheet resistance of 22 {proportional_to} 60 {omega}/sq and an average transmittance in visible range of >90%. Moreover, important parameters for the OLED application such as very smooth surface roughness and low refractive index were simultaneously obtained. The ZnO:Al films were structured for OLEDs use with a standard photolithography process. As another candidate, PEDOT:PSS Baytron {sup registered} PH510 with 5 wt% of DMSO was investigated. The 100 nm thick PEDOT films were prepared with the spin-coating method, obtaining a high transmittance of 92.7% in the visible range. The high resistivity (200 {omega}/sq) was overcome using a highly conductive metal grid, which resulted in similar current injection to ITO. The OLEDs on the PEDOT anode showed a high rectification ratio even without a cleaning process prior to the OLED deposition. White OLEDs on the 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} PEDOT substrate achieved more than 10 lm/W of power efficiency using an optical scattering foil. Finally, 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} PEDOT substrates were prepared for OLEDs. First results showed low luminance homogeneity and low efficiencies. A new type of layout was given, which was designed in terms of luminance homogeneity and efficiency using the simulation. (orig.)

  3. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff.

  4. Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Schlenker, Cody W; Ryu, Koungmin; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness ( approximately 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Omega/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (eta) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138 degrees , whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60 degrees . Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications.

  5. Continuous, Highly Flexible, and Transparent Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness (∼ 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Ω/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (η) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138°, whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60°. Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Flexible semi-transparent organic spin valve based on bathocuproine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiangnan; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are attractive materials for advanced spintronic applications due to their long spin lifetimes and, simultaneously, their mechanical flexibility. With the aim of combining these advantages in a single device, we report on the fabrication and properties of a mechanically flexible bathocuproine-based spin valve. This organic spin device shows great stability on both electrical and magneto-transport properties upon mechanical bending at different radius (up to r = 5 mm), while featuring long-lasting endurance (on bending over 50 times). The room-temperature magnetoresistance ratio reaches up to 3.5%, and is notably preserved under air atmosphere. The observation of spin transport at room-temperature, combined with the outstanding mechanical properties and air stability, highlights the potential of bathocuproine-based spin devices towards applications.

  7. Transparent model of temporal bone and vestibulocochlear organ made by 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Taniguchi, Naoto; Uchida, Fujio; Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Kanatsu, Yoshinori; Zhou, Ming; Funakoshi, Kodai; Akashi, Hideo; Abe, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    The vestibulocochlear organ is composed of tiny complex structures embedded in the petrous part of the temporal bone. Landmarks on the temporal bone surface provide the only orientation guide for dissection, but these need to be removed during the course of dissection, making it difficult to grasp the underlying three-dimensional structures, especially for beginners during gross anatomy classes. We report herein an attempt to produce a transparent three-dimensional-printed model of the human ear. En bloc samples of the temporal bone from donated cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning, and on the basis of the data, the surface temporal bone was reconstructed with transparent resin and the vestibulocochlear organ with white resin to create a 1:1.5 scale model. The carotid canal was stuffed with red cotton, and the sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein were filled with blue clay. In the inner ear, the internal acoustic meatus, cochlea, and semicircular canals were well reconstructed in detail with white resin. The three-dimensional relationships of the semicircular canals, spiral turns of the cochlea, and internal acoustic meatus were well recognizable from every direction through the transparent surface resin. The anterior semicircular canal was obvious immediately beneath the arcuate eminence, and the topographical relationships of the vestibulocochlear organ and adjacent great vessels were easily discernible. We consider that this transparent temporal bone model will be a very useful aid for better understanding of the gross anatomy of the vestibulocochlear organ.

  8. Highlights of GAO’s Corporate Governance, Transparency and Accountability Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    the current accounting and reporting model does not adequately address (e.g., special purpose entities, uncovered arbitrage positions)? • Is there...TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY FORUM a GAO-02-494SP Report Documentation Page Report Date 00MAR2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from...its oversight in connection with these matters. In particular, the Congress and GAO are interested in changes that could serve to reduce the

  9. Institutionalising Human Governance Determinant: Steering Organizations towards Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Hanapiyah, Zulkefli; Daud, Salina; Abdullah, Wan Mohammad Taufik Wan

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses past researches on human governance elements. Eight elements of human governance are proposed in this paper: leadership, integrity, religiosity, spirituality, culture, recruitment, training and internal control policy. Empirical study shall be conducted in the future study to confirm the eight elements of human governance proposed in this paper. It is expected that these elements may enhance the human governance practice in the organizations.

  10. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...

  11. Governing the transnational organic cotton network from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Vodouhè, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to conceptualize the historical development and the governance structure of the transnational organic cotton network from Benin. We aim to discover how the organic cotton production-consumption network is governed locally and internationally. Existing bodies of literature

  12. Transparent conductive oxides and alternative transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaics and OLEDs; Transparente leitfaehige Elektroden. Oxide und alternative Materialien fuer die organische Photovoltaik und OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Meskamp, Lars; Sachse, Christoph; Kim, Yong Hyun; Furno, Mauro [Technische Univ. Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photophysik (IAPP); May, Christian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Photonische Mikrosysteme (IPMS), Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl [Technische Univ. Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photophysik (IAPP); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Photonische Mikrosysteme (IPMS), Dresden (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Organic, photoactive devices, such as OLEDs or organic solar cells, currently use indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent electrode. Whereas ITO is industry-proven for many years and shows very good electrical and optical properties, its application for low-cost and flexible devices might not be optimal. For such applications innovative technologies such as network-based metal nanowire or carbon nanotube electrodes, graphene, conductive polymers, metal thin-films and alternative transparent conductive oxides emerge. Although some of these technologies are rather experimental and far from application, some of them have the potential to replace ITO in selected applications. (orig.)

  13. Towards colorless transparent organic transistors: potential of benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-based wide-gap semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hanul; Cho, Hyunsu; Kim, Mincheol; Takimiya, Kazuo; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2014-05-21

    Colorless, highly transparent organic thin-film transistors (TOTFTs) with high performance are realized based on benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) derivatives that simultaneously exhibit a wide energy gap and high transport properties. Multilayer transparent source/drain electrodes maintain the transparency, and ultrathin fluoropolymer dielectric layers enable stable, low-voltage operation of the proposed TOTFTs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Knowledge Governance Strategies in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Söderlund, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge governance (KG) aims at strategically influencing knowledge processes by implementing governance mechanisms. Little is known about whether, how, or why such strategies differ among firms. We utilize a large-scale empirical study of 20 organizations to develop a typology of KG strategies...... in project-based organizations; we then explore how these strategies emerge and affect organizational knowledge processes. Six strategies are identified: Protector, Deliverer, Polisher, Explorer, Supporter, and Analyzer. This paper posits a multi-level categorization model to facilitate comparisons among KG...... strategies. We uncover three main drivers of organizations' chosen knowledge governance strategies-namely, attitudes about humans, knowledge, and knowledge control....

  15. 22 CFR 228.33 - Foreign government-owned organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign government-owned organizations. 228.33 Section 228.33 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND... commercial companies or other organizations (including nonprofit organizations other than public educational...

  16. The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moe, Ronald C; Kosar, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    .... These hybrid organizations (e.g., Fannie Mae, National Park Foundation, In-Q-Tel), collectively referred to in this report as the quasi government, have grown in number, size, and importance in recent decades...

  17. Governance Issues in South East Asian Higher Education: Finance, Devolution and Transparency in the Global Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Using Castells' four principal functions of universities, this article examines several key dilemmas relating to governance of higher education in SE Asia, (specifically Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam). While all five nations value universities highly, and aspire to widen access to higher education, none can provide public…

  18. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  19. Organic light-emitting diodes using novel embedded al gird transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cuiyun; Chen, Changbo; Guo, Kunping; Tian, Zhenghao; Zhu, Wenqing; Xu, Tao; Wei, Bin

    2017-03-01

    This work demonstrates a novel transparent electrode using embedded Al grids fabricated by a simple and cost-effective approach using photolithography and wet etching. The optical and electrical properties of Al grids versus grid geometry have been systematically investigated, it was found that Al grids exhibited a low sheet resistance of 70 Ω □-1 and a light transmission of 69% at 550 nm with advantages in terms of processing conditions and material cost as well as potential to large scale fabrication. Indium Tin Oxide-free green organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) based on Al grids transparent electrodes was demonstrated, yielding a power efficiency >15 lm W-1 and current efficiency >39 cd A-1 at a brightness of 2396 cd m-2. Furthermore, a reduced efficiency roll-off and higher brightness have been achieved compared with ITO-base device.

  20. High-performance NiO/Ag/NiO transparent electrodes for flexible organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhichao; Liu, Xingyuan; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xuanming; Wang, Haiyu; Guo, Xiaoyang

    2014-09-24

    Transparent electrodes with a dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) structure can be implemented in a simple manufacturing process and have good optical and electrical properties. In this study, nickel oxide (NiO) is introduced into the DMD structure as a more appropriate dielectric material that has a high conduction band for electron blocking and a low valence band for efficient hole transport. The indium-free NiO/Ag/NiO (NAN) transparent electrode exhibits an adjustable high transmittance of ∼82% combined with a low sheet resistance of ∼7.6 Ω·s·q(-1) and a work function of 5.3 eV after UVO treatment. The NAN electrode shows excellent surface morphology and good thermal, humidity, and environmental stabilities. Only a small change in sheet resistance can be found after NAN electrode is preserved in air for 1 year. The power conversion efficiencies of organic photovoltaic cells with NAN electrodes deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates are 6.07 and 5.55%, respectively, which are competitive with those of indium tin oxide (ITO)-based devices. Good photoelectric properties, the low-cost material, and the room-temperature deposition process imply that NAN electrode is a striking candidate for low-cost and flexible transparent electrode for efficient flexible optoelectronic devices.

  1. Next generation smart window display using transparent organic display and light blocking screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyeong Woo; Lampande, Raju; Choe, Dong Cheol; Ko, Ik Jang; Park, Jin Hwan; Pode, Ramchandra; Kwon, Jang Hyuk

    2018-04-02

    Transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED) have widespread applications in the next-generation display devices particularly in the large size transparent window and interactive displays. Herein, we report high performance and stable attractive smart window displays using facile process. Advanced smart window display is realized by integrating the high performance light blocking screen and highly transparent white OLED panel. The full smart window display reveals a maximum transmittance as high as 64.2% at the wavelength of 600 nm and extremely good along with tunable ambient contrast ratio (171.94:1) compared to that of normal TOLED (4.54:1). Furthermore, the performance decisive light blocking screen has demonstrated an excellent optical and electrical characteristics such as i) high transmittance (85.56% at 562nm) at light-penetrating state, ii) superior absorbance (2.30 at 562nm) in light interrupting mode, iii) high optical contrast (85.50 at 562 nm), iv) high optical stability for more than 25,000 cycle of driving, v) fast switching time of 1.9 sec, and vi) low driving voltage of 1.7 V. The experimental results of smart window display are also validated using optical simulation. The proposed smart window display technology allows us to adjust the intensity of daylight entering the system quickly and conveniently.

  2. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  3. Outcome of referrals for deceased organ donation to the government organ procurement organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguitan, G A; Cabanayan-Casasola, C B; Danguilan, R A; Jaro, J M A

    2014-05-01

    The Human Organ Preservation Effort is a government organ procurement organization that pioneered the Deceased Organ Donation Program in the Philippines. Deceased organ donation comprises only 20% of kidney transplantation in the Philippines in the last 3 years. Various measures were implemented to improve deceased organ donor referrals and organ retrieval. To compare outcome of deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 in the Philippines. This retrospective study reviewed the deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012. There were 437 referrals for potential deceased organ donors from 2009 to 2012, compared to 434 referrals from 2002 to 2008. Referrals were mainly trauma victims (76%) followed by those with cerebrovascular accidents (12%). In the recent cohort, 81% were approached and 60% consented for donation, but only 23% were retrieved and transplanted. Among those not retrieved, the majority (19%) were medically unsuitable and 6% retracted their consent. Although there was an increasing trend of organ donation referrals in the last 4 years, only 25% were procured. The reasons for nonprocurement should be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Lee, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Highly transparent conductive, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited on glass substrates by midfrequency magnetron sputtering of metallic aluminum-doped zinc target. ZnO:Al films with surface work functions between 3.7 and 4.4 eV were obtained by varying the sputtering conditions. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated on these ZnO:Al films. A current efficiency of higher than 3.7 cd/A, was achieved. For comparison, 3.9 cd/A was achieved by the reference OLEDs fabricated on commercial indium-tin-oxide substrates

  5. Monolithic Parallel Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cell with Transparent Carbon Nanotube Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S.; Mielczarek, K.; Ovalle-Robles, R.; Wang, B.; Hsu, D.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic photovoltaic cell with a monolithic tandem structure in parallel connection. Transparent multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets are used as an interlayer anode electrode for this parallel tandem. The characteristics of front and back cells are measured independently. The short circuit current density of the parallel tandem cell is larger than the currents of each individual cell. The wavelength dependence of photocurrent for the parallel tandem cell shows the superposition spectrum of the two spectral sensitivities of the front and back cells. The monolithic three-electrode photovoltaic cell indeed operates as a parallel tandem with improved efficiency.

  6. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with balanced white emission by minimizing waveguide and surface plasmonic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Bo; Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Chen, Jing-De; Zhao, Xin-Dong; Wei, Jian; Xie, Zhong-Zhi; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2017-07-10

    It is challenging in realizing high-performance transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with symmetrical light emission to both sides. Herein, an efficient transparent OLED with highly balanced white emission to both sides is demonstrated by integrating quasi-periodic nanostructures into the organic emitter and the metal-dielectric composite top electrode, which can simultaneously suppressing waveguide and surface plasmonic loss. The power efficiency and external quantum efficiency are raised to 83.5 lm W -1 and 38.8%, respectively, along with a bi-directional luminance ratio of 1.26. The proposed scheme provides a facile route for extending application scope of transparent OLEDs for future transparent displays and lightings.

  7. The Applicability of the Transparency Principle by Organizations in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarfa Hrnjić Kuduzović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a generally accepted principle of social responsibility in public relations theory, transparency is also recommended during crisis situations by most authors. The recommendations for organizations to communicate openly with all stakeholders, especially crisis victims, are among the most important instructions for managing crises. However, some authors believe that the full disclosure of information about the organization and the crisis circumstances is not just an unrealistic, but also communicatively ineffective, financially disadvantageous and even an unethical approach. Starting from the transparency requirements as a set of unquestionably valuable principles in professional public relations, as well as from the benchmark research on crisis communication, the author examines the limits of this rule. The paper is focused on the factors that determine the degree of an organization’s openness, keeping in mind the complexity of relationships with different stakeholders who often have conflicting interests. By critically considering the concept of ambiguous communications as a possible communication model in crisis situations, the author emphasizes the importance of context when deciding on a communication strategy.

  8. Public Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kep...

  9. Assessing Summit Engagement with Other International Organizations in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed dramatic changes all over the world. One major trend is the proliferation and diversification of actors, forums and their arrangements to address global governance challenges, which has led to fragmentation in global governance. However, such contested multilateralism has a positive dimension, as the emergence of informal multilateral institutions claiming a major role in defining the global governance agenda creates alternatives for providing common goods. New arrangements acquire their own actorness and place in the system of global governance. In certain policy areas, there is a clear trend for the new summit institutions’ leadership. The most visible recent cases include the Group of 20 (G20, the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC forum, with APEC gaining importance regionally and globally. These new informal groupings work on their own agenda. They also engage with established international organizations to steer global governance processes. Taken together, the transformative trends in international relations, the emergence of new actors, tensions between exclusive and inclusive clubs, and demands for the legitimacy and effectiveness of the international institutions define the relevance of the study, systematization and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of this model of cooperation among international institutions. This article builds an analytical framework by undertaking three tasks. It first reviews the key concepts. Second, it argues for a rational choice institutionalist approach. Third, it puts forward a hypothesis for research: to compensate for their inefficiencies, summit institutions engage with other international organizations in a mode they regard most efficient for attainment of their goals. The modes of those institutions’ engagement with other international organizations as reflected in the leaders

  10. Transparent ITO/Ag-Pd-Cu/ITO multilayer cathode use in inverted organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Han-Ki; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Kal, Jinha; Hahn, Jungseok

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of transparent ITO/Ag-Pd-Cu (APC)/ITO multilayer cathodes were investigated for use in inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs). The insertion of an APC interlayer into the ITO film effectively led to crystallization of the top ITO layer, unlike that in the Ag interlayer, and resulted in a low sheet resistance of 6.55 Ohm/square and a high optical transmittance of 84.14% without post annealing. In addition, the alloying of the Pd and Cu elements into Ag prevented agglomeration and oxidization of the metal interlayer and led to more stable ITO/APC/ITO films under ambient conditions. The microstructure and interfacial structure of the transparent ITO/APC/ITO cathode in the IOSCs were examined in detail by synchrotron X-ray scattering and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we suggested a possible mechanism to explain the lower PCE of the IOSCs with an ITO/APC/ITO cathode than that of a reference IOSC with a crystalline ITO cathode using the external quantum efficiency of the IOSCs

  11. Spin coated graphene films as the transparent electrode in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kymakis, E.; Stratakis, E.; Stylianakis, M.M.; Koudoumas, E.; Fotakis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many research efforts have been devoted to the replacement of the traditional indium–tin-oxide (ITO) electrode in organic photovoltaics. Solution-based graphene has been identified as a potential replacement, since it has less than two percent absorption per layer, relative high carrier mobility, and it offers the possibility of deposition on large area and flexible substrates, compatible with roll to roll manufacturing methods. In this work, soluble reduced graphene films with high electrical conductivity and transparency were fabricated and incorporated in poly(3-hexylthiophene) [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester photovoltaic devices, as the transparent electrode. The graphene films were spin coated on glass from an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a reduction process combining hydrazine vapor and annealing under argon, in order to reduce the sheet resistance. The photovoltaic devices obtained from the graphene films showed lower performance than the reference devices with ITO, due to the higher sheet resistance (2 kΩ/sq) and the poor hydrophilicity of the spin coated graphene films.

  12. Highly flexible peeled-off silver nanowire transparent anode using in organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Ya-Hui; Duan, Yu, E-mail: duanyu@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Dan; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Ping; Sun, Feng-Bo; Xue, Kai-Wen; Zhao, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An ultra-smooth AgNW film on a flexible photopolymer substrate has been fabricated. • The AgNW film has a low sheet resistance with high transparency and flexibility. • OLEDs based on AgNW:NOA63 substrate can be bent at a radius of curvature of 2 mm. - Abstract: Materials to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) for high transmittance and electrical conductivity are urgently needed. In this paper, we adopted a silver nanowire (AgNW)-photopolymer (NOA63) film as a new platform for flexible optoelectronic devices. This design combined a transparent electrode and a flexible substrate. We utilized this application to obtain flexible organic light-emitting devices (FOLEDs). A peel-off process combined with a spin-coating process created an ultra-smooth silver nanowire anode on a photopolymer substrate. The performance of the device was achieved via the perfect morphology of the AgNW anode, the optimal 5 mg/ml concentration of AgNW solution, and the 45.7 Ω/□ sheet resistance of the AgNW film. The maximum current efficiency of the FOLED is 13 cd/A with stable mechanical flexibility even when bent to a radius of curvature of 2 mm. The outstanding performance of the FOLED with peeled off AgNW anode shows that this approach is a promising alternative to ITO for FOLEDs.

  13. ITO/metal/ITO anode for efficient transparent white organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jonghee; Sung, Woo Jin; Moon, Jaehyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2015-02-01

    We report on the characteristics of enhanced and balanced white-light emission of transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) by introducing anode that has a stack structure of ITO/metal/ITO (IMI). We have investigated an anode that has a stack structure of IMI. IMI anodes are typically composed of a thin Ag layer (˜15 nm) sandwiched between two ITO layers (˜50 nm). By inserting an Ag layer it was possible to achieve sheet resistance lower than 3 Ω/sq. and transmittance of 86% at a wavelength of 550 nm. The Ag insert can act as a reflective component. With its counterpart, a transparent cathode made of a thin Ag layer (˜15 nm), micro-cavities (MC) can be effectively induced in the OLED, leading to improved performance. Using an IMI anode, it was possible to significantly increase the current efficiencies. The current efficiencies of the top and the bottom of the IMI TOLED increased to 23.0 and 15.6 cd/A, respectively, while those of the white TOLED with the ITO anode were 20.7 and 5.1 cd/A, respectively. A 30% enhancement in the overall current efficiency was achieved by taking advantage of the MC effect and the low sheet resistance.

  14. Transparent ITO/Ag-Pd-Cu/ITO multilayer cathode use in inverted organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Hwi [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Jigokro-127beon-gil, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kal, Jinha; Hahn, Jungseok [Future Technology Research Group, Kolon Central Research Park, 154 Mabukro, Giheung-ku, Yongin-si, Kyunggi-do, 16910 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The characteristics of transparent ITO/Ag-Pd-Cu (APC)/ITO multilayer cathodes were investigated for use in inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs). The insertion of an APC interlayer into the ITO film effectively led to crystallization of the top ITO layer, unlike that in the Ag interlayer, and resulted in a low sheet resistance of 6.55 Ohm/square and a high optical transmittance of 84.14% without post annealing. In addition, the alloying of the Pd and Cu elements into Ag prevented agglomeration and oxidization of the metal interlayer and led to more stable ITO/APC/ITO films under ambient conditions. The microstructure and interfacial structure of the transparent ITO/APC/ITO cathode in the IOSCs were examined in detail by synchrotron X-ray scattering and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we suggested a possible mechanism to explain the lower PCE of the IOSCs with an ITO/APC/ITO cathode than that of a reference IOSC with a crystalline ITO cathode using the external quantum efficiency of the IOSCs.

  15. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with different bi-directional emission colors using color-conversion capping layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonghee, E-mail: jonghee.lee@etri.re.kr [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Koh, Tae-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyunsu [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Schwab, Tobias [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lee, Jae-Hyun [Department School of Global Convergence Studies, Hanbat National University, San 16-1, Duckmyoung-dong, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Hofmann, Simone [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Ik [OLED Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seunghyup [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-06-15

    We report a study on transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors, enabled by color-conversion organic capping layers. Starting from a transparent blue OLED with an uncapped Ag top electrode exhibiting an average transmittance of 33.9%, a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM)-doped tris-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3) capping layer is applied to achieve color-conversion from blue to orange-red on the top side while maintaining almost unchanged device transmittance. This color-conversion capping layer does not only change the color of the top side emission, but also enhances the overall device efficiency due to the optical interaction of the capping layer with the primary blue transparent OLED. Top white emission from the transparent bi-directional OLED exhibits a correlated color temperature around 6000–7000 K, with excellent color stability as evidenced by an extremely small variation in color coordinate of Δ(x,y)=(0.002, 0.002) in the forward luminance range of 100–1000 cd m{sup −2}. At the same time, the blue emission color of bottom side is not influenced by the color conversion capping layer, which finally results in different emission colors of the two opposite sides of our transparent OLEDs. - Highlights: • We report transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors. • Transparent blue OLED with color-conversion organic capping layers (CCL) shows orange top side emission. • Top white emission exhibits a CCT around 7000 K, with excellent color stability on a driving voltage.

  16. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with different bi-directional emission colors using color-conversion capping layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jonghee; Koh, Tae-Wook; Cho, Hyunsu; Schwab, Tobias; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Hofmann, Simone; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2015-01-01

    We report a study on transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors, enabled by color-conversion organic capping layers. Starting from a transparent blue OLED with an uncapped Ag top electrode exhibiting an average transmittance of 33.9%, a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM)-doped tris-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato)-aluminum (Alq3) capping layer is applied to achieve color-conversion from blue to orange-red on the top side while maintaining almost unchanged device transmittance. This color-conversion capping layer does not only change the color of the top side emission, but also enhances the overall device efficiency due to the optical interaction of the capping layer with the primary blue transparent OLED. Top white emission from the transparent bi-directional OLED exhibits a correlated color temperature around 6000–7000 K, with excellent color stability as evidenced by an extremely small variation in color coordinate of Δ(x,y)=(0.002, 0.002) in the forward luminance range of 100–1000 cd m −2 . At the same time, the blue emission color of bottom side is not influenced by the color conversion capping layer, which finally results in different emission colors of the two opposite sides of our transparent OLEDs. - Highlights: • We report transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with different bi-directional emission colors. • Transparent blue OLED with color-conversion organic capping layers (CCL) shows orange top side emission. • Top white emission exhibits a CCT around 7000 K, with excellent color stability on a driving voltage

  17. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Bhushan Ramesh; Mirsafaei, Mina; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order...... patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm2, and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO...... with embedded Ag grids was enhanced by 18 % for the line grids pattern and 30 % for the square grids pattern compared to that of the reference OSCs. The increase in the Fill Factor was directly correlated to the decrease in the series resistance of the OSCs. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE...

  18. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO{sub 2} film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  19. A Conceptualization of Knowledge Governance in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiorac, Anna; Müller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes and defines knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs). Two key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced, as distinguished from knowledge management and organizational learning concepts. The con......This paper conceptualizes and defines knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs). Two key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced, as distinguished from knowledge management and organizational learning concepts....... The conceptual framework addresses macro- and micro-level elements of KG and their interaction. Our definition of KG in PBOs highlights the contingent nature of KG processes in relation to their organizational context. These contributions provide a novel platform for understanding KG in PBOs....

  20. Roll-offset printed transparent conducting electrode for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inyoung; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Park, Gun-Young; Lee, Taik-Min; Jang, Yunseok; Choi, Young-Man; Kang, Dongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were developed through the roll-offset printing of Ag grid mesh patterns for the application of all-solution processed organic solar cells (OSCs). Due to the remarkable printability of roll-offset printing, the printed TCEs did not show the step coverage problem of subsequent thin layers, which was a chronic problem in other printing techniques. The control of ink cohesion was verified as a critical factor for the high printing quality, which was optimized by adding a polyurethane diol of 2 wt.%. The tensile strength of optimized Ag ink was 322 mN, which led to the clear patterning of Ag nanoparticles. The printed TCEs with different mesh densities of the Ag grid were designed to have a similar property of indium tin oxide (ITO). The measured sheet resistance was 13 Ω/□, and optical transmittance was 86%, including the glass substrate, which was found to be independent of wavelength in the visible spectrum, in contrast with the optical transmittance of ITO. To evaluate the TCE performance as bottom electrodes, all-solution processed OSCs were fabricated on top of the TCEs. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs increased with the increments of the mesh density due to the distinctive increase of the short circuit current density (J sc ), notwithstanding the similar transmittance and sheet resistance of the TCEs. In comparison with ITO, a higher PCE of OSCs was obtained because the printed TCEs with a high mesh density were able to facilitate effective current collection, leading to a significant increase of J sc . - Highlights: • Roll-offset printing provided a remarkable printability of Ag nano-ink. • Control of ink cohesion played a critical role on the patterning of Ag nano-ink. • Printed Ag mesh was used as a transparent conducting electrode. • Transparency and sheet resistance of printed Ag mesh can be designed simply. • Printed Ag mesh was effective for the current collection of organic solar

  1. Roll-offset printed transparent conducting electrode for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inyoung, E-mail: ikim@kimm.re.kr; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Park, Gun-Young; Lee, Taik-Min; Jang, Yunseok; Choi, Young-Man; Kang, Dongwoo

    2015-04-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were developed through the roll-offset printing of Ag grid mesh patterns for the application of all-solution processed organic solar cells (OSCs). Due to the remarkable printability of roll-offset printing, the printed TCEs did not show the step coverage problem of subsequent thin layers, which was a chronic problem in other printing techniques. The control of ink cohesion was verified as a critical factor for the high printing quality, which was optimized by adding a polyurethane diol of 2 wt.%. The tensile strength of optimized Ag ink was 322 mN, which led to the clear patterning of Ag nanoparticles. The printed TCEs with different mesh densities of the Ag grid were designed to have a similar property of indium tin oxide (ITO). The measured sheet resistance was 13 Ω/□, and optical transmittance was 86%, including the glass substrate, which was found to be independent of wavelength in the visible spectrum, in contrast with the optical transmittance of ITO. To evaluate the TCE performance as bottom electrodes, all-solution processed OSCs were fabricated on top of the TCEs. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs increased with the increments of the mesh density due to the distinctive increase of the short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), notwithstanding the similar transmittance and sheet resistance of the TCEs. In comparison with ITO, a higher PCE of OSCs was obtained because the printed TCEs with a high mesh density were able to facilitate effective current collection, leading to a significant increase of J{sub sc}. - Highlights: • Roll-offset printing provided a remarkable printability of Ag nano-ink. • Control of ink cohesion played a critical role on the patterning of Ag nano-ink. • Printed Ag mesh was used as a transparent conducting electrode. • Transparency and sheet resistance of printed Ag mesh can be designed simply. • Printed Ag mesh was effective for the current collection of organic

  2. Civil and government organizations: A strategic link in the transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Lizárraga

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between civil organizations and government is an strategic subject for the analysis of political, social and economic outcome which has taken place in the past two decades both nationally and internationally. In this case, the exposition of the subject revolves around the social politics reedition, taking the state reform as a point of encounter in common action fields of this two social actors counterposed not so long ago. The main purpose of this work is to show a pragmatic vision about the course that has been followed in the relation between government and civil organizations, both in the discursive and operational terms. It seeks to transcend the idealism with which is usually used on the subject of civil organizations as well as the politic prejudice of its relation with the government, proposing that from such encounter, a particular, unedited entity emerges and which its own identity goes beyond; though not necessarily eliminates the civil and governmental models of social participation, and political action from which it comes from.

  3. Models for governing relationships in healthcare organizations: Some empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiti, Anna; Del Vecchio, Mario; Grazzini, Maddalena

    2018-01-01

    Recently, most European countries have undergone integration processes through mergers and strategic alliances between healthcare organizations. The present paper examined three cases within the Italian National Health Service in order to determine how different organizations, within differing institutional contexts, govern an healthcare integration process. Furthermore, we explored the possibility that the governance mode, usually seen as alternatives (i.e., merger or alliance), could be considered as a separate step in the development of a more suitable integration process. Multiple case studies were used to compare different integration approaches. Specifically, three cases were considered, of which two were characterized by collaborative processes and the other by a merger. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers involved in the processes. Each case presents different governing modes, structures, and mechanisms for achieving integration. The role played by the institutional context also led to different results with unique advantages and disadvantages. Three main conclusions are discussed: (a) Alliances and mergers can be interpreted as different steps in a path leading to a better integration; (b) The alignment between institutional/political time horizon and the time needed for the organizations to achieve an integration process lead to a better integration; (c) Trust plays an important role in integration process operating at different levels that of institutional and organizational level and that built between people.

  4. Transparency in Health Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Transparency is an important tool for good governance, helping to expose abusive practices including fraud, patronage, corruption, and other abuses of power. Increasing transparency can also enhance accountability by providing performance management information and exposing policies and procedures to oversight. This U4 Brief discusses the role of transparency in preventing corruption in the health sector.

  5. Interfacial layers and semi-transparent electrodes for large area flexible organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Bhushan Ramesh

    the exciton recombination and charge carrier losses in the devices. I report on the implementation of a novel exciton blocking layer of an intrinsic organic material, ‘N,N'-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N'-diphenyl [1,1':4',1'':4'',1‴-quaterphenyl]-4,4‴-diamine (4P-NPD)’, in organic small molecule-based OPVs. Using...... this interlayer, the efficiency of OPV devices increased by approx. 24 % compared to reference devices. I also report on the use the use of electron transport layer of organic material ‘2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bathocuproine, BCP)’ for inverted small molecule-based lab-scale and up......-scaled OPVs. The pronounced clustering of the BCP layer lead to increasing discrepancies in the device performance with the increase in the device size, which disqualifies it for use of in the inverted large area OPVs. The second section deals with up-scaling of highly conductive semi-transparent electrodes...

  6. Highly transparent vanadium oxide-graded indium zinc oxide electrodes for flexible organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun-Hye; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated characteristics of amorphous V_2O_5-graded InZnO (IZO) films to use as a flexible anode for flexible organic solar cells (FOSCs). Graded sputtering of the V_2O_5 layer on the IZO layer produced V_2O_5-graded IZO anodes (VGIZO) with a sheet resistance of 42.14 Ω/square, a resistivity of 6.32 × 10"−"4 Ω cm, and an optical transmittance of 82.15%, as well as good mechanical flexibility. In addition, the VGIZO electrode showed a greater work function of 5.2 eV than that (4.9 eV) of an IZO anode, which is beneficial for hole extraction from an organic active layer. Due to the higher work function of the VGIZO electrodes, FOSCs fabricated on the flexible VGIZO anode exhibited a higher power conversion efficiency 2.753% than that of FOSCs on the IZO anode. This indicates that the V_2O_5 graded sputtering is a promising technique to increase the work function of the IZO anode without change in sheet resistance and transmittance. - Highlights: • Transparent and flexible V_2O_5 graded IZO (VGIZO) electrodes. • High work function of VGIZO electrodes • The VGIZO film is a promising flexible anode for flexible organic solar cells.

  7. Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

    2005-01-01

    Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves.

  8. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhushan R.; Mirsafaei, Mina; Piotr Cielecki, Paweł; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-10-01

    In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order to improve the conductivity of planar ITO substrates. The fabricated electrodes with embedded line and square patterned Ag grids reduced the sheet resistance of ITO by 25% and 40%, respectively, showing optical transmittance drops of less than 6% within the complete visible light spectrum for both patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm2, and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor (FF) of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO with embedded Ag grids was enhanced by 18% for the line grids pattern and 30% for the square grids pattern compared to that of the reference OSCs. The increase in the FF was directly correlated to the decrease in the series resistance of the OSCs. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs was measured to be 4.34%, which is 23% higher than the PCE of the reference OSCs. As the presented method does not involve high temperature processing, it could be considered a general approach for development of large area organic electronics on solvent resistant, flexible substrates.

  9. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Lim, Jong-Wook; Kim, Han-Ki; Alford, T. L.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive

  10. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    requestors at the Department of Motor Vehicles offices. We conclude that organ donation is a medical procedure subject to all the ethical obligations that the medical profession must uphold including that of transparency and truthfulness.

  11. Governing the Rule-Making of Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    of Denmark and Sweden. Although the cases illustrate two modes of governance: in the former, rule-making is formally internalized in the State and in the latter, in a private-interest organization, a similar set of stakeholders participate in the actual rule-making processes. The analysis provides...... an interesting avenue into understanding the relationship between local and supranational rule-makers, and how local rule-makers may act to secure local circumstances and demands from supranational legislators concurrently. Moreover, the analysis offers suggestions as to possible consequences of striving...

  12. Light stability of ITO-free semi-transparent and opaque organic photovoltaic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voroshazi, E.; Yaala, M.B.; Uytterhoeven, G.; Tait, J.G.; Andriessen, R.H.A.J.M.; Galagan, Y.; Cheyns, D.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic light stability of transparent MoO3/Ag/TiO2 electrode is studied in four different polymer:fullerene solar cell configurations. We demonstrate that this stack can successfully replace ITO both in superstrate and substrate configurations required for non-transparent carriers. Although we

  13. Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Thomas; Schmidt, Hans; Fluegge, Harald; Nikolayzik, Fabian; Baumann, Ihno; Schmale, Stephan; Johannes, Hans-Hermann; Rabe, Torsten [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Hamwi, Sami, E-mail: sami.hamwi@ihf.tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Riedl, Thomas [Institute of Electronic Devices, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter Str. 21, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We report on transparent and highly conductive multilayer electrodes prepared at room temperature by RF sputtering of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) and thermal evaporation of ultrathin silver (Ag) as top contact for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED). Specifically, we study the morphological, electrical and optical properties of the multilayer structure in particular of the thin Ag film. The tendency of Ag to form agglomerates over time on top of ZTO is shown by atomic force microscopy. From the optical constants derived from ellipsometric measurements we evidenced a bulk like behavior of an Ag film with a thickness of 8 nm embedded in ZTO leading to a low sheet resistance of 9 {Omega}/sq. Furthermore we verify the optical constants by simulation of an optimized ZTO/Ag/ZTO structure. As an application we present a highly efficient TOLED providing a device transmittance of > 82% in the visible part of the spectrum. The TOLED shows no damage caused by sputtering on a lighting area of 80 mm{sup 2} and exhibits efficiencies of 43 cd/A and 36 lm/W.

  14. Nonprofit organizations versus government agencies to reduce tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M; Campbell, Catherine; Boyd, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Tobacco settlement money can be allocated to nonprofit organizations or government agencies. Both have advantages and disadvantages. Nonprofit organizations may have relatively (a) more efficiency/flexibility, but less accountability; (b) narrower focus, but less experience; (c) more ability to advocate, but more obligations; (d) more independence from tobacco industry influence, but less funding; and, (e) more public trust, but less visibility. The present case study of the Partnership for a Healthy Mississippi focuses on six interconnected areas: education (school and community), raising awareness, advocacy, service, enforcement, and research. In 1999 and 2000, tobacco use declined in Mississippi, even compared to neighboring states. This unique partnership's multifaceted approach to social change probably facilitated this decline.

  15. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  16. Silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conductive electrodes for highly efficient inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Neng; Yan, Jielin; Xie, Shuang; Kong, Yuhan; Liang, Tao; Chen, Hongzheng; Xu, Mingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) and graphene are both promising candidates as a transparent conductive electrode (TCE) to replace expensive and fragile indium tin oxide (ITO) TCE. A synergistically optimized performance is expected when the advantages of AgNWs and graphene are combined. In this paper, the AgNW-graphene hybrid electrode is constructed by depositing a graphene layer on top of the network of AgNWs. Compared with the pristine AgNWs electrode, the AgNW-graphene TCE exhibits reduced sheet resistance, lower surface roughness, excellent long-term stability, and corrosion resistance in corrosive liquids. The graphene layer covering the AgNWs provides additional conduction pathways for electron transport and collection by the electrode. Benefiting from these advantages of the hybrid electrodes, we achieve a power conversion efficiency of 8.12% of inverted organic solar cells using PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer, which is compared to that of the solar cells based on standard ITO TCE but about 10% higher than that based on AgNWs TCE.

  17. The World Health Organization and Global Health Governance: post-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, J

    2014-02-01

    This article takes a historical perspective on the changing position of WHO in the global health architecture over the past two decades. From the early 1990s a number of weaknesses within the structure and governance of the World Health Organization were becoming apparent, as a rapidly changing post Cold War world placed more complex demands on the international organizations generally, but significantly so in the field of global health. Towards the end of that decade and during the first half of the next, WHO revitalized and played a crucial role in setting global health priorities. However, over the past decade, the organization has to some extent been bypassed for funding, and it lost some of its authority and its ability to set a global health agenda. The reasons for this decline are complex and multifaceted. Some of the main factors include WHO's inability to reform its core structure, the growing influence of non-governmental actors, a lack of coherence in the positions, priorities and funding decisions between the health ministries and the ministries overseeing development assistance in several donor member states, and the lack of strong leadership of the organization. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Morality of Transparency: A Comparison of NGOs and Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Paper presented at Workshop on the Sociology of Transparency, Univ. Osnabruck, Nov. 2015. Disclosure and transparency, being open so that others can look deeper into to your organization, is not just a requirement imposed by government regulations or funding agencies. Transparency is also tied to a value of authenticity, sincerity and ethics. There is moral dimension to transparency. Being open is to be good. Concealment or opacity is bad. On the other hand, there are those who say that trans...

  19. Highly concentrated collagen solutions leading to transparent scaffolds of controlled three-dimensional organizations for corneal epithelial cell colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidu, Aurélien; Ghoubay-Benallaoua, Djida; Teulon, Claire; Asnacios, Sophie; Grieve, Kate; Portier, François; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Borderie, Vincent; Mosser, Gervaise

    2018-05-29

    This study aimed at controlling both the organization and the transparency of dense collagen scaffolds making use of the lyotropic mesogen properties of collagen. Cholesteric or plywood-like liquid crystal phases were achieved using mixtures of acetic and hydrochloric acids as solvents. The critical pH at which the switch between the two phases occurred was around pH = 3. The use of the two acids led to fibrillated collagen I scaffolds, whose visual aspect ranged from opaque to transparent. Rheological investigations showed that viscoelastic properties of the plywood-like solutions were optimized for molding due to faster recovery. They also confirmed the correlation between the elastic modulus and the diameter of collagen fibrils obtained after fibrillogenesis under ammonia vapor. Human corneal epithelial cells, grown from donor limbal explants, were cultured both on transparent plywood-like matrices and on human amniotic membranes for 14 days. The development of corneal epithelium and the preservation of epithelial stem cells were checked by optical microscopy, colony formation assay, immuno-fluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A higher level of amplification of limbal stem cells was obtained with collagen matrices compared with amniotic membranes, showing the high biocompatibility of our scaffolds. We therefore suggest that collagen solutions presenting both plywood-like organization and transparency might be of interest for biomedical applications in ophthalmology.

  20. WTO rules and practices for transparency and engagement with civil society organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Esteve, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In a rapidly changing trade environment, marked by economic slowdown and impasse in the Doha Round, the success of the WTO in promoting and legitimizing the rules-based multilateral trading system rests, to a large extent, on maintaining effective relations with civil society, including non-governmental organisations. This paper provides an overview of the WTO's rules and practices for transparency and engagement with NGOs. First, it looks at both internal and external transparency. Second, i...

  1. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki; Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In

    2014-01-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8 nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55 × 10 −5 Ω cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54 × 10 −3 Ω −1 , comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10 nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs

  2. Image quality affected by diffraction of aperture structure arrangement in transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Mao-Hsiu; Jeng, Wei-de; Huang, Ting-Wei; Lo, Kuo-Lung; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2015-10-01

    Transparent display is one of the main technologies in next-generation displays, especially for augmented reality applications. An aperture structure is attached on each display pixel to partition them into transparent and black regions. However, diffraction blurs caused by the aperture structure typically degrade the transparent image when the light from a background object passes through finite aperture window. In this paper, the diffraction effect of an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display (AMOLED) is studied. Several aperture structures have been proposed and implemented. Based on theoretical analysis and simulation, the appropriate aperture structure will effectively reduce the blur. The analysis data are also consistent with the experimental results. Compared with the various transparent aperture structure on AMOLED, diffraction width (zero energy position of diffraction pattern) of the optimize aperture structure can be reduced 63% and 31% in the x and y directions in CASE 3. Associated with a lenticular lens on the aperture structure, the improvement could reach to 77% and 54% of diffraction width in the x and y directions. Modulation transfer function and practical images are provided to evaluate the improvement of image blurs.

  3. The fabrication and characterization of organic light-emitting diodes using transparent single-crystal Si membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Su-Hwan; Kim, Dal-Ho; Kim, Ji-Heon; Lee, Gon-Sub; Park, Jea-Gun; Takeo, Katoh

    2009-01-01

    For applications such as solar cells and displays, transparent single-crystal Si membranes were fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The SOI wafer included a buried layer of SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 as an etch-stop layer. The etch-stop layer enabled fabrication of transparent single-crystal Si membranes with various thicknesses, and the thinning technology is described. For membranes with thicknesses of 18, 72 and 5000 nm, the respective optical transparent were 96.9%, 93.7% and 9% for R (red, λ = 660 nm), 96.9%, 91.4% and 1% for G (green, λ = 525 nm), and 97.0%, 93.2% and 0% for B (blue, λ = 470 nm). Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were then fabricated on transparent single-crystal Si membranes with various top Si thicknesses. OLEDs fabricated on 18, 72 and 5000 nm thick membranes and operated at 6 V demonstrated a luminance of 1350, 443 and 27 cd m -2 at the current densities of 148, 131 and 1.5 mA cm -2 , respectively.

  4. Ultra-high mobility transparent organic thin film transistors grown by an off-centre spin-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Giri, Gaurav; Ayzner, Alexander L; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Chen, Jihua; Nordlund, Dennis; Toney, Michael F; Huang, Jinsong; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Organic semiconductors with higher carrier mobility and better transparency have been actively pursued for numerous applications, such as flat-panel display backplane and sensor arrays. The carrier mobility is an important figure of merit and is sensitively influenced by the crystallinity and the molecular arrangement in a crystal lattice. Here we describe the growth of a highly aligned meta-stable structure of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) from a blended solution of C8-BTBT and polystyrene by using a novel off-centre spin-coating method. Combined with a vertical phase separation of the blend, the highly aligned, meta-stable C8-BTBT films provide a significantly increased thin film transistor hole mobility up to 43 cm(2) Vs(-1) (25 cm(2) Vs(-1) on average), which is the highest value reported to date for all organic molecules. The resulting transistors show high transparency of >90% over the visible spectrum, indicating their potential for transparent, high-performance organic electronics.

  5. Transparent Conducting Nb-Doped TiO2 Electrodes Activated by Laser Annealing for Inexpensive Flexible Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    A KrF excimer laser (λ= 248 nm) has been adopted for annealing cost-effective Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) films. Sputtered NTO layers were annealed on SiO2-coated flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. This local laser annealing technique is very useful for the formation of anatase NTO electrodes used in flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). An amorphous NTO film with a high resistivity and a low transparency was transformed significantly into a conductive and transparent anatase NTO electrode by laser irradiation. The 210 nm anatase NTO film shows a sheet resistance of 50 Ω and an average optical transmittance of 83.5% in the wavelength range from 450 to 600 nm after annealing at 0.25 J/cm2. The activation of Nb dopants and the formation of the anatase phase contribute to the high conductivity of the laser-annealed NTO electrode. Nb activation causes an increase in the optical band gap due to the Burstein-Moss effect. The electrical properties are in agreement with the material characteristics determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The irradiation energy for the NTO electrode also affects the performance of the organic solar cell. The laser annealing technique provides good properties of the anatase NTO film used as a transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) without damage to the PET substrate or layer delamination from the substrate.

  6. Lack of transparency on environmental risks of genetically modified micro-organisms in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Dommelen, van A.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2009-01-01

    For the sustainable development of technological innovations the involvement of non-specialist stakeholders is crucial, which requires transparency of the knowledge base of the risks and benefits concerned. This paper evaluates the basic assumptions of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and

  7. Water based, solution-processable, transparent and flexible graphene oxide composite as electrodes in organic solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L F; Matos, C F; Gonçalves, L C; Roman, L S; Salvatierra, R V; Zarbin, A J G; Cava, C E

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose an easy method to achieve a conductive, transparent and flexible graphene oxide (GO)-based composite thin film from an aqueous dispersion. We investigated the blend ratio between GO and the conjugated polymer poly(3,4–ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) by comparing the thin film optical transmittance, sheet resistance, morphology and mechanical stability. It was found that reasonable values of transmittance and resistivity coupled with its excellent flexibility – the conductivity remains almost the same even after 1000 bends cycles – make this composite very attracting for flexible optoelectronic applications. Thus, these films were used as transparent electrodes in a bilayer structured organic solar cell and the device architecture PET/GO:PEDOT/F8T2/C 60 /Al could reach a power conversion efficiency around 1.10%. This result presents a better performance compared with pristine PEDOT produced with similar parameters. (paper)

  8. DESIGNING A DATA GOVERNANCE MODEL BASED ON SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (SSM) IN ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hanung Nindito Prasetyo; Kridanto surendro

    2015-01-01

    Today, many emerging various models of data governance like DAMA, DGI and the latest is a model from IBM. Model DAMA International is a data governance model designed by industry associations. The model requires the fulfillment of the entire artifact in a matrix that has been determined that too many components that must be built in data governance in an organization. While the data governance model is built from the data DGI consulting organization which requires the development of data gove...

  9. Experimental Study on Fabrication of AZO Transparent Electrode for Organic Solar Cell Using Selective Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kicheol; Song, Gensoo; Kim, Hyungtae; Yoo, Kyunghoon; Kang, Jeongjin; Hwang, Junyoung; Lee, Sangho; Kang, Kyungtae; Kang, Heuiseok; Cho, Youngjune

    2013-01-01

    AZO (aluminum-doped zinc oxide) is one of the best candidate materials to replace Into (indium tin oxide) for TKOs (transparent conductive oxides) used in flat panel displays, organic light-emitting diodes (OLDS), and organic solar cells (OCSS). In the present study, to apply an AZO thin film to the transparent electrode of an organic solar cell, a low temperature selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) process was adopted to deposit an AZO thin film on a flexible polyethylene-naphthanate (Pen) substrate. The reactive gases for the ALD process were di-ethyl-zinc (De) and tri-methylaluminum (Tma) as precursors and H 2 O as an oxidant. The structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of the AZO thin film were evaluated. From the measured results of the electrical and optical characteristics of the AZO thin films deposited on the Pen substrates by Ald, it was shown that the Azo thin film appeared to be comparable to a commercially used Into thin film, which confirmed the feasibility of AZO as a TCO for flexible organic solar cells in the near future

  10. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  11. Efficient organic photovoltaic cells on a single layer graphene transparent conductive electrode using MoOx as an interfacial layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J H; Jin, H; Zhang, Z K; Zhang, D D; Jia, S; Ma, L P; Ren, W C; Cheng, H M; Burn, P L

    2017-01-07

    The large surface roughness, low work function and high cost of transparent electrodes using multilayer graphene films can limit their application in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Here, we develop single layer graphene (SLG) films as transparent anodes for OPV cells that contain light-absorbing layers comprised of the evaporable molecular organic semiconductor materials, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60), as well as a molybdenum oxide (MoO x ) interfacial layer. In addition to an increase in the optical transmittance, the SLG anodes had a significant decrease in surface roughness compared to two and four layer graphene (TLG and FLG) anodes fabricated by multiple transfer and stacking of SLGs. Importantly, the introduction of a MoO x interfacial layer not only reduced the energy barrier between the graphene anode and the active layer, but also decreased the resistance of the SLG by nearly ten times. The OPV cells with the structure of polyethylene terephthalate/SLG/MoO x /CuI/ZnPc/C60/bathocuproine/Al were flexible, and had a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.84%, which was only 17.6% lower than the devices with an equivalent structure but prepared on commercial indium tin oxide anodes. Furthermore, the devices with the SLG anode were 50% and 86.7% higher in efficiency than the cells with the TLG and FLG anodes. These results show the potential of SLG electrodes for flexible and wearable OPV cells as well as other organic optoelectronic devices.

  12. Transparent but not open: glass roof of the courtyard of the Provinciehuis (provincial government building in Groningen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel S. Verweij

    2008-04-01

    The late medieval Sint Maartens-school is the oldest building. Later additions are a record office from 1880-1881 (architect J. van Lokhorst, a wing dating from 1915-1917 (architect J.A.W. Vrijman and a caretaker's house also dating from 1915-1917. but executed with a facade from 1559 originating from another part of the city. The complex has two courtyards: one bearing the prosaic name Grote Snor. originally an alley between Singelstraat and Martinikerkhof, and one courtyard in the form of an isosceles triangle. This second courtyard was provided with a transparent roof in 2006. As the buildings on the second courtyard are all on the national monuments and historic buildings register, the Rijksdienst voor Archeologie. Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten (RACM played an advisory role in the planning preceding the execution. The RACM could agree to the principle of roofing. The courtyard had not been designed as such but had come into being because buildings had been erected in various periods and at a certain moment an interjacent plot was left. This residual space looked abandoned and was not part of the activity of the Provinciehuis, whereas in the year 2004 there was a need for extra floor area and a representative space. When the courtyard would be covered, these wishes could be fulfilled. The RACM served the municipality of Groningen, being the licence-issuing authority, with the following range of thought: a roof should not cause any material or constructive damage to the listed buildings; a transparent roof is to be preferred and ought to be subordinate to the historical architecture; as a result of the roof the courtyard will acquire a new and vital role in the official duties of the Provinciehuis; the users would be able to see. appreciate and enjoy the adjoining listed buildings better from the courtyard; roofing undoubtedly contributes to more intensive, improved use. and as a result, to the future value of the listed buildings. In addition, the RACM

  13. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and... Government Procurement Agreement, acquire only U.S.-made, qualifying country, or designated country end...

  14. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    2015-01-01

    organizational effectiveness and widened democratic practice. Yet, with its most common operationalization, as information, transparency reinstalls a 'purified' notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy, and (mis)representation. We apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model......The current emphasis on organizational transparency signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, accountability, and participation. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustworthy knowledge about organizations, the transparency pursuit has great potential for enhanced...... of communication and critiquing its obliviousness to the representative nature of transparency-related messages and the attendant complexities of motivation. This critique interrogates the ambiguities and ambivalence of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how the goals of organizational transparency...

  15. Lake transparency: a window into decadal variations in dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Lakes of Acadia National Park, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Collin S.; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    A forty year time series of Secchi depth observations from approximately 25 lakes in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA, evidences large variations in transparency between lakes but relatively little seasonal cycle within lakes. However, there are coherent patterns over the time series, suggesting large scale processes are responsible. It has been suggested that variations in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are primarily responsible for the variations in transparency, both between lakes and over time and further that CDOM is a robust optical proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Here we present a forward model of Secchi depth as a function of DOC based upon first principles and bio-optical relationships. Inverting the model to estimate DOC concentration from Secchi depth observations compared well with the measured DOC concentrations collected since 1995 (RMS error < 1.3 mg C l-1). This inverse model allows the time series of DOC to be extended back to the mid 1970s when only Secchi depth observations were collected, and thus provides a means for investigating lake response to climate forcing, changing atmospheric chemistry and watershed characteristics, including land cover and land use.

  16. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...... and budget imbalance, also appear to affect the level of transparency...

  17. Governance of Service-Oriented Architecture in a Healthcare Organization: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces a service-oriented architecture (SOA) governance framework for successful implementation in a healthcare organization. The proposed framework, based on a rigorous literature review, proposes nine governance elements that should be considered during the SOA implementation...... process. This proposal aims to pinpoint attributes and guidelines for each element required to successfully govern SOA and tackle longstanding healthcare information systems (HIS) implementation challenges. The framework was tested in a healthcare organization and valuable insights are presented herein...

  18. Illusionary Transparency? Oil Revenues, Information Disclosure, and Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori, Jerome Jeffison; Lujala, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    xperience shows that discovery of valuable natural resources can become a curse rather than a blessing, and transparency has been identified as key to better resource governance because it can limit opportunities for corruption and mismanagement. This article shows that information disclosure, in which many governments and donor institutions engage, does not automatically translate into transparency. Ghana has embedded transparency as one of its key principles in oil management. However, fiel...

  19. Price-transparency and cost accounting: challenges for health care organizations in the consumer-driven era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenrath, Peter; Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. On the front and back side quantum efficiency differences in semi-transparent organic solar cells and photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthinon, B.; Clerc, R.; Verilhac, J. M.; Racine, B.; De Girolamo, J.; Jacob, S.; Lienhard, P.; Joimel, J.; Dhez, O.; Revaux, A.

    2018-03-01

    The External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) of semi-transparent Bulk Hetero-Junction (BHJ) organic photodiodes processed in air shows significant differences when measured from the front or back side contacts. This difference was found significantly reduced when decreasing the active layer thickness or by applying a negative bias. This work brings new elements to help understanding this effect, providing a large set of experiments featuring different applied voltages, active layers, process conditions, and electron and hole layers. By means of detailed electrical simulations, all these measurements have been found consistent with the mechanisms of irreversible photo-oxidation, modeled as deep trap states (and not as p-type doping). The EQE measurement from front and back sides is thus a simple and efficient way of monitoring the presence and amplitude of oxygen contamination in BHJ organic solar cells and photodiodes.

  1. Use of organosilicate precursors for transparent coatings on organic substrates by plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasorsa, C; Versaci, R; Perillo, P

    2006-01-01

    This work discusses the production of transparent coatings of SiOxCy on substrates polycarbonated by PECVD at temperatures below 80 o C, with a gaseous mixture using different precursors with which, in similar processes produced the same results with respect to the coating obtained, with the same excellent quality and in accordance with international standards for optic coatings. Chlorinated precursors were excluded because they are highly corrosive as well as those with operating risks (toxic or explosive). The precursors used were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), tetramethylsilanete (TMS,) tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS), and methyltrimethoxysilane (Z6070), with the contribution of O 2 and methane as reactive gases. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used as well as X-ray generated photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA). The functional groups were studied together with the film elements and its mechanical properties, transparency and refraction index. Irregardless of the precursor used, by properly modifying the process variables (pressure of the gaseous mixture, radio frequency power, relationship of processing gases and their flow), similar coatings can be chemically obtained, having the same morphology and, therefore, with identical adherence, structural and optic properties. None of the works consulted refer to the possibility of the indistinct use of different precursors for obtaining the same coating. These results are relevant when considering the difference in costs and their market availability. The influence of the addition of methane was studied in two processing variants, a) with oxygen and methane and b) with oxygen alone. For all the precursors used and with identical processing conditions, the carbon contributed by the addition of methane increased the concentration of carbon compounds, considerably reducing the presence of silanol, which being absorbent produces structural instability and cracking of the

  2. Governing the Organic Cocoa Network from Ghana: Towards Hybrid Governance Arrangements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the processes of initiation, construction and transformation of the organic cocoa network from Ghana. We address in particular how the state responded to and engaged with civil-society actors in the organic cocoa network and to what extent state involvement reshaped

  3. [Governance of HIV/AIDS organizations in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Anselme; Berthé, Abdramane; Traoré, Isidore; Ouédraogo, Salif; Etoudji, Albert; Konaté, Issouf; Thiénou, Jean Richard; Konaté, Blahima; Barbari, Aboubaracri; Soulama, Achille; Nagot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Although HIV/AIDS organizations continue to play a major role in the fight against pandemic HIV infections, they are still faced with enormous governance challenges that impair their operations / interventions and their sustainability. The objective of this study was to develop an inventory of the quality of governance within HIV/AIDS organizations in Bobo-Dioulasso. This qualitative research was conducted in 40 organizations from Bobo-Dioulasso. Qualitative data were collected over a 45-day period using an interview guide. Thematic analysis of the data was performed and the results were reported. Although all 40 organizations had established good governance mechanisms, only fifteen complied with the major rules of democratic functioning and the roles of the various bodies. The majority of these organizations (29/40) ignored many democratic rules. The number of members required for the Executive Board was not met in 29/40 organizations resulting in monopolization of decision-making by a handful of people. Technical and financial reports were not published, resulting in limited access to information on the organization's activities. Gender equality also constituted a weakness. Application of good governance principles was limited in these organizations. Organization members, leaders and technical and financial partners must reinforce good governance efforts in order to improve good governance in these organizations.

  4. Self-Organized Governance Networks for Ecosystem Management: Who Is Accountable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Governance networks play an increasingly important role in ecosystem management. The collaboration within these governance networks can be formalized or informal, top-down or bottom-up, and designed or self-organized. Informal self-organized governance networks may increase legitimacy if a variety of stakeholders are involved, but at the same time, accountability becomes blurred when decisions are taken. Basically, democratic accountability refers to ways in which citizens can control their government and the mechanisms for doing so. Scholars in ecosystem management are generally positive to policy/governance networks and emphasize its potential for enhancing social learning, adaptability, and resilience in social-ecological systems. Political scientists, on the other hand, have emphasized the risk that the public interest may be threatened by governance networks. I describe and analyze the multilevel governance network of Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR in Southern Sweden, with the aim of understanding whether and how accountability is secured in the governance network and its relation to representative democracy. The analysis suggests that the governance network of KVBR complements representative democracy. It deals mainly with "low politics"; the learning and policy directions are developed in the governance network, but the decisions are embedded in representative democratic structures. Because several organizations and agencies co-own the process and are committed to the outcomes, there is a shared or extended accountability. A recent large investment in KVBR caused a major crisis at the municipal level, fueled by the financial crisis. The higher levels of the governance network, however, served as a social memory and enhanced resilience of the present biosphere development trajectory. For self-organized networks, legitimacy is the bridge between adaptability and accountability; accountability is secured as long as the

  5. Decision tables and rule engines in organ allocation systems for optimal transparency and flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.; Deijl, W. van der; Smits, J.M.M.; Rahmel, A.O.; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Organ allocation systems have become complex and difficult to comprehend. We introduced decision tables to specify the rules of allocation systems for different organs. A rule engine with decision tables as input was tested for the Kidney Allocation System (ETKAS). We compared this rule engine with

  6. Why do private governance organizations not converge? A political-institutional analysis of transnational labor standards regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary governance arrangements focusing on responsible business behavior have proliferated over the past decades, and in many sectors of industry, different governance organizations now compete for business participation. This private governance competition has negative consequences for the

  7. Architecture Alignment in a Large Government Organization: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Eck, Pascal; Blanken, Henk; Grabis, J.; Persson, A.; Stirna, J.

    In this paper we view IT architecture as the structures presentin the entire information technology support used by an organization. We report on a detailed case study of an operational IT architecture process, in which we investigated the relationship between IT architecture and business context.We

  8. Architecture Alignment in a Large Government Organization: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Eck, Pascal; Blanken, Henk

    In this paper we view IT architecture as the structures present in the entire information technology support used by an organization. Research into IT architecture either is of a strategic nature, yielding no operational guidelines for the practicing IT-architect, or it is part of software

  9. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (a... in 25.402(a)(1). The WTO GPA and FTAs specify procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness (see...

  10. An integrative literature review and empirical validation of motives for introducing shared services in government organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paagman, Arnaud; Tate, Mary; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; de Bloom, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of the meaning of shared services and motives for introducing shared services in government organizations. We review and clarify definitions of shared services and derive a definition applicable for the government context. Based on an extensive literature

  11. An integrative literature review and empirical validation of motives for introducing shared services in government organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paagman, Arnaud; Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, Elfi; de Bloom, Jessica

    This paper contributes to the understanding of the meaning of shared services and motives for introducing shared services in government organizations. We review and clarify definitions of shared services and derive a definition applicable for the government context. Based on an extensive literature

  12. Assessing governance theory and practice in health-care organizations: a survey of UK hospices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Naomi; Benson, Lawrence; Boyd, Alan; Girling, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    This paper sets out a theoretical framework for analyzing board governance, and describes an empirical study of corporate governance practices in a subset of non-profit organizations (hospices in the UK). It examines how practices in hospice governance compare with what is known about effective board working. We found that key strengths of hospice boards included a strong focus on the mission and the finances of the organizations, and common weaknesses included a lack of involvement in strategic matters and a lack of confidence, and some nervousness about challenging the organization on the quality of clinical care. Finally, the paper offers suggestions for theoretical development particularly in relation to board governance in non-profit organizations. It develops an engagement theory for boards which comprises a triadic proposition of high challenge, high support and strong grip.

  13. The home front : Internal organization of public affairs in Dutch subnational governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Edward L.; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Linders, Paul C.J.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2017-01-01

    Dutch subnational governments such as municipalities and provinces are increasingly compelled to express their interests in the national and European political arenas. Effectiveness in these arenas requires an optimal arrangement of Public Affairs (PA) activities in the subnational organization.

  14. Decision tables and rule engines in organ allocation systems for optimal transparency and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Murk; van der Deijl, Wilfred; Smits, Jacqueline M; Rahmel, Axel O; de Vries Robbé, Pieter F; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2011-05-01

    Organ allocation systems have become complex and difficult to comprehend. We introduced decision tables to specify the rules of allocation systems for different organs. A rule engine with decision tables as input was tested for the Kidney Allocation System (ETKAS). We compared this rule engine with the currently used ETKAS by running 11,000 historical match runs and by running the rule engine in parallel with the ETKAS on our allocation system. Decision tables were easy to implement and successful in verifying correctness, completeness, and consistency. The outcomes of the 11,000 historical matches in the rule engine and the ETKAS were exactly the same. Running the rule engine simultaneously in parallel and in real time with the ETKAS also produced no differences. Specifying organ allocation rules in decision tables is already a great step forward in enhancing the clarity of the systems. Yet, using these tables as rule engine input for matches optimizes the flexibility, simplicity and clarity of the whole process, from specification to the performed matches, and in addition this new method allows well controlled simulations. © 2011 The Authors. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  15. High work function transparent middle electrode for organic tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, D. J. D.; de Bruyn, P.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in combination with ZnO as middle electrode in solution-processed organic tandem solar cells requires a pH modification of the PEDOT:PSS dispersion. We demonstrate that this neutralization leads to a reduced work function

  16. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  17. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia's Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M; Armitage, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the 'messiness' inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) 'bridging' is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond.

  18. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia’s Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M.; Armitage, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the ‘messiness’ inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) ‘bridging’ is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond. PMID:26794003

  19. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  20. 76 FR 7522 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Enhancing Contract Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... transparency while retaining the protection of information that should be considered in the contracting process... the need for transparency in Government contracting information and believe these recommendations... Regulation; Enhancing Contract Transparency AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services...

  1. Environmental non-government organizations' perceptions of geologic sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha; Farrell, Alexander E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been influential in shaping public perceptions of environmental problems, their causes and potential solutions. Over the last decade, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a potentially important technological response to climate change. In this paper we investigate how leading US NGOs perceive geologic sequestration, a potentially controversial part of CCS. We examine how and why their perceptions and strategies might differ, and if and how they plan to shape public perceptions of geologic sequestration. We approach these questions through semi-structured interviews with representatives from a range of NGOs, supplemented by content analysis of their documents. We find that while all the NGOs are committed to combating climate change, their views on CCS as a mitigation strategy vary considerably. We find that these views are correlated with NGOs' histories of activism and advocacy, as well as with their sources of funding. Overall, most of these NGOs accept the necessity of geologic sequestration, while only a small fraction do not

  2. Freshwater processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter: What governs lability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrilli, J.; Smith, H. J.; Junker, J. R.; Scholl, E. A.; Foreman, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked through the transfer of energy and materials. Allochthonous organic matter (OM) is central to freshwater ecosystem function, influencing local food webs, trophic state, and nutrient availability. In order to understand the nature and fate of OM from inland headwaters to the open ocean, it is imperative to understand the links between OM lability and ecosystem function. Thus, biological, chemical, and physical factors need to be evaluated together to inform our understanding of environmental lability. We performed a laboratory processing experiment on naturally occurring OM leachates from riparian leaves, grasses, and pine needles. Measures of water chemistry, OM optical and molecular characterization, bacterial abundances, microbial assemblage composition, respiration, and C:N:P were integrated to discern the nature and fate of labile and recalcitrant OM in a freshwater stream. Peak processing of all OM sources in the stream water occurred after two days, with spikes in bacterial cell abundances, respiration rates, microbial assemblage shifts, and maximum C utilization. Respiration rates and microbial assemblages were dependent on the degree of lability of the OM molecular composition. Within the first few days, no differences in respiration rates were observed between leachate sources, however, beyond day five, the rates diverged with C processing efficiency correlated with OM lability. Originally comprised of amino acid-like, labile fluorescent species, the inoculated stream water OM became more recalcitrant after 16 days, indicating humification processing over time. Our study highlights the importance of interdisciplinary approaches for understanding the processing and fate of OM in aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    and trustworthy knowledge about contemporary organizations, the transparency discourse has significant democratic potential. Yet, its most common operationalization – as information availability – reinstalls a “purified” notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy and misrepresentation. In this paper......The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid......, we apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model of communication and critiquing its ignorance towards the representative nature of current transparency practices. The critique unfolds the ambiguous nature of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how its desire for insight, clarity...

  4. Seeing through Transparency in Education Reform: Illuminating the "Local"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jill; Kania, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing "assemblage," a notion associated with Actor-Network Theory (ANT), we explore what discourses of transparency can, and cannot, accomplish in a network of education reform that includes schools, government agencies, and community organizations. Drawing on data collected between July 2011 and March 2013 in an…

  5. 26 CFR 1.893-1 - Compensation of employees of foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thereunder. (c) Tax conventions, consular conventions, and international agreements—(1) Exemption dependent... government or international organization to its employees is exempt from Federal income tax, and the... or international organizations. 1.893-1 Section 1.893-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...

  6. Governance in agribusiness organizations: challenges in the management of rural family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Pinheiro Machado Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract The rural production in Brazil has experienced a significant competitive impact with the stabilization of the economy promoted by the Real Plan in 1994. Indeed, the Brazilian agriculture has achieved efficiency gains in terms of technology, economies of scale and general modernization of the activity in the field. In this context, the professional management of rural production evolved. However, the governance process does not evolve in the same dimension, and the “governance risk” is still poorly addressed in the rural environment, which often limits the potential of operations. In this study, we sought to deepen the understanding of the factors that impact the implementation of governance practices in rural properties in Brazil. Based on a convenience and non-probability sample, this study seeks to understand the evolution of the governance process on farms and its correlation with the management practices. This study found a correlation between the existence of some formal management processes (for example, strategic planning and more robust accounting systems and advances in the governance mechanisms and processes, such as the establishment of a board of directors, clearer rules regarding the separation between corporate and family assets and more transparency in income statements. This study also found a lack of clarity in the separation of return on capital (dividend and compensation for work (compensation for services provided for partners, heirs and other family members. In summary, we concluded that there is the adoption of some governance mechanisms in the rural sector, but they are still poorly developed among rural producers, hence the need to stimulate them.

  7. Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    with the sharing of information and the perceived quality of the information shared. This narrow focus on information and quality, however, overlooks the dynamics of organizational transparency. To provide a more structured conceptualization of organizational transparency, this article unpacks the assumptions......Transparency is an increasingly prominent area of research that offers valuable insights for organizational studies. However, conceptualizations of transparency are rarely subject to critical scrutiny and thus their relevance remains unclear. In most accounts, transparency is associated...... that shape the extant literature, with a focus on three dimensions: conceptualizations, conditions, and consequences. The contribution of the study is twofold: (a) On a conceptual level, we provide a framework that articulates two paradigmatic positions underpinning discussions of transparency, verifiability...

  8. DOD Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    increase transparency and openness. We encourage you to explore other information on our website to learn Defense Search DOD Open Government: Home Open Government @ DoD Transparency Congressional Inquiries IT Dashboard.gov Regulations.gov Challenge.gov Performance.gov ForeignAssistance.gov Transparency

  9. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  10. Photochromic dynamics of organic-inorganic hybrids supported on transparent and flexible recycled PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R. P.; Nalin, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Molina, C.

    2017-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids (OIH) synthesized by sol gel process containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) entrapped have been attracted much attention for ultraviolet sensitive materials. However, the limitations for practical photochromic application of these materials are the poor interaction with flexible polymer substrates such as Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and also photo response under ultraviolet radiation. This paper describes the use of the d-ureasil HOI, based on siliceous network grafted through linkages to both ends of polymer chain containing 2.5 poly(oxyethylene) units with PWA entrapped prepared as films on recycled PET. Films were characterized by IR-ATR, XRD, TG/DTG, UV-Vis and Contact angle. XRD patterns showed that both pristine hybrid matrix and those containing PWA are amorphous. IR showed that PWA structure is preserved in the matrix and interactions between them occur by intermolecular forces. Films are thermally stable up to 325 °C and contact angle of 25.1° showed a good wettability between substrate and hybrid matrix. Furthermore, films showed fast photochromic response after 1 min of ultraviolet exposure time. The bleaching process revealed that the relaxation process is dependent of the temperature and the activation energy of 47.2 kJ mol-1 was determined. The properties of these films make them potential candidates for applications in flexible photochromic materials.

  11. Solution-Processable transparent conducting electrodes via the self-assembly of silver nanowires for organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugba Camic, B; Jeong Shin, Hee; Hasan Aslan, M; Basarir, Fevzihan; Choi, Hyosung

    2018-02-15

    Solution-processed transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were fabricated via the self-assembly deposition of silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Glass substrates modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTES) were coated with Ag NWs for various deposition times, leading to three different Ag NWs samples (APTES-Ag NWs (PVP), MPTES-Ag NWs (PVP), and APTES-Ag NWs (COOH)). Controlling the deposition time produced Ag NWs monolayer thin films with different optical transmittance and sheet resistance. Post-annealing treatment improved their electrical conductivity. The Ag NWs films were successfully characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and four-point probe. Three Ag NWs films exhibited low sheet resistance of 4-19Ω/sq and high optical transmittance of 65-81% (at 550nm), which are comparable to those of commercial ITO electrode. We fabricated an organic photovoltaic device by using Ag NWs as the anode instead of ITO electrode, and optimized device with Ag NWs exhibited power conversion efficiency of 1.72%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu; Wang Lian; Yan He; Jin Shu; Marks, Tobin J.; Li Shuyou

    2006-01-01

    Double-layer transparent conducting oxide thin film structures containing In-doped CdO (CIO) and Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) layers were grown on glass by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and ion-assisted deposition (IAD), respectively, and used as anodes for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). These films have a very low overall In content of 16 at. %. For 180-nm-thick CIO/ITO films, the sheet resistance is 5.6 Ω/□, and the average optical transmittance is 87.1% in the 400-700 nm region. The overall figure of merit (Φ=T 10 /R sheet ) of the double-layer CIO/ITO films is significantly greater than that of single-layer CIO, IAD-ITO, and commercial ITO films. CIO/ITO-based PLEDs exhibit comparable or superior device performance versus ITO-based control devices. CIO/ITO materials have a much lower sheet resistance than ITO, rendering them promising low In content electrode materials for large-area optoelectronic devices

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  14. Transparency | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transparency means openness. It allows Canadians to hold the government accountable through the proactive release of information on government activities, programs, policies, and services in formats that are easy to find, access, and use. Transparency is the key element in the Government of Canada's Commitment to ...

  15. The Impact of Organization, Project and Governance Variables on Software Quality and Project Success

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Noura; Gravell, Andy; Wills, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a statistically tested evidence about how quality and success rate are correlated with variables reflecting the organization and aspects of its project’s governance, namely retrospectives and metrics. The results presented in this paper are based on the Agile Projects Governance Survey that collected 129 responses. This paper discuss the deep analysis of this survey, and the main findings suggest that when applying agile software development, the quality of software i...

  16. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  17. Transparencia y buen gobierno en sanidad: También para salir de la crisis Transparency and good healthcare governance: an aid to overcoming the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Meneu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los países prosperan sobre una base económica que permita desarrollar las potencialidades humanas en una sociedad que no renuncie a grandes logros, como el del estado del bienestar. Ello requiere que sus "reglas de juego", sus instituciones formales e informales, hagan individualmente atractivo lo socialmente conveniente. Mejorar el gobierno sanitario, también en su faceta de control de la corrupción, y contribuir a que España salga de la actual crisis económica, constituyen dos caras de la misma moneda. La caracterización del gobierno sanitario en España y el análisis de su impacto en las políticas de salud, la gestión de las organizaciones sanitarias y la práctica clínica, -permite elaborar una agenda tan ambiciosa como factible de las tareas pendientes que los profesionales sanitarios -en sentido muy amplio- y los responsables sociales debemos acometer con el apoyo ciudadano.Countries thrive on an economic foundation capable of facilitating the fulfillment of human potential in a society that does not renounce major achievements such as the welfare state. A necessary condition is that the "rules of the game", formal and informal institutions, make what is socially desirable individually attractive. Improving health governance, including its dimension of controlling corruption, and helping Spain out of the current economic crisis are two sides of the same coin. Characterization of health system governance in Spain and analysis of the impact of this governance on health policy, management of healthcare organizations and clinical practice allows an ambitious and feasible agenda to be drawn up of the remaining tasks that health professionals -broadly defined- and social actors should undertake with the support of citizens.

  18. Government dependence of Chinese and Vietnamese community organizations and fiscal politics of immigrant services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Winston

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of government support and policies on immigrant services within ethnic enclaves. This paper seeks to address this gap and examines the structure and challenges of ethnic community based organizations (CBOs) that serve low income immigrant populations and the impact of government support and policies on these CBOs. The study utilized case study and ethnographic methodologies and examined 2 Chinese and 2 Vietnamese CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area. The findings show that ethnic CBOs critically depend on government fiscal support for survival. In exchange for fiscal support, ethnic CBOs represent public assistance and legitimacy interests for government in immigrant communities. However, culturally proficient and community leadership resources of ethnic CBOs can serve as bargaining chips to secure government funding, reduce compliance to government demands, and advance immigrant community interests. Nevertheless, in times of government fiscal crisis, ethnic CBOs and immigrant services tend to be most vulnerable to budget cuts due to lack of political voice. In sum, government-community collaboration through ethnic CBOs has a central role to play in facilitating and strengthening health and human services for rapidly growing, culturally diverse immigrant populations. These collaborative efforts in immigrant services are vital to cultivating healthy immigrant human capital and multicultural communities across the United States.

  19. Studying the Interaction of the Epistemology in e-Government, Organization Studies and Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneklis, Vassilis; Douligeris, Christos

    Although there are significant differences between Organization Studies, Information Systems and e-Government, certain boundaries between them have started to dissolve in the light of recent developments. Even though influences can be traced among all three concerning research results, epistemological interaction could produce interesting outcomes. In this paper we propose such an interaction in epistemology, and particularly in methods following the interpretive tradition, which has been notably underused. We present a brief review of literature in e-Government and after sketching its route, we propose ways to integrate in it perceptions and methods from Organization Studies and Information Systems.

  20. Method for optimizing resource allocation in a government organization. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarin, James

    1994-01-01

    The managers in Federal agencies are challenged to control the extensive activities in government and still provide high-quality products and services to the American taxpayers. Considering today's complex social and economic environment and the $3.8 billion daily cost of operating the Federal Government, it is evident that there is a need to develop decision-making tools for accurate resource allocation and total quality management. The goal of this thesis is to provide a methodical process that will aid managers in Federal Government to make budgetary decisions based on the cost of services, the agency's objectives, and the customers' perception of the agency's product. A general resource allocation procedure was developed in this study that can be applied to any government organization. A government organization, hereafter the 'organization,' is assumed to be a multidivision enterprise. This procedure was applied to a small organization for the proof of the concept. This organization is the Technical Services Directorate (TSD) at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. As part of the procedure, a nonlinear programming model was developed to account for the resources of the organization, the outputs produced by the organization, the decision-maker's views, and the customers' satisfaction with the organization. The information on the resources of the organization was acquired from current budget levels of the organization and the human resources assigned to the divisions. The outputs of the organization were defined and measured by identifying metrics that assess the outputs, the most challenging task in this study. The decision-maker's views are represented in the model as weights assigned to the various outputs and were quantified by using the analytic hierarchy process. The customer's opinions regarding the outputs of the organization were collected through questionnaires that were designed for each division individually. Following the philosophy of

  1. 76 FR 32377 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... --a Federal E-Government Web site that allows the public to find, review, and submit comments on... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... CFDA 84.938, [[Page 32378

  2. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – WAY OF GOVERNANCE FOR MODERN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Through corporate governance is aimed the building of a structure enabling a wide degree of freedom, within the law, and includes several changes of principle in accordance with international standards of transparency. A good governance within an organization mitigate risk, increase performance, pave the way towards financial markets, brings competitive goods and services on market, improves management style, show transparency towards all stakeholders and social responsibility. The lack of some mandatory rules and structures can lead to chaos in business. The paper aims to present the role and the importance of the corporate governance for modern companies, as well as the principles on which this is based. In order to do that we also identified the main ways to quantificate the level of corporate governance, including also the non-financial performance criteria used by investors to assess companies listed on stock exchange.

  3. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yige; Wang Li; Li Huanrong; Liu Peng; Qin Dashan; Liu Binyuan; Zhang Wenjun; Deng Ruiping; Zhang Hongjie

    2008-01-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data. - Graphical abstract: Novel stable luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid titania thin film with high transparency activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes have been obtained at room temperature via a simple one-pot synthesis approach by using TTFA-modified titanium precursor with amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123. The obtained hybrid thin film displays bright red (or green), near-monochromatic luminescence due to the in-situ formed lanthanide complex

  4. 22 CFR 228.54 - Suppliers of services-foreign government-owned organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organizations. 228.54 Section 228.54 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE... interested in competing for the contract. (c) Services are not available from any other source. (d) Foreign... might be placed or any conflict of interest that might arise by permitting a foreign government-owned...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1441-8 - Exemption from withholding for payments to foreign governments, international organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign governments, international organizations, foreign central banks of issue, and the Bank for International Settlements. 1.1441-8 Section 1.1441-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens...

  6. The meta-governance of organic seed regulation in the USA, European Union and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, Erica; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith; Jiggins, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Seed governance in agriculture is a challenging global issue. This paper analyses the evolution of organic seed regulation in the USA, the European Union and Mexico as model cases of how these challenges are being addressed, based on a study conducted between 2007 and 2014. It highlights how

  7. Advocacy for mental health: roles for consumer and family organizations and governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Michelle; Minoletti, Alberto; Drew, Natalie; Taylor, Jacob; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2006-03-01

    The World Health Organization urges countries to become more active in advocacy efforts to put mental health on governments' agendas. Health policy makers, planners and managers, advocacy groups, consumer and family organizations, through their different roles and actions, can move the mental health agenda forward. This paper outlines the importance of the advocacy movement, describes some of the roles and functions of the different groups and identifies some specific actions that can be adopted by Ministries of Health. The mental health advocacy movement has developed over the last 30 years as a means of combating stigma and prejudice against people with mental disorders and improving services. Consumer and family organizations and related NGOs have been able to influence governments on mental health policies and laws and educating the public on social integration of people with mental disorders. Governments can promote the development of a strong mental health advocacy sector without compromising this sector's independence. For instance, they can publish and distribute a directory of mental health advocacy groups, include them in their mental health activities and help fledgling groups become more established. There are also some advocacy functions that government officials can, and indeed, should perform themselves. Officials in the ministry of health can persuade officials in other branches of government to make mental health more of a priority, support advocacy activities with both general health workers and mental health workers and carry out public information campaigns about mental disorders and how to maintain good mental health. In conclusion, the World Health Organization believes mental health advocacy is one of the pillars to improve mental health care and the human rights of people with mental disorders. It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will help government officials and activists to strengthen national advocacy movements.

  8. Cesium-incorporated indium-tin-oxide films for use as a cathode with low work function for a transparent organic light-emitting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Takayuki; Mimura, Toshifumi; Ohtsuka, Masao; Otomo, Toshio; Ide, Mieko; Shida, Azusa; Sawada, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Transparent organic light-emitting devices (TOLEDs) were successfully fabricated utilizing a novel transparent conducting cathode with low work function. Cesium-incorporated indium-tin-oxide film was deposited on the organic layers with negligible damage by simultaneous operation of RF magnetron sputtering using an ITO target and vacuum evaporation of metallic cesium. Incorporation of cesium in the ITO film was confirmed by XPS analysis. The work function (4.3 eV) determined by photoelectron spectroscopy in air (PESA) was lower than that of 0.3-0.4-eV without cesium-incorporation and stable under the atmospheric environment. The electron injection efficiency of cesium-incorporated ITO cathode in the present transparent OLED fabricated was comparable to that of the previous double-layered structure comprising of ITO cathode and an organic buffer layer (BCP) doped by evaporation of cesium [T. Uchida, S. Kaneta, M. Ichihara, M. Ohtsuka, T. Otomo, D.R. Marx, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 44, No. 9 (2005) L282

  9. Enhancing light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using indium tin oxide-free low-index transparent electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lu, Chun-Yang; Tsai, Shang-Ta; Tsai, Yu-Tang; Chen, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Wei-Lung; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Hong-Wei; Lee, Wei-Kai; Jiao, Min; Wu, Chung-Chih, E-mail: wucc@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, and Innovative Photonics Advanced Research Center (i-PARC), National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-05

    With its increasing and sufficient conductivity, the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been capable of replacing the widely used but less cost-effective indium tin oxides (ITOs) as alternative transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Intriguingly, PEDOT:PSS also possesses an optical refractive index significantly lower than those of ITO and typical organic layers in OLEDs and well matching those of typical OLED substrates. Optical simulation reveals that by replacing ITO with such a low-index transparent electrode, the guided modes trapped within the organic/ITO layers in conventional OLEDs can be substantially suppressed, leading to more light coupled into the substrate than the conventional ITO device. By applying light out-coupling structures onto outer surfaces of substrates to effectively extract radiation into substrates, OLEDs using such low-index transparent electrodes achieve enhanced optical out-coupling and external quantum efficiencies in comparison with conventional OLEDs using ITO.

  10. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in- situ formed lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yige; Wang, Li; Li, Huanrong; Liu, Peng; Qin, Dashan; Liu, Binyuan; Zhang, Wenjun; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie

    2008-03-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data.

  11. The representation of health professionals on governing boards of health care organizations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana J; Keepnews, David; Holmberg, Jessica; Murray, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    The Representation of Health Professionals on Governing Boards of Health Care Organizations in New York City. The heightened importance of processes and outcomes of care-including their impact on health care organizations' (HCOs) financial health-translate into greater accountability for clinical performance on the part of HCO leaders, including their boards, during an era of health care reform. Quality and safety of care are now fiduciary responsibilities of HCO board members. The participation of health professionals on HCO governing bodies may be an asset to HCO governing boards because of their deep knowledge of clinical problems, best practices, quality indicators, and other issues related to the safety and quality of care. And yet, the sparse data that exist indicate that physicians comprise more than 20 % of the governing board members of hospitals while less than 5 % are nurses and no data exist on other health professionals. The purpose of this two-phased study is to examine health professionals' representations on HCOs-specifically hospitals, home care agencies, nursing homes, and federally qualified health centers-in New York City. Through a survey of these organizations, phase 1 of the study found that 93 % of hospitals had physicians on their governing boards, compared with 26 % with nurses, 7 % with dentists, and 4 % with social workers or psychologists. The overrepresentation of physicians declined with the other HCOs. Only 38 % of home care agencies had physicians on their governing boards, 29 % had nurses, and 24 % had social workers. Phase 2 focused on the barriers to the appointment of health professionals to governing boards of HCOs and the strategies to address these barriers. Sixteen health care leaders in the region were interviewed in this qualitative study. Barriers included invisibility of health professionals other than physicians; concerns about "special interests"; lack of financial resources for donations to the organization

  12. Radio frequency magnetron sputter-deposited indium tin oxide for use as a cathode in transparent organic light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Choong-Heui; Ko, Young-Wook; Kim, Yong-Hae; Sohn, Choong-Yong; Hye Yong Chu; Ko Park, Sang-Hee; Lee, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature, for use as a cathode in a transparent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED). To minimize damage to the TOLED by the ITO sputtering process, the target-to-substrate distance was increased to 20 cm. An ITO film deposited at the optimum oxygen partial pressure exhibited an electrical resistivity as low as 4.06 x 10 -4 Ω cm and a high optical transmittance of 91% in the visible range. The film was used as a transparent cathode for a TOLED with structure of an ITO coated glass substrate / Naphthylphenyldiamide (60 nm) / Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (60 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (2 nm) / Ag (8 nm) / ITO cathode (100 nm). A maximum luminance of 37,000 cd/m 2 was obtained. The device performance was comparable to a conventional OLED

  13. Microcavity-Free Broadband Light Outcoupling Enhancement in Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Nanostructured Transparent Metal-Dielectric Composite Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu-Hai; Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Xin-Dong; Xiang, Heng-Yang; Chen, Jing-De; Zhou, Lei; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-26

    Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) hold great promise for future bendable display and curved lighting applications. One key challenge of high-performance flexible OLEDs is to develop new flexible transparent conductive electrodes with superior mechanical, electrical, and optical properties. Herein, an effective nanostructured metal/dielectric composite electrode on a plastic substrate is reported by combining a quasi-random outcoupling structure for broadband and angle-independent light outcoupling of white emission with an ultrathin metal alloy film for optimum optical transparency, electrical conduction, and mechanical flexibility. The microcavity effect and surface plasmonic loss can be remarkably reduced in white flexible OLEDs, resulting in a substantial increase in the external quantum efficiency and power efficiency to 47.2% and 112.4 lm W(-1).

  14. Discharge amplified photo-emission from ultra-thin films applied to tuning work function of transparent electrodes in organic opto-electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, A.R.; Smith, G.B.; Watkins, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel photoemission technique utilising localised discharge amplification of photo-yield is reported. It enables fast, accurate measurement of work function and ionisation potential for ultra-thin buffer layers vacuum deposited onto single and multilayer transparent conducting electrodes for organic solar cells and OLED's. Work function in most traditional transparent electrodes has to be raised to maximise charge transfer while high transmittance and high conductance must be retained. Results are presented for a range of metal oxide buffers, which achieve this goal. This compact photo-yield spectroscopy tool with its fast turn-around has been a valuable development aid since ionisation potential can vary significantly as deposition conditions change slightly, and as ultra-thin films grow. It has also been useful in tracking the impact of different post deposition cleaning treatments along with some storage and transport protocols, which can adversely reduce ionisation potential and hence subsequent device performance.

  15. 75 FR 16824 - Notice of Modifications to U.S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ....S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement To Implement... of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Government Procurement (Canada-U.S..., steel, and manufactured products in procurement above $7,804,000 for construction services through...

  16. The Influence of Forums and Multilevel Governance on the Climate Adaptation Practices of Australian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine E. Bates

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are few regulations and policies relating to climate change in Australia. Uncertainty about the timing, structure, and potential impact of proposed legislation such as a national carbon abatement scheme, is leading to planning delays across the country. To assist with these policy uncertainties, organizations can embed themselves in multilevel governance frameworks that inform, structure, and facilitate strategic development, planning, and action. As part of these networks, organizational representatives also engage in formal and informal forums, a type of interorganizational relationship, which can include industry task forces, policy development committees, interagency groups, and specific climate change committees. Forums constitute an additional level of governance that influences decision making. The patterns of relationships within these multilevel governance frameworks are examined in this paper, with a focus on the forum level of organizational cooperation. Specifically, we investigate the type of forums operating and their role in supporting organizational responses to climate change. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted in two study areas, the Swan Canning region of Western Australia and the Hunter / Central Coast region of New South Wales. The results indicate that organizations participate in a diverse range of forums. Further, forums appear to play a key role in the everyday business of organizations by enhancing their ability to plan and address a range of issues, including those associated with climate change. In addition the research highlights some of the barriers and drivers for the development and implementation of climate adaptation practices that emerge from forum discussions. For example, a lack of government guidance in interpreting climate change policy was described as a barrier yet access to the knowledge and expertise of participants was highlighted as a potential driver. The paper

  17. Urban And Rural Militia Organizations In Syria’s Less Governed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Anthony Wege

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: 'The decline in Bashar al-Assad’s governing authority throughout Syria since 2011 and the concomitant accretion of increasingly complex inter and intra action between and within militia organizations suggests a future of Islamist Anarchy across the Syrian space. Observers may have an interest in the qualitative patterns of militia development and interactions across Syria’s rural and urban geographies'

  18. 48 CFR 225.7303-2 - Cost of doing business with a foreign government or an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reasonable and allocable costs of doing business with a foreign government or international organization... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of doing business with a foreign government or an international organization. 225.7303-2 Section 225.7303-2 Federal...

  19. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance and Governmentality in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting

    for governmentality belong mainly to the cultural-cognitive pillar. Collectively these OEs provide for an ambidexterity of flexibility and stability, which allows organizations to align their internal characteristics with their organizational context. Managerial and theoretical implications of the results......This study identifies organizational enablers (OEs) for governance and governmentality in the realm of projects in project-based organizations (PBOs). We use a multiple case study design with six firms in Sweden and China to identify OEs. Institutional theory serves as theoretical perspective...

  20. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance and Governmentality in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Pemsel, Sofia; Shao, Jingting

    2015-01-01

    for governmentality belong mainly to the cultural–cognitive pillar. Collectively these OEs provide for an ambidexterity of flexibility and stability, which allows organizations to align their internal characteristics with their organizational context. Managerial and theoretical implications of the results......This study identifies organizational enablers (OEs) for governance and governmentality in the realm of projects in project-based organizations (PBOs). We use a multiple case study design with six firms in Sweden and China to identify OEs. Institutional theory serves as theoretical perspective...

  1. Student Perceptions of Teaching Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alecia D.; Hunt, Andrea N.; Powell, Rachel E.; Dollar, Cindy Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the relationship between teaching transparency and active learning through the perspectives of their students. Active learning directly engages students in the learning process while transparency involves the instructor's divulgence of logic regarding course organization and activity choices. After utilizing these teaching…

  2. Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Films with 1,3-Dimethyl-2-Imidazolidinone as Transparent Electrodes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jonghee; Seo, Yoon Kyung; Han, Joo Won; Oh, Ji Yoon; Kim, Jong Su; Yu, Seunggun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Yun, Changhun; Choi, Bum Ho; Kim, Yong Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) films as transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are doped with a new solvent 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) and are optimized using solvent post-treatment. The DMI doped PSS films show significantly enhanced conductivities up to 812.1 S cm(-1) . The sheet resistance of the PSS films doped with DMI is further reduced by various solvent post-treatment. The effect of solvent post-treatment on DMI doped PSS films is investigated and is shown to reduce insulating PSS in the conductive films. The solvent posttreated PSS films are successfully employed as transparent electrodes in white OLEDs. It is shown that the efficiency of OLEDs with the optimized DMI doped PSS films is higher than that of reference OLEDs doped with a conventional solvent (ethylene glycol). The results present that the optimized PSS films with the new solvent of DMI can be a promising transparent electrode for low-cost, efficient ITO-free white OLEDs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  4. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica; De Wolf, Stefaan; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ager, Joel W.; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  5. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  6. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  7. Efficient Inverted ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Based on Transparent Silver Electrode with Aqueous Solution-Processed ZnO Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhe Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient inverted organic solar cells (OSCs with the MoO3 (2 nm/Ag (12 nm transparent cathode and an aqueous solution ZnO electron extraction layer processed at low temperature are investigated in this work. The blend of low bandgap poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyloxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexylcarbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  8. To the problem of improving normative legal basis of organization of local self-government in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bazhenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The crisis of local self-government actualizes the problem of effectiveness oflegal regulation of the issues of its organization.The purpose of the paper is evaluation of the effectiveness of the regulatory framework forthe organization of local government.The methodology of research includes systematic analysis, formal legal method, interpretationof legislation.The results and scope of application. The crisis of local self-government actualizes the problemof effectiveness of legal regulation of the issues of its organization. Evaluation of theeffectiveness of the regulatory framework for the organization of local government is reducedto two questions: what are the limits of state legal regulation and what are the beginningof the division of powers on the organization of local government between the RussianFederation and the subjects of the Russian Federation.Recognizing the optimal legislative approach to the definition of the limits of state regulation,which assumes the creation at the federal level of a full-fledged legal mechanism for the implementationof local self-government, subject to its combination with the beginning of municipalself-regulation, the author criticizes the legislative approach to delineating the powersto organize local self-government between the Federation and the subjects of the Federation.Conclusions. Due to the legislative formula, according to which the scope of regional powersdepends on the discretion of the federal legislator, the local self-government turned out tobe "hostage" to the emerging federal relations.

  9. ON THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIZATIONS: TOWARD A SOLUTION OF THE EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISE PARADOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Wright

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern widely-held joint-stock corporation appears to epitomize the economically efficient large-scale organization. Some scholars observe, however, that other types of organizations, including government-owned enterprises, have also achieved high degrees of efficiency and that some joint stock corporations have been inefficient. It is here argued that the economic efficiency of organizations is largely a function of two major variables—markets tructure and incentives within the organization—and not organizational form or ownership structure per se. Case studies of two business firms: a mutual life insurer and a family-controlled publisher, and two industries: higher education and custom construction, demonstrate the importance of internal incentives and market structures to organizational economic efficiency.

  10. 25 Years of Transparency Research : Evidence and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucciniello, Maria; Porumbescu, Gregory A.; Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesizes the cross-disciplinary literature on government transparency. It systematically reviews research addressing the topic of government transparency published between 1990 and 2015. The review uses 187 studies to address three questions: (1) What forms of transparency has the

  11. Issues in Canadian board transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparency is considered one of the principles of good corporate governance. But what does it mean – in practice – especially when it comes to Board transparency – i.e. the ability of shareholders to gain knowledge about an organization’s corporate governance practices in order to make an informed assessment of Directors’ individual and collective roles and performance. In a preliminary investigation of Board transparency practices in Canadian listed firms (using data from 2003-2004, it was found that there were wide variations in the nature and quantity of corporate governance practices disclosed. The reasons for these variations are discussed and a number of recommendations for improved disclosure are presented.

  12. Generally civilized context of governing the social organization of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Gaievska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the contemporary global mechanisms of governing relationships between peoples represented both in procedural and institutional aspects the author notes their fundamental and globally civilized meanings in the historical progress of mankind to a higher level of social system organization. Therefore, the actual European process and principles of creating the efficient ordering system, according to which certain international institutional structures function, should be considered in the context of today’s total sovereignty and at the same time ensuring the safety of international relations. This trend suggests that the presence of some basic concepts of self-governance aimed at creating mechanisms for intergovernmental governance in the global community should remove the possibility of destabilization of international cooperation. Thus, generally civilized pillars of social governance, including international relations, lie in the understanding that people have to base their relationships on principles of the highest administrative feasibility, which should embrace economic, political and spiritual energy of any nation. This interpretation of general issues of international relations seems quite logical and well grounded in the light of recent developments in Ukraine. Therefore, the expression “reason rules the world” should be viewed as an objective opportunity of any institution through the energy of its own organization and by management to achieve a holistic level of the system which is too important for humanity, which in its historical development has always longed for a high level of organization, and consequently reached in its civilization development a level where management has become the most productive type of production. In this view management as a science can be perceived as the most lucrative and prudent source of allocating capital. Biological organizational evolution appears to have been locked: in its highest

  13. Organizing by covenant : the organization of transitional labor markets : paper IREC Conference 2004 'Governance issues in shifting industrial and employment relations' Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 26-28, 2004 : session potential and limits of national level socio-economic governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    From 26-28 August 2004 in Utrecht the Industrial Relations in Europe Conference (IREC) was held on governance issues in shifting industrial and employment relations. As part of the session 'potential and limits of national level socio-economic governance' this paper about the organization of

  14. ITO-free flexible organic photovoltaics with multilayer MoO3/LiF/MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as the transparent electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shilin; Dai, Yunjie; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhao, Dewei

    2016-01-01

    We present efficient flexible organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with multiple layers of molybdenum oxide (MoO 3 )/LiF/MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 as the transparent electrode, where the thin Ag layer yields high conductivity and the dielectric layer MoO 3 /LiF/MoO 3 has high transparency due to optical interference, leading to improved power conversion efficiency compared with indium tin oxide (ITO) based devices. The MoO 3 contacting organic active layer is used as a buffer layer for good hole extraction. Thus, the multilayer MoO 3 /LiF/MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 can improve light transmittance and also facilitate charge carrier extraction. Such an electrode shows excellent mechanical bendability with a 9% reduction of efficiency after 1000 cycles of bending due to the ductile nature of the thin metal layer and dielectric layer used. Our results suggest that the MoO 3 /LiF/MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 multilayer electrode is a promising alternative to ITO as an electrode in OPVs. (paper)

  15. Categories and Dimensions of Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    Transparency is a distinctive area of research across disciplines and presents significant importance for organization studies. However, transparency is rarely subject to structured and critical scrutiny and as a result its relevance for organizational analysis is underestimated. In an attempt...... to foreground the value of transparency studies, we offer an overview of the existing research and indicate two paradigmatic positions underpinning the transparency literature, namely what we term non-performative and performative approaches. The main contribution of the paper lies in this ground......, an approach which remains underexplored. Finally, we discuss some avenues for future studies of the organizing properties of transparency: the secrecy-transparency interplay, the power-transparency nexus and the transparency ‘family tree’ (i.e., intersections between multiple forms of disclosure)....

  16. Realigning Shared Governance With Magnet® and the Organization's Operating System to Achieve Clinical Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Janette V; Girard, Anita S; Foad, Wendy

    2018-03-01

    In 2012, an academic medical center successfully overhauled a 15-year-old shared governance to align 6 house-wide and 30 unit-based councils with the new Magnet Recognition Program® and the organization's operating system, using the processes of LEAN methodology. The redesign improved cross-council communication structures, facilitated effective shared decision-making processes, increased staff engagement, and improved clinical outcomes. The innovative structural and process elements of the new model are replicable in other health institutions.

  17. 17 CFR 1.59 - Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing board members, committee members...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities of self-regulatory... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.59 Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing...) Self-regulatory organization means “self-regulatory organization,” as defined in Commission regulation...

  18. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Berry, Joseph J.; Ginley, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Organic light emitting devices have been achieved with an indium-free transparent anode, Ga doped ZnO (GZO). A large area coating technique was used (RF magnetron sputtering) to deposit the GZO films onto glass. The respective organic light emitting devices exhibited an operational voltage of 3.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 17%, and a power efficiency of 39 lm/W at a current density of 1 mA/cm 2 . These parameters are well within acceptable standards for blue OLEDs to generate a white light with high enough brightness for general lighting applications. It is expected that high-efficiency, long-lifetime, large area, and cost-effective white OLEDs can be made with these indium-free anode materials.

  19. 75 FR 44814 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ..., Washington, DC 20503. Comments may also be sent to via http://www.regulations.gov --a Federal E-Government... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... CFDA 93.794 program is no longer active (i.e., no funds are being spent by recipients), and it has been...

  20. 10 CFR 1004.11 - Handling information of a private business, foreign government, or an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling information of a private business, foreign government, or an international organization. 1004.11 Section 1004.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 1004.11 Handling information of a private business, foreign government...

  1. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Andrés, Luis; Menéndez, María Fe; Gómez, David; Martínez, Ana Luisa; Bristow, Noel; Kettle, Jeffrey Paul; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-01

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed.

  3. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    José Andrés, Luis; Fe Menéndez, María; Gómez, David; Luisa Martínez, Ana; Menéndez, Armando; Bristow, Noel; Paul Kettle, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (R_S = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed. (paper)

  4. The legitimacy of transnational private governance arrangements related to nanotechnologies: the case of international organization for standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis consists of developing a comprehensive empirical assessment on the legitimacy of nanotechnology related transnational private governance arrangements (TPGAs), explored through the case study of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on

  5. Some recent steps taken by private organizations and the federal government to increase the safety of medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Merrill, Janette

    2010-07-01

    Both private organizations and the United States government are responding to recent concerns about the exposure of patients to ionizing radiation as the result of medical imaging. Some of the recent actions taken are described in this article.

  6. Information security knowledge sharing in organizations : Investigating the effect of behavioral information security governance and national culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Flores, Waldo; Antonsen, Egil; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation on what behavioral information security governance factors drives the establishment of information security knowledge sharing in organizations. Data was collected from organizations located in different geographic regions of the world, and the amount of data collected from two countries – namely, USA and Sweden – allowed us to investigate if the effect of behavioral information security governance factors on the establishment of security knowledg...

  7. Limits of transparency of transparent conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelaers, Hartwin

    A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is essential for further progress in materials and applications. These materials have a sufficiently large band gap, so that direct optical transitions do not lead to absorption of light within the visible spectrum. Since the presence of free carriers is essential for conductivity and thus for device applications, this introduces the possibility of additional absorption processes. In particular, indirect processes are possible, and these will constitute a fundamental limit of the material. The Drude theory is widely used to describe free-carrier absorption, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. We will present calculations of phonon- and defect-assisted free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We will focus in detail on SnO2, but the methodology is general and we will also compare the results obtained for other TCO materials such as In2O3. These calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. This work was performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle and was supported by ARO and NSF.

  8. Practice Variation in Big-4 Transparency Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girdhar, Sakshi; Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency reports published by the Big-4 public accounting firms in the UK, Germany and Denmark to understand the determinants of their content within the networks of big accounting firms. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws...... on a qualitative research approach, in which the content of transparency reports is analyzed and semi-structured interviews are conducted with key people from the Big-4 firms who are responsible for developing the transparency reports. Findings: The findings show that the content of transparency reports...... is inconsistent and the transparency reporting practice is not uniform within the Big-4 networks. Differences were found in the way in which the transparency reporting practices are coordinated globally by the respective central governing bodies of the Big-4. The content of the transparency reports...

  9. Fabrication of highly conductive graphene/ITO transparent bi-film through CVD and organic additives-free sol-gel techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemasiri, Bastian Waduge Naveen Harindu; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2017-12-19

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) still remains as the main candidate for high-performance optoelectronic devices, but there is a vital requirement in the development of sol-gel based synthesizing techniques with regards to green environment and higher conductivity. Graphene/ITO transparent bi-film was synthesized by a two-step process: 10 wt. % tin-doped ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO 3 ) 3 .H 2 O and SnCl 4 , without using organic additives, on surface free energy enhanced (from 53.826 to 97.698 mJm -2 ) glass substrate by oxygen plasma treatment, which facilitated void-free continuous ITO film due to high surface wetting. The chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene was transferred onto the synthesized ITO to enhance its electrical properties and it was capable of reducing sheet resistance over 12% while preserving the bi-film surface smoother. The ITO films contain the In 2 O 3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of cubic structure with 14.35 ± 0.5 nm crystallite size. The graphene/ITO bi-film exhibits reproducible optical transparency with 88.66% transmittance at 550 nm wavelength, and electrical conductivity with sheet resistance of 117 Ω/sq which is much lower than that of individual sol-gel derived ITO film.

  10. Construction of a photovoltaic cell based on the photoelectrochemistry of organic dyes at transparent semi-conducting electrodes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasielski, J; Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, A

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the study of the photoelectrochemical mechanisms of different dye-reductant systems at transparent semi-conducting bubbling gas electrodes, coupled with a detailed analysis of the photovoltammetric curves, allows: a deeper insight into the operation principles of the corresponding dye photogalvanic cells; prediction of the parameters important for optimizing the cell operation; and working out of strategies for improving the cell output. In order to compare the behaviors of an adsorbed type dye (rhodamine-hydroquinone) with a solution type dye in a photogalvanic cell, the thionine-Fe/sup 2 +/ system was examined, including a detailed kinetic analysis of the photocurrents at the bubbling gas electrode as a function of several parameters. Photoelectrochemical mechanisms related to the sensitization and supersensitization in this system have thus been determined. Photoelectrochemical methods were applied to analyze other dye-reductant systems. The photoelectrochemisty of three triphenyl-methanes, methyl violet, crystal violet, and malachite green were examined at the bubbling gas electrode. These dyes produce photocurrents originating from the adsorbed molecules and behave very much like rhodamine. The photoelectrochemical behavior of the erythrosine-hydroquinone couple is also examined. For constructing photogalvanic cells, the CdS-on-SnO/sub 2/-cysteine system is found promising. (LEW)

  11. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    .... Therefore, a published budget that does not include significant cash or non-cash resources, including... transparency is a critical element of effective public financial management, helps build market confidence, and sets the stage for economic sustainability. Transparency also provides a window into government budgets...

  12. Substantive Transparency Requirements in International Investment Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Jens Hillebrand

    2017-01-01

    Few concepts in public governance evoke a more positive sentiment than transparency. Whether ultimately grounded in expediency or morality, transparency has emerged out of its municipal origins and been received at the international plane. This article examines the current state of evolution of the

  13. Transparency and Its Determinants at Colombian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Parra, Jesús Mauricio; López-Pérez, María Victoria; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, one of the demands upon public institutions, among which we find universities, has been for transparency and improvement of accountability. In this context, Colombian universities are introducing different methods of management and governance aimed at addressing the demands of society generally in relation to transparency and…

  14. How Much Is Enough? Explaining the Continuous Transparency Conflict in TTIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Gheyle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Transparency has been a central issue in the debate regarding the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, especially on the side of the European Union (EU. The lack of transparency in the negotiating process has been one of the main criticisms of civil society organizations (CSOs. The European Commission (EC has tried to gain support for the negotiations through various ‘transparency initiatives’. Nonetheless, criticism by CSOs with regard to TTIP in general and the lack of transparency in specific remained prevalent. In this article, we explain this gap between various transparency initiatives implemented by the EC in TTIP and the expectations on the side of European CSOs. We perform a content analysis of position papers on transparency produced by CSOs, mainly in response to a European Ombudsman consultation, complemented by a number of official documents and targeted interviews. We find that the gap between the TTIP transparency initiatives and the expectations of CSOs can be explained by different views on what constitutes legitimate trade governance, and the role of transparency, participation, and accountability herein.

  15. Role of Non-Government Organizations in strengthening Kazakstan nuclear export control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibaeva, L.; Prokhodtseva, T.

    2002-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGO) are the structures that were born by the time, the time when deep changes in our society led us to new trends in the all spheres of society development, to new decisions and, as a consequence, to new structural findings that where able to govern, to support and put into reality the new ideas the could not be inserted in the structure assemblies of the former society. All non-governmental organizations in Kazakhstan are younger than ten years old, but they already could be considered highly experienced, for intensity of their activity is rather high. The main advantages of NGOs are flexibility and independent source of ideas, basic data and policy assessment. There are several non-government organizations that are working in the field of non-proliferation and export control. Kazakhstan Nuclear Technology Safety Center (NTSC) is among them. Non-proliferation and export control is only a small part of activity that NTSC is involved in. Non-governmental organizations could be of several types: NGOs that are affiliated with university or institute, independent associations, quasi-governmental structures and various foundations. NTSC complementing efforts of Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC) in the field of non-proliferation and export control. The activity of NTSC in the field of non-proliferation includes: Holding conferences, seminars and workshops; Creating databases and reports; Develop proposal for legislation; Provide specialized training; Analyze data. NTSC is involved in a number of projects devoted to non-proliferation and export control. The following projects are supported by the US Department of Energy cooperation program on nuclear export controls for Russia and the Newly Independent States: System to review Kazakhstan exports (STROKE); Computerization of historical licensing data; Export control reference materials for Kazakhstan organizations; Additional Protocol. STROKE is a technical analysis database for

  16. The impact of records management system in transparency of public administrations: Transparency by design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustí Cerrillo Martínez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Records management system has a great impact in the improvement of transparency in public administration. Transparency by design refers to the inclusion of transparency duties stated by legislation in force in the records’ life cycle in a way that it guarantees citizens effective access to public information. In this paper, the changes that public administrations have to propel in their records management systems to improve public transparency and to make easy access to information are analysed. In particular, as a case study, provisions made by Law 19/2014, of December 29, on Transparency, Access to Public Information and Good Governance of Catalonia are explored.

  17. Design in nature how the constructal law governs evolution in biology, physics, technology, and social organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In this groundbreaking book, Adrian Bejan takes the recurring patterns in nature—trees, tributaries, air passages, neural networks, and lightning bolts—and reveals how a single principle of physics, the constructal law, accounts for the evolution of these and many other designs in our world. Everything—from biological life to inanimate systems—generates shape and structure and evolves in a sequence of ever-improving designs in order to facilitate flow. River basins, cardiovascular systems, and bolts of lightning are very efficient flow systems to move a current—of water, blood, or electricity. Likewise, the more complex architecture of animals evolve to cover greater distance per unit of useful energy, or increase their flow across the land. Such designs also appear in human organizations, like the hierarchical “flowcharts” or reporting structures in corporations and political bodies. All are governed by the same principle, known as the constructal law, and configure and reconfigure themselves...

  18. One-Step Interface Engineering for All-Inkjet-Printed, All-Organic Components in Transparent, Flexible Transistors and Inverters: Polymer Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jewook; Chung, Seungjun; Pei, Mingyuan; Cho, Kilwon; Yang, Hoichang; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-15

    We report a one-step interface engineering methodology which can be used on both polymer electrodes and gate dielectric for all-inkjet-printed, flexible, transparent organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) and inverters. Dimethylchlorosilane-terminated polystyrene (PS) was introduced as a surface modifier to cured poly(4-vinylphenol) dielectric and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes without any pretreatment. On the untreated and PS interlayer-treated dielectric and electrode surfaces, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene was printed to fabricate OTFTs and inverters. With the benefit of the PS interlayer, the electrical properties of the OTFTs on a flexible plastic substrate were significantly improved, as shown by a field-effect mobility (μ FET ) of 0.27 cm 2  V -1  s -1 and an on/off current ratio (I on /I off ) of greater than 10 6 . In contrast, the untreated systems showed a low μ FET of less than 0.02 cm 2  V -1  s -1 and I on /I off ∼ 10 4 . Additionally, the all-inkjet-printed inverters based on the PS-modified surfaces exhibited a voltage gain of 7.17 V V -1 . The all-organic-based TFTs and inverters, including deformable and transparent PEDOT:PSS electrodes with a sheet resistance of 160-250 Ω sq -1 , exhibited a light transmittance of higher than 70% (at wavelength of 550 nm). Specifically, there was no significant degradation in the electrical performance of the interface engineering-assisted system after 1000 bending cycles at a radius of 5 mm.

  19. Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian Women Parliamentarians and Young Female University Students. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are ...

  20. Bye-laws and partnership agreements of the members of the Association of Government-Sponsored Research Organizations (AGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    There are currently thirteen members of the AGF, government-sponsored research organizations who together employ more than 22.000 people and an annual budget of about DM 2.5 billions, thus representing the largest, compact research potential of the Federal Republic of Germany and building one of the most essential elements of the German scientific research system. The research organizations are financed from Federal Government funds and by contributions from the Federal Land the organization is domiciled, each at a ratio of 90 to 10. Influence and control by the Federal Government is exerted by way of Government representatives having a seat and a vote in the executive bodies of the organization, and by way of budgetary powers. Ever since their establishment, the government-sponsored research organizations have to find a balance between the two poles of scientific and legal independence on the one hand, and governmental influence on the other. Their wish for more effectively safeguarding their common interests have induced the research organizations to establish the AGF on January 30, 1970. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. 17 CFR 1.64 - Composition of various self-regulatory organization governing boards and major disciplinary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Miscellaneous § 1.64 Composition of various self-regulatory organization governing boards and major disciplinary committees. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Self-regulatory organization means “self-regulatory organization” as defined in § 1.3(ee), not including a “clearing...

  2. Transparency and public value : Analyzing the transparency practices and value creation of public utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, S.C.; Meijer, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent transparency is a condition for the creation of public value. Transparency is usually narrowly defined as a tool for external stakeholders to monitor the internal workings of an organization, but public value management positions transparency as a broader

  3. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Aditi; Khatiwada, Prashant; Shrestha, Bikram; Chettri, Radheshyam Khatri

    2013-01-18

    Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997-2017). A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government's priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions

  4. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Froese

    Full Text Available Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  5. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Gershenson, Carlos; Manzanilla, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  6. Aerospace Transparency Research Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    ... (ARRL), located at Wright-Patterson AFB OH, has advanced aerospace transparency technology through the investigative research of numerous optical and visual parameters inherent in aerospace transparencies...

  7. Some Physical Principles Governing Spatial and Temporal Organization in Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Zulfikar

    Spatial and temporal organization in living organisms are crucial for a variety of biological functions and arise from the interplay of large number of interacting molecules. One of the central questions in systems biology is to understand how such an intricate organization emerges from the molecular biochemistry of the cell. In this dissertation we explore two projects. The first project relates to pattern formation in a cell membrane as an example of spatial organization, and the second project relates to the evolution of oscillatory networks as a simple example of temporal organization. For the first project, we introduce a model for pattern formation in a two-component lipid bilayer and study the interplay between membrane composition and membrane geometry, demonstrating the existence of a rich phase diagram. Pattern formation is governed by the interplay between phase separation driven by lipid-lipid interactions and tendency of lipid domains with high intrinsic curvature to deform the membrane away from its preferred position. Depending on membrane parameters, we find the formation of compact lipid micro-clusters or of striped domains. We calculate the stripe width analytically and find good agreement with stripe widths obtained from the simulations. For the second project, we introduce a minimal model for the evolution of functional protein-interaction networks using a sequence-based mutational algorithm and apply it to study the following problems. Using the model, we study robustness and designabilty of a 2-component network that generate oscillations. We completely enumerate the sequence space and the phenotypic space, and discuss the relationship between designabilty, robustness and evolvability. We further apply the model to studies of neutral drift in networks that yield oscillatory dynamics, e.g. starting with a relatively simple network and allowing it to evolve by adding nodes and connections while requiring that oscillatory dynamics be preserved

  8. EXTERNAL EVALUATIONS IN LOMCE: TRANSPARENCY IN RURAL EDUCATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This document is intended to reflect on some articles of the Organic Law 2/2006 of 3 May on Education last modified by Organic Law 8/2013, of 9 December, to improve educational quality. We have selected those linked to external evaluation and transparency were discussed. In turn, the publication of Law 19/2013, of December 9, transparency, access to public information and good governance, imposes new obligations on the administrations and should result in the availability and dissemination of reports, as well as results. Both laws can promote knowledge of rural school if current approaches to external evaluation in Spain who do not usually attend rural uniqueness or do so partially. Thus they contribute to hiding the rural school or show a negative image of it because they have poorly contextualized results.

  9. Toward Transparency : New Approaches and Their Application to Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwanath, Tara; Kaufmann, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s not only highlighted the welfare consequences of transparency in the financial sector but also linked this relatively narrow problem to the broader context of transparency in governance. It has been observed that objections to transparency, often on flimsy pretexts, are common even in industrialized countries. This article argues that transparen...

  10. Transparency as an element of public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    regulatory activities. It may further prevent open and frank discussion. Careful consideration should be given when publicizing certain information which affects specific and identifiable people or areas. Fifth, transparency should be understood and discussed in terms of 'Risk Governance' as it is related to stakeholders' participation. Understanding transparency as one element for confidence in regulator and considering its adverse aspects, transparency strategy should be devised and carefully implemented. (author)

  11. ICT Governance and What to Do About the Toothless Tiger(s: Professional Organizations and Codes of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Gotterbarn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT has been with us for many years and in the past ten years there has been a growing interest in something called “ICT Governance” as a means of reducing information system disasters. There have been national organizations formed, professional organizations have organized sub-committees to address ICT Governance and it has even been called a “discipline”. The unwrapping of this concept, like many concepts, has several inconsistent interpretations and ineffective implementations in industry. In some cases the concept has been modified to meet a particular sectors needs. This broadening of concepts to fit individual needs is not new and sometimes is quite useful. There is however a fundamental mistake in the narrowness of most interpretations of ICT Governance which make it less likely that it will achieve its ultimate goals. I believe this mistake can and should be addressed by professional computing organizations. In what follows I will examine the various approaches to ICT governance, the difficulty it tries to address and I will argue for what I consider its critical limitations. I will than show how professional organizations can address the weakness of ICT governance using tools they already have at hand.

  12. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL BUDGETS IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The central researched element in our paper is the local budgets, the basic component of local public finances. Local budgets, like any other budgets, are the most important tool for the management (of local governments planning, forecasting, implementing and monitoring the results of administrative-territorial units activity, also being an appropriate tool for enhancing performance. A budget is the government's plan regarding the use of public resources to meet the citizens' needs. The aim of this paper is to realize a research on budget transparency in local governments from the Nord-West Region of Romania, regarding the availability of the budget information on the websites of the county councils and the county residences. The key element of good governance in today global economic environment is transparency that can be defined as the openness of public authorities (central and local regarding their policy intention, formulation and implementation. For local governments budget transparency is an important issue, due to the growing role of administrative-territorial units, confirmed over time by the economic reality. The importance of local budgets has increased in recent years due to the need to improve management efficiency and accounting al the level of local governments. Not only policy makers but also the citizens need information regarding local government current activities, expenditures, development projects and policies. In this context of a growing need for information, the transparency of local budgets is a mandatory condition for any local government. The combination of budget transparency and public participation in budget processes has the potential to combat corruption, foster public accountability of government agencies and contribute to judicious use of public funds. In this context, budget transparency represents the mean through which ordinary citizens and civil society organizations can access information about the

  13. Organizational Transparency & Sense Making: The case of Northern Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Wehmeier, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Organizational transparency is associated with mutual understanding and consensus between the organization and its constituents, but is typically defined as information disclosure. Such definitions pose the risk of simplification and provide incomplete understandings of the transparency phenomenon....... Additionally, research rarely focuses on how transparency is translated within crisis situations. This article presents a sense-making and discourse analysis perspective of transparency. We use the case of the British bank Northern Rock to show how this bank and its stakeholders enacted transparency...

  14. Some laws governing the electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, N.A.; Avrutskaya, I.A.; Fioshin, M. Ya.; Khrizolitova, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte (SPE) makes it possible to carry out the process in the absence of a supporting electrolyte. This facilitates the recovery of the desired product, eliminates the inorganic waste products, and allows a small interelectrode distance, and the absence of the accumulation of gases lowers the voltage in the cell. Some laws governing syntheses of SPE were studied in the example cases of the electrochemical reduction of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxy-piperidine, the reduction of triacetonamine oxime and triacetonamine azine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4- aminopiperidine and the oxidation of isobutanol to isobutyric acid. The electrolysis with an SPE was carried out under galvanostatic conditions in an electrolyzer of the filter-press type with forced circulation of the catholyte and anolyte. Low reaction rates are found to be characteristic of all the compounds investigated when the electrolysis is carried out with an SPE.

  15. The transparency trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Ethan

    2014-10-01

    To promote accountability, productivity, and shared learning, many organizations create open work environments and gather reams of data on how individuals spend their time. A few years ago, HBS professor Ethan Bernstein set out to find empirical evidence that such approaches improve organizational performance. What he discovered is that this kind of transparency often has an unintended consequence: It can leave employees feeling vulnerable and exposed. When that happens, they conceal any conduct that deviates from the norm so that they won't have to explain it. Unrehearsed, experimental behaviors sometimes stop altogether. But Bernstein also discovered organizations that had established zones of privacy within open environments by setting four types of boundaries: around teams, between feedback and evaluation, between decision rights and improvement rights, and around periods of experimentation. Moreover, across several studies, the companies that had done all this were the ones that consistently got the most creative, efficient, and thoughtful work from their employees. Bernstein's conclusion? By balancing transparency and privacy, organizations can capture the benefits of both, and encourage just the right amount of "positive deviance" needed to increase innovation and productivity.

  16. Development of Management, Child Development Centers Organization rule Local Government in Udon thani

    OpenAIRE

    Suriya Sukram; Chaiyot Ruangsuwan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to study the composition and indications 1. The Child Development Centre under the local governments in UdonThani province 2. Study the current state and the desired operating child care centers under the jurisdiction of local governments in UdonThani province. 3. Develop the child development centers under the local governments in UdonThani province. The operation is divided. Phase one of the elements and indicators, the Child Development Center. By synthesi...

  17. Corneal structure and transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Keith M.; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  18. Semi-transparent solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Jasieniak, J J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies. (topical review)

  19. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  20. Highly efficient inverted top emitting organic light emitting diodes using a transparent top electrode with color stability on viewing angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo, E-mail: jjkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-17

    We report a highly efficient phosphorescent green inverted top emitting organic light emitting diode with excellent color stability by using the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile/indium zinc oxide top electrode and bis(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) acetylacetonate as the emitter in an exciplex forming co-host system. The device shows a high external quantum efficiency of 23.4% at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} corresponding to a current efficiency of 110 cd/A, low efficiency roll-off with 21% at 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} and low turn on voltage of 2.4 V. Especially, the device showed very small color change with the variation of Δx = 0.02, Δy = 0.02 in the CIE 1931 coordinates as the viewing angle changes from 0° to 60°. The performance of the device is superior to that of the metal/metal cavity structured device.

  1. Characteristics of sputtered Al-doped ZnO films for transparent electrodes of organic thin-film transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Seob; Kim, Han-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films were deposited with various RF powers at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The electrical properties of the AZO film were improved with the increasing RF power. These results can be explained by the improvement of the crystallinity in the AZO film. We fabricated the organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) of the bottom gate structure using pentacene active and poly-4-vinyl phenol gate dielectric layers on the indium tin oxide gate electrode, and estimated the device properties of the OTFTs including drain current-drain voltage (I D -V D ), drain current-gate voltage (I D -V G ), threshold voltage (V T ), on/off ratio and field effect mobility. The AZO film that grown at 160 W RF power exhibited low resistivity (1.54 x 10 -3 Ω.cm), high crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. The pentacene thin-film transistor using the AZO film that's fabricated at 160 W RF power exhibited good device performance such as the mobility of 0.94 cm 2 /V s and the on/off ratio of ∼ 10 5 . Consequently, the performance of the OTFT such as larger field-effect carrier mobility was determined the conductivity of the AZO source/drain (S/D) electrode. AZO films prepared at room temperature by the sputtering method are suitable for the S/D electrodes in the OTFTs.

  2. Preparation of Surlyn films reinforced with cellulose nanofibres and feasibility of applying the transparent composite films for organic photovoltaic encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertngim, Anantaya; Phiriyawirut, Manisara; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn; Yuwawech, Kitti; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Muangnapoh, Tanyakorn

    2017-10-01

    This research concerns the development of Surlyn film reinforced with micro-/nanofibrillated celluloses (MFC) for use as an encapsulant in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of fibre types and the mixing methods on the structure-properties of the composite films. Three types of cellulose micro/nanofibrils were prepared: the as-received MFC, the dispersed MFC and the esterified MFC. The fibres were mixed with Surlyn via an extrusion process, using two different mixing methods. It was found that the extent of fibre disintegration and tensile modulus of the composite films prepared by the master-batching process was superior to that of the composite system prepared by the direct mixing method. Using the esterified MFC as a reinforcement, compatibility between polymer and the fibre increased, accompanied with the improvement of the percentage elongation of the Surlyn composite film. The percentage of light transmittance of the Surlyn/MFC films was above 88, regardless of the fibre types and fibre concentrations. The water vapour transmission rate of the Surlyn/esterified MFC film was 65% lower than that of the neat Surlyn film. This contributed to the longer lifetime of the OPV encapsulated with the Surlyn/esterified MFC film.

  3. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(5)-1 - Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government or international organization. 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31...

  4. Social Media and the New Organization of Government Communications: An Empirical Analysis of Twitter Usage by the Dutch Police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert Jacob; Torenvlied, René

    2014-01-01

    Do social media de-bureaucratize the organization of government communications? Key features of the bureaucratic ideal-type are centralized and formalized external communications and disconnection of internal and external communications. Some authors argue that this organizational model is being

  5. 75 FR 16825 - Notice of Modifications to U.S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... hearing- or speech-impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal... construction project, and the total construction project has an estimated value of more than $7,804,000....S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement To Implement...

  6. The Evolution of Community Self-Organization in Interaction With Government Institutions: Cross-Case Insights From Three Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Edelenbos (Jurian); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); Schenk, T. (Todd)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the evolution of community self-organization in public administration. Within the literature of interactive governance, increasing attention is being paid to how communities take initiative in dealing with societal issues. However, we know little about the factors

  7. 17 CFR 1.63 - Service on self-regulatory organization governing boards or committees by persons with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service on self-regulatory... EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.63 Service on self-regulatory organization governing boards or committees by persons with disciplinary histories. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Self-regulatory...

  8. 78 FR 41424 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... Management and Budget. ACTION: Notice of availability of the 2013 OMB Circular A-133 Compliance Supplement...--National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent (SMART) Grants (SMART Grants) CFDA 84.390...

  9. Lines that induce phenomenal transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Alba; Roncato, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Three neighbouring opaque surfaces may appear split into two layers, one transparent and one opaque beneath, if an outline contour is drawn that encompasses two of them. The phenomenon was originally observed by Kanizsa [1955 Rivista di Psicologia 69 3-19; 1979 Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Psychology (New York: Praeger)], for the case where an outline contour is drawn to encompass one of the two parts of a bicoloured figure and a portion of a background of lightest (or darkest) luminance. Preliminary observations revealed that the outline contour yields different effects: in addition to the stratification into layers described by Kanizsa, a second split, opposite in depth order, may occur when the outline contour is close in luminance to one of the three surfaces. An initial experiment was designed to investigate what conditions give rise to the two phenomenal transparencies: this led to the conclusion that an outline contour superimposed on an opaque surface causes this surface to emerge as a transparent layer when the luminances of the contour and the surface differ, in absolute value, by no more than 13.2 cd m(-2). We have named this phenomenon 'transparency of the intercepted surface', to distinguish it from the phenomenal transparency arising when the contour and surface are very different in luminance. When such a difference exists, the contour acts as a factor of surface definition and grouping: the portion of the homogeneous surface it bounds emerges as a fourth surface and groups with a nearby surface if there is one close in luminance. The transparency phenomena ('transparency of the contoured surface') perceived in this context conform to the constraints of Metelli's model, as demonstrated by a second experiment, designed to gather 'opacity' ratings of stimuli. The observer judgments conformed to the values predicted by Metelli's formula for perceived degree of transparency, alpha. The role of the outline contour in conveying figural and

  10. Flexible white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on multilayered graphene/PEDOT:PSS transparent conducting film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fushan, E-mail: fushanli@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Guo, Tailiang, E-mail: gtl_fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • A double-layered graphene/PEDOT:PSS film was fabricated by spray-coating. • A white flexible phosphorescent OLED was fabricated based on this film. • The white flexible OLED presented pure white light emission. • The flexible OLEDs showed a stable white emission during bending test. - Abstract: A double-layered graphene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive film was prepared, in which the PEDOT:PSS layer was obtained by using spray-coating technique. A flexible white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on the graphene/PEDOT:PSS conductive film was fabricated. Phosphorescent material tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3}) and the fluorescent dye 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnapthacene (Rubrene) were co-doped into 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) host. N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) were used as hole-transporting and electron-transporting layer, respectively, and 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (DPVBi) was used as blue light-emitting layer. The device presented pure white light emission with a Commission Internationale De I’Eclairage coordinates of (0.31, 0.33) and exhibited an excellent light-emitting stability during the bending cycle test with a radius of curvature of 10 mm.

  11. Flexible white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on multilayered graphene/PEDOT:PSS transparent conducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fushan; Wu, Wei; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A double-layered graphene/PEDOT:PSS film was fabricated by spray-coating. • A white flexible phosphorescent OLED was fabricated based on this film. • The white flexible OLED presented pure white light emission. • The flexible OLEDs showed a stable white emission during bending test. - Abstract: A double-layered graphene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive film was prepared, in which the PEDOT:PSS layer was obtained by using spray-coating technique. A flexible white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on the graphene/PEDOT:PSS conductive film was fabricated. Phosphorescent material tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy) 3 ) and the fluorescent dye 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnapthacene (Rubrene) were co-doped into 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) host. N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) were used as hole-transporting and electron-transporting layer, respectively, and 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (DPVBi) was used as blue light-emitting layer. The device presented pure white light emission with a Commission Internationale De I’Eclairage coordinates of (0.31, 0.33) and exhibited an excellent light-emitting stability during the bending cycle test with a radius of curvature of 10 mm

  12. Efficient and color-saturated inverted bottom-emitting organic light-emitting devices with a semi-transparent metal-assisted electron injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Meng-Huan, E-mail: kinneas.ac94g@nctu.edu.t [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 210 R, CPT Building, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chang-Yen [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chen, Teng-Ming [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 210 R, CPT Building, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15

    We report the development of highly efficient and color-saturated green fluorescent 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H, 11H-benzo[l]pyrano-[6,7,8-ij]quinolizin-11-one dye-doped inverted bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (IBOLED). This was enabled by the insertion of a silver (Ag) based semi-transparent metal-assisted electron injection layer between the ITO cathode and n-doped electron transporting layer. This IBOLED with ITO/Ag bilayer cathode with its synergistic microcavity effect achieved luminous efficiencies of 20.7 cd/A and 12.4 lm/W and a saturated CIE{sub x,y} of (0.22, 0.72) at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, which are twice better than those of the conventional OLED and have over 60% improvement on IBOLED without ITO/Ag bilayer cathode.

  13. Simultaneously improving optical absorption of both transverse-electric polarized and transverse-magnetic polarized light for organic solar cells with Ag grating used as transparent electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbing Long

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical simulations are performed to investigate optical performance of organic solar cells with Ag grating electrode. It is demonstrated that optical absorption for both transverse-electric (TE polarized and transverse-magnetic(TM polarized light is simultaneously improved when compared with that for the device without the Ag grating. The improvement is respectively attributed to the resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons within the device. After an additional WO3 layer is capped on the Ag grating, absorption of TE-polarized light is further improved due to resonance of double microcavities within the device, and absorption of TM-polarized light is improved by the combined effects of the microcavity resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons. Correspondingly, the short current density for randomly polarized light is improved by 18.1% from that of the device without the Ag grating. Finally, it is demonstrated that high transmission may not be an essential prerequisite for metallic gratings when they are used as transparent electrode since absorption loss caused by low transmission can be compensated by using a capping layer to optimize optical resonance of the WMC structure within the device.

  14. Governing for Stakeholders : How Organizations May Create or Destroy Value for their Stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vishwanathan (Pushpika)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis PhD thesis lies at the intersection of stakeholder theory and corporate governance research. Stakeholder theory proposes that firms are best understood as a set of relationships among groups that have a stake in the activities of the firm. Corporate governance research, on the

  15. Highly flexible, conductive and transparent MoO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer electrode for organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, T.; Cattin, L.; Louarn, G.; Lare, Y.; Bou, A.; Makha, M.; Torchio, P.

    2013-01-01

    MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 (MAM) multilayer structures were deposited by vacuum evaporation on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. We demonstrate that, as in the case of glass substrate, the sheet resistance of such structures depends significantly on the Ag film deposition rate. When it is deposited between 0.2 and 0.4 nm/s, an Ag thickness of 11 nm allows achieving sheet resistance of 13 Ω/sq and an averaged transmission of 74%. A study of the influence of the PET substrate on the optimum MoO 3 thicknesses was done. A good qualitative agreement between the theoretical calculations of the variation of the optical transmittance of the MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 structures is obtained. The optimum MAM structures MoO 3 (17.5 nm)/Ag (11 nm)/MoO 3 (35 nm) has a factor of merit F M = 4.21 10 −3 (Ω/sq) −1 . Proven by the scotch test the MAM structures exhibit a good adhesion to the PET substrates. The MAM structures were also submitted to bending tests. For outer bending, the samples exhibit no variation of their resistance value, while for inner bending there is a small increase of the resistance of the MAM structures. However this increasing is smaller than that exhibited by Indium Tin Oxide. When the PET/MAM structures are used as anode in organic photovoltaic cells, it is shown that the need to use thicker Ag films inside the multilayer and to cover the MAM with Au to obtain promising Current density vs Voltage characteristics is due to the heating of the PET substrate during the deposition process. - Highlights: • MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 structures deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrate. • MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 structures deposited by vacuum evaporation. • The Ag deposition rate influences the properties of the structures. • The MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 optimum structure has a factor of merit F M = 4.21 10 −3 (Ω/sq) −1 . • The MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 structures exhibit a high flexibility

  16. Data governance and transparency for collaborative systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmudlu, R.; den Hartog, J.; Zannone, N.

    2016-01-01

    As social networks, shared editing platforms and other collaborative systems are becoming increasingly popular, the demands for proper protection of the data created and used within these systems grows. Yet, existing access control mechanisms are not suited for the challenges imposed by

  17. Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Campodónico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper by Werner Thut ‘Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options’, from the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, has great relevance as it comes from a country that is key to the extractive and food industries. This relevance does not come as much from Switzerland’s role as a producer, but from the fact that, as demonstrated by the figures given by Thut, it is the world’s largest commodity trading “hub”.Furthermore, this paper comes at a time wh...

  18. Direct measurement of anisotropy of interfacial free energy from grain boundary groove morphology in transparent organic metal analong systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustwick, Bryce A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    solid with respect to the liquid, a better calculation of interfacial energy was needed. Herring described this orientation dependence, which related the interfacial undercooling to the principle interfacial curvatures. The present study pertains to the measurement of the anisotropy of interfacial energy by comparison of experimental and theoretical GBG geometries in pure succinonitrile (SCN) and pivalic acid (PVA). A quantity of SCN and PVA was distilled and zone refined using a process that is defined in the experimental procedure portion of this paper. Very thin (100 {micro}m) slide assemblies were created and filled with these organic materials. For each system, several grooves were photographed and their shapes were compared with theoretical predictions. The correlation between experiment and theory was quantified and plotted as a function of the anisotropy for each of the GBG's examined, and a maximum correlation corresponded to the anisotropy of interfacial energy which describes that particular rotation of the GBG. The results from several rotations were statistically analyzed to ensure confidence in the measurement of the anisotropy of interfacial energy and, finally, compared to reported values obtained with other techniques.

  19. The Politics of Transparency and the Calibration of Knowledge in the Digital Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the complex work of human actors and technologies that goes into producing that which appears to us as ‘transparent’. Drawing on studies of governance and surveillance, affordance theory, actor-network theory and sociological work on numbers, we analyse the role played...... the organizing properties of specific mediating technologies. We argue that mediating technologies, conceptualized here as disclosure devices, have distinctive organizing properties that are important to scrutinize. They play a central role in attempts to shed light on objects, subjects and practices...... by mediating technologies in the production of transparency and relate it to the question of how knowledge is created, recycled and modified in organizational settings. This perspective is largely absent from existing research on transparency, which construes transparency as unmediated or fails to investigate...

  20. Government intervention in green industries: lessons from the wind turbine and the organic food industries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    . While the electricity market share of wind energy reached 20% in 2007, organic food consumption lags behind with a food market share of approximately 8.5% in 2007. This paper compares the packages of policy instruments applied in the two industrial sectors and assesses whether differences in instrument...... choice may explain the significant differences in market shares. It is demonstrated that government intervention in the wind turbine industry has emphasised the use of policy instruments designed to increase demand for wind energy, whereas organic farming policy has put more emphasis on instruments...... motivating farmers to increase supply. This may be an important factor explaining variance in growth. Finally, the paper analyses whether the lessons from government policy aimed at promoting the wind turbine industry can be transferred to organic farming policy....

  1. Organizational Transparency in the Internet Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    as a panacea to concerns about privacy, organizational conduct and accountability, this paper explores the boundary work that goes into doing and promising transparency Using insights from the literature on transparency, ´sociologies of translations' and process approaches to organization, this paper captures...

  2. Continuity of operations/continuity of government for state-level transportation organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive 20 (HSPD-20) requires all local, state, tribal and territorial government agencies, : and private sector owners of critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR) to create a Continuity of Operations/Con...

  3. Continuity of operations/continuity of government for state-level transportation organizations : brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    As a result of a federal requirement, all non-federal entities that own or operate critical : infrastructure are required to develop Continuity of Operations/Continuity of Government : (COOP/COG) Plans. Transportation is a critical infrastructure com...

  4. The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part I. Corporate Governance Introduced

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; U.S. Department of Commerce

    2004-01-01

    The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issu...

  5. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  6. ORGANIC FOOD AS AN EMERGING MARKET: PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMPTION, SUPPLY GOVERNANCE AND RETAIL STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Aertsens, Joris

    2011-01-01

    The literature and my own empirical research indicate that most consumers hold a positive attitude towards organic food and agree that there are good reasons to motivate the purchase and consumption of organic products. However organic consumption remains very limited -with a market share, for organic food, of only 3.4% in 2008 in Germany, the largest European market. This study sheds more light on the factors influencing (slowing down) growth in the emerging organic market, both on the c...

  7. Risk Management in IT Governance Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of governance has an already old contour: the system by which business corporations are directed and controlled. The most praised principles regarding shareholder rights, transparency and board accountability now constitute the foundation for new tendencies evolved from such ground. Executive compensation, transparency and shareholder reporting are new issues attached to board responsibilities. Besides such almost negative approaches the board faces a more and more prominent role from risk management and IT governance perspective. Nowadays is generally acknowledged that the board is in charge for managing and controlling the risks to assets of the enterprises and business future. IT Governance has emerged as a support for corporate governance, as an important part of board’s striving efforts to perform better in a competition environment. These responsibilities, risk management and IT Governance, remain within the framework of old concept of corporate governance and are fed from its substance. The interaction between these concepts is the core interest of this research.IT Governance is defined as procedures and policies established in order to assure that the IT system of an organization sustains its goals and strategies. The management of the organisations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organisation. The evolution of the present IT environment is a natural process according to which business environment should adapt.

  8. 78 FR 76182 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... that it has a clear and transparent governance structure, as well as clarify the organization, duties... Governance Committee Charter December 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act... Clearing Corporation (``OCC'') concerns the charter of the Governance Committee (``GC Charter'') of OCC's...

  9. 78 FR 77181 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Advance Notice Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... financial system because it will enhance the transparency of OCC's governance arrangements. The advance...-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Advance Notice Concerning the Governance... Advance Notice This advance notice concerns the charter of the Governance Committee (``GC Charter'') of...

  10. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  11. Transparency and product variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study long run effects of transparency on the consumer side in a differentiated market. Only some consumers know prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and firm entry. This improves welfare and, in most cases, average consumer utility....

  12. Electrical property heterogeneity at transparent conductive oxide/organic semiconductor interfaces: mapping contact ohmicity using conducting-tip atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Gordon A; Veneman, P Alexander; Placencia, Diogenes; Armstrong, Neal R

    2012-11-27

    We demonstrate mapping of electrical properties of heterojunctions of a molecular semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine, CuPc) and a transparent conducting oxide (indium-tin oxide, ITO), on 20-500 nm length scales, using a conductive-probe atomic force microscopy technique, scanning current spectroscopy (SCS). SCS maps are generated for CuPc/ITO heterojunctions as a function of ITO activation procedures and modification with variable chain length alkyl-phosphonic acids (PAs). We correlate differences in small length scale electrical properties with the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on CuPc/C(60) heterojunctions, built on these same ITO substrates. SCS maps the "ohmicity" of ITO/CuPc heterojunctions, creating arrays of spatially resolved current-voltage (J-V) curves. Each J-V curve is fit with modified Mott-Gurney expressions, mapping a fitted exponent (γ), where deviations from γ = 2.0 suggest nonohmic behavior. ITO/CuPc/C(60)/BCP/Al OPVs built on nonactivated ITO show mainly nonohmic SCS maps and dark J-V curves with increased series resistance (R(S)), lowered fill-factors (FF), and diminished device performance, especially near the open-circuit voltage. Nearly optimal behavior is seen for OPVs built on oxygen-plasma-treated ITO contacts, which showed SCS maps comparable to heterojunctions of CuPc on clean Au. For ITO electrodes modified with PAs there is a strong correlation between PA chain length and the degree of ohmicity and uniformity of electrical response in ITO/CuPc heterojunctions. ITO electrodes modified with 6-8 carbon alkyl-PAs show uniform and nearly ohmic SCS maps, coupled with acceptable CuPc/C(60)OPV performance. ITO modified with C14 and C18 alkyl-PAs shows dramatic decreases in FF, increases in R(S), and greatly enhanced recombination losses.

  13. Transparency in armaments, regional dialogue and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the face of recent fundamental changes in the international situation, regional and subregional issues have acquired additional urgency and importance in the field of disarmament and international security. The pursuit of regional solutions to regional problems is thus being encouraged by the international community. Towards this end, the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs is seeking to promote regional approaches to disarmament either through the United Nations Regional Centres for Peace and Disarmament or in cooperation with individual Governments. Regional conferences, meetings and seminars to facilitate exchange of ideas and information between governmental and non-governmental sectors, and between governmental and other experts, have been organized as a means of finding common ground, fostering the process of confidence-building and delineating areas of possible future negotiation and agreement. Within this framework, a Conference on the theme 'Transparency in armaments, regional dialogue and disarmament' was held in Hiroshima, Japan. The Conference, the second one held in Hiroshima on disarmament issues, was organized by the Centre for Disarmament Affairs through the Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific and in collaboration with the Government of Japan and the Prefecture and City of Hiroshima. This publication is based on material presented at that Conference

  14. [Governance of primary health-care-based health-care organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    An analytical framework was developed for explaining the conditions for the effectiveness of different strategies promoting integrated primary health-care (PHC) service-based systems in Latin-America. Different modes of governance (clan, incentives and hierarchy) were characterised from a political economics viewpoint for representing alternative forms of regulation promoting innovation in health-service-providing organisations. The necessary conditions for guaranteeing the modes of governance's effectiveness are presented, as are their implications in terms of posts in play. The institutional construction of an integrated health system is interpreted as being a product of a social process in which different modes of governance are combined, operating with different ways of resolving normative aspects for regulating service provision (with the hierarchical mode), resource distribution (with the incentives mode) and on the social values legitimising such process (with the clan mode).

  15. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  16. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  17. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  18. Transparency and Product Variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    We study the long run e¤ects of transparency in a circular town model of a differentiated market. The market is not fully transparent on the consumer side: A fraction of consumers are uninformed about prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and entry of firms. This i...

  19. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    voluntarism. I argue that transparency to factual questions occurs in practical deliberation in ways parallel to transparency in doxastic deliberation. I argue that this should make us reconsider the appeal to transparency in arguments against doxastic voluntarism, and the wider issue of distinguishing...... theoretical from practical rationality....

  20. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour

  1. Can transparency be measured - a look ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorle, A.

    2007-01-01

    The simple answer to this question is no. But if you define the expression and decide transparency actually is, the answer might be different. Transparency means different things in different places. In one country transparency meant almost total access to anything that a government authority has in its possession. In another country transparency is more strict access to certain decisions, decisions makers or documents written with the sole purpose of informing the public. What variables could be found in the word transparent, what is a transparent regulator? In this short presentation we will deal with some important settings or fundamental prerequisites for a regulator calling itself transparent. Perhaps we should look at them in order of importance. Some days it is difficult to do all at once. As a final point, if we as regulators wish to call ourselves transparent in a future with diminishing national borders, fast electronic communication and increasing world wide media impact, what does the world require from us as regulators? (author)

  2. 75 FR 26916 - Federal Acquisition Regulation: FAR Case 2009-004, Enhancing Contract Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Regulation: FAR Case 2009-004, Enhancing Contract Transparency AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General... commercial or financial information. This transparency effort is intended to promote efficiency in Government... the Administration's memorandum entitled Transparency and Open Government (January 21, 2009...

  3. PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPARENCY:A CONCEPTUAL DISSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andreea SÎNTEJUDEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transparency has increasingly attracted the attention of academic, political and business areas. Many studies have demonstrated the need for adopting this corporate governance principle also in the public sector, a phenomenon that has become widespread at international level. The academic study field defines transparency as the ability to look clearly through the window of an institution. Starting from this statement, the research focuses on the importance of transparency in public governance and on the framework for identifying and assessing this concept. Furthermore, this paper also analysis the limits of this notion in order to maintain its significance and effectiveness. Thus, based on the literature review, this study summarizes the opinions and arguments of various authors in the field regarding the notion of transparency in the public sector. At the same time, it analysis the conclusions of empirical studies on this topic. The results of the study reveal the importance and necessity of information disclosure among different users for increasing citizens' trust in government and achieving good governance. However, the positive aspects of transparency tend to be overestimated and considering the ambiguity of this concept it should be carefully handled.

  4. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.

  5. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  6. Developing Partnerships To Meet Clients' Needs in Changing Government Organizations: A Consultative Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, William A.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the development of partnerships across three employment-related government ministries, in a context of organizational restructuring and downsizing. Describes a consultation process regarding effective collaboration to assess unemployed clients' employability needs. In meetings, the workers developed a process that involved the cooperation…

  7. Organizing space: Dutch space science between astronomy, industry and the government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baneke, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes how scientists, private companies and the government in the Netherlands cooperated in the creation of the new field of space research. It examines especially the role of Philips Electronics and Fokker Aircraft, and the consequences of their different structure and corporate

  8. Through a glass darkly - the meaning of transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loy, J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper first discusses the word 'transparency'. It is a metaphor drawn from optics; it is a term used in social and political science; the international civil society organisation. 'Transparency International' sees it as the paradigm to fight corruption in the world. From this discussion, the paper offers a working definition applicable to a nuclear regulatory organisation. The paper describes a difference between having transparent process, which might be called passive transparency; and transparent engagement with stakeholders -- active transparency. It discusses some of the issues and problems that arise for a nuclear regulatory organisation seeking to operate transparently. Much of the difficulty with true transparency is that it reveals the 'untidiness' of life. 'We see now as through a glass darkly'. What is the general view of society and the cultural attitudes towards Government agencies revealing that they are not perfect'? Can you have a transparent nuclear regulator of a secretive industry and with other stakeholders having political agendas? How can a technical 'judgment call' ever be fully transparent? Can an active culture of transparency sometimes result in a mere public relations campaign? Can transparency in a nuclear regulatory create expectations amongst stakeholders that will prove impossible to meet? These questions are discussed with some real-life examples. The paper concludes with some suggested 'fundamentals' for transparency in nuclear regulatory organisations. (author)

  9. Transparency through the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haginoya, Tohru [Inst. of Nuclear Materials Management, Japan Chapter, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  10. Transparency through the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  11. The association of hospital governance with innovation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Wei; Yan, Yu-Hua; Fang, Shih-Chieh; Inamdar, Syeda Noorein; Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Hospitals in Taiwan are facing major changes and innovation is increasingly becoming a critical factor for remaining competitive. One determinant that can have a significant impact on innovation is hospital governance. However, there is limited prior research on the relationship between hospital governance and innovation. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual framework to hypothesize the relationship between governance mechanisms and innovation and to empirically test the hypotheses in hospital organizations. We examine the relationship between governance mechanisms and innovation using data on 102 hospitals in Taiwan from the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation and Quality Improvement. We model governance mechanisms using board structure, information transparency and strategic decision-making processes. For our modeling and data analysis we use measurement and structural models. We find that in hospital governance, information transparency and strategic decision making did impact innovation. However, governance structure did not. To facilitate innovation, hospital boards can increase information transparency and improve the decision-making process when considering strategic investments in innovative initiatives. To remain competitive, hospital boards need to develop and monitor indices that measure hospital innovation to ensure ongoing progress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. PERCEPTIONS OF MEDICAL STUDENTS IN A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE TOWARDS ORGAN DONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Organ transplantation is considered one of the greatest advances of modern science that has given many patients a renewed lease of life. Assessing the medical student’s knowledge, attitude and perception regarding organ donation is very importan t for future organ supply as they are the future doctors who needs to motivate the public to pledge their organs for donation. AIM & OBJECTIVES : 1 To study the knowledge and attitude of the medical students towards organ donation. 2 To understand the per ceptions of medical students regarding organ donation. STUDY DESIGN : A cross sectional study of descriptive nature. STUDY SETTING : Study was conducted at Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. METHODS AND MATERIAL S : The study was done among 123 medical stu dents of 9 th semester using a semi - structured questionnaire. Knowledge was assessed by giving score to the responses. Those obtaining a score of 50% or above were considered as having adequate knowledge. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Data was entered in MS excel and analysed using SPSS student version 21 . RESULTS : Overall 56 % of students were found to have adequate knowledge. Around one fourth of the study population knew about the various organs which can be donated (26% and about t he minimum duration of organ survival (27.6%. Around 48.8% students showed positive attitude towards organ donation and wanted to donate their organs. CONCLUSION : It has been found in the study about the gaps in the knowledge levels of medical students ab out organ donation. These findings draw attention to a need to review medical school curricula to ensure that they contain sufficient teaching on organ donation, with a focus on information needed by physicians to maximize donation rates. This can be utili zed as a strategy for the shortage of donor organs for transplantation

  13. The art of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles.

  14. Leadership in Government Organization Change Efforts: A Multi-Case Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarvis, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... Large bureaucracies, hierarchical structures, and deeply rooted work cultures are some characteristics of governmental organizations that have proven to be serious impediments to performance improving change...

  15. TTIP, CETA, TiSA behind closed doors : Transparency in the EU trade policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Transparency in diplomatic negotiations and political discussions is an oxymoron. Rather, secrecy and informality traditionally reign negotiations at the bilateral, regional and multilateral level. Yet transparency ranks among the most basic desiderata in the grammar of global governance and has

  16. Evaluating the impact of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) on corruption in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Fenton Villar (Paul); E. Papyrakis (Elissaios)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is internationally recognised as a leading anti-corruption scheme, which promotes transparency, accountability and good governance of public oil, gas, and mining revenues. This article provides the first rigorous quantitative

  17. Documento Oficial - 1a Conferência Nacional sobre Transparência e Controle Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Controladoria Geral da União

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How it all began ...In September 2009, the Comptroller General of the Union (GTU held1st National Seminar on Social Control. The event over500 participants, featured presentations by several experimentssuccess in the practice of social control. At the end of the event,participants handed in a petition to the Chief Minister CGU, requesting the convening of a national conference on transparency and social control.On December 8, 2010, the President signed the Decree of Convocation of the 1st National Conference on Transparency and Social Control in meeting the demand of society to governments, citizens, businesses and organizations civil society could think and establish jointly guidelines for the effective promotion of public transparency and social control.

  18. Organization and Information: Firms' Governance Choices in Rational-Expectations Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Gibbons; Richard Holden; Michael Powell

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a rational-expectations model of price formation in an intermediate-good market under uncertainty. There is a continuum of firms, each consisting of a party who can reduce production cost and a party who can discover information about demand. Both parties can make specific investments at private cost, and there is a machine that either party can control. As in incomplete-contracting models, different governance structures (i.e., different allocations of control of the machine) crea...

  19. Organizing urban ecosystem services through environmental stewardship governance in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    How do stewardship groups contribute to the management of urban ecosystem services? In this paper, we integrate the research on environmental stewardship with the social-ecological systems literature to explain how stewardship groups serve as bridge organizations between public agencies and civic organizations, working across scales and sectors to build the flexible...

  20. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  1. Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne Kristin; Bünemann, E.K.; Cooper, J.

    2017-01-01

    -farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal. The recent proposed revision of EU regulations for organic production (2014) puts less emphasis on closing nutrient cycles...... as means are taken to ensure the quality and safety of these inputs. Awareness of the need to close nutrient cycles may contribute to adapting regulations and private standards to support recycling of nutrients from society to organic agriculture. A better definition of the term “natural substance...

  2. Organic carbon and humic acids in sediments of the Arabian Sea and factors governing their distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids are enriched on the slope compared to the inner and outer shelf. While upwelling, primary productivity and redox conditions at the bottom are known to influence organic matter accumulation in sediments, bacterial population and sediment texture...

  3. Generations in organizations. Ageing workforce and personnel policy as context for intergenerational conflict in local government

    OpenAIRE

    Platteau, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The topic of the dissertation is the collaboration between generations in the workplace. In the first chapter, this topic is situated in the context of the ‘ageing problem’. The question that is addressed is why the collaboration between generations has become a point of attention for the personnel policy, and more specifically for ‘age management’ that is targeted at keeping workers to ‘work longer’. Also, the context of the research, namely Flemish Local Government, is discussed. In the sec...

  4. APPLICATION AND VALIDATION OF DMAIC SIX SIGMA TOOL FOR ENHANCING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN A GOVERNMENT R&D ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Kansal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to explore and validate DMAIC six sigma tool to enhance the customer satisfaction in an ISO 9001: 2008 certified government R&D organization. The organization chosen for this study has implemented QMS since last six years with an aim of attaining 85% customer satisfaction. The deficiency in customer satisfaction by 8% has been observed after comprehensive data analysis of the customer feedback. The Lean Six Sigma tools and techniques have been applied followed by solution implementation and effectiveness assessment. The developed solution is found to be effective in enhancing the customer satisfaction by more than 85%. This has established that the designed LSS tools are suitable and effective in an R&D set-up for improving service quality and customer satisfaction. The results give feasible solutions to the emerging service oriented government R&D sector to enhance customer satisfaction. Limitation of the study is that the results are based on the limited inputs from one organization and the tools can vary depending upon the mandate and quality objectives.

  5. A new governance space for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to ‘those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people’. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health – such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm – that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain. PMID:24560259

  6. A new governance space for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain.

  7. Transparency views by media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation, various problems surrounding the issues of transparency, such as 'What exactly should be transparent?' 'Is all that we want amounting only to transparency?' 'Is it possible to thoroughly implement transparency', etc., are discussed with due consideration for the viewpoints of the wide range of parties concerned involving areas of politics, administration, enterprises, media, individuals, and so on. First of all, the explanation is focused on how the transparency is recognised, as well as how it is regarded as important, for the public at large and the media. Then, based on the concept that transparency is required for what cannot be justified to be secret, we will contemplate what should be transparent in the areas of politics, administration and enterprises, using the case of nuclear issues as example. Next, the discussion will proceed to the point whether the achievement of transparency itself should be the ultimate goal, in the light of taking into consideration the standpoints of individuals and the receivers of the information, in addition to that of the administration, politics, and enterprises. In closing, we will discuss what the necessary measures will be to materialize the complete transparency on the basis of the discussions made thus far. (author)

  8. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  9. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  10. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  11. Governance, resource curse and donor

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Plan Part 1. Governance What is good governance? Why is it important? How can we measure good governance? Part 2. The resource curse and the importance of governance in resource rich countries Focus on political economy (PE) models of the resource curse Policy implications Some donor initiatives Transparency and the EITI Petroleum related aid - Window dressing initiatives or research based? Conclusion Governance, resource curse and donor

  12. How Program Managers Can Use Whistleblowing to Reduce Fraud Within Government Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Bateman & Crant, 2003). The theory of “crowding out,” as applied to regulatory incentives, suggests that when people attribute their actions to...S. & Roberts, J. (2011). Whistleblowers in organizations: prophets at work? Journal of Business Ethics (2012) 110:71–84 Bateman , T. S. & Crant, J

  13. 78 FR 14437 - Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... because of discomfort about waiving the application of a criminal statute. OGE fielded numerous inquiries... organization; agencies will remain free to impose similar limits as they deem appropriate in the future.\\5\\ See... speech, by declining to permit employee participation, would have to outweigh employees' strong interest...

  14. A modern framework for knowledge preservation at government R and D organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, M. Elizabeth D., E-mail: acar@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: barroso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge management - KM has attracted considerable attention in recent years and is being practiced in most of the organizations. In the nuclear area, the adoption of the expression 'Nuclear Knowledge Management' emphasizes that there are a few knowledge issues and characteristics that are peculiar of nuclear organizations. It is a fact that such organizations in most of the countries are facing an process of their professionals, as a result of loss of emphasis or phasing down of their nuclear programs and consequent low interest of young people to enroll in nuclear science and technology carriers. For the reasons mentioned above, many of the KM initiatives in nuclear organizations have targeted the called class of 'knowledge preservation problems'. This paper describes a work that is being carried out at the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute, more precisely at the Ionizing Radiation Metrology National Laboratory. The work addresses a number of problems that can be described in terms of the questions and approaches that are being used to solve it. A methodology encompassing process mapping and analysis, knowledge elicitation and mapping, critical analysis and socio technical analysis based on social network analysis have been put together. This paper describes the conceived methodological framework and gives examples of its application so far. (author)

  15. A modern framework for knowledge preservation at government R and D organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, M. Elizabeth D.; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management - KM has attracted considerable attention in recent years and is being practiced in most of the organizations. In the nuclear area, the adoption of the expression 'Nuclear Knowledge Management' emphasizes that there are a few knowledge issues and characteristics that are peculiar of nuclear organizations. It is a fact that such organizations in most of the countries are facing an process of their professionals, as a result of loss of emphasis or phasing down of their nuclear programs and consequent low interest of young people to enroll in nuclear science and technology carriers. For the reasons mentioned above, many of the KM initiatives in nuclear organizations have targeted the called class of 'knowledge preservation problems'. This paper describes a work that is being carried out at the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute, more precisely at the Ionizing Radiation Metrology National Laboratory. The work addresses a number of problems that can be described in terms of the questions and approaches that are being used to solve it. A methodology encompassing process mapping and analysis, knowledge elicitation and mapping, critical analysis and socio technical analysis based on social network analysis have been put together. This paper describes the conceived methodological framework and gives examples of its application so far. (author)

  16. Intuitive Judgments Govern Students' Answering Patterns in Multiple-Choice Exercises in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has revealed that students going through their undergraduate and graduate studies in organic chemistry have a fragmented conceptual knowledge of the subject. Rote memorization, rule-based reasoning, and heuristic strategies seem to strongly influence students' performances. There appears to be a gap between what we…

  17. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  18. Listed Firm's Level of Stakeholder Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes how Danish listed firms comply with the Danish Corporate Governance Code's recommendations regarding the categories: Role of shareholders, role of stakeholders and transparency. It is shown that the number of recommendations can be explained by six different underlying facto...

  19. HUD Digital Government Strategy Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD Digital Strategic Plan clearly articulates the goals of openness and transparency, furthering the innovation economy and meeting more global government wide...

  20. Global energy governance: trade, infrastructure, and the diffusion of international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Baccini; Veronica Lenzi; Paul W. Thurner

    2013-01-01

    Why do states choose to join and form international governmental organizations (IGOs) that regulate energy policy? In this article we make three specific contributions to the literature on international cooperation and diffusion. First, we show that countries form and join energy IGOs in response to memberships previously gained by direct competitors among oil and gas producers and consumers. Moreover, we demonstrate that energy IGOs diffuse among countries that share oil and gas pipelines. F...

  1. Governance, Management and IT Strategy in Organizations and Implications for Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2008-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of discussing management of information technology (IT) in organizations from a theoretical point of view. Understanding the value that information technology can bring to corporations and therefore management and leadership of IT assets is a very important management...... distinguishes between the models that can be used by large corporations to manage IT and the barriers that small and medium enterprises face in adopting IT. Finally the paper very shortly discusses implications of management of IT for outsourcing decisions....

  2. Molecular Packing and Arrangement Govern the Photo-Oxidative Stability of Organic Photovoltaic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mateker, William R.

    2015-08-19

    For long-term performance chemically robust materials are desired for organic solar cells (OSCs). Illuminating neat films of OSC materials in air and tracking the rate of absorption loss, or photobleaching, can quickly screen a material’s photo-chemical stability. In this report, we photobleach neat films of OSC materials including polymers, solution-processed oligomers, solution-processed small molecules, and vacuum-deposited small molecules. Across the materials we test, we observe photobleaching rates that span seven orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we find that the film morphology of any particular material impacts the observed photobleaching rate, and that amorphous films photobleach faster than crystalline ones. In an extreme case, films of amorphous rubrene photobleach at a rate 2500 times faster than polycrystalline films. When we compare density to photobleaching rate, we find that stability increases with density. We also investigate the relationship between backbone planarity and chemical reactivity. The polymer PBDTTPD is more photostable than it’s more twisted and less ordered furan derivitative, PBDFTPD. Finally, we relate our work to what is known about the chemical stability of structural polymers, organic pigments, and organic light emitting diode materials. For the highest chemical stability, planar materials that form dense, crystalline film morphologies should be designed for OSCs.

  3. Molecular Packing and Arrangement Govern the Photo-Oxidative Stability of Organic Photovoltaic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mateker, William R.; Heumueller, Thomas; Cheacharoen, Rongrong; Sachs-Quintana, I. T.; Warnan, Julien; Liu, Xiaofeng; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Beaujuge, Pierre; McGehee, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    For long-term performance chemically robust materials are desired for organic solar cells (OSCs). Illuminating neat films of OSC materials in air and tracking the rate of absorption loss, or photobleaching, can quickly screen a material’s photo-chemical stability. In this report, we photobleach neat films of OSC materials including polymers, solution-processed oligomers, solution-processed small molecules, and vacuum-deposited small molecules. Across the materials we test, we observe photobleaching rates that span seven orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we find that the film morphology of any particular material impacts the observed photobleaching rate, and that amorphous films photobleach faster than crystalline ones. In an extreme case, films of amorphous rubrene photobleach at a rate 2500 times faster than polycrystalline films. When we compare density to photobleaching rate, we find that stability increases with density. We also investigate the relationship between backbone planarity and chemical reactivity. The polymer PBDTTPD is more photostable than it’s more twisted and less ordered furan derivitative, PBDFTPD. Finally, we relate our work to what is known about the chemical stability of structural polymers, organic pigments, and organic light emitting diode materials. For the highest chemical stability, planar materials that form dense, crystalline film morphologies should be designed for OSCs.

  4. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  5. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  6. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  7. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  8. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  9. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  10. Advice on Admissions Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2018

    2018-01-01

    Admissions transparency means that prospective domestic undergraduate students can easily find good quality admissions information that allows them to compare courses and providers and make informed study choices. In October 2016 the Higher Education Standards Panel (HESP) made recommendations to achieve greater transparency in higher education…

  11. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  12. Collagen fibril architecture, domain organization, and triple-helical conformation govern its proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Shiamalee; Antipova, Olga; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2008-02-26

    We describe the molecular structure of the collagen fibril and how it affects collagen proteolysis or "collagenolysis." The fibril-forming collagens are major components of all mammalian connective tissues, providing the structural and organizational framework for skin, blood vessels, bone, tendon, and other tissues. The triple helix of the collagen molecule is resistant to most proteinases, and the matrix metalloproteinases that do proteolyze collagen are affected by the architecture of collagen fibrils, which are notably more resistant to collagenolysis than lone collagen monomers. Until now, there has been no molecular explanation for this. Full or limited proteolysis of the collagen fibril is known to be a key process in normal growth, development, repair, and cell differentiation, and in cancerous tumor progression and heart disease. Peptide fragments generated by collagenolysis, and the conformation of exposed sites on the fibril as a result of limited proteolysis, regulate these processes and that of cellular attachment, but it is not known how or why. Using computational and molecular visualization methods, we found that the arrangement of collagen monomers in the fibril (its architecture) protects areas vulnerable to collagenolysis and strictly governs the process. This in turn affects the accessibility of a cell interaction site located near the cleavage region. Our observations suggest that the C-terminal telopeptide must be proteolyzed before collagenase can gain access to the cleavage site. Collagenase then binds to the substrate's "interaction domain," which facilitates the triple-helix unwinding/dissociation function of the enzyme before collagenolysis.

  13. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Governing Cocaine Supply and Organized Crime from Latin America and the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stambøl, Eva Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    at dismantling transnational organized crime along the cocaine trafficking routes to Europe might have unintended consequences. While keeping in mind the shifting tectonics of the international drug prohibition consensus, the article goes on to analyze the increasingly salient security rationale in EU external......The logics of the European Union’s policy and practices against narcotic drugs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have undergone a substantial shift the past decade: from development to security. Based on an empirical mapping of the EU’s drug-related projects in LAC, this article argues...... that an ‘integrated and balanced’ approach to drugs policy is being replaced by a bifurcation between the broader domains of development policy and security policy. Questions are raised as to how the EU’s projects on development and security might counteract one another, and how the Union’s programme aimed...

  15. The Ramifications of Meddling with Systems Governed by Self-organized Critical Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, B. A.; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, I.

    2002-12-01

    Complex natural, well as man-made, systems often exhibit characteristics similar to those seen in self-organized critical (SOC) systems. The concept of self-organized criticality brings together ideas of self-organization of nonlinear dynamical systems with the often-observed near critical behavior of many natural phenomena. These phenomena exhibit self-similarities over extended ranges of spatial and temporal scales. In those systems, scale lengths may be described by fractal geometry and time scales that lead to 1/f-like power spectra. Natural applications include modeling the motion of tectonics plates, forest fires, magnetospheric dynamics, spin glass systems, and turbulent transport. In man-made systems, applications have included traffic dynamics, power and communications networks, and financial markets among many others. Simple cellular automata models such as the running sandpile model have been very useful in reproducing the complexity and characteristics of these systems. One characteristic property of the SOC systems is that they relax through what we call events. These events can happen over all scales of the system. Examples of these events are: earthquakes in the case of plate tectonic; fires in forest evolution extinction in the co evolution of biological species; and blackouts in power transmission systems. In a time-averaged sense, these systems are subcritical (that is, they lie in an average state that should not trigger any events) and the relaxation events happen intermittently. The time spent in a subcritical state relative to the time of the events varies from one system to another. For instance, the chance of finding a forest on fire is very low with the frequency of fires being on the order of one fire every few years and with many of these fires small and inconsequential. Very large fires happen over time periods of decades or even centuries. However, because of their consequences, these large but infrequent events are the important ones

  16. Collaboration between Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Delivering Curative Health Services in North Darfur State, Sudan- a National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I A Yagub, Abdallah

    2014-05-01

    North Darfur State has been affected by conflict since 2003 and the government has not been able to provide adequate curative health services to the people. The government has come to rely on Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to provide curative health services. This study was conducted to examine the existing collaboration between government and NGOs in curative health service delivery in North Darfur State, and to identify the challenges that affect their collaboration. Documentary data were collected from government offices and medical organizations. Primary data were obtained through interviews with government and NGOs representatives. The interviews were conducted with (1) expatriates working for international NGOs (N=15) and (2), health professionals and administrators working in the health sector (N= 45). The collaboration between the government and NGOs has been very weak because of security issues and lack of trust. The NGOs collaborate by providing human and financial resources, material and equipment, and communication facilities. The NGOs supply 70% of curative health services, and contribute 52.9% of the health budget in North Darfur State. The NGOs have employed 1 390 health personnel, established 44 health centres and manage and support 83 health facilities across the State. The NGOs have played a positive role in collaborating with the government in North Darfur State in delivering curative health services, while government's role has been negative. The problem that faces the government in future is how health facilities will be run should a peaceful settlement be reached and NGOs leave the region.

  17. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  18. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  19. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  20. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  1. Toward an E-Government Semantic Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbodio, Marco Luca; Moulin, Claude; Benamou, Norbert; Barthès, Jean-Paul

    This chapter describes the major aspects of an e-government platform in which semantics underpins more traditional technologies in order to enable new capabilities and to overcome technical and cultural challenges. The design and development of such an e-government Semantic Platform has been conducted with the financial support of the European Commission through the Terregov research project: "Impact of e-government on Territorial Government Services" (Terregov 2008). The goal of this platform is to let local government and government agencies offer online access to their services in an interoperable way, and to allow them to participate in orchestrated processes involving services provided by multiple agencies. Implementing a business process through an electronic procedure is indeed a core goal in any networked organization. However, the field of e-government brings specific constraints to the operations allowed in procedures, especially concerning the flow of private citizens' data: because of legal reasons in most countries, such data are allowed to circulate only from agency to agency directly. In order to promote transparency and responsibility in e-government while respecting the specific constraints on data flows, Terregov supports the creation of centrally controlled orchestrated processes; while the cross agencies data flows are centrally managed, data flow directly across agencies.

  2. Do reimbursement recommendation processes used by government drug plans in Canada adhere to good governance principles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawson NS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nigel SB Rawson,1–3 John Adams4 1Eastlake Research Group, Oakville, ON, 2Canadian Health Policy Institute, Toronto, ON, 3Fraser Institute, Vancouver, BC, 4Canadian PKU and Allied Disorders Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: In democratic societies, good governance is the key to assuring the confidence of stakeholders and other citizens in how governments and organizations interact with and relate to them and how decisions are taken. Although defining good governance can be debatable, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP set of principles is commonly used. The reimbursement recommendation processes of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, which carries out assessments for all public drug plans outside Quebec, are examined in the light of the UNDP governance principles and compared with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence system in England. The adherence of CADTH's processes to the principles of accountability, transparency, participatory, equity, responsiveness and consensus is poor, especially when compared with the English system, due in part to CADTH's lack of genuine independence. CADTH's overriding responsibility is toward the governments that "own," fund and manage it, while the agency’s status as a not-for-profit corporation under federal law protects it from standard government forms of accountability. The recent integration of CADTH’s reimbursement recommendation processes with the provincial public drug plans’ collective system for price negotiation with pharmaceutical companies reinforces CADTH's role as a nonindependent partner in the pursuit of governments’ cost-containment objectives, which should not be part of its function. Canadians need a national organization for evaluating drugs for reimbursement in the public interest that fully embraces the principles of good governance – one that is publicly accountable, transparent and fair and includes all stakeholders

  3. A Study on Technology Architecture and Serving Approaches of Electronic Government System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunnian; Huang, Yiyun; Pan, Qin

    As E-government becomes a very active research area, a lot of solutions to solve citizens' needs are being deployed. This paper provides technology architecture of E-government system and approaches of service in Public Administrations. The proposed electronic system addresses the basic E-government requirements of user friendliness, security, interoperability, transparency and effectiveness in the communication between small and medium sized public organizations and their citizens, businesses and other public organizations. The paper has provided several serving approaches of E-government, which includes SOA, web service, mobile E-government, public library and every has its own characteristics and application scenes. Still, there are a number of E-government issues for further research on organization structure change, including research methodology, data collection analysis, etc.

  4. Filling the interspace—restoring arid land mosses: source populations, organic matter, and overwintering govern success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Lea; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts contribute to ecosystem functions and occupy space that could be available to invasive annual grasses. Given disturbances in the semiarid shrub steppe communities, we embarked on a set of studies to investigate restoration potential of mosses in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. We examined establishment and growth of two moss species common to the Great Basin, USA: Bryum argenteum and Syntrichia ruralis from two environmental settings (warm dry vs. cool moist). Moss fragments were inoculated into a third warm dry setting, on bare soil in spring and fall, both with and without a jute net and with and without spring irrigation. Moss cover was monitored in spring seasons of three consecutive years. Both moss species increased in cover over the winter. When Bryum received spring irrigation that was out of sync with natural precipitation patterns, moss cover increased and then crashed, taking two seasons to recover. Syntrichia did not respond to the irrigation treatment. The addition of jute net increased moss cover under all conditions, except Syntrichia following fall inoculation, which required a second winter to increase in cover. The warm dry population of Bryum combined with jute achieved on average 60% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved only 28% cover by the end of the study. Differences were less pronounced for Syntrichia where moss from the warm dry population with jute achieved on average 51% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved 43% cover by the end of the study. Restoration of arid land mosses may quickly protect soils from erosion while occupying sites before invasive plants. We show that higher moss cover will be achieved quickly with the addition of organic matter and when moss fragments originate from sites with a climate that is similar to that of the restoration site.

  5. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Enhance Transparency Report to Congressional Committees December 2015 GAO-16-23 United States Government Accountability Office United...SUSTAINMENT Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency Why GAO Did This Study DOD and DOE are...modernization plans and (2) complete, transparent information on the methodologies used to develop those estimates. GAO analyzed the departments

  6. Program of financial support of civil society organizations in Tijuana: Building a relationship between civil society and municipal government from a political change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Delhumeau Rivera

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This document analyzes the relations between society and government that took place with the Financial Aid to Civil Society Organizations Program in Tijuana. The decentralization process of social policy in Mexico is revised as the context in which new programs and initiatives are developed promoting a stronger participation of the society in the policy process. The reflection on the social policy of the National Action Party in Baja California since 1989, has lead us to see the new challenges that the Financial Aid to Civil Society Organizations Program presents to the local and state government and the social organizations.

  7. A Dictionary for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2001-11-15

    There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

  8. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  9. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  10. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  11. Surface Modifier-Free Organic-Inorganic Hybridization To Produce Optically Transparent and Highly Refractive Bulk Materials Composed of Epoxy Resins and ZrO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Moriya; Narumi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou

    2018-04-25

    Surface modifier-free hybridization of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) with epoxy-based polymers is demonstrated for the first time to afford highly transparent and refractive bulk materials. This is achieved by a unique and versatile hybridization via the one-pot direct phase transfer of ZrO 2 NPs from water to epoxy monomers without any aggregation followed by curing with anhydride. Three types of representative epoxy monomers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (CEL), and 1,3,5-tris(3-(oxiran-2-yl)propyl)-1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione (TEPIC), are used to produce transparent viscous dispersions. The resulting ZrO 2 NPs are thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. The results from DLS and TEM analyses indicate nanodispersion of ZrO 2 into epoxy monomers as a continuous medium. A surface modification mechanism and the binding fashion during phase transfer are proposed based on the FT-IR and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. Epoxy-based hybrid materials with high transparency and refractive index are successfully fabricated by heat curing or polymerizing a mixture of monomers containing epoxy-functionalized ZrO 2 NPs and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride in the presence of a phosphoric catalyst. The TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the hybrids show a nanodispersion of ZrO 2 in the epoxy networks. The refractive index at 594 nm ( n 594 ) increases up to 1.765 for BADGE-based hybrids, 1.667 for CEL-based hybrids, and 1.693 for TEPIC-based hybrids. Their refractive indices and Abbe's numbers are quantitatively described by the Lorentz-Lorenz effective medium expansion theory. Their transmissivity is also reasonably explained using Fresnel refraction, Rayleigh scattering, and the Lambert-Beer theories. This surface modifier-free hybridization

  12. The need for an organized approach for Government Medical Insurance Programs in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F

    2005-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia has a disorganized approach to enrolling their retired faculty in Medicare Supplement Insurance Programs. An organized approach to establishing Medicare Supplemental Insurance for retired University faculty should include the following administrative changes to correct this potential health-care crisis for retired state faculty members. First, the ombudsman for human resources for the state universities must receive educational programs that prepare the retired faculty members over the age of 65 to select the corporate insurance policy from Anthem Blue Cross/Blue Shield Insurance Company. Included in this educational program should be a review of the Advantage 65 Member Handbook. Second, they must point out to the faculty member that they are receiving a CORPORATE insurance policy rather than an individual insurance policy from Anthem Blue Cross/Blue Shield Insurance Company. They must provide the telephone numbers of the Anthem Blue Cross/Blue Shield offices in Roanoke, Virginia. Concomitantly, they must send the name and address of the faculty member to the Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Human Resource Management. They should inform the faculty member that the Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Human Resource Management will be sending them newsletters that outline any changes in the corporate insurance policy that they coordinate with the Anthem Blue Cross/Blue Shield Insurance Company. The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Human Resource Management must take on some new responsibilities in their efforts to coordinate health-care coverage of the retired faculty over the age of 65. First, they must have a computer registry of all corporate health-care policies of the individual faculty members to ensure that newsletters are being sent to them. Ideally, this agency should have a computerized system that allows it to send out its newsletter update by email to those retired faculty members who have computers. They should

  13. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  14. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  15. E-Governance Frameworks - Agenda Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityesh BHATT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic governance may be defined as the delivery of the government services and information to the public using electronic means. Use of IT in the government facilitates an efficient, speedy and transparent process for disseminating information to the public and other agencies, and for performing the government administration activities.

  16. Good government and good governance: record keeping in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the challenges that arise when record keeping systems are advocated as a necessary under-pinning for good government and good governance. The relationship between record keeping and accountability is analysed and contextualised in relation to transparency and Freedom of Information ...

  17. Building a Foundation for Knowledge Co-Creation in Collaborative Water Governance: Dimensions of Stakeholder Networks Facilitated through Bridging Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietske Medema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable governance of water resources relies on processes of multi-stakeholder collaborations and interactions that facilitate the sharing and integration of diverse sources and types of knowledge. In this context, it is essential to fully recognize the importance of fostering and enhancing critical connections within and between networks of relationships between different government and non-government agencies, as well as the dynamics that are in support of the development of new knowledge and practices. In Quebec, a network of watershed organizations (WOs has been put in place to serve as bridging organizations (BOs for stakeholder groups in their watershed territories. Using the WOs as a case study, this research aims to contribute to a greater understanding of how stakeholder groups can be effectively connected to support knowledge co-creation through networked relationships facilitated by BOs. In line with this overall research aim, the following research objectives are proposed: (1 to assess the quality of the knowledge that is developed and shared through the WOs and their stakeholder networks; (2 to determine the characteristics of stakeholders participating in the WOs’ networks that either hinder or support collaborations and knowledge co-creation; (3 to describe the collaborative processes and mechanisms through which the WOs facilitate stakeholder interactions and knowledge co-creation; and (4 to assess the quality of the relationships and interactions between stakeholders participating in the WOs’ collaborative networks. A comprehensive literature review is provided of collaborative network dimensions that are in support of knowledge co-creation that forms the foundation of a research framework to assess knowledge co-creation processes that are facilitated through BOs and their collaborative networks. Documented experiences have been gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviews, as well as a Quebec-wide survey

  18. Long-term management of Canada's spent nuclear fuel: the nuclear waste management organizations recommendation to government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Like many countries with nuclear power programs, Canada is in the process of addressing the long-term management of its spent fuel. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) was tasked through federal legislation to conduct a three-year study of approaches for the long-term management of spent fuel, and to recommend a preferred approach to the Government of Canada. Legislation required NWMO to compare at least three approaches -approaches based on deep geological disposal in the Canadian Shield, storage at nuclear reactor sites, and centralized storage either above or below ground. In assessing the options, NWMO sought a recommendation that would be socially acceptable, technically sound, environmentally responsible and economically feasible. The study drew on a vast base of social, technical, engineering, and financial research, and included an extensive engagement program with the public and Aboriginal peoples. The recommendation emerged from a collaborative dialogue with specialists and citizens, for an approach that is built on sound science and technology and responsive to citizen values. NWMO submitted its completed options study, with recommendation, to the Government in November 2005. NWMO has proposed an alternative approach, Adaptive Phased Management, which has as its key attributes: central containment and isolation of spent fuel in a deep repository, in an appropriate geological formation; contingency provision for central shallow storage; monitoring and retrievability; and a staged, adaptive process of concept implementation, reflecting the complex nature of the task and the desire of citizens to proceed through cautious, deliberate steps of technical demonstration and social acceptance. This paper will review: 1) the development of the assessment framework for comparing the technical options, which incorporated social and ethical considerations expressed by citizens; 2) findings of the assessment; and 3) features of the proposed

  19. Corporate Governance and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between corporate governance and equity returns from the small investors view point. A primary survey has been conducted to gather the data required to examine the link. Preliminary result of the study shows that the four elements of governance: board structure, transparency, fairness and responsibility are positively related with equity returns.

  20. Solution-processed highly conductive PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/GO transparent film for efficient organic-Si hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiaojing; Song, Tao; Cui, Wei; Liu, Yuqiang; Xu, Weidong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-02-11

    Hybrid solar cells based on n-Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene- sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction promise to be a low cost photovoltaic technology by using simple device structure and easy fabrication process. However, due to the low conductivity of PEDOT:PSS, a metal grid deposited by vacuum evaporation method is still required to enhance the charge collection efficiency, which complicates the device fabrication process. Here, a solution-processed graphene oxide (GO)-welded silver nanowires (AgNWs) transparent conductive electrode (TCE) was employed to replace the vacuum deposited metal grid. A unique "sandwich" structure was developed by embedding an AgNW network between PEDOT:PSS and GO with a figure-of-merit of 8.6×10(-3) Ω(-1), which was even higher than that of sputtered indium tin oxide electrode (6.6×10(-3) Ω(-1)). A champion power conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved, because of the decreased series resistance of the TCEs as well as the enhanced built-in potential (Vbi) in the hybrid solar cells. The TCEs were obtained by facile low-temperature solution process method, which was compatible with cost-effective mass production technology.

  1. Supporting Transparency between Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    The paper presents the results of a case study that explores the potentials of weblogs and social bookmarking to support transparency in a university course. In the course, groups of students used weblogs and social bookmarking in their work. The objective of the case was to empower students...... by providing them with tools that would be visible to the other students in the course, thus, making students’ ideas, thoughts and questions visible to the other students in the course. The paper concludes that use of digital media for transparency can support empowerment of students and inspiration among...... students in a course, but that the challenge is to create a balance between personal tools and tools for collaborative group work that are also suitable for transparency between students....

  2. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  3. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic voluntar......It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic...

  4. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ensuring transparency and minimization of methodologic bias in preclinical pain research: PPRECISE considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nick A; Latrémolière, Alban; Basbaum, Allan I; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Porreca, Frank; Rice, Andrew S C; Woolf, Clifford J; Currie, Gillian L; Dworkin, Robert H; Eisenach, James C; Evans, Scott; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Gover, Tony D; Handwerker, Hermann; Huang, Wenlong; Iyengar, Smriti; Jensen, Mark P; Kennedy, Jeffrey D; Lee, Nancy; Levine, Jon; Lidster, Katie; Machin, Ian; McDermott, Michael P; McMahon, Stephen B; Price, Theodore J; Ross, Sarah E; Scherrer, Grégory; Seal, Rebecca P; Sena, Emily S; Silva, Elizabeth; Stone, Laura; Svensson, Camilla I; Turk, Dennis C; Whiteside, Garth

    2016-04-01

    There is growing concern about lack of scientific rigor and transparent reporting across many preclinical fields of biological research. Poor experimental design and lack of transparent reporting can result in conscious or unconscious experimental bias, producing results that are not replicable. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration sponsored a consensus meeting of the Preclinical Pain Research Consortium for Investigating Safety and Efficacy (PPRECISE) Working Group. International participants from universities, funding agencies, government agencies, industry, and a patient advocacy organization attended. Reduction of publication bias, increasing the ability of others to faithfully repeat experimental methods, and increased transparency of data reporting were specifically discussed. Parameters deemed essential to increase confidence in the published literature were clear, specific reporting of an a priori hypothesis and definition of primary outcome measure. Power calculations and whether measurement of minimal meaningful effect size to determine these should be a core component of the preclinical research effort provoked considerable discussion, with many but not all agreeing. Greater transparency of reporting should be driven by scientists, journal editors, reviewers, and grant funders. The conduct of high-quality science that is fully reported should not preclude novelty and innovation in preclinical pain research, and indeed, any efforts that curtail such innovation would be misguided. We believe that to achieve the goal of finding effective new treatments for patients with pain, the pain field needs to deal with these challenging issues.

  6. Theoretical studies of optics and charge transport in organic conducting oligomers and polymers: Rational design of improved transparent and conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Geoffrey Rogers

    Theoretical studies on a variety of oligo- and polyheterocycles elucidate their optical and charge transport properties, suggesting new, improved transparent conductive polymers. First-principles calculations provide accurate methodologies for predicting both optical band gaps of neutral and cationic oligomers and intrinsic charge transfer rates. Multidimensional analysis reveals important motifs in chemical tailorability of oligoheterocycle optical and charge transport properties. The results suggest new directions for design of novel materials. Using both finite oligomer and infinite polymer calculations, the optical band gaps in polyheterocycles follow a modified particle-in-a-box formalism, scaling approximately as 1/N (where N is the number of monomer units) in short chains, saturating for long chains. Calculations demonstrate that band structure changes upon heteroatom substitution, (e.g., from polythiophene to polypyrrole) derive from heteroatom electron affinity. Further investigation of chemical variability in substituted oligoheterocycles using multidimensional statistics reveals the interplay between heteroatom and substituent in correlations between structure and redox/optical properties of neutral and cationic species. A linear correlation between band gaps of neutral and cationic species upon oxidation of conjugated oligomers, shows redshifts of optical absorption for most species and blueshifts for small band gap species. Interstrand charge-transport studies focus on two contributors to hopping-style charge transfer rates: internal reorganization energy and the electronic coupling matrix element. Statistical analysis of chemical variability of reorganization energies in oligoheterocycles proves the importance of reorganization energy in determining intrinsic charge transfer rates (e.g., charge mobility in unsubstituted oligothiophenes). Computed bandwidths across several oligothiophene crystal packing motifs show similar electron and hole bandwidths

  7. The role of transparent conducting oxides in metal organic chemical vapour deposition of CdTe/CdS Photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, S.J.C.; Lamb, D.A.; Barrioz, V.; Clayton, A.J.; Brooks, W.S.M.; Rugen-Hankey, S.; Kartopu, G.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study is made between the relationship of Cd 0.9 Zn 0.1 S/CdTe photovoltaic (PV) device properties for three different commercial transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials and some experimental CdO to determine the role of the TCO in device performance. The resistance contribution from the TCO was measured after depositing the gold contact architectures directly onto the TCOs. These were compared with the Cd 0.9 Zn 0.1 S/CdTe device properties using the same contact arrangements. Series resistance for the commercial TCOs correlated with their sheet resistance and gave good agreement with the PV device series resistance for the indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) 15 Ω/Sq. superstrates. The devices on the thicker FTO 7 Ω/sq superstrates were dominated by a low shunt resistance, which was attributed to the rough surface morphology causing micro-shorts. The device layers on the CdO substrate delaminated but devices were successfully made for ultra-thin CdTe (0.8 μm thick) and compared favourably with the comparable device on ITO. From the measurements on these TCOs it was possible to deduce the back contact resistance and gave an average value of 2 Ω.cm 2 . The correlation of fill factor with series resistance has been compared with the predictions of a 1-D device model and shows excellent agreement. For high efficiency devices the combined series resistance from the TCO and back contact need to be less than 1 Ω.cm 2 .

  8. International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By offering a common format and central repository, the IATI improves the transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of international aid. It is used ... organizations. IDRC is one of almost 400 participants who publish project titles and descriptions, country and geographic area, aid type, dates, and budget information.

  9. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  10. Productivity analysis of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, H. S.; Okoye, C. U.; Agwale, A. O

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed productivity levels of sesame farms under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 96 sesame farmers; made up of 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using Total Factor Productivity Analysis, OLS Regression Analysis and Gross Margin Analysis. Results show that sesame farmers who applied inorganic...

  11. Transparency in Nuclear Regulation: Trends and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Seong Ho

    2007-01-01

    Recently, improving transparency (or openness) has been one of important issues related to nuclear safety worldwide. As for the transparency in nuclear regulatory activities in Korea, openness has been declared as one of five principles of the nuclear regulation in the 'nuclear safety policy statement' announced in 1994. Transparency has been discussed and emphasized in various international meetings such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, OECD/NEA meetings, etc. For example, Working Group on Public Communication of nuclear regulatory organizations (WGPC) of the OECD/NEA/CNRA held a workshop on 'the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities' in May 2007 in Tokyo, Japan. In this paper, definition of transparency and its international trends ranging from a general administration to nuclear safety activities are discussed based on the results of meetings and workshops held so far. Measures for improvement associated with transparency are also proposed

  12. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  13. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  14. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  15. The Mediated Transparent Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2001-01-01

    in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....

  16. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries

  17. Praxis in Local Legislative Governance: Measure of Organizational Effectiveness of the Component Cities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arneil G. Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discovers the congruence of governance principles and actual administrative practices in local legislative chamber in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. By using case study, it measured the influence of governance principles to legislative performance and organizational effectiveness. The good governance principles of citizens’ participation, accountability and transparency are correlated to legislative performance. Inspired by the organization theory of systems model, the result showed that there is a link between organizational effectiveness, legislative performance and observance of good governance principles. The study recommends that scientific inquiry be done to measure degree of convergence and divergence of theory and practice in Philippine administrative system.

  18. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2009-01-15

    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  19. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  20. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  1. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  2. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2008-01-15

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  3. Preparing non-government organization workers to conduct health checks for people with serious mental illness in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Kruger, Mellissa; Walsh, Sandra M

    2016-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: People diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a life expectancy 10-15 years less than the general population. In rural and remote Australia, there is a shortage of health care professionals to provide physical health care for people living with a serious mental illness (SMI). A large proportion of the care for people living with a SMI is provided by non-government organizations (NGOs), often employing workers without formal qualifications. There has been minimal research regarding the experiences of NGO workers who have been trained to complete health checks to help people living with SMI to access primary care services. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study to examine the experiences of preparing NGO workers to use the health improvement profile (HIP) to support the physical health of people with SMI. It builds on previous studies that examined the use of the HIP by trained/qualified staff. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This study highlights that NGO employees may have an important role in helping people with a SMI to address their physical health. Engaging lay workers to use the HIP increases their awareness of the importance of providing good physical health care for people with SMI. The use of a tool, such as the HIP, prepares NGO workers to support the physical health needs and enables them to describe meaningful improvements in the health of people with a SMI. Background The life expectancy of people living with a serious mental illness (SMI) is up to 10-15 years less than the general population. They experience difficulties in accessing timely and appropriate physical health care. People with SMI living in regional Australia experience additional barriers to accessing services. This is in part due to the difficulties associated with recruiting and retaining health professionals in regional Australia. Aim To explore the regional non-government organization (NGO

  4. Coalition building by drug user and sex worker community-based organizations in Vietnam can lead to improved interactions with government agencies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Leah T; Grau, Lauretta E; Nguyen, Huong H; Khuat, Oanh Hai T; Heimer, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Drug users and female sex workers are among the groups most vulnerable to HIV infection in Vietnam. To address the HIV epidemic within these communities, former drug users and sex workers established the first community-based organizations (CBOs) in 2009. The study provides a focused assessment of CBOs' expanding efforts to advocate for their members that identifies existing collaborations with Vietnamese government programs. This assessment explores the barriers to and facilitators of expansion in order to propose recommendations to improve the working relationship between CBOs and government programs. Thirty-two individuals from drug user and sex worker CBOs (n = 24) and relevant government programs (n = 8) participated in face-to-face interviews in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Hai Phong. Coded interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively concerning the purpose of CBOs, the interactions between CBOs and government programs, and the perceived barriers, facilitators, and feasibility of future CBO-government program collaborations. Services provided by the CBOs were considered to improve members' quality of life. The formation of coalitions among CBOs increased efficiency in meeting members' specific service needs, in addition to internal capacity building. Government field staff interacted with CBOs by providing CBOs with technical and legal support. CBOs and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics collaborated to help the clinics meet patient enrollment quotas and facilitate entry into treatment for CBO members. Barriers to CBO-government program collaboration included perceived conflicting missions on how to address drug use and sex work in the community, limited CBO-government program communication, CBO mistrust of the MMT system, and lack of legal status for CBOs. To reduce these barriers, we recommend (1) introduction of CBO consultative services at government healthcare centers, (2) enlistment of CBO outreach to ensure full access to the

  5. File: nuclear safety and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.; Etchegoyen, A.; Jeandron, C.

    2001-01-01

    Several experiences of nuclear safety and transparency are related in this file. Public information, access to documents, transparency in nuclear regulation are such subjects developed in this debate. (N.C.)

  6. Transparent Armor Cost Benefit Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prokurat Franks, Lisa; Holm, David; Barnak, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...; the increase in demand for transparent gun shields in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and early versions of jerry-rigged shields used in OIF, including Pope glass and Transparent Armored Gun Shields (TAGS...

  7. The Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste. A Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell (Karita Research AB, Taeby (Sweden)), E-Mail: kjell.andersson@karita.se

    2009-12-15

    In this paper the activities of the Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste have been explored. Comparisons have been made with other activities using the same transparency approach and observations made from different reports that deal with the programme or parts of it have been taken into account. Obviously, to make firm conclusions to what extent the aims of the Transparency Programme have been achieved a formal review should be done. It seems evident however that the programme has vitalized the overall dialogue about the Swedish nuclear waste management programme and that the hearings held have raised the awareness about issues that have been dealt with such as value-laden aspects of disposals methods, feasibility of certain alternatives, the need for clarification of how regulatory criteria can be applied and the use of research on governance processes. Stakeholders seem to have appreciated the overall organization and the stretching that took place during the hearings held. For possible future activities, the observations made about the antagonism between certain parties which has existed since a long time ago and the common language and culture need to be taken into account. The core problem, however, is to reach out to the political decision makers at the national level, especially since the time distance between hearings held so far and critical government decisions is at least six years which put a high demand on the reporting system. Taking the experiences from other transparency projects into account, the Council might consider the possibility to establish a reference group with participation from different stakeholders and politicians who could have a role for conveying results to wider groups. One observer has concluded that the reporting from the Transparency Programme should be open in the sense that it should not make conclusions on the issues as such (e.g. if a certain disposal method is to prefer or not). Instead

  8. The Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste. A Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2009-12-01

    In this paper the activities of the Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste have been explored. Comparisons have been made with other activities using the same transparency approach and observations made from different reports that deal with the programme or parts of it have been taken into account. Obviously, to make firm conclusions to what extent the aims of the Transparency Programme have been achieved a formal review should be done. It seems evident however that the programme has vitalized the overall dialogue about the Swedish nuclear waste management programme and that the hearings held have raised the awareness about issues that have been dealt with such as value-laden aspects of disposals methods, feasibility of certain alternatives, the need for clarification of how regulatory criteria can be applied and the use of research on governance processes. Stakeholders seem to have appreciated the overall organization and the stretching that took place during the hearings held. For possible future activities, the observations made about the antagonism between certain parties which has existed since a long time ago and the common language and culture need to be taken into account. The core problem, however, is to reach out to the political decision makers at the national level, especially since the time distance between hearings held so far and critical government decisions is at least six years which put a high demand on the reporting system. Taking the experiences from other transparency projects into account, the Council might consider the possibility to establish a reference group with participation from different stakeholders and politicians who could have a role for conveying results to wider groups. One observer has concluded that the reporting from the Transparency Programme should be open in the sense that it should not make conclusions on the issues as such (e.g. if a certain disposal method is to prefer or not). Instead

  9. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  10. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  11. IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Šimková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    IT governance (control of information technology) is a frequently discussed topic today which represents current needs to take control of IT, judge impacts of all resolutions and lead up investments running to the information technology. It is very important for both small and large organizations to have IT which encourages business strategy and helps to meet objectives of a company. The theoretical part of this paper is focused on characterization of the main areas, benefits, rules and vario...

  12. Governance and Sustainable Peace in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    been amassing the Nation's wealth neglecting the masses. ... and Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra .... Having examined good governance, what does bad governance entail? .... governance with utmost sense of sincerity, transparency and accountability. But .... Mismanagement of Public Fund.

  13. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  14. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  15. Transparency -- Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.

    1994-01-01

    The increasingly popular term transparency has been used throughout the IAEA Safeguards Symposium to mean many things to many people. It has rather little utility as a catch-all term or buzz word. A precise definition of transparency is in order. In this paper, transparency is the provision to the IAEA of additional information for which the IAEA has an identified use and includes any associated increased IAEA access to sue the information. In 1993, the IAEA Board endorsed very specific proposals for provision to the IAEA of additional information on international nuclear transfers. It also made specific decisions on verification in the context of tis earlier confirmation of the very sweeping access rights for special inspections outlined by the director general. Additional information to the IAEA has two potential practical uses. First, it could help identify inconsistencies within the entirety of the information available to the IAEA, including information from inspections. These inconsistencies could be an indication of some violation of safeguards undertakings. Second, a declaration of the Member State could facilitate IAEA interpretation of analyses of other information or facilitate resolution of ambiguities. In these respects, additional information is not different from currently used information. When considering seeking specific additional information, the IAEA must balance the potential contribution of the information and its expected costs

  16. 76 FR 1180 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Transparency Initiative, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a report entitled ``FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry.'' The...

  17. The construction of environmental governance in the RDS Igapó-Açu (Amazonas, Brazil: organization, complexity and interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabriela Rezende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present text is to analyze environmental governance in the Sustainable Development Reserve Igapó-Açu, located in the municipalities of Manicoré, Borba and Beruri, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The study area was chosen because the RDS is the only Amazonas state protected area crossed by a federal interstate highway. This highway provides a specific territorial arrangement of governance elements in the studied area. Different methodological tools were used in this research, such as close-ended questionnaires and open-ended interviews. Data were systematized using Excel software and they were graphically represented in the form of organizational charts drawn with Websphere Analysis Software. Results indicate that environmental governance of the RDS Igapó-Açu involves multiple factors, while the central node of the local political articulation is held by a Management Council that is in charge of materializing the governability of the RDSt, as well as its ramifications.

  18. Topical issues of transparency in implementing public control in municipalentities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Stepanovich Mikheyev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to investigate the mechanisms of citizens and public institutions participation in public control in the municipalities. According to the author the monitoring process should involve the greatest possible range of subjects and the controlling measures are to be taken in a transparent and open manner. Therefore forms of citizen participation in public control should be investigated from the standpoint of the principle of openness of local government. Methods the universal dialectic method which was applied to the analysis of norms of the Federal law quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot which is the legal base for the implementation of the institution of public control. When studying the problem of adequate legal regulation of the control institution the formal legal method was also used. Other methods were used for evaluation of the acquired knowledge in particular comparative legal and systemicstructural methods. Results on the basis of legal norms analysis based on the legal nature of the local government institution as the level of public authorities which is closest to the citizens the conclusion was made about the lack of legal regulation relating to the public control subjects in municipalities. The numerous public organizations operating in local communities were not fixed by legislative norms as subjects of public control. Scientific novelty the author has grounded the proposals for amending the abovementioned Federal law the legislation of Federation subjects and the municipal regulations by adding a number of new subjects of public control inherent to the municipal level. Practical value the conclusions and suggestions formulated in the study will contribute to the active implementation of public control in the municipalities will enhance the ability of citizens and civil society institutions to monitor the authorities and will have a positive impact on transparency of local selfgovernment. The

  19. Corporate Governance at the Nacional Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL as a mechanism to improve the Agency’s Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Paula e Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario facing the country's government crisis of confidence, transparency and relationship with society, corporate governance is an important tool to monitor and improve the management, governance and corporate social responsibility in public organizations. The application of this mechanism in the National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL has great impact to the economy and technological development of the country, capturing investments in the telecommunications sector, generating confidence to investors and stimulating competition between companies, which can offer products with best quality and services at affordable prices for consumers in Brazil. This paper investigates and analyzes by the theory of regulation, guides and reports, corporate governance as a mechanism to improve the management in ANATEL, using references, legislation and other documents in order to examine the transparency, fairness, accountability (providing accounts and corporate social responsibility in the Agency.

  20. The Effects of UV Light on the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of a Transparent Epoxy-Diamine System in the Presence of an Organic UV Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nikafshar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite several excellent properties including low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, curable at low temperatures and the absence of byproducts or volatiles, epoxy resins are susceptible to ultra violet (UV damage and their durability is reduced substantially when exposed to outdoor environments. To overcome this drawback, UV absorbers have been usually used to decrease the rate of UV degradation. In this present study, the effects of UV light on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of cured epoxy structure, as well as the effect of an organic UV absorber, Tinuvin 1130, on the epoxy properties were investigated. Chemical changes in a cured epoxy system as a result of the presence and absence of Tinuvin 1130 were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analyses. The effect of Tinuvin 1130 on the surface morphology of the epoxy systems was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM imaging. Additionally, the glass transition temperatures (Tg before and during UV radiation were measured. After an 800 h UV radiation, mechanical test results revealed that the lack of the UV absorber can lead to a ~30% reduction in tensile strength. However, in the presence of Tinuvin 1130, the tensile strength was reduced only by ~11%. It was hypothesized that the use of Tinuvin 1130, as an organic UV absorber in the epoxy-amine system, could decrease the undesirable effects, arising from exposure to UV light.

  1. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  2. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes: Fiscal Transparency Module

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the Observance of Standards and Codes on Fiscal Transparency for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It provides an assessment of fiscal transparency practices in the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia in relation to the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency based on discussions with the authorities and other organizations and through a fiscal transparency questionnaire. It also provides recommendations for improving fisca...

  3. How to Achieve Transparency in Public-Private Partnerships Engaged in Hunger and Malnutrition Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Bird, Julia K

    2016-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth. Civil society organizations can contribute by delivering nutrition interventions and behavioral change-related communication to consumers, providing capacity, and holding governments and private sector organizations accountable. Industry provides technical support, innovation, and access to markets and the supply chain. The greatest progress and impact can be achieved if all stakeholders cooperate in multi-stakeholder partnerships aimed at improving nutrition, thereby strengthening local economies and reducing poverty and inequality. Successful examples of public-private partnerships exist, as well as examples in which these partnerships did not achieve mutually agreed objectives. The key requirements for productive alliances between industry and civil society organizations are the establishment of rules of engagement, transparency and mutual accountability. The Global Social Observatory performed a consultation on conflicts of interest related to the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and provided recommendations to prevent, identify, manage and monitor potential conflicts of interest. Multi-stakeholder partnerships can be successful models in improving nutrition if they meet societal demand with transparent decision-making and execution. Solutions to

  4. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  5. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  6. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  7. EFFECT OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN BARINGO COUNTY GOVERNMENT, KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Lagat, Cornelius; Okelo, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This study intended to establish the effect of internal control systems on financial management in Baringo County government in Kenya. Internal control systems are integral components of the management processes of a public sector institution which should be established in order to provide reasonable assurance that the financial operations are carried out transparently and accountably. The study adopted the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Tread way Commission (COSO) theoretical f...

  8. Some issues in ownership structure and corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Darshana Lakmal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a process that aims to allocate corporate resources in a manner that maximizes value for all stakeholders — shareholders, investors, employees, customers, suppliers, environment and the community at large and holds those at the helms to account by evaluating their decisions on transparency, inclusivity, equity and responsibility. Corporate governance has been commonly defined as the rules and procedures in place for governing an organization. It is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws, and institutions affecting the way a corporation (or company is directed, administered or controlled. Corporate governance also includes the relationships among the many stakeholders involved and the goals for which the corporation is governed. Corporate governance principles and codes have been developed in different countries and issued from stock exchanges, corporations, institutional investors, or associations (institutes of directors and managers with the support of governments and international organizations. As a rule, compliance with these governance recommendations is not mandated by law, although the codes linked to stock exchange listing requirements may have a coercive effect. However, given the rapid developments within the field and the increasing prominence of corporate governance in the modern world, this definition may be considered too narrow. Corporate governance, while a topic that has been examined in considerable depth in many areas, is widely applicable to a vast array of topics and issues. This study contributes to the literature by extending the mainly based on board literature to where there are important institutional differences and issues in ownership structure and corporate governance system and seeks to address new and emerging issues which have yet to be closely examined and have, to a degree, been overlooked

  9. Comunicação pública, transparência e políticas públicas: avaliação de informações em portais brasileiros de governo / Public communications, transparency, and public policy: assessing information on Brazilian government web portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rothberg

    2013-12-01

    technologies for the dissemination of information on public management and the potential creation of dialogue between government and citizens. Despite this trend, there is still a need for specific knowledge about normative aspects of public communication generated by governments on the internet and its role in the fulfillment of the right to information. This article offers a contribution to fulfill the gap of guidelines and standards for professional performance. It describes the results of empirical research which identified the potential contribution of government web portals of the main cities of São Paulo, in the southeastern Brazil, to the strengthening of citizenship, consid ered in its dimension of exercising the right to information about public policies, particularly those which have an impact on education. The depth and breadth of information were investigated according with twelve categories of evaluation: history; diagnoses; goals; goals; resources and current actions; planned resources and actions; efficiency; effectiveness; impact; cost-effectiveness; user satisfaction; and equity. The data found on the analyzed portals correspond to the average of 11% of which was considered, under the theoretical-methodo logical context of the research, as information necessary to comprise the full characterization of a public policy in relation to the categories of assessment. Opportunities to improve government web portals were detected, for which we suggest communication management strategies.

  10. Forest products research and development organizations in a worldwide setting: A review of structure, governance, and measures of performance of organizations outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2007-01-01

    Located in 23 countries, 40 forest-products research and development organizations outside the United States were reviewed in 2004 and 2005. The intent was to obtain a better understanding of how such organizations are structured and administered and their performance judged. Investing over $600 million annually, the 40 organizations employed 7,000 to 7,500 scientists...

  11. International Organizations, Changing Governance and China's Policy Making in Higher Education: An Analysis of the World Bank and the World Trade Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2010-01-01

    In a context of intensified globalization, the importance of international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations as influencers and shapers of the global environment is becoming prominent. Participation in international organizations leads to active incorporation of nation-states with worldwide connotations. In higher…

  12. Lattice Transparency of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sieun; Jang, Seunghun; Choi, Won Jin; Kim, Youn Sang; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Jeong-O

    2017-03-08

    Here, we demonstrated the transparency of graphene to the atomic arrangement of a substrate surface, i.e., the "lattice transparency" of graphene, by using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods as a model system. The growth behaviors of ZnO nanocrystals on graphene-coated and uncoated substrates with various crystal structures were investigated. The atomic arrangements of the nucleating ZnO nanocrystals exhibited a close match with those of the respective substrates despite the substrates being bound to the other side of the graphene. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we confirmed the energetic favorability of the nucleating phase following the atomic arrangement of the substrate even with the graphene layer present in between. In addition to transmitting information about the atomic lattice of the substrate, graphene also protected its surface. This dual role enabled the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on a Cu substrate, which otherwise dissolved in the reaction conditions when graphene was absent.

  13. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  14. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  15. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, P; Selim, F A; Bartošová, I; Slugeň, V

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics. (paper)

  16. Mongolia; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of fiscal transparency practices in Mongolia against the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency. This paper analyzes the government's participation in the financial and nonfinancial sectors of the economy. Executive Directors appreciated the achievements, and stressed the need for improvements in the areas of fiscal transparency. They emphasized the need for addressing weaknesses of fiscal data, maintaining a legal framework fo...

  17. Printable Transparent Conductive Films for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Lai, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Printed electronics are an important enabling technology for the development of low-cost, large-area, and flexible optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive films (TCFs) made from solution-processable transparent conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and conductive polymers, can simultaneously exhibit high mechanical flexibility, low cost, and better photoelectric properties compared to the commonly used sputtered indium-tin-oxide-based TCFs, and are thus receiving great attention. This Review summarizes recent advances of large-area flexible TCFs enabled by several roll-to-roll-compatible printed techniques including inkjet printing, screen printing, offset printing, and gravure printing using the emerging transparent conductive materials. The preparation of TCFs including ink formulation, substrate treatment, patterning, and postprocessing, and their potential applications in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and touch panels are discussed in detail. The rational combination of a variety of printed techniques with emerging transparent conductive materials is believed to extend the opportunities for the development of printed electronics within the realm of flexible electronics and beyond. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...

  19. Forest products research and development organizations in a worldwide setting : a review of structure, governance, and measures of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2006-01-01

    The ability of forest products research programs to contribute to a nation’s well-being requires that research organizations be well organized, effectively managed, and held to high standards of performance. In 2004-2005, a review of forest products and related research organizations beyond the boundaries of the United States was carried out. The intent was to obtain a...

  20. Good City Governance in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Siwach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good governance is identified as imperative for enhancing the performance of Municipal councils in India. This is against the backdrop of mounting service delivery challenges confronting these Municipalities especially in the Haryana province. Using a case-study design, the study assesses performance in the context of basic elements of participative governance, transparency and accountability. The article contributes to growing literature on public sector issues in the discipline.

  1. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  2. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  3. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  4. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  5. Linking Governance to Sustainable Management Outcomes: Applying Dynamic Indicator Profiles to River Basin Organization Case Studies around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Bouckaert, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Institutional best practice for integrated river basin management advocates the river basin organisation (RBO) model as pivotal to achieve sustainable management outcomes and stakeholder engagement. The model has been widely practiced in transboundary settings and is increasingly adopted at national scales, though its effectiveness remains poorly studied. A meta-analysis of four river basins has been conducted to assess governance models and linking it to evaluation of biophysical management outcomes. The analysis is based on a Theory of Change framework, and includes functional dynamic governance indicator profiles, coupled to sustainable ecosystem management outcome profiles. The governance and outcome profiles, informed by context specific indicators, demand that targets for setting objectives are required in multiple dimensions, and trajectory outlines are a useful tool to track progress along the journey mapped out by the Theory of Change framework. Priorities, trade-offs and objectives vary in each basin, but the diagnostics tool allows comparison between basins in their capacity to reach targets through successive evaluations. The distance between capacity and target scores determines how program planning should be prioritized and resources allocated for implementation; this is a dynamic process requiring regular evaluations and adaptive management. The findings of this study provide a conceptual framework for combining dimensions of integrated water management principles that bridge tensions between (i) stakeholder engagement and participatory management (bottom-up approach) using localized knowledge and (ii) decision-making, control-and-command, system-scale, accountable and equitable management (top-down approach).The notion of adaptive management is broadened to include whole-of-program learnings, rather than single hypothesis based learning adjustments. This triple loop learning combines exploitative methods refinement with explorative evaluation of

  6. [Analysis on funds application of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS response and government financial investment in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Zhu, Y X; Wang, P; Liu, P; Li, J F; Sha, S; Yang, W Z; Li, H

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To understand the government financial investments to community based organizations (CBO) involved in HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of China and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaire of the situation of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were designed, and filled by the staff of Provincial Health Administrative Departments of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). The research focused on the fields of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), including intervention on HIV/AIDS high risk population (female sex worker (FSW), man who sex with man (MSM), drug user (DU) and case management and care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)). 29 valid questionnaires were collecting, with Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions not filled. Questionnaire included financial supports from local governments, transfer payment from central government for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 2014, and unit cost for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention. Multivariate analysis was conducted on the project application and financial investment of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention in 2014. Results: The total amount of CBO to apply for participation in AIDS prevention and control was 64 482 828 Yuan in 2014. The actual total amount of investment was 50 616 367 Yuan, The investment came from the central government funding, the provincial level government funding, the prefecture and county level government funding investment and other sources of funding. 22 of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) received the funds from the central government finance, and median of investment funds 500 000 Yuan. 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) gained the funds from the provincial government finance, and median of investment funds 350 000 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) got the funds

  7. The Impact of Public Transparency in Fighting Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Batista Vieira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to shed light on the causes of corruption through empirical analysis of the impact of public transparency mechanisms on the frequency of improbities in Brazilian municipalities. First, we have presented a new model of corrupt agent´s utility function to better explain the results, and then some empirical evidences in favor of the hypotheses that E-government mechanisms are negatively associated with improbities in Brazilian local government.

  8. Policy Dialogue and Engagement between Non-Governmental Organizations and Government: A Survey of Processes and Instruments of Canadian Policy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Mitchell Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various analysts have raised concerns respecting declining research, evaluation and analytical capacities within public services. Typically, the decline is attributed to reforms associated with neoliberal restructuring of the state and its concomitant managerial expression in New Public Management (NPM.  This has given rise to a conceptual shift now commonly captured as a movement from ‘government’ to ‘governance’. Policy advising from a new governance perspective entails an image of a more distributed policy advisory system where a plurality of actors, including non-state actors, engages with government in deliberating policy interventions to address collective problems.The original research presented here suggests that those responsible for policy work across four policy communities in the three Canadian provinces surveyed differ in terms of their capacities, depth of commitment to a specific policy file/field, roles and functions, as well as perceptions of the policy work that they undertake. Over the past several years, a number of primarily quantitative analyses examining the processes, tools and perspectives of Canadian federal and provincial government policy analysts have been published.  Consequently, a significant knowledge-base has been acquired respecting what government policy analysts do and their attitudes toward their work but very little is known about external interactions with non-governmental organizations (NGOs.

  9. Trust as governance tool in hybrid organizations: a case study for the dance Industry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Butter, F.A.G.; Joustra, Jelle V.

    2016-01-01

    The organization of Electronic Dance Music (EDM) events requires much flexibility, due to the need to be able to quickly respond to new market trends. It induces high specificity in organizing these events. Our case study for the Netherlands, which is the world’s market leader in hosting these

  10. Sovereign Wealth Funds: Issue of transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the paper includes Sovereign Wealth Funds and the formation of the first regulatory framework for their investment activities. Sovereign Wealth Funds invested a significant amount of money in Western financial institutions during the global financial crisis and thus played a crucial role in the preservation and stabilization of the global financial system. However, at the same time, a large gap between the financial power of Sovereign Wealth Funds and the level of their transparency was noted. The need to improve the transparency of Sovereign Wealth Funds has been recognized by international institutions, the OECD and the IMF, which initiated the formulation of the first international regulatory framework regarding the operations of these types of funds. The current international regulatory framework represents a sufficient basis for the gradual improvement of transparency, but because of its non-binding and voluntary nature, certain issues such as the protection of national security interests remain open. Therefore, the solutions can be sought through a process of continuous improvement of international regulation as well as strengthening cooperation between Sovereign Wealth Funds and governments of countries in which they invest.

  11. Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay

    Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.

  12. Transparency and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After having outlined some lessons learnt after the Chernobyl accident, notably the facts that risk assessment and management were not separated, that radioactivity measurements have suffered from a lack of means and of preparedness, and that there has been few information exchanged between the different concerned countries, this document presents the four international conventions which have been negotiated after this accident (they concern the notification, assistance, safety, safety of fuel management and of radioactive wastes). It discusses the lessons learnt in France, the credibility of information and the confidence in authorities, the evolution of transparency and information in France and in the rest of the World, the transposition of the Arhus Convention in the communautary and national law, the innovating European approaches, and the evolutions in France

  13. Promoting transparency, accountability, and access through a multi-stakeholder initiative: lessons from the medicines transparency alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Kohler, Jillian C; Forte, Gilles; Dimancesco, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    Barriers to expanding access to medicines include weak pharmaceutical sector governance, lack of transparency and accountability, inadequate attention to social services on the political agenda, and financing challenges. Multi-stakeholder initiatives such as the Medicines Transparency Alliance (MeTA) may help overcome these barriers. Between 2008 and 2015, MeTA engaged stakeholders in the pharmaceutical sectors of seven countries (Ghana, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Peru, Philippines, Uganda, and Zambia) to promote access goals through greater transparency. We reviewed archival data to document MeTA activities and results related to transparency and accountability in the seven countries where it was implemented. We identified common themes and content areas, noting specific activities used to make information transparent and accessible, how data were used to inform discussions, and the purpose and timing of meetings and advocacy activities to help set priorities and influence governance decisions. The cross-case analysis looked for pathways which might link the MeTA strategies to results such as better policies or program improvements. Countries used evidence gathering, open meetings, and proactive information dissemination to increase transparency. MeTA fostered policy dialogue to bring together the many government, civil society and private company stakeholders concerned with access issues, and provided them with information to understand barriers to access at policy, organizational, and community levels. We found strong evidence that transparency was enhanced. Some evidence suggests that MeTA efforts contributed to new policies and civil society capacity strengthening although the impact on government accountability is not clear. MeTA appears to have achieved its goal of creating a multi-stakeholder shared policy space in which government, civil society, and private sector players can come together and have a voice in the national pharmaceutical policy making process

  14. Funcionalidades, limitações e potencialidades do Portal da Transparência do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul = Functionalities, limitations and potentialities of the Transparency Website of The State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane dos Santos Allegretti

    2010-07-01

    this article is to identify the functionalities and limitations of the transparency website of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as related websites, so as to propose improvements. The study is of an applied nature and a qualitative approach was adopted, with descriptive and exploratory objectives. A literature review and documentary analysis were carried out, together with a study of the legislation and the observation of the relevant websites. The article presents the principles of publicity and transparency in public administration and the use of the Internet as a way of publicizing their instruments. Parameters were established to evaluate the transparency, so as to allow the identification of the functionalities and limitations of the government websites. Finally, improvements to the websites were proposed. They were organized by subject, aiming at publicizing appropriate information in terms of publicity, comprehensibility and the usefulness of the information.

  15. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  16. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  17. Demystifying patient price estimates. The advantages of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Cheri S; Harvey, Gayla

    2015-05-01

    With the increase of high-deductible health plans, more consumers want to know the cost of their health care before they purchase services. A healthcare organization should formulate transparent price policies that: Fit with its intentions, processes, and goals. Ensure consumers are thoroughly educated about their financial responsibilities. Include the use of consumer pricing tools that help patients feel like empowered consumers. Reflect an enterprisewide culture of transparency.

  18. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  19. Transparency as an ethical safeguard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spagnolli, Anna; Frank, Lily E.; Haselager, Pim; Kirsh, David; Ham, Jaap; Spagnolli, Anna; Blankertz, Benjamin; Gamberini, Luciano; Jacucci, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    Transparency seems to represent a solution to many ethic issues generated by systems that collect implicit data from users to model the user themselves based on programmed criteria. However, making such systems transparent -- besides being a major technical challenge - risks raising more issues than

  20. The Search for Accountability and Transparency in Plan Colombia: Reforming Judicial Institutions - Again

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagle, Luz

    2001-01-01

    The author argues that confidence in an efficient, courageous and transparent judiciary goes to the very heart of the governability of Colombia, and that Plan Colombia does not address the root causes...

  1. Introduction: Challenges to Effectiveness in Intelligence due to the Need for Transparency and Accountability in Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruneau, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    .... This is due to the tension between the requirement of intelligence agencies to work to some extent in secret and the requirement of democratic government for accountability, necessitating transparency...

  2. Enabling and Encouraging Transparency in Earth Science Data for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    Our ability to understand, respond, and make decisions about our changing planet hinges on timely scientific information and situational awareness. Information and understanding will continue to be the foundations of decision support in the face of uncertainty. Over the last 40 years, investments in Earth observations have brought remarkable achievements in weather prediction, disaster prediction and response, land management, and our broad base of Earth science knowledge. The only way to know what is happening to our planet and to manage our resources wisely is to measure it, This means tracking changes decade after decade and reanalyzing the record in light of new insights, technologies, and methodologies. In order to understand and respond to climate change and other global challenges, there is a need for a high degree of transparency in the publication, management, traceability, and citability of science data, and particularly for Earth science data. In addition, it is becoming increasingly important that free, open, and authoritative sources of quality data are available for peer review. One important focus is on applications and opportunities for enhancing data exchange standards for use with Earth science data. By increasing the transparency of scientific work and providing incentives for researchers and institutions to openly share data, we will more effectively leverage the scientific capacity of our Nation to address climate change and to meet future challenges. It is an enormous challenge to collect, organize, and communicate the vast stores of data maintained across the government. The Administration is committed to moving past these barriers in providing the American public with unprecedented access to useful government data, including an open architecture and making data available in multiple formats. The goal is to enable better decision-making, drive transparency, and to help power innovation for a stronger America. Whether for a research project

  3. Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Valman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM, the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR. We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation – both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  4. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  5. Phenomenal transparency in achromatic checkerboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, S C

    1999-04-01

    The study explored the luminance relations that determine the occurrence of achromatic transparency in phenomenal surfaces on complex backgrounds. Let the luminances of the left and right parts of a transparent surface on a bipartite background and those of the left and right parts of the bipartite background be p and q and m and n, respectively. Metelli proposed that this surface looks transparent when the rule p q if m > n) is satisfied, and Masin and Fukuda that it looks transparent when the inclusion rule is satisfied, that is, when p epsilon (m, q) or q epsilon (p, n). These rules also apply to achromatic checkerboards formed by one checkerboard enclosed in another checkerboard. This study shows that only the inclusion rule correctly predicted the occurrence of transparency in these checkerboards.

  6. Governo eletrônico e capital intelectual nas organizações públicas Electronic government and human capital in public organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Joia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a variação de capital intelectual em organizações públicas envolvidas em empreendimentos government-to-government (G2G. Para tanto, um frame heurístico foi desenvolvido a fim de avaliar o impacto de projetos G2G nos componentes do capital intelectual de agências públicas, isto é, em seus capitais humano, organizacional, de relacionamento e de inovação. Aplicando-se esse frame heurístico a 30 empreendimentos G2G no Brasil, ligando o Banco Central com os tribunais de justiça, detectou-se um impacto positivo no capital intelectual das organizações envolvidas nesses empreendimentos. Além disso, verificou-se que tais empreendimentos G2G influenciaram os componentes do capital intelectual de forma homogênea. A partir daí, o frame foi validado por meio de uma elevada e positiva correlação entre a variação do capital intelectual nas organizações públicas e a percepção de valor dos funcionários envolvidos nesses mesmos empreendimentos. Finalmente, adicionalmente às limitações da pesquisa, algumas conclusões são apresentadas a gestores públicos, practitioners e acadêmicos, para que seja entendido o potencial de uso da teoria do capital intelectual para avaliação de iniciativas de governo eletrônicoThis article shows the intellectual capital variation in public organizations involved in government-to-government (G2G enterprises. A heuristic frame was developed to measure the impact of G2G projects on the intellectual capital components of public agencies, i.e., on their human, organizational, relational and innovative capitals. This heuristic frame was applied to 30 G2G enterprises in Brazil connecting the Central Bank to the courts of justice and revealed a positive impact on the intellectual capital of the organizations involved. Furthermore, these G2G enterprises influenced the intellectual capital components uniformly. Then the frame was validated by means of a high and positive correlation

  7. The influence of corporate governance on project governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies the interaction between corporate governance and project management in project governance. It begins with introduction of basics of corporate governance and various principles of corporate governance in chosen countries and organizations. Further it introduces theoretical background of project governance and its connection and to corporate governance. In practical part work analyzes the level of compliancy with Swiss codex of best praxis in chosen company. The results con...

  8. Impact of data transparency: Scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mohit; Bhardwaj, Payal

    2018-01-01

    Data transparency has been an important aspect of medical research as it helps in enabling evidence-based decisions in medicine which leads to foster trust among the patients and research community alike. Currently, it is one of the key talking points owing to a number of initiatives taken by the pharmaceutical organizations, regulatory bodies, and the other decision enablers of the industry. Thanks to this, there are a number of ways by which a single piece of datum is available through multiple access points, namely, clinical trial disclosures (CTDs), clinical study reports (CSRs), plain language summaries, and scientific publications including abstracts, posters, and manuscripts, to name a few. This may pose a burden of documentation on the pharmaceutical organizations, demanding downsizing of medical writing documents. Since CTDs, CSRs, and other regulatory document are more or less template driven; there may not be much scope to interfere with their structure and submission timings. Scientific publications, on the other hand, provide the flexibility of presenting the clinical data that is typically not dependent on a particular format and timelines. The present paper discusses how the upcoming data transparency initiatives could affect the publication practices across the pharmaceutical industry and what could pharmaceutical companies do to get the maximum benefit out of the data transparency initiatives.

  9. Challenges and Obstacles of e-Government Streamlining: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam K. Nath

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available e-Government streamlining has been a challenge since its inception in the domain of e-business. Business organizations face challenges while trying to collaborate with partners through the use of information technology in order to ensure efficient delivery of services. One of the major reasons for these inefficient services has been political bureaucracies among government organizations. To meet this challenge, a transparent and networked environment is required where government organizations can effectively partner with other relevant organizations. Using a case study analysis, we intend to identify not just the challenges in government organizations while providing services which require collaborative effort, but also the obstacles in adopting new technology for collaboration. We believe that the outcome of our research could provide a generalized guideline for government agencies where there is need for digital collaboration. Our findings will thus help government organizations to address the challenges in digital collaboration, and also help them implement new technology successfully to ensure efficient delivery of services.

  10. Enhancing Transparency in Multidisciplinary Expert Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukki, Kristiina; Pulkkinen, Urho

    2003-01-01

    Faced with problems of public acceptance most nuclear waste management organisations now acknowledge the importance of transparency in their pursuit of solutions for high-level nuclear waste disposal. To make progress the implementing organizations need the trust of other stakeholders in the decision-making process. For such trust these outside stakeholders need knowledge on the grounds for the judgments and decisions made in different scientific and technical disciplines. Transparency is, however, at least as important for the multidisciplinary expert communication itself. As a matter of fact, the transparency of the internal expert interaction processes is a prerequisite for the true transparency of the communication between the implementer and the external stakeholder groups. The introduced conceptual framework has been developed for the identification of the requirements of safety-informed communication in multidisciplinary expert work in nuclear waste management. The framework offers a common thinking model and common concepts which can be utilized in the development of the communication practices. The basis of the framework is on the possibility to understand the safety-critical significance of one's work. The transparency of communication is, for its part, based on making explicit the relevant knowledge necessary for gaining the understanding. This supplementary knowledge, which is related to the substance issues but is not scientific-technical by nature, enhances the experts' awareness of the context of their own contribution and of the background of the other experts' contributions. The common conceptualization and modelling of the knowledge-related dependencies between the tasks make it possible to realize the significance of the supplementary knowledge for transparent communication in actual situations. They also facilitate the recognition of the need for different types of supplementary knowledge in the interfaces between the tasks. By enhancing mutual

  11. Transparent and conductive paper from nanocellulose fibers

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on a novel substrate, nanopaper, made of cellulose nanofibrils, an earth abundant material. Compared with regular paper substrates, nanopaper shows superior optical properties. We have carried out the first study on the optical properties of nanopaper substrates. Since the size of the nanofibrils is much less than the wavelength of visible light, nanopaper is highly transparent with large light scattering in the forward direction. Successful depositions of transparent and conductive materials including tin-doped indium oxide, carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires have been achieved on nanopaper substrates, opening up a wide range of applications in optoelectronics such as displays, touch screens and interactive paper. We have also successfully demonstrated an organic solar cell on the novel substrate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  12. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  13. Parallels in government and corporate sustainability reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. J. Shields; S. V. Solar

    2007-01-01

    One of the core tenets of Sustainable Development is transparency and information sharing, i.e., government and corporate reporting. Governments report on issues within their sphere of responsibility to the degree that their constituents demand that they do so. Firms undertake reporting for two reasons: they are required to do so by law, and doing so makes good...

  14. International sports organization in governance and development of Olympic sports [Mezhdunarodnye sportivnye organizacii v upravlenii i razvitii olimpijskikh vidov sporta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of development of physical culture and Olympic types of sport are considered from positions of approach of the systems. The structure of the socio-economic system is presented: global, international, national level of administrative mechanism. The basic going is investigational near management. The role of international organizations is certain in a management development of Olympic types of sport. The role of the National Olympic committees which regulate the processes of management development of physical culture and sport a sphere at state level is exposed. The tendencies of bringing in of off-budget facilities Olympic organizations of the separate European countries are marked.

  15. Sorption behavior of charged and neutral polar organic compounds on solid phase extraction materials: which functional group governs sorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäuerlein, P.S.; Mansell, J.E.; ter Laak, T.L.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous polar anthropogenic organic chemicals have been found in the aqueous environment. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been applied for the isolation of these from aqueous matrices, employing various materials. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of functional groups on the

  16. 17 CFR 1.69 - Voting by interested members of self-regulatory organization governing boards and various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... boards and various committees. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Disciplinary committee... defined in § 3.1(a); (D) Net positions held at that self-regulatory organization in “customer” accounts... member has unique or special expertise, knowledge or experience in the matter under consideration. (iii...

  17. Making the decision-making basis for nuclear waste management transparent - A pre-study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2007-04-01

    The pre-study report proposes that KASAM (Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste, an independent committee attached to the Swedish Ministry of Environment) uses the RISCOM Model to support the transparency programme. Recurrent elements in the programme would then be: A clear description of background for the issue being addressed; Knowledge building activities; A hearing where the KASAM committee members and staff stretch the stakeholders. The transparency programme can combine the RISCOM Model with other approaches to citizen participation at occasions when this is deemed suitable. For example, focus groups, other forms of working groups and consensus conferences could be organized and linked to a 'RISCOM hearing'. Therefore, the pre-study report contains an overview section about methods for public participation. At this stage of the Swedish programme for nuclear waste management it is believed that KASAM can provide an arena for transparency which other stakeholders can trust not having hidden agendas or vested interested in the results. During the pre-study a number of stakeholders were approached to give their views about the format and contents of the transparency programme. The consultations showed great expectations on the programme and a large number of issues were raised that could be included in transparency creating activities. A typical activity will be relatively resource demanding, especially with respect to the time available for key stakeholders. Therefore, issues to be addressed must be critically prioritised. The pre-study report contains nine issues proposed for special efforts by KASAM: Deep bore holes as a possible alternative method for final disposal; Citizen participation and democracy; The roles of responsible authorities; Decommissioning of nuclear reactors; Site selection - on what basis?; Socioeconomic issues; Local environmental issues and regional environmental goals; Long term storage of spent nuclear fuel; Critical assumptions

  18. Suggested Guidelines for Transparency and Participation in Nuclear Waste Management Programmes. Deliverable 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Josefin Paeivioe; Andersson, Kjell; Bolado, Ricardo; Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran; Kojo, Matti; Meskens, Gaston; Pritrsky, Jozef; Richardson, Phil; Soneryd, Linda; Steinerova, Lucie; Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Wene, Clas-Otto; Vojtechova, Hana

    2010-02-01

    The ARGONA project intended to demonstrate how participation and transparency link to the political and legal systems and how new approaches can be implemented in nuclear waste management programmes. Thereby, studies have been done of the institutional and cultural context within which processes of participation and transparency take place in order to understand how the processes can be applied. The project also included studies of theory in order to build participation and transparency on a firm ground, a number of case studies in Czech Republic, Finland, Sweden and UK, as well as implementation in Czech Republic to make a difference, learn and demonstrate. These proposed guidelines are thus the result of observations and conclusions made in these efforts, and should not be regarded as an attempt to give a comprehensive set of guidelines for nuclear waste management or even for the implementation of transparency and participation therein. However, it is the hope among the ARGONA participants that they can give relevant thoughts and stimulation to those involved in the nuclear waste management area, especially organizations that have, or may become, responsible for the implementation of processes of transparency and participation, such as implementing organizations, government agencies, regulators as well as regional and local communities. It should be recognized that some of the proposed guidelines may be more relevant for a certain type of bodies (such as an implementer) than for another type (such as local community) and vice versa. Some of the proposed guidelines are also relevant at broader societal level and for the European Union bodies. It will be up to the respective reader to judge the relevance for her or his organization. The suggested guidelines are followed by more detailed recommendations on how to combine the two basic forms of mediation that have been identified in ARGONA, namely mediation by demonstration and mediation by dialogue in Annex 1

  19. Good Tax Governance: A Matter of Moral Responsibility and Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribnau Hans J.L.M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multinational corporations’ tax practices are hotly debated nowadays. Multinationals are accused of not paying their fair share of taxes. Apparently, acting within the limits set by law is not sufficient to qualify as morally responsible behavior anymore.

  20. Good tax governance : A matter of moral responsibility and transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2017-01-01

    Multinational corporations’ tax practices are hotly debated nowadays. Multinationals are accused of not paying their fair share of taxes. Apparently, acting within the limits set by law is not sufficient to qualify as morally responsible behavior anymore. This article offers ethical reflection on