WorldWideScience

Sample records for organisms current recommendations

  1. The organic seed regulations framework in Europe - current status and recommendations for future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döring, T.F.; Bocci, R.; Hitchings, R.; Howlett, S.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Pautasso, M.; Raaijmakers, M.; Rey, F.; Stubsgaard, A.; Weinhappel, M.; Wilbois, K.P.; Winkler, L.R.; Wolfe, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture regulations, in particular European regulation EC 889/2008, prescribe the use of organically produced seed. For many cultivated plants, however, organic seed is often not available. This is mainly because investment in organic plant breeding and seed production has been low in

  2. Comparison of current recommended regimens of atropinization in organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Nicholas J; Harnett, Zachary H; Hoffman, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In 2004, as reported by Eddleston et al. (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6):865-75, 2004), they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al.'s work, texts of Internal and Emergency Medicine, and electronic resources were reviewed for atropine dosing recommendations. For comparison, recommendations were assessed using the same mean dose (23.4 mg) and the highest dose (75 mg) of atropine as used in the original paper. Recommendations were also compared with the dosing regimen from the World Health Organization (WHO). Thirteen of the original recommendations were updated and 15 additional references were added giving a convenience sample of 28. Sufficient information to calculate time to targeted dose was provided by 24 of these samples. Compared to 2004, current recommendations have greatly increased the speed of atropinization with 13/24 able to reach the mean and high atropine dose within 30 min compared to 1/36 in 2004. In 2004, there were 13 regimens where the maximum time to reach 75 mg was over 18 h, whereas now, there are 2. While only one recommendation called for doubling the dose for faster escalation in 2004, 15 of the 24 current works include dose doubling. In 2004, Eddleston et al. called for an evidence-based guideline for the treatment of OP poisoning that could be disseminated worldwide. Many current recommendations can adequately treat patients within 1 h. While the WHO recommendations remain slow to treat patients with OP poisoning, other authorities are close to a consensus on rapid atropinization.

  3. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  4. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  5. Current Trends in Radiation Protection Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The third generation of the ICRP recommendations was adopted in April 2007. The recommendations rely on situations (planned, emergency and existing), individual (occupational, public and patient) and radiation protection system (justification, optimization and dose limits). In the present work attention is paid to discuss the new recommendations and role of IAEA in updating its Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources and its impact for the national regulations

  6. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  7. Current IUBMB recommendations on enzyme nomenclature and kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athel Cornish-Bowden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Union of Biochemistry (IUB, now IUBMB prepared recommendations for describing the kinetic behaviour of enzymes in 1981. Despite the more than 30 years that have passed since these have not subsequently been revised, though in various respects they do not adequately cover current needs. The IUBMB is also responsible for recommendations on the naming and classification of enzymes. In contrast to the case of kinetics, these recommendations are kept continuously up to date.

  8. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: current status and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Shai; Deutsch, Israel; Antonelli, Massimo; Hockey, Peter M; Rozenblum, Ronen; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2010-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common hazardous complication in ICU patients. The aim of the current review is to give an update on the current status and future recommendations for VAP prevention. This article gives an updated review of the current literature on VAP. The first part briefly reviews pathogenesis and epidemiology while the second includes an in-depth review of evidence-based practice guidelines (EBPG) and new technologies developed for prevention of VAP. VAP remains a frequent and costly complication of critical illness with a pooled relative risk of 9-27% and mortality of 25-50%. Strikingly, VAP adds an estimated cost of more than $40,000 to a typical hospital admission. An important aetiological mechanism of VAP is gross or micro-aspiration of oropharyngeal organisms around the cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) into the distal bronchi. Prevention of VAP is preferable. Preventative measures can be divided into two main groups: the implemen- tation of EBPGs and use of device-based technologies. EBPGs have been authored jointly by the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The Canadian Critical Care Trials group also published VAP Guidelines in 2008. Their recommendations are detailed in this review. The current device-based technologies include drainage of subglottic secretions, silver coated ETTs aiming to influence the internal bio-layer of the ETT, better sealing of the lower airways with ultrathin cuffs and loops for optimal cuff pressure control. EBPG consensus includes: elevation of the head of the bed, use of daily "sedation vacations" and decontamination of the oropharynx. Technological solutions should aim to use the most comprehensive combination of subglottic suction of secretions, optimization of ETT cuff pressure and ultrathin cuffs. VAP is a type of hospital-acquired pneumonia that develops more than 48 h after endotracheal intubation. Its incidence is estimated to be 9-27%, with a

  9. Comparison of Current Recommended Regimens of Atropinization in Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Nicholas J.; Harnett, Zachary H.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In 2004, as reported by Eddleston et al. (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6):865-75, 2004), they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al.’s work, texts of Internal ...

  10. Vitamin D in adolescents: Are current recommendations enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taryn J; Lanham-New, Susan A; Hart, Kathryn H

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is essential for bone development during adolescence and low vitamin D status during this critical period of growth may impact bone mineralization, potentially reducing peak bone mass and consequently increasing the risk of osteoporosis in adulthood. Therefore, the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and deficiency in adolescent populations is of great concern. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, the widely accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, that defines adequacy, and the vitamin D intake requirements to maintain various 25(OH)D thresholds are not well established. While the current intake recommendations of 10-15μg/day may be sufficient to prevent vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D50nmol/l). This review will address these concerns and consider if the current dietary recommendations for vitamin D in adolescents are sufficient. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement in Marketing: Current Scenario, Recommendations and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zambaldi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss about construct measurement in Marketing by summarizing the main considerations about the subject. First, it discusses the origins of the debates about the theme since the 1970s and describes its main consolidated models (the classical Churchill’s model, the COARSE model and the formative measurement model. Then it presents current concerns about the classical approach with relevant recommendations (particularly regarding multi-item measurement, single-item measurement, rating scales and cross-cultural aspects. At the end, it presents considerations about measurement trends in Marketing with emphasis on the Item Response Theory (IRT, Bayesian estimators and Partial Least Squares (PLS. The article updates the debate on the theme and contributes to Marketing experts and researchers who demand a current view about measurement and recommendations for research development. 

  12. The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon: history, current status, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, R G; Jobsis, C T; Onan, G; Day, B N

    2011-07-01

    The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon (AQ) provides opportunities for teams of undergraduate animal and dairy science students to participate in regional American Society of Animal Science (ASAS)/American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) meetings and to collectively exhibit their knowledge and talents competitively in 4 categories: 1) solving practical, hands-on, laboratory-type problems; 2) providing written answers to essay-type questions about principles and concepts; 3) preparing and communicating orally and extemporaneously topics of current animal science interest; and 4) quickly responding to short-answer questions provided in the form of double-elimination quiz bowls. Each team is selected by winning the local AQ at their university. Overall and individual category winning teams are recognized, but team rankings are not emphasized. The ASAS/ADSA members provide leadership for organizing and conducting the AQ, and ASAS and each university provide travel expenses for students. The ultimate purpose is to stimulate academic excellence among undergraduate students and for the students to attend ASAS/ADSA regional scientific meetings to meet faculty and students and to attend scientific research presentations. The purpose of this document was to provide a history of the event and to make recommendations for its improvement. The AQ was conceived in 1967. During the next 10 yr, an ASAS committee developed procedures for a trial AQ held in 1980 at the ASAS Midwestern Section, Kansas State University-Manhattan, and in the next year the first official AQ was held at the ASAS Midwestern Section at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Starting in 1985, AQ programs were initiated at the other 3 ASAS sectional meetings, and an estimated 50,000 students representing 60 universities have participated in AQ programs since that time. If the AQ is to continue its improvement over time, it will greatly depend on sustained ASAS/ADSA faculty interest and support, as well as

  13. Reimmunization after bone marrow transplantation: Current recommendations and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Clarisse M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous and allogeneic BMT recipients lose immune memory of exposition to infectious agents and vaccines accumulated throughout lifetime and therefore need to be revaccinated. Diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis vaccine (children < 7 years old, Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib conjugate, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide, inactivated influenza vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine and live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine are the currently recommended vaccines to be included in a vaccination program after BMT. For most of them, the best time of vaccination, the number of vaccine doses and/or the duration of immunity after vaccination have not been established. Vaccination protocols vary greatly among BMT centers suggesting that the lack of sufficient data has not permitted the establishment of solid recommendations. The use of other vaccines and the perspectives for different vaccination protocols are discussed in this review.

  14. Current micronutrient recommendations in Europe: towards understanding their differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doets, Esmée L; de Wit, Liesbeth S; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adriënne E J M; Raats, Monique M; Timotijevic, Lada; Brzozowska, Anna; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Pavlovic, Mirjana; Totland, Torunn Holm; Andersen, Lene F; Ruprich, Jiri; Pijls, Loek T J; Ashwell, Margaret; Lambert, Janet P; van 't Veer, Pieter; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2008-04-01

    evidence used, and assumptions made. Twenty-two countries, the World Health Organization (WHO)/the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the EC have their own reports on nutrient recommendations. Thirteen countries based their micronutrient recommendations on those from other countries or organisations. Five countries, WHO/FAO and the EC defined their own recommendations. The DACH-countries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) as well as the Nordic countries (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Iceland) cooperated in setting recommendations. Greece and Portugal use the EC and the WHO/FAO recommendations, respectively and Slovenia adopted the recommendations from the DACH-countries. Rather than by concepts, definitions, and defined population groups, variability appears to emerge from differences in criteria for adequacy, assumptions made and type of evidence used to establish micronutrient recommendations. The large variation in current micronutrient recommendations for population groups as illustrated for vitamin A and vitamin D strengthens the need for guidance on setting evidence based, up-to-date European recommendations. Differences in endpoints, type of evidence used to set recommendations, experts' opinions and assumptions are all likely to contribute to the identified variation. So far, background information was not sufficient transparent to disentangle the relative contribution of these different aspects. EURRECA has an excellent opportunity to develop tools to improve transparency on the approaches used in setting micronutrient recommendations, including the selection of criteria for adequacy, weighing of evidence, and interpretation of data.

  15. Updates to the World Health Organization's Recommendations for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In July 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) released new guidelines entitled, “Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIVInfection in Infants: Towards universal access.” Previewed in November 2009 in abridged form, the completed document highlights the key WHO recommendations for ...

  16. [Current issues regarding organic food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Cozma, A G T

    2005-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life.

  17. Perspective: Conflict of interest and professional organizations: considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Parke, David W

    2010-01-01

    There are differences in conflicts of interest (COIs) in professional organizations compared with academic medical centers. The authors discuss nine major questions pertaining to industry relationships of professional organizations: (1) What makes COI management different in professional membership organizations? (2) What COI challenges are specific to professional organizations? (3) What are potential impacts of perceived or real COIs involving professional organizations and the management of COIs? (4) Is regulation necessary, or should professional organizations proactively resolve COI issues independently? (5) Are guidelines portable from academic medical centers to professional organizations? (6) What approaches may be considered for managing COIs of the organization's leaders? (7) What approaches are reasonable for managing COI issues at professional meetings? (8) What approaches are important for integrity of educational programs, publications, and products? and (9) What approaches are reasonable for managing and enforcing COI guidelines on an ongoing basis? Responses to these questions focus on four principles: First, a code of ethics governing general behavior of members and safeguarding the interest of patients must be in place; second, the monitoring and management of COI for leadership, including, in some cases, recusal from certain activities; third, the pooling and consistent, transparent management of unrestricted grants from corporate sponsors; and, fourth, the management of industry marketing efforts at membership meetings to ensure their appropriateness. The perspectives offered are intended to encourage individuals and learned bodies to further study and provide commentary and recommendations on managing COIs of a professional organization.

  18. Whither Strategic Communication? A Survey of Current Proposals and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    ... are endorsed. Based on the recommendations put forth by the 36 selected documents and articulated in more than a dozen interviews with stakeholders and subject-matter experts, findings indicate that four core...

  19. Online Student Services: Current Practices and Recommendations for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tabitha L.; Brown, Abbie

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for planning and development of online student services based on a review of the literature on research conducted in a variety of college settings. Focus topics include the institutional website, help desks and information centers, student orientation, academic support, and library services.

  20. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  1. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Fractional lasers in dermatology - Current status and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apratim Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractional laser technology is a new emerging technology to improve scars, fine lines, dyspigmentation, striae and wrinkles. The technique is easy, safe to use and has been used effectively for several clinical and cosmetic indications in Indian skin. Devices: Different fractional laser machines, with different wavelengths, both ablative and non-ablative, are now available in India. A detailed understanding of the device being used is recommended. Indications: Common indications include resurfacing for acne, chickenpox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photoageing changes, facial dyschromias. The use of fractional lasers in stretch marks, melasma and other pigmentary conditions, dermatological conditions such as granuloma annulare has been reported. But further data are needed before adopting them for routine use in such conditions. Physician qualification: Any qualified dermatologist may administer fractional laser treatment. He/ she should possess a Master′s degree or diploma in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers, either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist or plastic surgeon with experience and training in using lasers. Since parameters may vary with different systems, specific training tailored towards the concerned device at either the manufacturer′s facility or at another center using the machine is recommended. Facility: Fractional lasers can be used in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room for the above indications. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent: Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects and possible postoperative complications should be provided to the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and also adequate opportunity to seek information. A detailed consent form needs to be completed by the patient. Consent form should

  3. Current NRPB recommendations on optimisation of protection of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board is required by Ministerial Direction to provide advice on the relevance of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection to the UK. Its advice was published in the Spring of 1993 after a period of consultation. In this article, which formed the basis of a presentation at an SRP Meeting on 29 April 1994, the Board's advice on the optimisation of protection of workers is explored and presented in the context of the developments in the understanding of the principle that have taken place in recent years. The most significant developments are the realisation that implementation of the principle is an essential function of good management and the recognition that the interests of the individual are not sufficiently taken into account by the dose limits alone but doses to individuals should be both constrained and optimised. (author)

  4. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Current Strategies and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V. Naccarelli, MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the most common complication of atrial fibrillation (AF. Guidelines recommend anticoagulant treatment in patients with CHA2DS2VASc scores of >2. Registry data suggests that almost half of patients who should be on therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke prevention in AF (SPAF are not. Warfarin and more recently developed agents, the “novel anticoagulants” (NOACs reduce the risk of embolic strokes. In addition, the NOACs also reduce intracranial hemorrhage (ICH by over 50% compared to warfarin. Anticoagulation and bridging strategies involving cardioversion, catheter ablation, and invasive/surgical procedures are reviewed. The development of reversal agents for NOACs and the introduction of left atrial appendage occluding devices will evolve the use of newer strategies for preventing stroke in high risk AF patients.

  5. Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandén Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. Methods Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR are reviewed from the available literature and imaging recommendations given with regard to implant type. Two illustrative cases are presented in figures. Results Access-related complications, infections, implant wear, loosening or fracture, polyethylene inlay dislodgement, facet joint hypertrophy, central stenosis, and ankylosis of the operated segment can be visualised both in titanium and stainless steel implants, but require different imaging modalities due to magnetic artifacts in MRI. Conclusion Alternative radiographic procedures should be considered when evaluating patients following TDR. Postoperative complications following lumbar TDR including spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy and implant loosening can be visualised by myelography and radionucleotide techniques as an adjunct to plain film radiographs. Even in the presence of massive stainless steel TDR implants lumbar radicular stenosis and implant loosening can be visualised if myelography and radionuclide techniques are applied.

  6. Power Testing in Basketball: Current Practice and Future Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Neal; Dalbo, Vincent J; Burgos, Bill; Pyne, David B; Scanlan, Aaron T

    2018-02-01

    Numerous foundational movements performed during basketball are predicated on underlying power-related attributes, including speed, change-of-direction, and jumping. Accordingly, fitness testing batteries for basketball have incorporated an assortment of linear speed tests, change-of-direction tests, and jump tests. However, due to the wide variety of testing options it is difficult for basketball practitioners to select appropriate testing protocols for the assessment of power-related attributes. As a result, there is a need to review the relevant literature to identify game-specific, power-related attributes important in basketball and the most appropriate tests available to assess power-related attributes for basketball practitioners. Therefore, the aims of this review were to: (1) identify essential power-related attributes important in basketball; (2) discuss the suitability of common and novel power-related tests; and (3) provide recommendations for future research and best practice approaches for basketball coaching staff. In this review, we propose a series of novel tests that are more targeted and specific to basketball movements including: (1) 5-m and 10-m linear sprints, (2) Modified Agility T-Test, (3) Change-of-Direction Deficit, (4) lateral bound, (5) Sargent jump, (6) one-step jump, and (7) isometric midthigh pull test. Improved testing of power-related attributes should enable basketball practitioners to develop targeted training plans for enhancing player performance.

  7. The Japanese artificial organs scene: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun

    2005-08-01

    Artificial organs and regenerative medicine are the subjects of very active research and development (R&D) in Japan and various artificial organs are widely used in patients. Results of the R&D are presented at the annual conference of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs (JSAO). Progress in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are reviewed annually in the Japanese Journal of Artificial Organs. The official English-language journal of JSAO, Journal of Artificial Organs, also publishes many original articles by Japanese researchers. Although the annual conference and the publications of JSAO provide the world with update information on artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan, the information is not always understood appropriately in the rest of the world, mainly due to language problems. This article therefore introduces the current status of artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan. Artificial hearts and metabolic support systems are reviewed here and other interesting areas such as regenerative medicine can be found elsewhere.

  8. eHealth in Saudi Arabia: Current Trends, Challenges and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulame, Khaled; Khalifa, Mohamed; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the current status of eHealth in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of health informatics professionals. We used a case study approach and analyzed participant data using thematic analysis. The study took place between July and August 2013. Data collection included interviews with nine senior health information professionals in Saudi Arabia. The findings describe participant views on current eHealth trends in Saudi Arabia and show differences among Saudi healthcare organizations in terms of eHealth adoption. Participants also describe the challenges relating to organizational and cultural issues, end user attitudes towards eHealth projects, and the lack of specialized human resources to implement eHealth systems. Two main recommendations made by the participants were to form a new national body for eHealth and to develop a unified plan for the implementation of Saudi eHealth initiatives.

  9. Matrix- and tensor-based recommender systems for the discovery of currently unknown inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Atsuto; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Hisashi; Tanaka, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Chemically relevant compositions (CRCs) and atomic arrangements of inorganic compounds have been collected as inorganic crystal structure databases. Machine learning is a unique approach to search for currently unknown CRCs from vast candidates. Herein we propose matrix- and tensor-based recommender system approaches to predict currently unknown CRCs from database entries of CRCs. Firstly, the performance of the recommender system approaches to discover currently unknown CRCs is examined. A Tucker decomposition recommender system shows the best discovery rate of CRCs as the majority of the top 100 recommended ternary and quaternary compositions correspond to CRCs. Secondly, systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to investigate the phase stability of the recommended compositions. The phase stability of the 27 compositions reveals that 23 currently unknown compounds are newly found to be stable. These results indicate that the recommender system has great potential to accelerate the discovery of new compounds.

  10. From the Margins to the Center: Recommendations for Current and Aspiring Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Tina R.

    2009-01-01

    Tina Nolan presents a call to action for current and future leaders to assume a new role as change leaders for the museum education profession. This article puts forth a series of recommendations and strategies for repositioning museum educators from the margins of their institutions to the center. Included among these recommendations are…

  11. Nutri-RecQuest: a web-based search engine on current micronutrient recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Kadvan, A.; Doets, E.L.; Tepsic, J.; Novakovic, R.N.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Renkema, M.; Glibetic, M.; Bucchini, L.; Matthys, C.; Smith, R.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Gurinovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) Network of Excellence collated current micronutrient recommendations. A user-friendly tool, Nutri-RecQuest, was developed to allow access to the collated data and to create a database source for use in other nutritional

  12. Are the current guideline recommendations for neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation safe and effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    A recently published review of approaches to optimize chest compressions in the resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns discussed the current recommendations and explored potential determinants of effective neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, not all potential determinants of effective neonatal CPR were explored. Chest compression shallower than the current guideline recommendation of approximately 33% of the anterior-posterior (AP) chest diameter may be safer and more effective. From a physiological standpoint, high-velocity brief duration shallower compression may be more effective than current recommendations. The application of a 1- or 2-finger method of high-impulse CPR, which would depend on the size of the subject, may be more effective than using a 2-thumb (TT) encircling hands method of CPR. Adrenaline should not be used in the treatment of asphyxiated neonates and when necessary titrated vasopressin should be used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; S?ndor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an ill...

  14. Do current national and international guidelines have specific recommendations for older adults with bipolar disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dols, Annemiek; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2016-01-01

    a variety of sources have become available in recent years. It is expected that at least some of this emerging information on OABD would be incorporated into treatment guidelines available to clinicians around the world. METHODS: The International Society of Bipolar Disorders OABD task force compiled...... and compared recommendations from current national and international guidelines that specifically address geriatric or older individuals with BD (from year 2005 onwards). RESULTS: There were 34 guidelines, representing six continents and 19 countries. The majority of guidelines had no separate section on OABD....... General principles for treating OABD with medication are recommended to be similar to those for younger adults, with special caution for side effects due to somatic comorbidity and concomitant medications. Therapeutic lithium serum levels are suggested to be lower but recommendations are very general...

  15. Preconception care of women with diabetes: a review of current guideline recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazza Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM continues to rise worldwide. More women from developing countries who are in the reproductive age group have diabetes resulting in more pregnancies complicated by T2DM, and placing both mother and foetus at higher risk. Management of these risks is best achieved through comprehensive preconception care and glycaemic control, both prior to, and during pregnancy. The aim of this review was to compare the quality and content of current guidelines concerned with the preconception care of women with diabetes and to develop a summary of recommendations to assist in the management of diabetic women contemplating pregnancy. Methods Relevant clinical guidelines were identified through a search of several databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS and The Cochrane Library and relevant websites. Five guidelines were identified. Each guideline was assessed for quality using the AGREE instrument. Guideline recommendations were extracted, compared and contrasted. Results All guidelines were assessed as being of high quality and strongly recommended for use in practice. All were consistent in counselling about the risk of congenital malformation related to uncontrolled blood sugar preconceptionally, ensuring adequate contraception until glycaemic control is achieved, use of HBA1C to monitor metabolic control, when to commence insulin and switching from ACE inhibitors to other antihypertensives. Major differences were in the targets recommended for optimal metabolic control and opinion regarding the usage of metformin as an adjunct or alternative treatment before or during pregnancy. Conclusions International guidelines for the care of women with diabetes who are contemplating pregnancy are consistent in their recommendations; however some are more comprehensive than others. Having established current standards for the preconception care of diabetic women, there is now a need to focus on guideline

  16. Recommendations for the delineation of organs at risk in ENT radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, D.; Halimi, P.; Berges, O.; Deberne, M.; Botti, M.; Giraud, P.; Servagi-Vernat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Based on a literature survey, the authors propose recommendations for the delineation of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, inner ear, larynx, buccal cavity, and temporomandibular joint. These recommendations of delineation of organs at risk are related to the functional anatomy of the considered structures, and correspond to volumes used in published surveys on dose-volume toxicity. They are simple and reproducible. Short communication

  17. Current at Metal-Organic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Charge transport through atomic and molecular constrictions greatly affects the operation and performance of organic electronic devices. Much of our understanding of the charge injection and extraction processes in these systems relays on our knowledge of the electronic structure at the metal-organic interface. Despite significant experimental and theoretical advances in studying charge transport in nanoscale junctions, a microscopic understanding at the single atom/molecule level is missing. In the present talk I will present our recent results to probe directly the nanocontact between single molecules and a metal electrode using scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy. The experiments provide unprecedented microscopic details of single molecule and atom junctions and open new avenues to study quantum critical and many body phenomena at the atomic scale. Implications for energy conversion devices and carbon based nanoelectronics will also be discussed.

  18. [Current recommendations for basic/advanced life support : Addressing unanswered questions and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, K; Schmid, B; Busch, H-J

    2016-11-01

    The revised guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation were implemented by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in October 2015. There were few changes concerning basic and advanced life support; however, some issues were clarified compared to the ERC recommendations from 2010. The present paper summarizes the procedures of basic and advanced life support according to the current guidelines and highlights the updates of 2015. Furthermore, the article depicts future prospects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that may improve outcome of patients after cardiac arrest in the future.

  19. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  20. Altered Mental Status: Current Evidence-based Recommendations for Prehospital Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Sanello

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the United States emergency medical services (EMS protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with an acute change in mental status and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the State of California. Methods: We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with altered mental status (AMS and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the AMS protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were patient assessment, point-of-care tests, supplemental oxygen, use of standardized scoring, evaluating for causes of AMS, blood glucose evaluation, toxicological treatment, and pediatric evaluation and management. Results: Protocols across 33 EMS agencies in California varied widely. All protocols call for a blood glucose check, 21 (64% suggest treating adults at <60mg/dL, and half allow for the use of dextrose 10%. All the protocols recommend naloxone for signs of opioid overdose, but only 13 (39% give specific parameters. Half the agencies (52% recommend considering other toxicological causes of AMS, often by using the mnemonic AEIOU TIPS. Eight (24% recommend a 12-lead electrocardiogram; others simply suggest cardiac monitoring. Fourteen (42% advise supplemental oxygen as needed; only seven (21% give specific parameters. In terms of considering various etiologies of AMS, 25 (76% give instructions to consider trauma, 20 (61% to consider stroke, and 18 (55% to consider seizure. Twenty-three (70% of the agencies have separate pediatric AMS protocols; others include pediatric considerations within the adult protocol. Conclusion: Protocols

  1. RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF MARKETING RESEARCH ACTIVITY IN ROMANIAN MICROCREDIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savescu Roxana Florenta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As they mature, microcredit organizations in Romania are becoming aware of the importance of marketing in their current activities. Although marketing interventions should be considered important on all types of markets, the reality is that micro-credit companies in Romania have a limited institutional capacity to develop and implement marketing programs. This implies that marketing efforts should be focused and marketing needs should be prioritized, according to the appropriate level of market development (developing markets, growth markets and mature markets. The paper presents the results of an exploratory marketing research study regarding the marketing activity performed by microfinance institutions in Romania. The purpose of the research was to identify courses of action to institutionalize marketing research in the current activity of the subjects analyzed. It has been our intention to give a very practical dimension to the recommendations regarding the marketing information useful for microcredit organizations and categories of marketing research needing to be conducted regularly, making them applicable within the specific Romanian environment. Given the fact that on a national level scientific concerns about microfinance in Romania, in general or about marketing in the field of microfinance in particular are almost nonexistent, this thesis can be regarded as an innovation. This conclusion comes both from the investigation of existing literature and from the author's interviews with managers of microfinance institutions who have argued that this was the first time when Romanian academic institutions got interested in this sector. Potential beneficiaries of the results of this study are: managers of microcredit organizations interested in the development and sustainability of the institutions they manage; various national and international organizations interested in designing technical assistance programs in the areas identified as being

  2. [Current dietary exposure to mercury during pregnancy and childhood, and public health recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ibarlucea, Jesús; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of mercury during vulnerable periods (such as pregnancy and childhood) may have serious consequences for cognitive development, as observed after acute poisoning episodes in Japan and Irak. The main source of mercury exposure in the general population is consumption of certain types of fish. There is growing concern about the possible neurotoxic effects of mercury, especially in younger children in populations where fish intake is moderate to high. The scientific evidence to date is inconclusive. In Spain, the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) project has provided information on levels of prenatal exposure to mercury among 1800 newborns from Valencia, Sabadell, Asturias and Guipúzcoa. In general, levels were high, being above the World Health Organization's recommended dose in 24% of children and above the recommended levels of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 64%. However, the results did not indicate a significant association between prenatal mercury exposure and delayed cognitive development during the second year of life. Various agencies have developed recommendations on fish consumption for pregnant women and children, due to the presence of mercury. These recommendations should be strengthened, since there is general consensus among all regional and national public administrations that fish is an essential source of nutrients for development in the early stages of life. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Advance Care Planning Documentation in Electronic Health Records: Current Challenges and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Daniela; Panariello, Natalie; Henrich, Natalie; Hammes, Bernard; Hanson, Laura C; Meier, Diane E; Guinn, Nancy; Corrigan, Janet; Hubber, Sean; Luetke-Stahlman, Hannah; Block, Susan

    2018-04-01

    To develop a set of clinically relevant recommendations to improve the state of advance care planning (ACP) documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). Advance care planning (ACP) is a key process that supports goal-concordant care. For preferences to be honored, clinicians must be able to reliably record, find, and use ACP documentation. However, there are no standards to guide ACP documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). We interviewed 21 key informants to understand the strengths and weaknesses of EHR documentation systems for ACP and identify best practices. We analyzed these interviews using a qualitative content analysis approach and subsequently developed a preliminary set of recommendations. These recommendations were vetted and refined in a second round of input from a national panel of content experts. Informants identified six themes regarding current inadequacies in documentation and accessibility of ACP information and opportunities for improvement. We offer a set of concise, clinically relevant recommendations, informed by expert opinion, to improve the state of ACP documentation in the EHR.

  4. Professional Organizations and Publications in ISD&T Recommended to New Professionals by Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Lee, Youngmin

    2006-01-01

    New members in the field of instructional systems design and technology (ISD&T), including new students in this field, can find lists of publications and organizations available for them to read and to join. However, they may also wish to know which of these publications and organizations are recommended by established professionals. The field of…

  5. Implications of the 2015 World Health Organization isoniazid preventive therapy recommendations on tuberculosis prevention efforts in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloo, Stella Anne

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization recently released guidelines recommending 36-month use of isoniazid preventive therapy in adults and adolescents living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Namibia continues to grapple with one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Implementation of these guidelines requires considerations of TB epidemiology, health infrastructure, programmatic priorities and patient adherence. This article explores the challenges Namibia currently faces in its fight against TB and the implications of the new guidelines on Namibian TB prevention efforts.

  6. Perspectives on Current Training Guidelines for Cardiac Imaging and Recommendations for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, James A; Kilic, Sena; Haines, Philip G

    2018-04-23

    To summarize current training guidelines for cardiac imaging and provide recommendations for future guidelines. The current structure of training in cardiac imaging is largely dictated by modality-specific guidelines. While there has been debate on how to define the advanced cardiac imager for over a decade, a uniform consensus has not emerged. We report the perspectives of three key stakeholders in this debate: a senior faculty member-former fellowship program director, a cardiology fellow, and an academic junior faculty imaging expert. The observations of these stakeholders suggest that there is no consensus on the definition of advanced cardiac imaging, leading to ambiguity in training guidelines. This may have negative impact on recruitment of fellows into cardiac imaging careers. Based on the current status of training in cardiac imaging, the authors suggest that the relevant professional groups reconvene to form a consensus in defining advanced cardiac imaging, in order to guide future revisions of training guidelines.

  7. The organization of information in electronic patient record under the perspective of usability recommendations: proposition of organization of information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tissa Kawakami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the various areas of studies, health information is highlighted in this study. More specifically, the patient's electronic medical records and issues related to it’s informational organization and usability. Objectives: suggest Usability recommendations applicable to the Electronic Patient Record. More specifically, identify, according to the specialized literature, recommendations of Usability, as well as to develop a checklist with recommendations of Usability for the Electronic Patient Record. Methodology: the study’s basic purpose is the theoretical nature. The deductive method of documental delimitation was chosen. Results: elaboration of checklist with recommendations of Usability for Electronic Patient Records. Conclusion: Usability recommendations can be used to improve electronic patient records. However, it should be noted that knowledge in the scope of Information Science should be considered and summed up, since a great deal of content related to Usability refers to operational and visual aspects of the interface, not clearly or directly contemplating the issues related to information.

  8. Assessment of current NRC/IE professional training program and recommendations for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, H.J.; Hagerup, J.E.; Harrison, O.J.; Heyer, F.H.K.; Kaas, I.W.; Schwartz, E.G.

    1978-05-01

    This document is the General Research Corporation (GRC) report on Task III: to assess the current NRC/IE professional training program and to provide recommendations for improvement. The major objectives of this task were to determine the overall effectiveness of the NRC/IE training program and to provide recommendations for improvements where appropriate. The research involved a review of course manuals and of student critiques, observation in the classroom and person to person interviews; it also included an evaluation of the assignment of instructors to the Career Management Branch. Findings addressed refresher training, retread training and initial training--with emphasis on the last of these. Conclusions are that: (1) The curriculum provides, in general, types and levels of training needed; (2) the mix of training methods used is correct; and (3) the training management is effective. However, the training facilities do not reflect a commitment to quality instruction nor is assignment as instructor to the Career Management Branch attractive to inspectors. Recommendations presented in the report are based upon the findings; all lie within the implementing authority of Headquarters NRC/IE

  9. Current status on preparation of dose conversion factors based on 1990 ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Michio

    1996-01-01

    The current status of arrangement of dose conversion factors for operational quantities are explained on the basis of 1995 ICRP-ICRU recommendations. The dose conversion factors of photon, neutron and electron were recommended by ICRP Publ. 74. It's contents are described. The relation between new dose conversion factors and the laws in connection with protecting radiation are explained. The dose conversion factors of 1 cm-, 3 mm- and 70 μm - dose equivalent which were introduced into the laws connected therewith in Japan are accepted the same values of ICRP Publ. 51 for photon and neutron. I mentioned the points of discussing about new dose conversion factors which are expected to be recommended. The laws have to show the dose conversion factors to be used by calculation and estimation of radiation shield, etc. The limit of energy of ICRU individual dose equivalent for photon is now until 1 MeV, but the value is insufficient and necessary to 10 MeV as same as the ambient dose equivalent in due consideration of atomic energy facilities. JAERI is preparing these dose conversion factors now. (S.Y.)

  10. Prevention of Backover Fatalities in Highway Work Zones: A Synthesis of Current Practices and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to synthesize current practices and procedures on the prevention of backing fatalities in highway work zones. First, general work zone safety hazards are reviewed, particularly blind areas are identified. Second, engineering controls currently in use are examined and explained to help understand what steps can be taken to prevent future backing fatalities. Third, administrative controls (including signalers, drivers, and workers-on-foot training are also discussed. Fourth, existing technology controls are reviewed for use in aiding equipment operators in identifying when pedestrian personnel are in dangerous areas around their equipment (i.e., back-up camera, radar. Fifth, recommendations are made based on the comprehensive review of the backover fatality prevention techniques in construction work zones and the conducted testing results of several commercially available systems. Recommendations on engineering and technology controls are discussed, with detailed information such as improving internal traffic control plans, and integrating technology with traffic control plans. Information and drawings are provided to illustrate how to design work zones, and the internal traffic flow diagrams are created using the integrated technology available, and site specific characteristics. The drawings represent examples of using different types of technology, in different scenarios using the proper legend, as well as using the proper general and technology notes to help explain the traffic control plan, ensuring that full comprehension is made. Recommendations on administrative controls are also given such as how to conduct safety meetings, electing safety officers, how to set regulations and guidelines for workers, and how to handle training. Training should be used as a backover fatality prevention method for pedestrian workers, flaggers, spotters, and equipment operators. Finally, a summary and discussion of future research

  11. Feedback from physical activity monitors is not compatible with current recommendations: A recalibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dylan; Batterham, Alan M; Peacock, Oliver J; Western, Max J; Booso, Rahuman

    2016-10-01

    Wearable devices to self-monitor physical activity have become popular with individuals and healthcare practitioners as a route to the prevention of chronic disease. It is not currently possible to reconcile feedback from these devices with activity recommendations because the guidelines refer to the amount of activity required on top of normal lifestyle activities (e.g., 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week over-and-above normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities). The aim of this study was to recalibrate the feedback from self-monitoring. We pooled data from four studies conducted between 2006 and 2014 in patients and volunteers from the community that included both sophisticated measures of physical activity and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (n=305). We determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity that corresponded to FAO/WHO/UNU guidance for a required PAL of 1.75 (Total Energy Expenditure/Basal Metabolic Rate). Our results show that, at the UK median PAL, total moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity will be around 735 minutes per week (~11% of waking time). We estimate that a 4% increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity will achieve standardised guidance from FAO/WHO/UNU and will require ~1000 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week. This study demonstrates that feedback from sophisticated wearable devices is incompatible with current physical activity recommendations. Without adjustment, people will erroneously form the view that they are exceeding recommendations by several fold. A more appropriate target from self-monitoring that accounts for normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities is ~1000 minutes per week, which represents ~15% of waking time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DOE organization and management approach in responding to recommendation 94-2 - The implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmayer, D.

    1995-12-31

    In March, the Department of Energy (DOE) submitted the Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} This paper discusses the management organization and interactions established to accomplish the tasks developed to respond to the DNFSB Recommendation. The organization of the tasks into six technical areas and the interfaces and connections between the tasks are briefly described. A summary of how each significant part of the DNFSB Recommendation is being addressed is presented. This paper provides a brief introduction to the remaining presentations in this session.

  13. Contrast media for fluoroscopic examinations of the GI and GU tracts: current challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federle, Michael P; Jaffe, Tracy A; Davis, Peter L; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M; Levine, Marc S

    2017-01-01

    One of the significant challenges facing radiologists who perform and interpret studies of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems have been periodic interruptions in the availability of barium and iodinated contrast media specially formulated for gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) studies. These interruptions are due to the US Food and Drug Administration's recent requirement for more stringent documentation of the safety and efficacy of contrast media and the consolidation among contrast manufacturers. Therefore, radiologists may be required to recommend an alternative means of evaluation, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance, or endoscopy, or they may need to substitute a different formulation of a contrast agent not specifically developed for GI or GU use, for example the utilization of an agent designed and marketed for vascular use. This article reviews the current status of fluoroscopic contrast media, and provides suggestions and recommendations for the optimal and alternative use of contrast media formulations.

  14. Panel: Current Status of Knowledge and Recommendations for Further Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarola, L.; Costa, J.; Fauske, Hans K.; Jakeman, D.; Mizuta, H.; Wright, R.W.; Stadie, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    This Panel consists of two parts, in the first part the participants attempt to summarise their views on the current status and knowledge of SFI and its importance for the LMFBR safety case and in the second part they try to agree on recommendations for future actions. The first question tackled was: what progress has been made since the Ispra meeting which was a little over two years ago - in answering the question: 'what role does SFI play in LMFBR safety'? The second question approached was: 'Is it possible to identify SFI areas which are not yet covered by the present research and development programme? Finally 4 recommendations were proposed: 1. to have another meeting of the same nature as this one and the previous ones in two years' time; 2. to create a group dealing with the fundamental science with a view to further the safety of the LMFBR. This group would meet more regularly and would not require, and that is the important thing, approval from-CSNI every time it meets; 3. to discontinue the group on calculational models; 4. to publish at least one to two newsletters between this SFI meeting and the next SFI meeting in two years

  15. Newborn screening for proximal urea cycle disorders: Current evidence supporting recommendations for newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J Lawrence; Brody, Linnea L; Pino, Gisele; Rinaldo, Piero

    2018-04-20

    Current newborn screening (NBS) for urea cycle disorders (UCD) is incomplete as only distal UCDs are included in most NBS programs by measuring elevated amino acid concentrations. NBS for the proximal UCDs involves the detection in NBS spots of low citrulline values, a finding which is often overlooked because it is considered to be inadequate. We retrospectively analyzed NBS blood spots from known UCD patients comparing the utility of the Region 4 Stork (R4S) interpretive tools to conventional cutoff based interpretation. This study shows the utility of R4S tools in detecting all UCDs, and provides evidence to support the nomination to add proximal UCDs to the recommended uniform screening panel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Business intelligence and data warehouse programs in higher education institutions: current status and recommendations for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marinova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation and the main challenges in existing Business Intelligence (BI and Data Warehouse (DW curricula. On the base of this research, certain recommendations for their improvement are made. At the same time, the paper gives concrete guidelines for the development of a clear and comprehensive graduate profile with knowledge, skills and social competence in the field of BI and DW. This is particularly beneficial for universities and other higher education institutions, that seek to offer courses with high quality content and tendencies, adequate to the latest education, in the concerned area. The paper is written within the Erasmus plus KA2 project “Developing the innovative methodology of teaching Business Informatics” (DIMBI, 2015-1-PL01-KA203-0016636.

  17. Current recommendations for the study of carotid stenosis by doppler ultrasound and other imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Matamoros, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has been one of the most frequent causes of death from chronic disease, as well as cause of long-term disabilities, in both the United States, and in Latin American countries during recent years. It is therefore, important to know about it. An updated review of international recommendations to the Costa Rican health system is performed for carotid imaging study in patients at risk of accidents and ischemic cerebrovascular disease; with special emphasis on carotid Doppler ultrasonography, due to its wide availability in the medical field Costa Rican. Furthermore, certain relevant concepts of other imaging techniques currently available are listed to determine the appropriate choice of each method according to the individual patient's condition, such as conventional angiography and tomographic angiography [es

  18. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-03-07

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped at dinner in their homes. Mothers were chosen from a larger study to create a 2 X 2 X 2 design: maternal ethnicity (African American vs. Latina) by child gender by child weight status (healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). Observers coded videotapes for a range of maternal feeding strategies and other behaviors. Many mothers spent considerable time encouraging eating--often in spite of the child's insistence that he or she was finished. Mothers talked little about food characteristics, rarely referred to feelings of hunger and fullness, and made more attempts to enforce table manners than to teach eating skills. Latina mothers showed higher levels of teaching eating skills and encouraging their children to eat; African American mothers showed higher levels of enforcing table manners and getting children to clear their plates. Mothers of boys used more unelaborated commands and less questions/suggestions than mothers of girls. Finally, compared to mothers of overweight/obese children, mothers of healthy weight children showed higher levels of encouraging eating and lower levels of discouraging eating. Most of the mothers in this study did not engage in feeding practices that are consistent with current recommendations. They did this, despite the fact that they knew they were being observed. These results should be used to inform future research about the motivations behind mothers' feeding practices and the development of interventions by helping identify areas in greatest need of change.

  19. Fever and Pain Management in Childhood: Healthcare Providers’ and Parents’ Adherence to Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genny Raffaeli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the adherence of healthcare providers and parents to the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management, randomized samples of 500 healthcare providers caring for children and 500 families were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The 378 health care providers (HCPs responding to the survey (75.6% included 144 primary care pediatricians (38.1%, 98 hospital pediatricians (25.9%, 62 pediatric residents (16.4%, and 71 pediatric nurses (19.6%; the 464 responding parents (92.8% included 175 whose youngest (or only child was ≤5 years old (37.7%, 175 whose youngest (or only child was aged 6–10 years (37.7%, and 114 whose youngest (or only child was aged 11–14 years (24.6%. There were gaps in the knowledge of both healthcare providers and parents. Global adherence to the guidelines was lower among the pediatric nurses than the other healthcare providers (odds ratio 0.875; 95% confidence interval 0.795–0.964. Among the parents, those of children aged 6–10 and 11–14 years old, those who were older, and those without a degree answered the questions correctly significantly less frequently than the others. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the dissemination of the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management among healthcare providers and parents in order to avoid mistaken and sometimes risky attitudes, common therapeutic errors, and the unnecessary overloading of emergency department resources. Pediatric nurses and parents with older children, those who are older, and those with a lower educational level should be the priority targets of educational programmes.

  20. Prehospital Care for the Adult and Pediatric Seizure Patient: Current Evidence Based Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Silverman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of adult and pediatric patients with a seizure and to compare these recommendations against the current protocol used by the 33 emergency medical services (EMS agencies in California. Methods: We performed a review of the evidence in the prehospital treatment of patients with a seizure, and then compared the seizure protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. We analyzed the type and route of medication administered, number of additional rescue doses permitted, and requirements for glucose testing prior to medication. The treatment for eclampsia and seizures in pediatric patients were analyzed separately. Results: Protocols across EMS Agencies in California varied widely. We identified multiple drugs, dosages, routes of administration, re-dosing instructions, and requirement for blood glucose testing prior to medication delivery. Blood glucose testing prior to benzodiazepine administration is required by 61% (20/33 of agencies for adult patients and 76% (25/33 for pediatric patients. All agencies have protocols for giving intramuscular benzodiazepines and 76% (25/33 have protocols for intranasal benzodiazepines. Intramuscular midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult dose, 2 to 8 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intranasal midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult or pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intravenous/intrasosseous midazolam dosages ranged from 1 to 6 mg per single adult dose, 1 to 5 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Eclampsia is specifically addressed by 85% (28/33 of agencies. Forty-two percent (14/33 have a protocol for administering magnesium sulfate, with intravenous dosages ranging from 2 to 6 mg, and 58% (19/33 allow benzodiazepines to be

  1. Peculiarities of the risk management system organization in current conditions

    OpenAIRE

    MIKHIN P.O.

    2014-01-01

    Risk-management system organization problem is topical nowadays. The innovation activity is defined as an activity vulnerable to risk and needs more attention. The basic approaches and elements of organization structure development in risk-management system are considered to find out the best structure for business modelling usage. Balance and combination of risk-management system types are required in current conditions.

  2. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; Sándor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-02-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide.

  3. Report on current research into organic materials in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    A preliminary review of relevant recent papers on organic materials in radioactive waste is presented. In particular, the effects of chelating or complexing agents, the influence of bacteria and the role of colloids are assessed. The requirement for further radioactive waste inventory detail is indicated. Potential problem areas associated with the presence of organic materials in radioactive waste are identified and appropriate experimental work to assess their significance is proposed. Recommendations for specific further work are made. A list and diagrams of some of the more important polymer structures likely to be present in radioactive waste and their possible degradation products are appended. (author)

  4. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine K.; Biever, Ronald C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Holbech, Henrik; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Krueger, Hank; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine active chemicals are described, and associated challenges are discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or to the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine hazard and risk. These limitations include a lack of certainty regarding: 1) adequately sensitive species and life stages; 2) mechanistic endpoints that are diagnostic for endocrine pathways of concern; and 3) the linkage between mechanistic responses and apical, adverse outcomes. Furthermore, some existing test methods are resource intensive with regard to time, cost, and use of animals. However, based on recent experiences, there are opportunities to improve approaches to and guidance for existing test methods and to reduce uncertainty. For example, in vitro high-throughput screening could be used to prioritize chemicals for testing and provide insights as to the most appropriate assays for characterizing hazard and risk. Other recommendations include adding endpoints for elucidating connections between mechanistic effects and adverse outcomes, identifying potentially sensitive taxa for which test methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid

  5. Surfing the web during pandemic flu: availability of World Health Organization recommendations on prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Romano, Mariateresa; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Rizzo, Caterina; Ravà, Lucilla; Lucente, Daniela; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2010-09-20

    People often search for information on influenza A(H1N1)v prevention on the web. The extent to which information found on the Internet is consistent with recommendations issued by the World Health Organization is unknown. We conducted a search for "swine flu" accessing 3 of the most popular search engines through different proxy servers located in 4 English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, UK, USA). We explored each site resulting from the searches, up to 4 clicks starting from the search engine page, analyzing availability of World Health Organization recommendations for swine flu prevention. Information on hand cleaning was reported on 79% of the 147 websites analyzed; staying home when sick was reported on 77.5% of the websites; disposing tissues after sneezing on 75.5% of the websites. Availability of other recommendations was lower. The probability of finding preventative recommendations consistent with World Health Organization varied by country, type of website, and search engine. Despite media coverage on H1N1 influenza, relevant information for prevention is not easily found on the web. Strategies to improve information delivery to the general public through this channel should be improved.

  6. Surfing the web during pandemic flu: availability of World Health Organization recommendations on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravà Lucilla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People often search for information on influenza A(H1N1v prevention on the web. The extent to which information found on the Internet is consistent with recommendations issued by the World Health Organization is unknown. Methods We conducted a search for "swine flu" accessing 3 of the most popular search engines through different proxy servers located in 4 English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, UK, USA. We explored each site resulting from the searches, up to 4 clicks starting from the search engine page, analyzing availability of World Health Organization recommendations for swine flu prevention. Results Information on hand cleaning was reported on 79% of the 147 websites analyzed; staying home when sick was reported on 77.5% of the websites; disposing tissues after sneezing on 75.5% of the websites. Availability of other recommendations was lower. The probability of finding preventative recommendations consistent with World Health Organization varied by country, type of website, and search engine. Conclusions Despite media coverage on H1N1 influenza, relevant information for prevention is not easily found on the web. Strategies to improve information delivery to the general public through this channel should be improved.

  7. Charge Injection and Current Flow in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Davids, P. S.; Heller, C. M.; Crone, B. K.; Campbell, I. H.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1997-03-01

    We present a comparison between device model calculations and current-voltage measurements for a series of organic LED structures. The Schottky energy barrier of an injecting contact is systematically varied by changing the metal used to form that contact. The current-voltage characteristics of the structures are described using a device model that considers charge injection, transport and space charge effects in the low mobility organic material. Charge injection into the organic material is controlled by the Schottky energy barrier of the metal/organic contact. For Schottky energy barriers greater than about 0.4 eV injection into the organic material is the principal limitation to current flow. In this regime the net injected charge density is relatively small, the electric field in the structure is nearly uniform, and space charge effects are not important. For smaller energy barriers relatively large charge densities are injected into the organic material and space charge effects become the dominant limit to current flow. The measured current-voltage characteristics are quantitatively described by the device model using Schottky barrier values independently determined by internal photoemission and electroabsorption measurements.

  8. Hepatitis C in Pregnancy: Review of Current Knowledge and Updated Recommendations for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Charlotte M; Hughes, Brenna L; Rhee, Eleanor H J; Kuller, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 1% to 2.5% of pregnant women in the United States are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries approximately a 6% risk of mother-to-infant transmission. The aims of this article are to review the current evidence on HCV in pregnancy and to provide updated recommendations for management. Original research articles, review articles, and guidelines on HCV in general and specifically in pregnancy were reviewed, as were drug safety profiles from the Food and Drug Administration. Pregnancy appears to have a beneficial effect on the course of maternal chronic HCV infection. However, it is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birth weight, and can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period. No perinatal intervention has been shown to reduce the risk of vertical transmission, but some may increase this risk. To date, no treatment regimens for HCV have been approved for use in pregnancy, but the new ribavirin-free, direct-acting antiviral regimens are being used with high efficacy outside pregnancy. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnancy generally does not adversely affect maternal well-being but is associated with adverse effects on the fetus because of pregnancy complications and vertical transmission. There are currently no approved treatment regimens for HCV in pregnancy; this should be an active area of research in obstetrics.

  9. Dental Student Academic Integrity in U.S. Dental Schools: Current Status and Recommendations for Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.

  10. Hepatitis B vaccination of premature infants: a reassessment of current recommendations for delayed immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losonsky, G A; Wasserman, S S; Stephens, I; Mahoney, F; Armstrong, P; Gumpper, K; Dulkerian, S; West, D J; Gewolb, I H

    1999-02-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics and United States Public Health Service Immunization Practices Advisory Committee recommendations for hepatitis B immunization in premature infants weighing birth born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg)-negative mothers are to delay the initiation of vaccination until such infants reach 2 kg or until 2 months of age. This proposal to delay vaccination at birth in these low-risk infants was based on limited studies not conducted in the United States. We sought to reassess current recommendations to delay administration of hepatitis B vaccine in low-risk premature infants by determining the immunogenicity of early hepatitis B vaccination in a US population and identifying variables associated with poor immunogenicity. A total of 148 infants birth and stratified to three birth weight groups: 1500 g. Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was administered within the first week of life, at 1 to 2 months of age, and at 6 to 7 months of age. Serum obtained at birth and after the second and third doses of vaccine was tested for antibody to HBSAg. Variables associated with poor response were sought prospectively by collecting demographic and clinical data. A total of 118 subjects (83%) completed the study. Postsecond dose sera were available for 117 infants and postthird dose sera were available for 112 infants. The seroprotection rate (attaining >/=10 mIU/mL HBS antibody) after two doses was low (25%) regardless of birth weight; infants weighing birth had the poorest response (11%). The seroprotection response rate after three doses of vaccine increased with birth weight; infants weighing birth (groups 1 and 2) had lower rates of response (52% and 68%, respectively) than did infants weighing >1500 g at birth (group 3; 84% response rate). The seroprotection response rate of group 3 infants after three doses of vaccine, although low, could not be differentiated from the response rates reported for full-term infants using 95% confidence

  11. Recommending scientific organization by employees as the example of their prosumer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Izabela Baruk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems related to recommending the employer by employees are presented. It is described as the example of employees’ prosumption activity. Transmitting their opinions about the organization as the employer they become the co-creators its image which is one of the key non-material marketing values. The article has theoretical-empirical character. In the theoretical part the essence of prosumption is presented. The special attention is paid to fact that in the literature this appearance is linked with consumption products not with personnel activity. In the empirical part the results of the field researches on recommending employer and its relation determinants are presented. The statistical analysis in the form of correspondence analysis method has been used to these results. It allows to estimate the dependences between analysed variables, to define the power of identified dependences, to show their character, to sort the relation determinants of recommending in the hierarchical system etc. All of the analysed dependences are significant in the statistically meaning. The stronger dependence exists in the case of vertical relation variable in the comparison to the dependence between recommending employer and horizontal relation variable. Of course each of type of organizational relations should be supported by employer because it influences on employees’ identifying with the organization which is the key determinant of the column variable.

  12. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  13. Human-carnivore conflict in China: a review of current approaches with recommendations for improved management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melissa; Xie, Yan; Kang, Aili; Rao, Madhu; Goodrich, John; Liu, Tong; Berger, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a conservation concern that increasingly threatens the continued existence of some of the world's most endangered species. With an increase in human population, urban sprawl and subsequent encroachment on wild land, human and wildlife interaction has become inevitable. In the majority of cases, this interaction results in a negative outcome for humans, wildlife or both. In China, these key elements, along with a decrease in wild prey species, have resulted in the expansion of HWC encounters, and the need for alleviating this conflict has become a conservation priority. Loss of human life, livestock and/or crops is most often the catalysts that fuel HWC. Techniques to alleviate conflict around the world have included preventative measures and mitigation techniques, such as financial compensation and other incentive programs. Both types of measures have had variable success. We review the current status of human-carnivore conflict management in China, and, drawing lessons from around the globe, we make recommendations for improving conservation management in China. For example, an increase in law enforcement in nature reserves is vital to reducing human disturbance in prime carnivore habitat, thereby reducing conflict encounters. Also, modifications to current wildlife compensation programs, so that they are linked with preventative measures, will ensure that moral hazards are avoided. Furthermore, investigating the potential for a community self-financed insurance scheme to fund compensation and increasing efforts to restore wild prey populations will improve the outcome for wildlife conservation. Ultimately, HWC management in China will greatly benefit from an integrative approach. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  14. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that childhood obesity is increasing in children who are developing typically as well as in children with developmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Impairments specific to autism as well as general environmental factors could lead to an imbalance between the intake and expenditure of energy, leading to obesity. In this article, we describe the mechanisms by which autism-specific impairments contribute to obesity. The evidence on exercise interventions to improve physical fitness, address obesity, and reduce autism-specific impairments in children and adolescents with ASDs is discussed. Limited evidence is currently available for exercise interventions in individuals with ASDs. Therefore, literature on other pediatric developmental disabilities and children who are developing typically was reviewed to provide recommendations for clinicians to assess physical activity levels, to promote physical fitness, and to reduce obesity in children and adolescents with ASDs. There is a clear need for further systematic research to develop sensitive assessment tools and holistic multisystem and multifactorial obesity interventions that accommodate the social communication, motor, and behavioral impairments of individuals with ASDs. PMID:24525861

  16. The Scope of Mobile Apps in Health Domain: Highlighting Applications Recommended by Known Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Khodaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : With over one billion smartphones and 100 million tablets across the world, they can perform as a valuable tool in health care management and transform health care through using mobile applications. There are various medical apps in different areas for a variety of users and among these applications, some of them have been approved and recommended by well-known organizations. Material and Methods : This is a descriptive-comparative study. This article reviews the mobile apps in health and medical domains developed or recommended by BMJ, NHS, CDC, AMA, Georgetown University, NLM, University of Ottawa, HHS, UCSF, and NYC. Results : The results of this research are presented in terms of the organization developing or recommending the app, the applications’ scope, the usage category of the application and the apps’ users. Conclusion : It seems that the organizations envisioning transformation of their services are the ones which recognize the impact of mobile technologies in this regard, particularly mobile apps.

  17. Dark current of organic heterostructure devices with insulating spacer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Saxena, Avadh; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul

    2015-03-01

    The dark current density at fixed voltage bias in donor/acceptor organic planar heterostructure devices can either increase or decrease when an insulating spacer layer is added between the donor and acceptor layers. The dominant current flow process in these systems involves the formation and subsequent recombination of an interfacial exciplex state. If the exciplex formation rate limits current flow, the insulating interface layer can increase dark current whereas, if the exciplex recombination rate limits current flow, the insulating interface layer decreases dark current. We present a device model to describe this behavior and illustrate it experimentally for various donor/acceptor systems, e.g. P3HT/LiF/C60.

  18. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe: Current Situation and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Eduard; Bodoky, Gyorgy; Jassem, Jacek; Popescu, Razvan A; Mardiak, Jozef; Pirker, Robert; Čufer, Tanja; Bešlija, Semir; Eniu, Alexandru; Todorović, Vladimir; Kubáčková, Kateřina; Kurteva, Galia; Tomašević, Zorica; Sallaku, Agim; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Bajić, Žarko; Šikić, Branimir I

    2016-10-01

    : The incidence of many cancers is higher in Western European (WE) countries, but mortality is frequently higher in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. A panel of oncology leaders from CEE countries participating in the South Eastern European Research Oncology Group (SEEROG) was formed in 2015, aiming to analyze the current status and trends of oncology care in CEE and to propose recommendations leading to improved care and outcomes. The SEEROG panel, meeting during the 11th Central European Oncology Congress, proposed the following: (a) national cancer control plans (NCCPs) required in all CEE countries, defining priorities in cancer care, including finance allocation considering limited health care budgets; (b) national cancer registries, describing in detail epidemiological trends; (c) efforts to strengthen comprehensive cancer centers; (d) that multidisciplinary care should be mandated by the NCCPs; (e) that smaller hospitals should be connected to multidisciplinary tumor boards via the Internet, providing access to specialized expertise; (f) nationwide primary prevention programs targeting smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption and centrally evaluated secondary prevention programs for cervical, colorectal, and breast cancers; (g) prioritize education for all involved in cancer care, including oncology nurses, general practitioners, and palliative care providers; (h) establish outpatient care in day hospitals to reduce costs associated with the current inpatient model of care in CEE countries and to improve patients' quality of life; (i) long-term pharmacoeconomic evaluations of new therapies in CEE countries; (j) increase national oncology budgets in view of the higher mortality rates in CEE compared with WE countries; and (k) CEE countries urgently need help from the European Union to increase and monitor overall investment in cancer care. Significant differences in cancer incidence and mortality have been observed between European countries

  19. Current micronutrient recommendations in Europe: towards understanding their differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Wit, de L.S.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Raats, M.M.; Timotijevic, L.; Brzozowska, A.; Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Pavlovic, M.; Holm Totland, T.; Andersen, L.F.; Ruprich, J.; Pijls, L.T.J.; Ashwell, M.; Lambert, J.P.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Nowadays most countries in Europe have established their own nutrient recommendations to assess the adequacy of dietary intakes and to plan desirable dietary intakes. As yet there is no standard approach for deriving nutrient recommendations, they may vary from country to country. This

  20. Ethics Guide Recommendations for Organ-Donation-Focused Physicians: Endorsed by the Canadian Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.

  1. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyatilaka, Indu; Lanerolle, Pulani; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Atukorala, Sunethra; Somasundaram, Noel; de Silva, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment), and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. 2800 urban women (30-45 years) were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week) and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week) for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week) was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  2. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Waidyatilaka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment, and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. METHODS: 2800 urban women (30-45 years were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  3. Current voltage perspective of an organic electronic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ayash K.; Kumari, Nikita

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinearity in current (I) - voltage (V) measurement is a well-known attribute of two-terminal organic device, irrespective of the geometrical or structural arrangement of the device. Most of the existing theories that are developed for interpretation of I-V data, either focus current-voltage relationship of charge injection mechanism across the electrode-organic material interface or charge transport mechanism through the organic active material. On the contrary, both the mechanisms work in tandem charge conduction through the device. The transport mechanism is further complicated by incoherent scattering from scattering centres/charge traps that are located at the electrode-organic material interface and in the bulk of organic material. In the present communication, a collective expression has been formulated that comprises of all the transport mechanisms that are occurring at various locations of a planar organic device. The model has been fitted to experimental I-V data of Au/P3HT/Au device with excellent degree of agreement. Certain physical parameters such as the effective area of cross-section and resistance due to charge traps have been extracted from the fit.

  4. Genetic Variation in Choline-Metabolizing Enzymes Alters Choline Metabolism in Young Women Consuming Choline Intakes Meeting Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Ganz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in choline metabolizing genes are associated with disease risk and greater susceptibility to organ dysfunction under conditions of dietary choline restriction. However, the underlying metabolic signatures of these variants are not well characterized and it is unknown whether genotypic differences persist at recommended choline intakes. Thus, we sought to determine if common genetic risk factors alter choline dynamics in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant women consuming choline intakes meeting and exceeding current recommendations. Women (n = 75 consumed 480 or 930 mg choline/day (22% as a metabolic tracer, choline-d9 for 10–12 weeks in a controlled feeding study. Genotyping was performed for eight variant SNPs and genetic differences in metabolic flux and partitioning of plasma choline metabolites were evaluated using stable isotope methodology. CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs9001, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946, FMO3 rs2266782, SLC44A1 rs7873937, and SLC44A1 rs3199966 altered the use of choline as a methyl donor; CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 altered the partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP-choline pathway; and CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946 and SLC44A1 rs7873937 altered the distribution of dietary choline between the CDP-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT denovo pathway. Such metabolic differences may contribute to disease pathogenesis and prognosis over the long-term.

  5. Resilience: a transversal occupational skill for current organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Piñeros-Botero

    2013-12-01

    some studies related to deal the resilience from the transverse occupational skills and the MCclelland approach TO KNOW TO BE AND TO KNOW TO DO, as a structural base for behavior and performance of people. Finally we propose an organizational resilience model that presents its functionality and categorization of profiles in occupational and individual skills that allow encouraging cultural and organizational behavior by means of optimization strategies to current organizations. The term organizations, is going to be used to talk about an industry or enterprise of any kind or financial sector.

  6. Surfing the web during pandemic flu: availability of World Health Organization recommendations on prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Romano, Mariateresa; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Rizzo, Caterina; Rav?, Lucilla; Lucente, Daniela; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background People often search for information on influenza A(H1N1)v prevention on the web. The extent to which information found on the Internet is consistent with recommendations issued by the World Health Organization is unknown. Methods We conducted a search for "swine flu" accessing 3 of the most popular search engines through different proxy servers located in 4 English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, UK, USA). We explored each site resulting from the searches, up to 4 c...

  7. Revisiting safe sleep recommendations for African-American infants: why current counseling is insufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Laura M; Blake, Sarah C; Gazmararian, Julie A; Woodruff, Whitney; Thompson, Winifred W; Dalmida, Safiya George

    2015-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be placed in the supine position on firm bedding and not bed share with parents or other children. Health professionals increasingly understand that many African-American parents do not follow these recommendations, but little research exists on provider reactions to this non-compliance. This study was intended to better understand how low-income, African-American mothers understand and act upon safe sleep recommendations for newborns and how providers counsel these mothers. We conducted focus groups with 60 African-American, low-income, first-time mothers and telephone interviews with 20 providers serving these populations to explore provider counseling and patient decision making. The large majority of mothers reported understanding, but not following, the safe-sleeping recommendations. Key reasons for non-compliance included perceived safety, convenience, quality of infant sleep and conflicting information from family members. Mothers often take measures intended to mitigate risk associated with noncompliance, instead increasing SIDS risk. Providers recognize that many mothers are non-compliant and attribute non-compliance largely to cultural and familial influence. However, few provider attempts are made to mitigate SIDS risks from non-compliant behaviors. We suggest that counseling strategies should be adapted to: (1) provide greater detailed rationale for SIDS prevention recommendations; and (2) incorporate or acknowledge familial and cultural preferences. Ignoring the reasons for sleep decisions by African-American parents may perpetuate ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in SIDS.

  8. A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Duan, Wentao; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Li, Bin; Reed, David; Xu, Wu; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-14

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries are promising in pursuit of high-energy storage systems owing to the broad voltage window, but currently are facing key challenges such as poor cycling stability and lack of suitable membranes. Here we report a new nonaqueous all-organic flow chemistry that demonstrates an outstanding cell cycling stability primarily because of high chemical persistency of the organic radical redox species and their good compatibility with the supporting electrolyte. A feasibility study shows that Daramic® and Celgard® porous separators can lead to high cell conductivity in flow cells thus producing remarkable cell efficiency and material utilization even at high current operations. This result suggests that the thickness and pore size are the key performance-determining factors for porous separators. With the greatly improved flow cell performance, this new flow system largely addresses the above mentioned challenges and the findings may greatly expedite the development of durable nonaqueous flow batteries.

  9. CAEP 2015 Academic Symposium: Current State and Recommendations to Achieve Adequate and Sustainable Funding for Emergency Medicine Academic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eddy S; Artz, Jennifer D; Wilkie, Ryan D; Stiell, Ian G; Topping, Claude; Belanger, François P; Afilalo, Marc; Renouf, Tia; Crocco, Anthony; Wyatt, Kelly; Christenson, Jim

    2016-05-01

    To describe the current state of academic emergency medicine (EM) funding in Canada and develop recommendations to grow and establish sustainable funding. A panel of eight leaders from different EM academic units was assembled. Using mixed methods (including a literature review, sharing of professional experiences, a survey of current EM academic heads, and data previously collected from an environmental scan), 10 recommendations were drafted and presented at an academic symposium. Attendee feedback was incorporated, and the second set of draft recommendations was further distributed to the Canadian Association Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Section for additional comments before being finalized. Recommendations were developed around the funding challenges identified and solutions developed by academic EM university-based units across Canada. A strategic plan was seen as integral to achieving strong funding of an EM unit, especially when it aligned with departmental and institutional priorities. A business plan, although occasionally overlooked, was deemed an important component for planning and sustaining the academic mission. A number of recommendations surrounding philanthropy consisted of creating partnerships with existing foundations and engaging multiple stakeholders and communities. Synergy between academic and clinical EM departments was also viewed as an opportunity to ensure integration of common missions. Education and networking for current and future leaders were also viewed as invaluable to ensure that opportunities are optimized through strong leadership development and shared experiences to further the EM academic missions across the country. These recommendations were designed to improve the financial circumstances for many Canadian EM units. There is a considerable wealth of resources that can contribute to financial stability for an academic unit, and an annual networking meeting and continuing education on these issues will facilitate

  10. Have Recommended Book Lists Changed to Reflect Current Expectations for Informational Text in K-3 Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Mariam Jean; Kletzien, Sharon B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite both longstanding and recent calls for more informational text in K-3 classrooms, research indicates that narrative text remains in the majority for read alouds, classroom libraries, and instruction, thus limiting children's opportunity to experience the demands of expository text. Because national associations' recommended book lists are…

  11. Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: current understanding and recommendations from the Australian and New Zealand Equine Endocrine Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Bailey, S R; de Laat, M A; Hughes, K J; Stewart, A S; Sonis, J M; Tan, Rhh

    2018-06-03

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current knowledge and opinions about the epidemiology, clinical findings (including sequelae), diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, particularly in the Australian context. This information and the recommendations provided will assist practitioners in making informed decisions regarding the diagnosis and management of this disorder. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Policies for patient access to clinical data via PHRs: current state and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Vawdrey, David K; Kukafka, Rita; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare delivery organizations are increasingly using online personal health records (PHRs) to provide patients with direct access to their clinical information; however, there may be a lack of consistency in the data made available. We aimed to understand the general use and functionality of PHRs and the organizational policies and decision-making structures for making data available to patients. A cross-sectional survey was administered by telephone structured interview to 21 organizations to determine the types of data made available to patients through PHRs and the presence of explicit governance for PHR data release. Organizations were identified based on a review of the literature, PHR experts, and snowball sampling. Organizations that did not provide patients with electronic access to their data via a PHR were excluded. Interviews were conducted with 17 organizations for a response rate of 81%. Half of the organizations had explicit governance in the form of a written policy that outlined the data types made available to patients. Overall, 88% of the organizations used a committee structure for the decision-making process and included senior management and information services. All organizations sought input from clinicians. Discussion There was considerable variability in the types of clinical data and the time frame for releasing these data to patients. Variability in data release policies may have implications for PHR use and adoption. Future policy activities, such as requirement specification for the latter stages of Meaningful Use, should be leveraged as an opportunity to encourage standardization of functionality and broad deployment of PHRs.

  13. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  14. Current Challenges of Organ Donation Programs in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney donors and recipients with a focus upon transplants since 2003. Results: The kidney transplant rate has increased from 7 kidney transplants per million populations in 2002 to more than 17 in 2007. In the meantime, a substantial decline in the rate of kidney transplantation performed on Syrian nationals abroad was observed from 65% of all kidney transplantations in 1998 to less than 2% in 2007. Despite the prohibition to buy a kidney in Syria, vendors had found ways to sell their kidneys through disreputable brokers. Potential related donors were not inclined to donate kidneys to their relatives as long as kidneys could be bought from a non-related donor. By 2008, the percent of related donors in private sector represented only 8% of all donors, as compared to 50% in public hospitals. Consequently, in January 2008, the government of Syria issued a pronouncement restricting kidney transplantation to the public sector with a new national regulatory oversight of transplantation practices. Since this 2008 Administrative Order was promulgated, the kidney transplant rate in public hospitals has substantially increased by 55% with the establishment of new public transplant centers in the 3 largest cities in Syria. Conclusion: The recommendations of the Istanbul Declaration and the Revised Guiding Principles of the World Health Organization have yet to be implemented in Syria but the expansion of kidney transplants in the public sector is an important initial step for initiating a deceased

  15. Organizational leadership: motives and behaviors of leaders in current organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Margarita; Gil, Francisco; Barrasa, Angel

    2009-05-01

    Organizational leadership is fundamental for the working and development of current organizations. It helps members of an organization to face transcendental challenges. One of the fundamental aspects of leaders is their personal characteristics and behaviour as perceived by their co-workers. Although research has established a relationship between these components, findings have failed to come up with any congruent evidence and further to this the organizations and contexts used are from several decades ago. This article, which forms part of the international GLOBE project, analyses the relationship between motives and behaviour as perceived by co-workers in organizations, using quantitative and qualitative methods and including technological innovations. Using samples from 40 corporate directors and 84 of their co-workers, from different companies, it confirms how the main motives of leaders (power, affiliation and achievement) are related to different behavioral patterns (power to authoritarian, non-dependent and non-social-skill behaviours; affiliation to relationship and dependent behaviors, and achievement to proactive behaviors). It discusses the results with relation to traditional research and suggests practical measures and proposals for future investigations in this area.

  16. Travel vaccination recommendations and endemic infection risks in solid organ transplantation recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiano, Jason A; Johnson, Douglas; Sohail, Asma; Torresi, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are often heavily immunosuppressed and consequently at risk of serious illness from vaccine preventable viral and bacterial infections or with endemic fungal and parasitic infections. We review the literature to provide guidance regarding the timing and appropriateness of vaccination and pathogen avoidance related to the immunological status of SOT recipients. A PUBMED search ([Vaccination OR vaccine] AND/OR ["specific vaccine"] AND/OR [immunology OR immune response OR cytokine OR T lymphocyte] AND transplant was performed. A review of the literature was performed in order to develop recommendations on vaccination for SOT recipients travelling to high-risk destinations. Whilst immunological failure of vaccination in SOT is primarily the result of impaired B-cell responses, the role of T-cells in vaccine failure and success remains unknown. Vaccination should be initiated at least 4 weeks prior to SOT or more than 6 months post-SOT. Avoidance of live vaccination is generally recommended, although some live vaccines may be considered in the specific situations (e.g. yellow fever). The practicing physician requires a detailed understanding of region-specific endemic pathogen risks. We provide a vaccination and endemic pathogen guide for physicians and travel clinics involved in the care of SOT recipients. In addition, recommendations based on timing of anticipated immunological recovery and available evidence regarding vaccine immunogenicity in SOT recipients are provided to help guide pre-travel consultations. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Care in a birth center according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Maria Barbosa da Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Birth centers are maternal care models that use appropriate technology when providing care to birthing women. This descriptive study aimed to characterize intrapartum care in a freestanding birth center, in light of the practices recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, with 1,079 assisted births from 2006 to 2009 in the Sapopemba Birth Center, São Paulo, Brazil. Results included the use of intermittent auscultation (mean=7 controls; maternal positions during delivery: semi-sitting (82.3%, side-lying (16.0%, other positions (1.7%, oral intake (95.6%; companionship (93.3%; exposure to up to three vaginal examinations (85.4%, shower bathing (84.0%, walking (68.0%, massage (60.1%, exercising with a Swiss ball (51.7%; amniotomy (53.4%, oxytocin use during the first (31.0% and second stages of labor (25.8%, bath immersion (29.3% and episiotomy (14.1%. In this birth center, care providers used practices recommended by the WHO, although some practices might have been applied less frequently.

  18. Recommendations for the delineation of organs at risk in ENT radiotherapy; Recommandations de delineation des organes a risque en radiotherapie ORL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, D.; Halimi, P.; Berges, O.; Deberne, M.; Botti, M.; Giraud, P. [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris (France); Servagi-Vernat, S. [CHUjean-Minjoz, Besancon (France)

    2011-10-15

    Based on a literature survey, the authors propose recommendations for the delineation of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, inner ear, larynx, buccal cavity, and temporomandibular joint. These recommendations of delineation of organs at risk are related to the functional anatomy of the considered structures, and correspond to volumes used in published surveys on dose-volume toxicity. They are simple and reproducible. Short communication

  19. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J; Fleith, Mathilde; van Lieshout, Lilou; Mejborn, Heddie; Burley, Victoria J

    2017-12-01

    Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.

  20. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  1. Current maternal age recommendations for prenatal diagnosis: a reappraisal using the expected utility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherman, N; Bombard, A T; Rappoport, P

    1995-01-01

    The expected utility theory suggests eliminating an age-specific criterion for recommending prenatal diagnosis to patients. We isolate the factors which patients and physicians need to consider intelligently in prenatal diagnosis, and show that the sole use of a threshold age as a screening device is inadequate. Such a threshold fails to consider adequately patients' attitudes regarding many of the possible outcomes of prenatal diagnosis; in particular, the birth of a chromosomally abnormal child and procedural-related miscarriages. It also precludes testing younger women and encourages testing in patients who do not necessarily require or desire it. All pregnant women should be informed about their prenatal diagnosis options, screening techniques, and diagnostic procedures, including their respective limitations, risks, and benefits.

  2. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron H Fronk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included.

  3. Analysis of organic pollutants in the soils of the disused gas plants. Experimental evaluation and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, S.; Carmant, S.

    1997-01-01

    In France, environmental investigations are at the moment carried out on numerous disused gas plants sites, which soils can have been polluted by the by-products generated during the fabrication of the gas (most of the time coal tar). Within the context of those investigations, diagnosis of the pollution of soils by the analytical way is an essential operation on the basis of which the risks are evaluated and the treatments are decided. Moreover, the evolution of the pollution level during the cleaning up of the soils and the efficiency of the treatment can only be measured by the analytical way. Until today, analytical aspects, relative to the study of polluted soils can be discussed. Indeed, in consideration of the heterogeneity of the soils, there are difficulties, on the first hand on sites during the sampling of the soils, on the other hand in the laboratory during the chemical analysis of the organic pollutants. After having evoked this problematic, the paper accounts for the evaluation, done by GDF, of varied analytical methods, used and even recommended by reference oragnizations (included: preparatation of the samples, extraction of the organic pollutants, analysis of the extract and interpretation). Finally, on the basis of the accumulated experinece, some advice are given on how to optimize the number and the kind of samples as well as the combined analysis. (au)

  4. [The suitability of the current recommendations for introducing gluten to the diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán de Miguelsanz, J M; Ochoa Sangrador, C

    2013-08-01

    The habits of introducing gluten and the implementation of the ESPGHAN-2008 recommendations are evaluated. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2011 using a questionnaire containing various epidemiological variables and supplementary feeding that was completed by the parents of children between 12-18 months who were seen by the pediatrician. Central tendency measures were calculated for the quantitative variables, and non-parametric tests used for comparison of means (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). The Chi-squared or exact tests were used for analyzing the qualitative variables, analysis of frequencies and comparisons. Multivariate adjustment techniques were used for the significant variables. A total of 46 primary care pediatricians, who collected 1,015 questionnaires, collaborated. The mean age of the introduction of gluten was 6.99 months (standard deviation 1.46, median 7). Only 45.1% (95% confidence interval [CI 95%]: 41.8-48.3) introduced it between 4-6 months, 0.2% before 4 months, and 54.7% after 7 months. Only 13.9% (CI 95% 11.6-16.1) introduced gluten between 4-6 months with breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables linked to lower compliance with the introduction between 4-6 months are mothers of 35 years of age or older (adjusted Odds ratio (aOR 1.44; CI95%: 1.11-1.88), celiac family (aOR 2.04; CI 95%: 1.11-3.72) and breastfeeding (aOR 1.55; CI 95%: 1.06-2.26), and for the introduction between 4-6 months coinciding with breastfeeding, breastfeeding and mothers who had studied at university (aOR 1.72; CI 95%: 1.17-2.53). The ESPGHAN recommendation on the introduction of gluten among pediatricians in our sector has not yet been sufficiently implemented. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. MRI technique for the preoperative evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis: current status and protocol recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.; Oehmke, F.; Tinneberg, H.-R.; Krombach, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain and infertility. It is defined as the occurrence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and can manifest as a peritoneal, ovarian or infiltrating form, the latter being referred to as deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Surgery is essential in the treatment of DIE and depending on the severity of the disease, surgery can be difficult and extensive. Beside clinical examination and ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven its value to provide useful information for planning surgery in patients with suspected DIE. To optimise the quality of MRI examinations, radiologists have to be familiar with the capabilities and also the limitations of this technique with respect to the assessment of DIE. MRI yields morphological information by using mainly T1- and T2-weighted sequences, but can also provide functional information by means of intravenous gadolinium, diffusion-weighted imaging or cine-MRI. In this article, these techniques and also adequate measures of patient preparation, which are indispensable for successful MRI imaging for the preoperative evaluation of DIE, are reviewed and a comprehensive protocol recommendation is provided.

  6. Are current coaching recommendations for cricket batting technique supported by biomechanical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Melissa J; Spratford, Wayne

    2012-09-01

    Coaching manuals are an invaluable tool for coaches, used in player skill and technique development, especially at grass-roots level. Commonly developed by former players and coaches, this information is generally based on anecdotal evidence and in general lacks the scientific rigour of a peer-reviewed journal. Thus there is a need to establish the level of agreement and support between the coaching and biomechanical literature. In doing so, evidence-based coaching practices can be optimally developed. Moreover, this will ensure the technique and skill development practices implemented at grass-roots level are supported by successful performance in the later stages of player development. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the latest batting biomechanics research, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date insight into the kinematic and kinetic aspects of batting in cricket. Furthermore, this review compared and contrasted this research with a selection of coaching literature, establishing a strong level of support and agreement between the coaching and biomechanical literature in recommendations for cricket batting technique. Although the ambiguity in a number of coaching concepts still exists, coaches and players can be confident in the successful implementation of both sources of information in a player's technical development.

  7. Forest Planning Heuristics—Current Recommendations and Research Opportunities for s-Metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Bettinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive forest management requires planning and implementation of activities designed to maintain or improve forest conditions, and in support of these endeavors knowledge of silviculture, economics, operations research, and other allied fields are necessary. With regard to forest planning, traditional (exact mathematical techniques along with heuristics have been demonstrated as useful in developing alternative courses of action for forest managers to consider. In this discussion paper, we present six areas of future work with regard to investigations into the development of heuristics, along with several recommendations that are based on our experiences. These areas include process improvements, reversion strategies, destruction and reconstruction strategies, intelligent or dynamic parameterization approaches, intelligent termination or transitioning approaches, and seeding strategies. We chose the six areas based on our experiences in developing forest planning heuristics. These areas reflect our opinion of where future research might concentrate. All of these areas of work have the potential to enhance the capabilities and effectiveness of heuristic approaches when applied to adaptive forest management problems.

  8. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Community participation in international health: practical recommendations for donor and recipient organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akukwe Chinua

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the need for donor agencies and recipient organizations to involve target communities in the conceptualization, development, monitoring, and implementation of health services and programs in international health. This paper assumes that most donor organizations are based in industrialized countries. Given that resources are finite in both developing and developed countries, the article briefly reviews the current trend of declining public funds for health systems and an increasing role for privately funded health services worldwide. The article calls for community-based international health services that reflect the priorities of target populations, and it also discusses practi cal steps to involve local populations in community-based health planning and management in international health.

  10. Recommendations from a meeting on health implications of genetically modified organism (GMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amofah, George

    2014-06-01

    The Ghana Public Health Association organized a scientific seminar to examine the introduction of genetically modified organisms into public use and the health consequences. The seminar was driven by current public debate on the subject. The seminar identified some of the advantages of GMOs and also the health concerns. It is clear that there is the need to enhance local capacity to research the introduction and use of GMOs; to put in place appropriate regulatory mechanisms including particularly the labeling of GMO products and post-marketing surveillance for possible negative health consequences in the long term. Furthermore the appropriate state agency should put in place advocacy strategies to keep the public informed about GMOs.

  11. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2017-01-01

    In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically...... evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...... methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen and thyroid signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. Recommendations for use of marginal donors in heart transplantation: Brazilian Association of Organs Transplantation guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, A I; Stolf, N A G; Pego-Fernandes, P M; Oliveira Junior, J L; Santos, R H B; Contreras, C A M; Filho, D D L; Dinkhuysen, J J; Moreira, M C V; Mejia, J A C; Castro, M C R

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of heart failure has increased the candidate list for heart transplantation; however, there is a shortage of viable donated organs, which is responsible for the high mortality of patients awaiting a transplantation. Because the marginal donor presents additional risk factors, it is not considered to be an ideal donor. The use of a marginal donor is only justified in situations when the risk of patient death due to heart disease is greater than that offered by the donor. These recommendations sought to expand the supply of donors, consequently increasing the transplant rate. We selected articles based on robust evidence to provide a substratum to develop recommendations for donors who exceed the traditional acceptance criteria. Recipient survival in the immediate postoperative period is intimately linked to allograft quality. Primary allograft failure is responsible for 38% to 40% of immediate deaths after heart transplantation: therefore; marginal donor selection must be more rigorous to not increase the surgical risk. The main donor risk factors with the respective evidence levels are: cancer in the donor (B), female donor (B), donor death due to hemorrhagic stroke (B), donor age above 50 years (relative risk [RR] = 1.5) (B), weight mismatch between donor and recipient 240 minutes (RR = 1.2) (B), left ventricular dysfunction with ejection fraction below 45% (B), and use of high doses of vasoactive drugs (dopamine > 15 mg/kg·min) (B). Factors that impact recipient mortality are: age over 50 years (RR = 1.5); allograft harvest at a distance; adult recipient weighing more than 20% of the donor; high doses of vasoactive drugs (dopamine greater than 15 mg/kg·min) and ischemic time >4 hours. The use of a marginal donor is only justified when it is able to increase life expectancy compared with clinical treatment, albeit the outcomes are interior to those using an ideal donor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes of On-Reserve First Nations Schoolchildren Compared to Canadian Averages and Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a the intakes of vegetable and fruit, “other” foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c the relationship between latitude and dietary intakes. Twenty-four-hour diet recalls were collected via the Waterloo Web-Based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q (n = 443. Heights and weights of participants were self reported using measured values and Body Mass Index was categorized using the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared to current standards, Southern Ontario Food Behaviour data and the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, using descriptive statistics. Mean vegetable and fruit, fibre and folate intakes were less than current recommendations. Girls aged 14–18 years had mean intakes of vitamin A below current recommendations for this sub-group; for all sub-groups, mean intakes of vegetables and fruit were below Canadian averages. All sub-groups also had intakes of all nutrients and food groups investigated that were less than those observed in non-FN youth from Southern Ontario, with the exception of “other” foods in boys 12–18 years. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8% and 19.6%, respectively, exceeding rates in the general population. Dietary intakes did not vary consistently by latitude (n = 248, as revealed by ANOVA. This study provided a unique investigation of the dietary intakes of on-reserve FN youth in Ontario and revealed poor intakes of vegetables and fruit and related nutrients and high intakes of “other” foods. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity exceed those of the general population.

  14. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes of On-Reserve First Nations Schoolchildren Compared to Canadian Averages and Current Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Michelle; Skinner, Kelly; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN) youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a) the intakes of vegetable and fruit, “other” foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b) current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c) the relationship between latitude and dietary intakes. Twenty-four-hour diet recalls were collected via the Waterloo Web-Based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q) (n = 443). Heights and weights of participants were self reported using measured values and Body Mass Index was categorized using the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared to current standards, Southern Ontario Food Behaviour data and the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, using descriptive statistics. Mean vegetable and fruit, fibre and folate intakes were less than current recommendations. Girls aged 14–18 years had mean intakes of vitamin A below current recommendations for this sub-group; for all sub-groups, mean intakes of vegetables and fruit were below Canadian averages. All sub-groups also had intakes of all nutrients and food groups investigated that were less than those observed in non-FN youth from Southern Ontario, with the exception of “other” foods in boys 12–18 years. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8% and 19.6%, respectively, exceeding rates in the general population. Dietary intakes did not vary consistently by latitude (n = 248), as revealed by ANOVA. This study provided a unique investigation of the dietary intakes of on-reserve FN youth in Ontario and revealed poor intakes of vegetables and fruit and related nutrients and high intakes of “other” foods. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity exceed those of the general population. PMID:22690200

  15. Human resource aspects of antiretroviral treatment delivery models: current practices and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Van Damme, Wim; Hermann, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF VIEW: To illustrate and critically assess what is currently being published on the human resources for health dimension of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery models. The use of human resources for health can have an effect on two crucial aspects of successful ART programmes, namely the scale-up capacity and the long-term retention in care. Task shifting as the delegation of tasks from higher qualified to lower qualified cadres has become a widespread practice in ART delivery models in low-income countries in recent years. It is increasingly shown to effectively reduce the workload for scarce medical doctors without compromising the quality of care. At the same time, it becomes clear that task shifting can only be successful when accompanied by intensive training, supervision and support from existing health system structures. Although a number of recent publications have focussed on task shifting in ART delivery models, there is a lack of accessible information on the link between task shifting and patient outcomes. Current ART delivery models do not focus sufficiently on retention in care as arguably one of the most important issues for the long-term success of ART programmes. There is a need for context-specific re-designing of current ART delivery models in order to increase access to ART and improve long-term retention.

  16. Current understanding of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Baglan, N; Davis, P A

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that organically bound tritium (OBT) is the more significant tritium fraction with respect to understanding tritium behaviour in the environment. There are many different terms associated with OBT; such as total OBT, exchangeable OBT, non-exchangeable OBT, soluble OBT, insoluble OBT, tritiated organics, and buried tritium, etc. A simple classification is required to clarify understanding within the tritium research community. Unlike for tritiated water (HTO), the environmental quantification and behaviour of OBT are not well known. Tritiated water cannot bio-accumulate in the environment. However, it is not clear whether or not this is the case for OBT. Even though OBT can be detected in terrestrial biological materials, aquatic biological materials and soil samples, its behaviour is still in question. In order to evaluate the radiation dose from OBT accurately, further study will be required to understand OBT measurements and determine OBT fate in the environment. The relationship between OBT speciation and the OBT/HTO ratio in environmental samples will be useful in this regard, providing information on the previous tritium exposure conditions in the environment and the current tritium dynamics. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A critical appraisal of guidelines for electronic communication between patients and clinicians: the need to modernize current recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joy L; Matthias, Marianne S; Menachemi, Nir; Frankel, Richard M; Weiner, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Patient-provider electronic communication has proliferated in recent years, yet there is a dearth of published research either leading to, or including, recommendations that improve clinical care and prevent unintended negative consequences. We critically appraise published guidelines and suggest an agenda for future work in this area. To understand how existing guidelines align with current practice, evidence, and technology. We performed a narrative review of provider-targeted guidelines for electronic communication between patients and providers, searching Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed databases using relevant terms. We limited the search to articles published in English, and manually searched the citations of relevant articles. For each article, we identified and evaluated the suggested practices. Across 11 identified guidelines, the primary focus was on technical and administrative concerns, rather than on relational communication. Some of the security practices recommended by the guidelines are no longer needed because of shifts in technology. It is unclear the extent to which the recommendations that are still relevant are being followed. Moreover, there is no guideline-cited evidence of the effectiveness of the practices that have been proposed. Our analysis revealed major weaknesses in current guidelines for electronic communication between patients and providers: the guidelines appear to be based on minimal evidence and offer little guidance on how best to use electronic tools to communicate effectively. Further work is needed to systematically evaluate and identify effective practices, create a framework to evaluate quality of communication, and assess the relationship between electronic communication and quality of care.

  18. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in Fanconi anemia: current evidence, challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebens, Christen L; MacMillan, Margaret L; Wagner, John E

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation for Fanconi Anemia (FA) has improved dramatically over the past 40 years. With an enhanced understanding of the intrinsic DNA-repair defect and pathophysiology of hematopoietic failure and leukemogenesis, sequential changes to conditioning and graft engineering have significantly improved the expectation of survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) with incidence of graft failure decreased from 35% to 40% to <10%. Today, five-year overall survival exceeds 90% in younger FA patients with bone marrow failure but remains about 50% in those with hematologic malignancy. Areas covered: We review the evolution of alloHCT contributing to decreased rates of transplant related complications; highlight current challenges including poorer outcomes in cases of clonal hematologic disorders, alloHCT impact on endocrine function and intrinsic FA risk of epithelial malignancies; and describe investigational therapies for prevention and treatment of the hematologic manifestations of FA. Expert commentary: Current methods allow for excellent survival following alloHCT for FA associated BMF irrespective of donor hematopoietic cell source. Alternative curative approaches, such as gene therapy, are being explored to eliminate the risks of GVHD and minimize therapy-related adverse effects.

  19. Current Status of and Recommendations for Nutrition Education in Gastroenterology Fellowship Training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Raman, Maitreyi; Gramlich, Leah

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge and skill in the area of nutrition are a key competency for the gastroenterologist. However, standards for nutrition education for gastroenterology fellows in Canada do not exist, and gastroenterologists in training and in practice do not feel confident in their knowledge or skill as it relates to nutrition. This study was undertaken to identify the current status of nutrition education in gastroenterology (GI) fellowship training programs in Canada and to provide insight into the development of nutrition educational goals, processes, and evaluation. Using mixed methods, we did a survey of current and recent graduates and program directors of GI fellowship programs in Canada. We undertook a focus group with program directors and fellows to corroborate findings of the survey and to identify strategies to advance nutrition education, knowledge, and skill of trainees. In total, 89.3% of the respondents perceived that the nutrition education was important for GI training, and 82.1% of the respondents perceived nutrition care would be part of their practice. However, only 50% of respondents had a formal rotation in their program, and it was mandatory only 36% of the time. Of the respondents, 95% felt that nutrition education should be standardized within GI fellowship training. Significant gaps in nutrition education exist with GI fellowship programs in Canada. The creation of standards for nutrition education would be valued by training programs, and such a nutrition curriculum for GI fellowship training in Canada is proposed. © 2017 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  20. [Contemporary criteria of the diagnosis and current recommendations for nutritional therapy in anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity in breast cancer survivors: is meeting current physical activity recommendations really enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Ramos, Javier; Alvarez-Bustos, Alejandro; Cantos, Blanca; Alejo, Lidia B; Pagola, Itziar; Soria, Ana; Maximiano, Constanza; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro; Ruiz-Casado, Ana

    2018-02-05

    Breast cancer (BC) survivors are becoming increasingly predisposed to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as high values of adiposity indices, contribute to CVD risk. We evaluated adiposity, cardiorespiratory profile, and PA levels in two independent cohorts of BC survivors. Data were collected from two groups (99% women) from different areas of Madrid (Spain): group 1, n = 110, age 51.4 ± 9.7 years, median time from diagnosis 365 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 354-401), and group 2, n = 93, age 54.7 ± 8.9 years, 1714 days (95% CI, 1502-1938). We estimated peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) and measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip index, and accelerometry-determined PA. Both groups had values of BMI in the overweight range (25.3 ± 4.3 and 27.1 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , p = 0.003). Estimated VO 2peak levels were lower in group 2 than in group 1 (28.1 ± 9.1 and 23.7 ± 8.8 ml/kg/min, p < 0.001), although levels in both groups were low. Yet, the majority of participants in both groups (81 and 88%, p = 0.234) met international PA recommendations (235 ± 196 and 351 ± 173 min/week of moderate-vigorous PA, p < 0.001). Both groups had very low levels of vigorous PA. These results were essentially independent of type of treatment (anthracycline/radiotherapy). We found a poor cardiorespiratory profile in two independent BC cohorts that differed in median time from diagnosis (as well in socioeconomic status), supporting the notion that implementation of PA (possibly focusing on vigorous PA) and dietary intervention is urgently needed in this patient population.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES DURING AIR TRAVEL: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW OF CURRENT RECOMMENDATIONS AND THEIR SUPPORTING EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, James; Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles H; Belalcazar, L Maria

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with diabetes are increasingly seeking pretravel advice, but updated professional recommendations remain scant. We performed a systematic review on diabetes management during air travel to summarize current recommendations, assess supporting evidence, and identify areas of future research. A systematic review of the English literature on diabetes management during air travel was undertaken utilizing PubMed and MEDLINE. Publications regarding general travel advice; adjustment of insulin and noninsulin therapies; and the use of insulin pumps, glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors at altitude were included. Gathered information was used to create an updated summary of glucose-lowering medication adjustment during air travel. Sixty-one publications were identified, most providing expert opinion and few offering primary data (47 expert opinion, 2 observational studies, 2 case reports, 10 device studies). General travel advice was uniform, with increasing attention to preflight security. Indications for oral antihyperglycemic therapy adjustments varied. There were few recommendations on contemporary agents and on nonhypoglycemic adverse events. There was little consensus on insulin adjustment protocols, many antedating current insulin formulations. Most publications advocated adjusting insulin pump time settings after arrival; however, there was disagreement on timing and rate adjustments. Glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors were reported to be less accurate at altitude, but not to an extent that would preclude their clinical use. Recommendations for diabetes management during air travel vary significantly and are mostly based on expert opinion. Data from systematic investigation on glucose-lowering medication adjustment protocols may support the development of a future consensus statement. CSII = continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (device) DPP-4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4 EGA = error grid analysis GDH = glucose dehydrogenase GOX = glucose

  3. Optimization of recommendations for abdomen computerized tomography based on reconstruction filters, voltage and tube current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Vinicius da Costa

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography has increased significantly over the past decades. In Brazil the use increased more than twofold from 2008 to 2014, in the meantime the abdomen procedures have tripled. The high frequency of this procedure combined by the increasing collective radiation dose in medical exposures, has resulted development tools to maximize the benefit in CT images. This work aimed to establish protocols optimized in abdominal CT through acquisitions parameters and reconstructions techniques based on filters kernels. A sample of patients undergoing abdominal CT in a diagnostic center of Rio de Janeiro was assessed. Had been collected patients information and acquisitions parameters. The phantoms CT image acquisitions were performed by using different voltage values by adjusting the tube current (mAs) to obtain the same value from CTDI vol patients with normal BMI. Afterwards, the CTDIvol values were reduced by 30%, 50% and 60%. All images were reconstructed with low-contrast filters (A) and standard filters (B). The CTDIvol values for patients with normal BMI were 7% higher than in patients with underweight BMI and 30%, 50% and 60% lower than the overweight, obese I and III patients, respectively. The evaluations of image quality showed that variation of the current (mA) and the reconstruction filters did not affect the Hounsfield values. When the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was normalized to CTDIvol, the protocols acquired with 60% reduction of CTDIvol with 140 kV and 80 kV showed CNR 6% lower than the routine. Modifications of the acquisition parameters did not affect spatial resolution, but the post-processing with B filters reduced the spatial frequency by 16%. With reduced the dose of 30%, lesions in the spleen had the CNR higher than 10% routine protocols with 140 kV acquired and post-processed to filter A. The image post-processing with a filter A with a 80kV voltage provided CNR values equal to the routine for the liver lesions with a 30

  4. Multiple myoma: current recommendations for imaging; Multiples Myelom: Aktuelle Empfehlungen fuer die Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillengass, J. [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Haematologie, Onkologie und Rheumatologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung Radiologie E010, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung Radiologie E010, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Imaging in monoclonal plasma cell disease serves to detect end organ damage, i.e., osteoporosis or bone destruction. Diffuse or circumscribed bone marrow infiltration without damage to mineralized bone is so far not regarded as end organ damage. Skeletal plain x-ray film survey to detect bone destruction, osteoporosis or fractures. Whole body low-dose computed tomography (CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow a more sensitive assessment of both mineralized bone and bone marrow, with greater patient comfort and in the case of MRI without ionizing radiation. According to the literature, cross-sectional imaging is clearly superior to skeletal surveys and MRI is more sensitive than CT. Every locally destructive lesion will be detectable with MRI but for assessing the damage to mineralized bone CT is indispensible. The sensitivities of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and MRI are comparable. If available whole body MRI and whole body low dose CT should replace conventional skeletal surveys. This has already been implemented in several centers in Germany. For the initial diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma or symptomatic multiple myeloma, a whole-body MRI and a whole body low-dose CT should be performed. For MGUS and asymptomatic myeloma, whole body MRI only should be performed for follow-up until detection of first bone destruction. Patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma and known bone destruction will usually have whole body low-dose CT, supplemented by MRI studies where clinically required. (orig.) [German] Aufgabe der bildgebenden Diagnostik monoklonaler Plasmazellerkrankungen ist der Nachweis der Endorganschaedigung, d. h. der Osteoporose oder der Destruktion des mineralisierten Knochens. Die alleinige umschriebene oder diffuse Markrauminfiltration ohne knoecherne Destruktion gilt nach heutiger Konvention nicht als Endorganschaedigung. Konventioneller Roentgenskelettstatus

  5. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed states in bipolar disorder - changes in DSM-5 and current treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, Felix; Stöver, Laura Apollonia; Sterzer, Philipp; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    Mixed states in affective disorders represent a particular challenge in clinical routine, characterized by a complicated course of treatment and a worse treatment response. Clinical features of mixed states and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria are presented and critical discussed. We then performed a systematic review using the terms 'bipolar', 'mixed' and 'randomized' to evaluate current treatment options. For pharmacological treatment of mixed states in total, there is still insufficient data from RCTs. However, there is some evidence for efficacy in mixed states from RCTs for atypical antipsychotics, especially olanzapine, aripiprazole and asenapine as well as mood stabilizers as valproate and carbamazepine. Mixed states are of a high clinical relevance and the DSM-5 criteria substantially reduced the diagnostic threshold. Besides advantages of a better characterization of patients with former DSM-IV-defined mixed episodes, disadvantages arise for example differential diagnoses with a substantial overlap in symptoms such as borderline personality disorders. Atypical antipsychotics, valproate and carbamazepine demonstrated efficacy in a limited sample of RCTs. The number of RCTs in the treatment of mixed states is highly limited. Furthermore, nearly all studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies which may lead to an underestimation of classical mood stabilizers such as lithium.

  7. Rehabilitation for post-stroke cognitive impairment: an overview of recommendations arising from systematic reviews of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, David C; Bowen, Audrey; Chung, Charlie S; Cockburn, Janet; Knapp, Peter; Pollock, Alex

    2015-02-01

    Although cognitive impairments are common following stroke, there is considerable uncertainty about the types of interventions that can reduce activity restrictions and improve quality of life. Indeed, a recent project to identify priorities for research into life after stroke determined that the top priority for patients, carers and health professionals was how to improve cognitive impairments. To provide an overview of the evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for patients with stroke and to determine the main gaps in the current evidence base. Evidence was synthesised for the six Cochrane reviews relating to rehabilitation for post-stroke cognitive impairment and any subsequently published randomized controlled trials to February 2012. Data arising from 44 trials involving over 1500 patients was identified. Though there was support for the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for some cognitive impairments, significant gaps were found in the current evidence base. All of the Cochrane reviews identified major limitations within the evidence they identified. There is currently insufficient research evidence, or evidence of insufficient quality, to support clear recommendations for clinical practice. Recommendations are made as to the research required to strengthen the evidence base, and so facilitate the delivery of effective interventions to individuals with cognitive impairment after stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  10. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Duane; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  11. Isavuconazole for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis: current evidence, safety, efficacy, and clinical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natesan SK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Suganthini Krishnan Natesan,1,2 Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, 2John D Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: The majority of invasive mold infections diagnosed in immunocompromised cancer patients include invasive aspergillosis (IA and mucormycosis. Despite timely and effective therapy, mortality remains considerable. Antifungal agents currently available for the management of these serious infections include triazoles, polyenes, and echinocandins. Until recently, posaconazole has been the only triazole with a broad spectrum of anti-mold activity against both Aspergillus sp. and mucorales. Other clinically available triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole, with poor activity against mucorales, have significant drug interactions in addition to a side effect profile inherent for all triazoles. Polyenes including lipid formulations pose a problem with infusion-related side effects, electrolyte imbalance, and nephrotoxicity. Echinocandins are ineffective against mucorales and are approved as salvage therapy for refractory IA. Given that all available antifungal agents have limitations, there has been an unmet need for a broad-spectrum anti-mold agent with a favorable profile. Following phase III clinical trials that started in 2006, isavuconazole (ISZ seems to fit this profile. It is the first novel triazole agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of both IA and mucormycosis. This review provides a brief overview of the salient features of ISZ, its favorable profile with regard to spectrum of antifungal activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, drug interactions and tolerability, clinical efficacy, and side effects. Keywords: isavuconazole, aspergillosis, mucormycosis, efficacy, antifungal therapy, novel azole, tolerability, drug interactions

  12. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  13. Modeling of novel diagnostic strategies for active tuberculosis - a systematic review: current practices and recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Zwerling

    Full Text Available The field of diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB is rapidly developing. TB diagnostic modeling can help to inform policy makers and support complicated decisions on diagnostic strategy, with important budgetary implications. Demand for TB diagnostic modeling is likely to increase, and an evaluation of current practice is important. We aimed to systematically review all studies employing mathematical modeling to evaluate cost-effectiveness or epidemiological impact of novel diagnostic strategies for active TB.Pubmed, personal libraries and reference lists were searched to identify eligible papers. We extracted data on a wide variety of model structure, parameter choices, sensitivity analyses and study conclusions, which were discussed during a meeting of content experts.From 5619 records a total of 36 papers were included in the analysis. Sixteen papers included population impact/transmission modeling, 5 were health systems models, and 24 included estimates of cost-effectiveness. Transmission and health systems models included specific structure to explore the importance of the diagnostic pathway (n = 4, key determinants of diagnostic delay (n = 5, operational context (n = 5, and the pre-diagnostic infectious period (n = 1. The majority of models implemented sensitivity analysis, although only 18 studies described multi-way sensitivity analysis of more than 2 parameters simultaneously. Among the models used to make cost-effectiveness estimates, most frequent diagnostic assays studied included Xpert MTB/RIF (n = 7, and alternative nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs (n = 4. Most (n = 16 of the cost-effectiveness models compared new assays to an existing baseline and generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER.Although models have addressed a small number of important issues, many decisions regarding implementation of TB diagnostics are being made without the full benefits of insight from mathematical

  14. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wildt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  15. Risks of radiation during pre- and postnatal development - recent recommendations of international organizations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devik, F.

    1979-01-01

    The sections of the ICRP recommendations relevant to pregnancy from 1957 onwards are quoted and discussed. The Council Directive of the European Communities of 1. June 1976 conforms closely with the ICRP. The US NCRP view differs somewhat from the ICRP and is quoted and compared with the ICRP recommendation, and found to be more restrictive. However it raises problems of sex discrimination which the ICRP does not. The general principles of teratology are briefly stated. (JIW)

  16. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled “trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.” Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a “Writers' Conference” in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500254

  17. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a "Writers' Conference" in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.

  18. Do current national and international guidelines have specific recommendations for older adults with bipolar disorder? A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Annemiek; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Rej, Soham; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Gildengers, Ariel G; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Shulman, Kenneth I; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Older adults with bipolar disorder (OABD) are a growing segment of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) for which specific guidelines are warranted. Although, OABD are frequently excluded from randomized controlled trials due to their age or somatic comorbidity, more treatment data from a variety of sources have become available in recent years. It is expected that at least some of this emerging information on OABD would be incorporated into treatment guidelines available to clinicians around the world. The International Society of Bipolar Disorders OABD task force compiled and compared recommendations from current national and international guidelines that specifically address geriatric or older individuals with BD (from year 2005 onwards). There were 34 guidelines, representing six continents and 19 countries. The majority of guidelines had no separate section on OABD. General principles for treating OABD with medication are recommended to be similar to those for younger adults, with special caution for side effects due to somatic comorbidity and concomitant medications. Therapeutic lithium serum levels are suggested to be lower but recommendations are very general and mostly not informed by specific research evidence. There is a lack of emphasis of OABD-specific issues in existing guidelines. Given the substantial clinical heterogeneity in BD across the life span, along with the rapidly expanding population of older individuals worldwide, and limited mental health workforce with geriatric expertise, it is critical that additional effort and resources be devoted to studying treatment interventions specific to OABD and that treatment guidelines reflect research findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Abdala, Edson; Morris, Michele I; Azevedo, Luiz S; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Petersen, Eskild; Camargo, Luis Fernando A; Wright, Alissa Jade; Beeching, Nicholas J; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme; Len, Oscar; Stucchi, Raquel S B; Manuel, Oriol; Faria, Luciana Costa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Huprikar, Shirish; Molina, Israel; Mourão, Paulo Henrique Orlandi; Kotton, Camille N; Aguado, José María

    2018-02-01

    The Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America clinical practice guideline is intended to guide clinicians caring for solid-organ transplant (SOT) donors, candidates and recipients regarding infectious diseases (ID) issues related to this geographical region, mostly located in the tropics. These recommendations are based on both systematic reviews of relevant literature and expert opinion from both transplant ID and travel medicine specialists. The guidelines provide recommendations for risk evaluation and laboratory investigation, as well as management and prevention of infection of the most relevant endemic diseases of Latin America. This summary includes a brief description of the guideline recommendations but does not include the complete rationale and references for each recommendation, which is available in the online version of the article, published in this journal as a supplement. The supplement contains 10 reviews referring to endemic or travel diseases (eg, tuberculosis, Chagas disease [ChD], leishmaniasis, malaria, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, travelers diarrhea, arboviruses, endemic fungal infections, viral hepatitis, and vaccines) and an illustrative section with maps (http://www.pmourao.com/map/). Contributors included experts from 13 countries (Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Italy, Peru, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay) representing four continents (Asia, the Americas and Europe), along with scientific and medical societies.

  20. Current Trends in the Management of Blunt Solid Organ Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviloglu, Korhan; Yanar, Hakan

    2009-04-01

    The management of patients with solid organ injuries has changed since the introduction of technically advanced imaging tools, such as ultrasonography and multiple scan computerized tomography, interventional radiological techniques and modern intensive care units. In spite of this development in the management of these patients, major solid organ traumas can still be challenging. There has been great improvement in the non-operative management (NOM) of intra-abdominal solid organ injury in recent decades. In most cases treatment of injuries has shifted from early surgical treatment to NOM.

  1. Current challenges in organic photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Cody W; Thompson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, significant interest in utilizing conjugated organic molecules for solid-state solar to electric conversion has produced rapid improvement in device efficiencies. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are attractive for their compatibility with low-cost processing techniques and thin-film applicability to flexible and conformal applications. However, many of the processes that lead to power losses in these systems still remain poorly understood, posing a significant challenge for the future efficiency improvements required to make these devices an attractive solar technology. While semiconductor band models have been employed to describe OPV operation, a more appropriate molecular picture of the pertinent processes is beginning to emerge. This chapter presents mechanisms of OPV device operation, based on the bound molecular nature of the involved transient species. With the intention to underscore the importance of considering both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, recent progress in elucidating molecular characteristics that dictate photovoltage losses in heterojunction organic photovoltaics is also discussed.

  2. The pre-operational monitoring - how useful are recommendations of international organizations and various national programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailovic, M.

    1980-01-01

    National legislation and the preoperational monitoring program around Nuclear Power Plant Krsko are described. The usefulness of international recommendations and various national preoperational monitoring programs is examined. Modifications are described which were introduced with the aim of identifying the site specific critical exposure pathways. The role of qualified and experienced experts is discussed. (H.K.)

  3. The New World Health Organization Recommendations on Perioperative Administration of Oxygen to Prevent Surgical Site Infections: A Dangerous Reductionist Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Manuel; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In October 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published recommendations for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs). Among those measures is a recommendation to administer oxygen at an inspired fraction of 80% intra- and postoperatively for up to 6 hours. SSIs have been identified as a global health problem, and the WHO should be commended for their efforts. However, this recommendation focuses only on the patient's "wound," ignores other organ systems potentially affected by hyperoxia, and may ultimately worsen patient outcomes.The WHO advances a "strong recommendation" for the use of a high inspired oxygen fraction even though the quality of evidence is only moderate. However, achieving this goal by disregarding other potentially lethal complications seems inappropriate, particularly in light of the weak evidence underpinning the use of high fractions of oxygen to prevent SSI. Use of such a strategy thus should be intensely discussed by anesthesiologists and perioperative physicians.Normovolemia, normotension, normoglycemia, normothermia, and normoventilation can clearly be safely applied to most patients in most clinical scenarios. But the liberal application of hyperoxemia intraoperatively and up to 6 hours postoperatively, as suggested by the WHO, is questionable from the viewpoint of anesthesia and perioperative medicine, and its effects will be discussed in this article.

  4. A diet quality index for American preschoolers based on current dietary intake recommendations and an indicator of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Hartman, Terryl; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H

    2006-10-01

    Based on current dietary intake recommendations and a recommendation to limit sedentary activity in preschoolers, an overall diet quality index for preschoolers (RC-DQI) incorporating a component for energy balance to measure adequacy of nutrition for growth, development, and disease prevention was developed. The newly developed index was used in nationally representative samples of 2- to 5-year-olds in the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96 and 1998 (n=5,437). Index components included added sugar, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total and whole grains, fruits, vegetables, excess fruit juice, dairy, iron, and an interaction term of total daily energy intake and sedentary behavior (television time). Points were allocated to reflect deficient or excessive intakes. Means and standard errors were used to describe food intakes and RC-DQI scores. Ability to differentiate diets was ascertained using mean intakes of food groups/nutrients followed by a nonparametric test of trends across ordered groups. Correlation coefficients measured dependence among RC-DQI components, nutrients, and overall energy intakes. Component scores of the highest and lowest quartile of RC-DQI were compared. Mean RC-DQI score was 64 points (range=28 to 93). Increasing RC-DQI scores were associated with improved diet quality. Children in the lowest RC-DQI quartile scored lower in all components. The RC-DQI successfully differentiated diets by level of diet quality. Increasing scores were associated with decreasing consumption of added sugar and juices, and increasing intakes of fiber, essential fatty acids, fruits, and vegetables. The RC-DQI can be used to determine diet quality in groups of preschool-age children.

  5. Organic superconductors: A current overview, synthesis, structure and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.H.; Beno, M.A.; Carlson, K.D.; Geiser, U.; Kini, A.M.; Williams, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    To date, four types of crystal packing motifs (β, θ, κ and α) are known to lead to superconductivity in the BEDT-TTF based materials, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene. The syntheses, crystal structures, physical properties and band electronic structures of these materials will be reviewed. Recent progress made in the oxygen containing analogue, BEDO-TTF [bis(ethylenedioxo)tetrathiofulvalene] will be presented. The implication and future prospect of organic superconductors will be discussed

  6. Organic matter turnover in subsoils: current knowledge and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    In the past, carbon flux measurements and modelling have mostly considered the topsoil where C-concentrations, root densities and microbial activities are generally highest. However, depending on climate zone and land use, this soil compartment contains only 30-50% of the C-stocks of the first meter. If the deeper subsoil down to 3 m is also considered, the contribution of topsoil carbon stocks to total soil C-pools is only 20-40%. Another distinct property of subsoil organic matter is its high apparent 14C age. The 14C age of bulk soil organic matter below 30 cm depth generally increases continuously indicating mean residence times of several 103 to 104 years. Large pool size and high radiocarbon age suggest that subsoil OM has accumulated at very low rates over very long time periods and therefore appears to be very stable. In this review, several hypotheses for explaining why subsoil SOM is so seemingly old and inert are presented. These questions are being addressed in a recently granted German research unit consisting of 9 subprojects from all soil science disciplines using field measurements of C-fluxes, 14C analyses and conducting field and lab experiments.

  7. Modeling space-charge-limited currents in organic semiconductors: Extracting trap density and mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuñ a, Javier; Salleo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and have applied a mobility edge model that takes drift and diffusion currents to characterize the space-charge-limited current in organic semiconductors into account. The numerical solution of the drift-diffusion equation allows

  8. Current situation of transvaginal mesh repair for pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lan; Zhang, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Surgical mesh is a metallic or polymeric screen intended to be implanted to reinforce soft tissue or bone where weakness exists. Surgical mesh has been used since the 1950s to repair abdominal hernias. In the 1970s, gynecologists began using surgical mesh products to indicate the repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and in the 1990s, gynecologists began using surgical mesh for POP. Then the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first surgical mesh product specifically for use in POP. Surgical mesh materials can be divided into several categories. Most surgical mesh devices cleared for POP procedures are composed of non-absorbable synthetic polypropylene. Mesh can be placed in the anterior vaginal wall to aid in the correction of cystocele (anterior repair), in the posterior vaginal wall to aid in correction of rectocele (posterior repair), or attached to the top of the vagina to correct uterine prolapse or vaginal apical prolapse (apical repair). Over the past decades, surgical mesh products for transvaginal POP repair became incorporated into "kits" that included tools to aid in the delivery and insertion of the mesh. Surgical mesh kits continue to evolve, adding new insertion tools, tissue fixation anchors, surgical techniques, and ab- sorbable and biological materials. This procedure has been performed popularly. It was also performed increased in China. But this new technique met some trouble recently and let shake in urogynecology.

  9. Current structure and organization for renal patient assistance in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloatti, Sandro; Strippoli, Giovanni Fm; Buccianti, Gherardo; Daidone, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco P

    2008-04-01

    Given the public health challenge and burden of chronic kidney disease, the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) has compiled a national census of Renal Units (RU) existing in the twenty Italian regions related to the year 2004. An on-line questionnaire including 158 items explored structural and human resources, organization aspects, activities and epidemiological data in SIN, 2004. The census identified 363 public RU, 303 satellite Dialysis Centres (DC) and 295 private DC totalling 961 DC [16.4 per million population (pmp)]. The inpatient renal beds were 2742 (47 pmp). Renal and dialysis activity was performed by 3728 physicians (64 pmp), of whom 2964 (80%) were nephrologists. There was no permanent medical assistance in 41% of satellite DC. There were 1802 renal admissions pmp and 99 renal biopsies pmp. The management of acute renal failure (13 456 cases; 230 pmp) represented a relevant proportion of the activities conducted in public RU. In 2004 there were 9858 new cases of end-stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) (169 pmp). On 31 December 2004, 60 058 patients were on RRT (1027 pmp), 43 293 of which (740 pmp) were on dialysis and 16 765 (287 pmp) with renal graft. This census of the Italian RU and DC in 2004 provides decision makers and healthcare stakeholders with detailed data for benchmarking and has financial implications for the public health system. Similar analyses may be conducted in other countries permitting standardization of medical and cost-related aspects of renal care.

  10. Long-term management of Canada's spent nuclear fuel: the nuclear waste management organizations recommendation to government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Like many countries with nuclear power programs, Canada is in the process of addressing the long-term management of its spent fuel. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) was tasked through federal legislation to conduct a three-year study of approaches for the long-term management of spent fuel, and to recommend a preferred approach to the Government of Canada. Legislation required NWMO to compare at least three approaches -approaches based on deep geological disposal in the Canadian Shield, storage at nuclear reactor sites, and centralized storage either above or below ground. In assessing the options, NWMO sought a recommendation that would be socially acceptable, technically sound, environmentally responsible and economically feasible. The study drew on a vast base of social, technical, engineering, and financial research, and included an extensive engagement program with the public and Aboriginal peoples. The recommendation emerged from a collaborative dialogue with specialists and citizens, for an approach that is built on sound science and technology and responsive to citizen values. NWMO submitted its completed options study, with recommendation, to the Government in November 2005. NWMO has proposed an alternative approach, Adaptive Phased Management, which has as its key attributes: central containment and isolation of spent fuel in a deep repository, in an appropriate geological formation; contingency provision for central shallow storage; monitoring and retrievability; and a staged, adaptive process of concept implementation, reflecting the complex nature of the task and the desire of citizens to proceed through cautious, deliberate steps of technical demonstration and social acceptance. This paper will review: 1) the development of the assessment framework for comparing the technical options, which incorporated social and ethical considerations expressed by citizens; 2) findings of the assessment; and 3) features of the proposed

  11. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children with tuberculosis: in silico evaluation of currently recommended doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvada, Simbarashe P; Denti, Paolo; Donald, Peter R; Schaaf, H Simon; Thee, Stephanie; Seddon, James A; Seifart, Heiner I; Smith, Peter J; McIlleron, Helen M; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2014-05-01

    To describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children and evaluate the adequacy of steady-state exposures. We used previously published data for 76 South African children with tuberculosis to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict steady-state exposures in children following doses in fixed-dose combination tablets in accordance with the revised guidelines. Reference exposures were derived from an ethnically similar adult population with tuberculosis taking currently recommended doses. The final models included allometric scaling of clearance and volume of distribution using body weight. Maturation was included for clearance of isoniazid and clearance and absorption transit time of rifampicin. For a 2-year-old child weighing 12.5 kg, the estimated typical oral clearances of rifampicin and pyrazinamide were 8.15 and 1.08 L/h, respectively. Isoniazid typical oral clearance (adjusted for bioavailability) was predicted to be 4.44, 11.6 and 14.6 L/h for slow, intermediate and fast acetylators, respectively. Higher oral clearance values in intermediate and fast acetylators also resulted from 23% lower bioavailability compared with slow acetylators. Simulations based on our models suggest that with the new WHO dosing guidelines and utilizing available paediatric fixed-dose combinations, children will receive adequate rifampicin exposures when compared with adults, but with a larger degree of variability. However, pyrazinamide and isoniazid exposures in many children will be lower than in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in children administered the revised dosages and to optimize pragmatic approaches to dosing.

  13. Radiation protection requirements for organizations practising mining activities which can bring about exposure of personnel, public, or the environment. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication consists of the following articles: (1) Scope of State Office for Nuclear Safety recommendations; (2) Glossary of terms; (3) Radiation protection quantities; (4) General requirements for radiation protection and responsibilities of organizations; (5) Exposure limits; (6) Organizational and technical provisions of radiation protection; (7) Monitoring, measurement, evaluation, and recording of radiation protection-related quantities, parameters, and facts; (8) Utilization of monitoring data. Provisions to keep professional and public exposure within tolerable limits; (9) Decommissioning of workplaces handling ionizing radiation sources; (10) Waste handling; and (11) Transport of material arising from mining activities. The text is supplemented with 5 tabular annexes. (P.A)

  14. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2013-08-05

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers' diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen's compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker's compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194.

  15. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers’ diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen’s compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker’s compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194. PMID:24472440

  16. Spin Coulomb Dragging Inhibition of Spin-Polarized Electric Current Injecting into Organic Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Qing, Zhao; Shi-Zhu, Qiao; Zhen-Feng, Jia; Ning-Yu, Zhang; Yan-Ju, Ji; Yan-Tao, Pang; Ying, Chen; Gang, Fu

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional spin injection structure comprising a ferromagnetic metal and a nondegenerate organic semiconductor to model electric current polarizations. With this model we analyse spin Coulomb dragging (SCD) effects on the polarization under various electric fields, interface and conductivity conditions. The results show that the SCD inhibits the current polarization. Thus the SCD inhibition should be well considered for accurate evaluation of current polarization in the design of organic spin devices

  17. Current organ allocation disadvantages kidney alone recipients over combined organ recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Hagan, Michael E; Granger, Darla K

    2016-03-01

    The United Network for Organ Sharing began including the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) March 26, 2012 and began a new allocation scheme December 1, 2014. Kidney donors from our organ procurement organization from March 2012 to December 2014 were reviewed. The KDPIs of all 919 kidney only transplants were compared with all 102 kidney/extrarenal transplants. The average KDPI for kidney alone allografts was 47 (range 1 to 100) (standard deviation = 25.83) vs 27 for kidney/extrarenal kidneys (range 1 to 82) (standard deviation = 20.16) (P disadvantages those waiting for a kidney alone. Attention to the outcomes of kidneys transplanted with extrarenal organs is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy......The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...... prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised...

  19. Current recommendations for surveillance and surgery of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms may overlook some patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Toste, Paul A; Farrell, James J; Clerkin, Barbara M; Williams, Jennifer; Muthusamy, V Raman; Watson, Rabindra R; Tomlinson, James S; Hines, O Joe; Reber, Howard A; Donahue, Timothy R

    2015-02-01

    The 2012 Sendai Criteria recommend that patients with 3 cm or larger branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMN) without any additional "worrisome features" or "high-risk stigmata" may undergo close observation. Furthermore, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is not recommended for BD-IPMN 3 cm were removed based on size alone. Our results suggest that "larger" size on noninvasive imaging can indicate high-grade/invasive cysts, and EUS-FNA may help identify "smaller" cysts with high-grade/invasive pathology.

  20. Human Milk Fortifiers Do Not Meet the Current Recommendation for Nutrients in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Winston; Tice, Hilary

    2017-06-01

    Use of multinutrient fortifiers is standard of care for small preterm infants fed exclusively human milk. However, adequacy of human milk fortifiers (HMFs) to meet the recommended intake for macronutrients and micronutrients is now known. Nutrient content of human milk fortified according to manufacturer's recommendations was compared at isocaloric levels for 1 human milk-based (HMF-A), 2 bovine milk protein-based (HMF-B, HMF-C), and 2 preterm infant formulas (PTF-B, PTF-C). In addition, 4 multivitamin supplements were compared. At 130 kcal/kg, intake of macronutrients was similar to the recommendation, although deficient and excess intake of micronutrient occurred with all fortifiers. Four to 9 micronutrients were absent in HMF or PTF (biotin, choline, inositol, carnitine, taurine, molybdenum, iodine, selenium, or chromium). For the remainder, HMF resulted in deficient intake for 1-13 micronutrients, occurring most frequently with HMF-A. Excess micronutrients (3-15 at <50% and 1-3 at 109%-437%) occurred with all HMF and most frequently with HMF-B and HMF-C. At 150 kcal/kg, deficient intake improved but generally remained below recommendation, while excess intake became exaggerated. PTF and multivitamin formulations do not fully compensate for the deficiencies and can result in extremely high micronutrient intake. At the recommended energy intake for very low birth weight infants, many micronutrients are absent or are present in grossly inadequate amounts, and several micronutrients are in excess. Reformulation of HMF is urgently needed since PTF or multivitamin supplement only partially corrects some deficiencies while providing some nutrients in excess. ( JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx).

  1. Oxidation of organic pollutants on BDD anodes using modulated current electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panizza, M.; Kapalka, Agnieszka; Comninellis, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model is presented for organic pollutants mineralization at high current efficiency (close to 100%) and low energy consumption on boron-doped diamond electrodes. The model is formulated for a perfect mixed electrochemical reactor operated as a batch recirculation system under multiple current steps, in which the applied current is adjusted during the electrolysis to be close to the limiting value. An experimental validation with the anodic oxidation of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid is also provided. The results have shown that multiple current steps electrolysis and continuous current control allowed obtaining high oxidation rate and current efficiency

  2. Oxidation of organic pollutants on BDD anodes using modulated current electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizza, M. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Genoa, P.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: marco.panizza@unige.it; Kapalka, Agnieszka [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Comninellis, Ch. [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: christos.comninellis@epfl.ch

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model is presented for organic pollutants mineralization at high current efficiency (close to 100%) and low energy consumption on boron-doped diamond electrodes. The model is formulated for a perfect mixed electrochemical reactor operated as a batch recirculation system under multiple current steps, in which the applied current is adjusted during the electrolysis to be close to the limiting value. An experimental validation with the anodic oxidation of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid is also provided. The results have shown that multiple current steps electrolysis and continuous current control allowed obtaining high oxidation rate and current efficiency.

  3. Recommendation for a contouring method and atlas of organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ying; Yu, Xiao-Li; Luo, Wei; Lee, Anne W.M.; Wee, Joseph Tien Seng; Lee, Nancy; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Tao, Chang-Juan; Guo, Rui; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Guo, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: To recommend contouring methods and atlas of organs at risk (OARs) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy, in order to help reach a consensus on interpretations of OARs delineation. Methods and materials: Two to four contouring methods for the middle ear, inner ear, temporal lobe, parotid gland and spinal cord were identified via systematic literature review; their volumes and dosimetric parameters were compared in 41 patients. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for temporal lobe contouring were compared in 21 patients with unilateral temporal lobe necrosis (TLN). Results: Various contouring methods for the temporal lobe, middle ear, inner ear, parotid gland and spinal cord lead to different volumes and dosimetric parameters (P < 0.05). For TLN, D1 of PRV was the most relevant dosimetric parameter and 64 Gy was the critical point. We suggest contouring for the temporal lobe, middle ear, inner ear, parotid gland and spinal cord. A CT–MRI fusion atlas comprising 33 OARs was developed. Conclusions: Different dosimetric parameters may hinder the dosimetric research. The present recommendation and atlas, may help reach a consensus on subjective interpretation of OARs delineation to reduce inter-institutional differences in NPC patients

  4. Does intravenous induction dosing among patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgical procedures follow current recommendations: a study of contemporary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Shamsuddin; Liu, Jia; Heng, Joseph; Dai, Feng; Schonberger, Robert B; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-09-01

    It is recommended to correct intravenous induction doses by up to 50% for patients older than 65 years. The objectives were to determine (a) the degree to which anesthesia providers correct induction doses for age and (b) additionally adjust for American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) class (severity of illness) and (c) whether postinduction hypotension is more common among patients aged >65. Retrospective chart review. Academic medical center. A total of 1869 adult patients receiving general anesthesia for GI surgical procedures from February 2013 to January 2014. Patients were divided into 3 age groups (age 80, which was still in less than the recommendations. An inverse relationship was observed between propofol dosing and ASA-PS class, but no consistent relationship was noted for fentanyl and midazolam. There were a significantly larger drop in mean arterial pressure and a greater likelihood of hypotension following induction in patients aged 65-79 years and >80 years as compared with those aged <65 years. This study shows that the administered dose of anesthetic induction agents is significantly higher than that recommended for patients older than 65 years. This failure to age-adjust dose may contribute to hypotensive episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advertising or public relations – which is the organizations choice in the current period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Duhalm

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current period, when the issue of efficient use of financial resources is a central, organizations seeking the best ways to both promote their self-image, and products or services they produce and sell. Between the promotional techniques by the mass communication in which organizations can appeal, the makers have to choose between advertising and public relations activities.

  6. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant – Update and review of some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, R.S.; Philip, J.; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination t...

  7. Hepatitis C in sub-Saharan Africa: the current status and recommendations for achieving elimination by 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderup, Mark W; Afihene, Mary; Ally, Reidwaan; Apica, Betty; Awuku, Yaw; Cunha, Lina; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Gogela, Neliswa; Lohouès-Kouacou, Marie-Jeanne; Lam, Phillip; Lesi, Olufunmilayo; Mbaye, Papa Saliou; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Musau, Betty; Ojo, Olesegun; Rwegasha, John; Scholz, Barbara; Shewaye, Abate B; Tzeuton, Christian; Kassianides, Chris; Spearman, C Wendy

    2017-12-01

    In 2016, WHO adopted a strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030. Africa, and more specifically, sub-Saharan Africa, carries a substantial portion of the global burden of viral hepatitis, especially chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. The task that lies ahead for sub-Saharan Africa to achieve elimination is substantial, but not insurmountable. Major developments in the management of hepatitis C have put elimination within reach, but several difficulties will need to be navigated on the path to elimination. Many of the challenges faced are unique to sub-Saharan Africa and the development of strategies is complicated by a scarcity of good data from countries and regions within sub-Saharan Africa. However, this hindrance should not act as a barrier to delay interventions in screening, detection, and linkage to care. Moreover, by sharing experiences from across sub-Saharan Africa, countries can create supranational synergies to develop their programmes and work together in a more cohesive manner to tackle the burden of hepatitis C in sub-Saharan Africa. In this Series paper, several issues related to hepatitis C in sub-Saharan Africa are addressed, including prevalence, risk factors, and fibrosis assessment, and recommendations are given by experts from across the region. Simplified diagnostic algorithms and treatment regimens for both HIV co-infected and hepatitis C mono-infected patients are suggested. The recommendations are consensus based and provided to guide the development of programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Political will and appropriate funding will be required to provide impetus to implement these recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current-voltage characteristics of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: connection between light and dark curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boix, Pablo P.; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Bisquert, Juan [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain); Marchesi, Luis F. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de, Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil); Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    A connection is established between recombination and series resistances extracted from impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage curves of polythiophene:fullerene organic solar cells. Recombination is shown to depend exclusively on the (Fermi level) voltage, which allows construction of the current-voltage characteristics in any required conditions based on a restricted set of measurements. The analysis highlights carrier recombination current as the determining mechanism of organic solar cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Current situation, potentials and prospects for the development of organic farming in Šumadija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Duško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Šumadija is rich in natural potentials which provide a good basis for the future development of organic farming, given the fact that natural resources are limited. The composition and structure of natural resources are highly suitable for organic production. The region's relatively unpolluted land, favourable climate, abundant water resources and preserved biodiversity are some of the main organic farming requirements satisfied. Organic production is not possible without ensuring at least a minimum level of preservation of natural resources in areas where organic farming is practised; on the other hand, organic production itself has a positive effect on the preservation and improvement of environmental quality in these areas. Small plots of land can be advantageous for this production, particularly in upland areas, and used specifically for organic production as the conversion period is short. They can be used for vegetable farming because the soil is uncontaminated owing to distance from roads. Positive experience indicates that potatoes, rye, oats and root vegetables can be successfully grown in these areas. Another advantage is the wealth of indigenous cultivars of apples, pears and plums which are highly resistant to pathogenic pests and environmental conditions, and hence suitable for cultivation without the use of mineral fertilisers and chemical agents. Major issues currently facing organic farming are a small-scale organic market and low prices of organic products, a low level of consumer awareness of the advantages of organic farming, suspicion and ignorance, low purchasing power, low availability of organic products through sales channels, etc.

  10. Convolution-based estimation of organ dose in tube current modulated CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Segars, W. Paul; Dixon, Robert L.; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-05-01

    Estimating organ dose for clinical patients requires accurate modeling of the patient anatomy and the dose field of the CT exam. The modeling of patient anatomy can be achieved using a library of representative computational phantoms (Samei et al 2014 Pediatr. Radiol. 44 460-7). The modeling of the dose field can be challenging for CT exams performed with a tube current modulation (TCM) technique. The purpose of this work was to effectively model the dose field for TCM exams using a convolution-based method. A framework was further proposed for prospective and retrospective organ dose estimation in clinical practice. The study included 60 adult patients (age range: 18-70 years, weight range: 60-180 kg). Patient-specific computational phantoms were generated based on patient CT image datasets. A previously validated Monte Carlo simulation program was used to model a clinical CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). A practical strategy was developed to achieve real-time organ dose estimation for a given clinical patient. CTDIvol-normalized organ dose coefficients ({{h}\\text{Organ}} ) under constant tube current were estimated and modeled as a function of patient size. Each clinical patient in the library was optimally matched to another computational phantom to obtain a representation of organ location/distribution. The patient organ distribution was convolved with a dose distribution profile to generate {{≤ft(\\text{CTD}{{\\text{I}}\\text{vol}}\\right)}\\text{organ, \\text{convolution}}} values that quantified the regional dose field for each organ. The organ dose was estimated by multiplying {{≤ft(\\text{CTD}{{\\text{I}}\\text{vol}}\\right)}\\text{organ, \\text{convolution}}} with the organ dose coefficients ({{h}\\text{Organ}} ). To validate the accuracy of this dose estimation technique, the organ dose of the original clinical patient was estimated using Monte Carlo program with TCM profiles explicitly modeled. The

  11. Nutrition (Micronutrients) in Child Growth and Development: A Systematic Review on Current Evidence, Recommendations and Opportunities for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lo, Clifford W

    2017-10-01

    An important aspect of malnutrition is deficiency of different micronutrients during pregnancy or early childhood. We systematically reviewed the role of nutrition in child growth (weight or height gain) and development. A comprehensive literature search was done on PubMed/Cochrane Library browsing through 38,795 abstracts until December 31, 2016 to select systematic reviews/meta-analyses and individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplementation. Micronutrients studied included iron, iodine, folate, zinc, calcium, magnesium, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, and multiple micronutrients. We summarize evidence with details and results of RCTs, highlight strengths/weaknesses, and critically interpret findings. Effects of breastfeeding-promotion, food-supplementation (complementary and school feeding), conditional-cash-transfers, and integrated nutrition/psychosocial interventions are discussed. Based on this evidence we make policy and programmatic recommendations for supplementation to mothers and children at high-risk of deficiency.

  12. Do Current Recommendations for Upper Instrumented Vertebra Predict Shoulder Imbalance? An Attempted Validation of Level Selection for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Benjamin T; Cheung, Zoe B; Shifflett, Grant D; Iyer, Sravisht; Derman, Peter B; Cunningham, Matthew E

    2015-10-01

    Shoulder balance for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients is associated with patient satisfaction and self-image. However, few validated systems exist for selecting the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) post-surgical shoulder balance. The purpose is to examine the existing UIV selection criteria and correlate with post-surgical shoulder balance in AIS patients. Patients who underwent spinal fusion at age 10-18 years for AIS over a 6-year period were reviewed. All patients with a minimum of 1-year radiographic follow-up were included. Imbalance was determined to be radiographic shoulder height |RSH| ≥ 15 mm at latest follow-up. Three UIV selection methods were considered: Lenke, Ilharreborde, and Trobisch. A recommended UIV was determined using each method from pre-surgical radiographs. The recommended UIV for each method was compared to the actual UIV instrumented for all three methods; concordance between these levels was defined as "Correct" UIV selection, and discordance was defined as "Incorrect" selection. One hundred seventy-one patients were included with 2.3 ± 1.1 year follow-up. For all methods, "Correct" UIV selection resulted in more shoulder imbalance than "Incorrect" UIV selection. Overall shoulder imbalance incidence was improved from 31.0% (53/171) to 15.2% (26/171). New shoulder imbalance incidence for patients with previously level shoulders was 8.8%. We could not identify a set of UIV selection criteria that accurately predicted post-surgical shoulder balance. Further validated measures are needed in this area. The complexity of proximal thoracic curve correction is underscored in a case example, where shoulder imbalance occurred despite "Correct" UIV selection by all methods.

  13. Organ Preservation: Current Concepts and New Strategies for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, Edgardo E.; Petrenko, Alexander Y.; Balaban, Cecilia L.; Somov, Alexander Y.; Rodriguez, Joaquín V.; Fuller, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Organ transplantation has developed over the past 50 years to reach the sophisticated and integrated clinical service of today through several advances in science. One of the most important of these has been the ability to apply organ preservation protocols to deliver donor organs of high quality, via a network of organ exchange to match the most suitable recipient patient to the best available organ, capable of rapid resumption of life-sustaining function in the recipient patient. This has only been possible by amassing a good understanding of the potential effects of hypoxic injury on donated organs, and how to prevent these by applying organ preservation. This review sets out the history of organ preservation, how applications of hypothermia have become central to the process, and what the current status is for the range of solid organs commonly transplanted. The science of organ preservation is constantly being updated with new knowledge and ideas, and the review also discusses what innovations are coming close to clinical reality to meet the growing demands for high quality organs in transplantation over the next few years. PMID:21566713

  14. Evidence for current recommendations concerning the management of foot health for people with chronic long-term conditions: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Edwards

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research focusing on management of foot health has become more evident over the past decade, especially related to chronic conditions such as diabetes. The level of methodological rigour across this body of work however is varied and outputs do not appear to have been developed or translated into clinical practice. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the latest guidelines, standards of care and current recommendations relative to people with chronic conditions to ascertain the level of supporting evidence concerning the management of foot health. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, SCOPUS and The Cochrane Library for literature on recommendations for foot health management for people with chronic conditions was performed between 2000 and 2016 using predefined criteria. Data from the included publications was synthesised via template analysis, employing a thematic organisation and structure. The methodological quality of all included publications was appraised using the Appraisal for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II instrument. A more in-depth analysis was carried out that specifically considered the levels of evidence that underpinned the strength of their recommendations concerning management of foot health. Results The data collected revealed 166 publications in which the majority (102 were guidelines, standards of care or recommendations related to the treatment and management of diabetes. We noted a trend towards a systematic year on year increase in guidelines standards of care or recommendations related to the treatment and management of long term conditions other than diabetes over the past decade. The most common recommendation is for preventive care or assessments (e.g. vascular tests, followed by clinical interventions such as foot orthoses, foot ulcer care and foot health education. Methodological quality was spread across the range of AGREE II

  15. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius JB

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Judith B Cornelius,1 Josephine A Appiah2 1School of Nursing, 2Health Services Research Doctoral Program, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA Abstract: Youth and young adults (19–24 years of age shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. Keywords: mobile, safe sex, sexual health, practices, recommendations

  16. Tailoring pharmacotherapy to specific eating behaviours in obesity: Can recommendations for personalised therapy be made from the current data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carl A; Christiansen, Paul; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-08-01

    Pharmacotherapy provides an adjunct to behaviour modification in the management of obesity. There are a number of new drug therapies purportedly targeting appetite; liraglutide, and bupropion/naltrexone, which are European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, which have FDA approval only. Each of the six drugs, used singly or in combination, has distinct pharmacological, and presumably distinct behavioural, mechanisms of action, thus the potential to provide defined therapeutic options to personalise the management of obesity. Yet, with regard to pharmacotherapy for obesity, we are far from true personalised medicine. We review the limited mechanistic data with four mono and combination pharmacotherapies, to assess the potential for tailoring their use to target specific obesogenic behaviours. Potential treatment options are considered, but in the absence of adequate research in respect to effects of these drugs on eating behaviour, neural activity and psychological substrates that underlie poorly controlled eating, we are far from definitive therapeutic recommendations. Specific mechanistic studies and broader behavioural phenotyping, possibly in conjunction with pharmacogenetic research, are required to characterise responders for distinct pharmacotherapeutic options.

  17. Recommendations for the organization of mental health services for children and adolescents in Belgium: use of the soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroeck, Philippe; Dechenne, Rachel; Becher, Kim; Eyssen, Marijke; Van den Heede, Koen

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents in Western countries is high. Belgium, like many other Western countries, struggles with the set-up of a coherent and effective strategy for dealing with this complex societal problem. This paper describes the development of a policy scenario for the organization of child and adolescent mental health care services (CAMHS) in Belgium. The development process relied on Soft Systems Methodology including a participatory process with 66 stakeholders and a review of the existing (inter-)national evidence. A diagnostic analysis illustrated that the Belgian CAMHS is a system in serious trouble characterized by fragmentation and compartmentalization. A set of 10 strategic recommendations was formulated to lay down the contours of a future, more effective CAMHS system. They focus on mastering the demands made on scarce and expensive specialized mental health services; strengthening the range of services - in particular for those with serious, complex and multiple mental health problems - and strengthening the adaptive capacity of and the ethical guidance within the future CAMHS system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recommendations for the proper use of nonprescription cough suppressants and expectorants in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Carter, Danielle; Martin, Spencer; Roberts, Keri

    2011-03-01

    To describe the pharmacology and safety of oral over-the-counter cough suppressants and expectorants and to present recommendations for the use of these agents in solid-organ transplant recipients based on the potential for adverse drug reactions or drug-disease interactions. Data from journal articles and other sources describing the pharmacology and safety of over-the-counter cough suppressants and expectorants, drug-drug interactions with immunosuppressive agents, and drug-disease state interactions are reviewed. Potential and documented drug-drug interactions between immunosuppressive agents and over-the-counter cough medications guaifenesin, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, and codeine were evaluated on the basis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles. Interactions between these cough medications and the physiological changes in the body following transplantation also were examined. Diphenhydramine requires additional monitoring when used to treat cough in transplant recipients owing to its anticholinergic properties and the potential for interactions with cyclosporine. Dextromethorphan can be used in most transplant recipients, although greater caution should be exercised if the patient has undergone liver transplant or has liver impairment. Guaifenesin can be used in transplant recipients but should be used with caution in patients receiving kidney or lung transplants and in patients with renal impairment. Codeine combined with guaifenesin is another option for cough and can be used in most transplant patients although those with reduced renal function should be monitored carefully for adverse events.

  19. Conflicts of interests in the area of healthcare products and technology. Current state of affairs and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarez, Jean-Paul; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Molimard, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The handling of conflicts of interest in the area of healthcare products and technology has become a major issue for all of those involved in healthcare. Round Table N°4 at the Giens Workshops 2011 has put forward concrete proposals to clarify and optimise the handling of conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest cannot be defined by the individuals consulted or applying for funds since each institution, whether public or private, that puts out a call for projects or that requests advice, analyses or expert testimony in the healthcare field has different degrees of what it defines as a conflict of interest, depending on the context of the proposal or specific request that it puts out. In contrast, each individual has ties of personal interest that can and must be openly disclosed. The ties are much more diverse than what is commonly found in the conflict of interest statements of large institutions operating in the healthcare field and are not limited to financial and operational ties between companies and individuals. In addition, the statements are difficult to manage because of their sheer number. The Round Table recommends that each individual should openly disclose all of his or her ties of personal interest in a Single Statement of Ties of personal Interest (SSTI). The SSTI would be updated regularly and accessible on line. Each institution could then determine whether or not the reported ties represent a conflict in the context of the mission proposed. Each institution could publish in advance the conditions that would give rise to a conflict and, in this way, an individual could refrain from applying for the mission. Other practical approaches to handling conflicts of interest were put forward. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  20. Prospective estimation of organ dose in CT under tube current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Frush, Donald P.; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) has been widely used worldwide as a tool for medical diagnosis and imaging. However, despite its significant clinical benefits, CT radiation dose at the population level has become a subject of public attention and concern. In this light, optimizing radiation dose has become a core responsibility for the CT community. As a fundamental step to manage and optimize dose, it may be beneficial to have accurate and prospective knowledge about the radiation dose for an individual patient. In this study, the authors developed a framework to prospectively estimate organ dose for chest and abdominopelvic CT exams under tube current modulation (TCM). Methods: The organ dose is mainly dependent on two key factors: patient anatomy and irradiation field. A prediction process was developed to accurately model both factors. To model the anatomical diversity and complexity in the patient population, the authors used a previously developed library of computational phantoms with broad distributions of sizes, ages, and genders. A selected clinical patient, represented by a computational phantom in the study, was optimally matched with another computational phantom in the library to obtain a representation of the patient’s anatomy. To model the irradiation field, a previously validated Monte Carlo program was used to model CT scanner systems. The tube current profiles were modeled using a ray-tracing program as previously reported that theoretically emulated the variability of modulation profiles from major CT machine manufacturers Li et al., [Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 4525–4548 (2014)]. The prediction of organ dose was achieved using the following process: (1) CTDI vol -normalized-organ dose coefficients (h organ ) for fixed tube current were first estimated as the prediction basis for the computational phantoms; (2) each computation phantom, regarded as a clinical patient, was optimally matched with one computational phantom in the library; (3) to

  1. An appraisal of current regulations and recommendations in relation to proposals for the use of X-ray optics equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherley, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Current regulatory requirements for the use of x-ray optics equipment in factories are compared with the 19-year-old Guidance Notes for their use in research and teaching establishments. The difficulties in drafting new legislation to cater for both areas of use are discussed and the proposed regulations and approved code of practice having a direct bearing on x-ray optics equipment are reviewed. Comment is made concerning the proposed Health and Safety Executive document, ''Radiation Safety in the use of X-ray Optics Equipment, which will give practical advice and guidance on cost effective methods of achieving the regulatory objectives. The costs involved are unlikely to be significant for the majority of users and implementation of the proposed legislation should not restrict the use of x-ray optics equipment. (author)

  2. Solitary pulmonary nodule and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Part 2: accuracy, cost-effectiveness, and current recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosmann, Marcos Pretto; Borba, Marcelle Alves; Macedo, Francisco Pires Negromonte de; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima; Villarim Neto, Arthur [Liga Norte-Riograndense Contra o Cancer, Natal, RN (Brazil); Lima, Kenio Costa de, E-mail: mosmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude Coletiva

    2016-03-15

    A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common, often incidental, radiographic finding. The investigation and differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules remain complex, because there are overlaps between the characteristics of benign and malignant processes. There are currently many strategies for evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules. The main objective is to identify benign lesions, in order to avoid exposing patients to the risks of invasive methods, and to detect cases of lung cancer accurately, in order to avoid delaying potentially curative treatment. The focus of this study was to review the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules, to discuss the current role of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography, addressing its accuracy and cost-effectiveness, and to detail the current recommendations for the examination in this scenario. (author)

  3. Organic solvents impair life-traits and biomarkers in the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) at concentrations below OECD recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, V.; Noury, P.; Tutundjian, R.; Buronfosse, T.; Garric, J.; Gust, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Acetone (20 μl l −1 ) accelerates embryonic development in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. •Ethanol (20 μl l −1 ) decreases growth in juvenile mudsnails. •Acetone, ethanol, methanol and DMSO increase E2 levels in snails. •Carrier solvents impair gene expression. •DMSO is to be preferred. -- Abstract: Potamopyrgus antipodarum is a gastropod mollusk proposed for use in the development of reproduction tests within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Numerous chemicals, including endocrine disrupters, are relatively water-insoluble, and water-miscible solvents are currently used for testing them. OECD recommends a maximum concentration of 100 μl l −1 . As several studies highlighted effects of lower concentrations of solvents, this study assessed the effects of 20 μl l −1 acetone, ethanol, methanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on juvenile and adult snails during 42 days. Ethanol decreased juvenile growth, while acetone increased the rate of embryonic development. All solvents increased estradiol-like levels in adult snails. DMSO only increased mRNA expression of vitellogenin-like gene, while acetone, ethanol and methanol decreased mRNA expression of three nuclear receptor (estrogen receptor-like, ecdysone-induced protein and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor) genes as well as of genes encoding proteins involved in genomic (prohibitin-2) and non-genomic (striatin) pathways of estrogens activity in vertebrates. This study highlights the confounding effects of low concentrations of solvents and recommends avoiding their use. Where solvent use is inevitable, their concentrations and type should be investigated for suitability for the measured endpoints prior to use in chemical testing strategies

  4. Organic solvents impair life-traits and biomarkers in the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) at concentrations below OECD recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, V.; Noury, P.; Tutundjian, R. [Irstea, UR MAEP, Laboratoire d’écotoxicologie, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Buronfosse, T. [VetAgro-Sup, Campus vétérinaire, Endocrinology Laboratory, 69280 Marcy l’Etoile (France); Garric, J. [Irstea, UR MAEP, Laboratoire d’écotoxicologie, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gust, M., E-mail: marion.gust@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR MAEP, Laboratoire d’écotoxicologie, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Acetone (20 μl l{sup −1}) accelerates embryonic development in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. •Ethanol (20 μl l{sup −1}) decreases growth in juvenile mudsnails. •Acetone, ethanol, methanol and DMSO increase E2 levels in snails. •Carrier solvents impair gene expression. •DMSO is to be preferred. -- Abstract: Potamopyrgus antipodarum is a gastropod mollusk proposed for use in the development of reproduction tests within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Numerous chemicals, including endocrine disrupters, are relatively water-insoluble, and water-miscible solvents are currently used for testing them. OECD recommends a maximum concentration of 100 μl l{sup −1}. As several studies highlighted effects of lower concentrations of solvents, this study assessed the effects of 20 μl l{sup −1} acetone, ethanol, methanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on juvenile and adult snails during 42 days. Ethanol decreased juvenile growth, while acetone increased the rate of embryonic development. All solvents increased estradiol-like levels in adult snails. DMSO only increased mRNA expression of vitellogenin-like gene, while acetone, ethanol and methanol decreased mRNA expression of three nuclear receptor (estrogen receptor-like, ecdysone-induced protein and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor) genes as well as of genes encoding proteins involved in genomic (prohibitin-2) and non-genomic (striatin) pathways of estrogens activity in vertebrates. This study highlights the confounding effects of low concentrations of solvents and recommends avoiding their use. Where solvent use is inevitable, their concentrations and type should be investigated for suitability for the measured endpoints prior to use in chemical testing strategies.

  5. USGEO DMWG Cloud Computing Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; McInerney, M.; Frame, M. T.; Summers, C.

    2017-12-01

    The US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) has been developing Cloud Computing Recommendations for Earth Observations. This inter-agency report is currently in draft form; DMWG hopes to have released the report as a public Request for Information (RFI) by the time of AGU. The recommendations are geared toward organizations that have already decided to use the Cloud for some of their activities (i.e., the focus is not on "why you should use the Cloud," but rather "If you plan to use the Cloud, consider these suggestions.") The report comprises Introductory Material, including Definitions, Potential Cloud Benefits, and Potential Cloud Disadvantages, followed by Recommendations in several areas: Assessing When to Use the Cloud, Transferring Data to the Cloud, Data and Metadata Contents, Developing Applications in the Cloud, Cost Minimization, Security Considerations, Monitoring and Metrics, Agency Support, and Earth Observations-specific recommendations. This talk will summarize the recommendations and invite comment on the RFI.

  6. Arsenic in Groundwater: A Review of Current Knowledge and Relation to the CALFED Solution Area with Recommendations for Needed Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Welch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground water with arsenic concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard exists throughout much of the CALFED solution area. These high concentrations are of con-cern from the standpoint of both existing water supply and development of conjunctive use projects. Much is known about arsenic mobility in ground water subject to different hydrologic and geochemical conditions. However, some important knowledge gaps exist that limit the ability to design water supply projects that could prevent arsenic mobilization or promote arsenic removal from ground water. A few well studied sys-tems could provide a much better understanding of methods for preventing or eliminating high arsenic problems. Within the context of the examination of a few detailed field studies, some important research needs include: 1. Determining the significance of metal-bridging aqueous complexes involving inorgan-ic arsenic and natural organic matter, 2. In the con-text of in situ remediation, determining whether of metal oxides. Little is known about the quantitative significance competition of inorganic arsenic with other inorganic aqueous species in natu-ral systems. Experiments should be conducted with actual aquifer materials, as the effects of aging on arsenic desorption in laboratory studies are quite sig-nificant. 3. Devise methods to detect and quantify rates of oxidation/reduction reactions of arsenic that are carried out by microorganisms at ambient concen-trations of arsenic and under in situ conditions. The findings from detailed field studies have the potential for greatly reducing the cost of meeting the new drinking-water standard for arsenic. The research would benefit a broad constituency.

  7. [Compliance with current dietary recommendations and geographical variability of diet in women participating in 7 screening programs for breast cancer in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arenzana, N; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; Vázquez-Carrete, J A; Moreno, M P; Vidal, C; Salas, D; Ederra, M; Pedraz, C; Collado-García, F; Sánchez-Contador, C; González-Román, I; García-López, M; Miranda, J; Peris, M; Moreo, P; Santamariña, C; Pérez-Gómez, B; Vioque, J; Pollán, M

    2011-01-01

    A healthy diet is especially important during menopause, a period which increases the risk of various health problems. We analyzed the diet of periand postmenopausal Spanish women and the degree of compliance with current recommendations. We studied 3574 women 45-68 years old who attended breast cancer screening programmes in 7 centres (A Coruña, Barcelona, Burgos, Palma de Mallorca, Pamplona, Valencia and Zaragoza). Diet information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire validated for the Spanish population. For the assessment of compliance with current guidelines we used the recommendations by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition for food groups intake and by the Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetics for energy, vitamins and minerals intake. The 29% of women were obese and 42% overweight. The average caloric intake was 2.053 kcal (SD 480). The general energy profile was: 43% of the energy from the carbohydrates, 36% from fats, and 20% from proteins. There was a low vitamin D intake in all centres of the study, with an overall mean intake of 2.14 mg/day. A deficit of vitamin E intake in A Coruña and Burgos was also detected. Intake of dairy products and vegetables was high in all the study centers. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was very heterogeneous, with high intakes observed in Mallorca and Valencia and low for both food groups in A Coruña. The olive oil intake was high in all centers except Burgos with 74.3% of the women studied below the recommended 3 servings per day. A diet with less fat and protein and a higher consumption of vegetables, nuts and foods rich in carbohydrate might balance the energy intake and improve the quality of the diet correcting the low intakes of vitamins D and E. These recommendations are especially important in cities far from the Mediterranean coast where more breaches have been detected over the current recommendations with a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

  8. Organ Transplantation in Iran; Current State and Challenges with a View on Ethical Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Kiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have a decisive role in the culture of organ donation, which is the only way to guarantee that the healthy organs of a brain-dead person can continue to work and save the lives of people in need of organ transplantation. The brain death phenomenon and its possible application in organ transplantation, while offering new hope for the salvation of a number of patients, has led to many ethical, cultural, and legal issues. Ethical issues in organ transplantation are very complicated due to many social factors such as religion, culture, and traditions of the affected communities. The ethical and legal points of removing organs from the body of a living or cadaveric source, the definition of brain death, the moral and legal conditions of the donor and the recipient, and the financial relationship between them and many others, are all critical issues in organ transplantation. While there may be no available explicit solution to these issues, they should be rigorously considered by the experts. Efforts to systematically eliminate barriers and solve problems in organ transplantation, can not only reduce the costs of maintaining brain-dead patients and encourage patients that need organ transplantation but can also prevent immoral and illegal activities. In this paper, we have reviewed the most important and current challenges in organ transplantation with a view to the ethical considerations, and we have suggested some strategies to extend it in Iran.

  9. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  10. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  11. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  12. Assessing the Use of Media Reporting Recommendations by the World Health Organization in Suicide News Published in the Most Influential Media Sources in China, 2003–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public media reports about suicide are likely to influence the population’s suicidal attempts and completed suicides. Irresponsible reports might trigger copycat suicidal behaviors, while responsible reports may help reduce suicide rates. The World Health Organization (WHO released recommendations to encourage responsible suicide reports in 2008. However, little is known about whether these recommendations are reflected in the suicide news for most countries, including China. In this study, we assessed the responsibility of suicide stories published in the most influential newspaper and Internet media sources in China from 2003 to 2015, using the media reporting recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO. In total, 3965 and 1836 eligible stories from newspaper and Internet-based media, respectively, were included in the study. Newspapers and Internet-based media performed similarly in applying WHO recommendations to report suicide news. Three recommendations were applied in over 88% of suicide stories. However, four recommendations were seldom applied, including offering information about where to seek help and linking the suicide event to mental disorders. Government and the journalism industry should work together to improve media reporting of news about suicide in China.

  13. Assessing the Use of Media Reporting Recommendations by the World Health Organization in Suicide News Published in the Most Influential Media Sources in China, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xin; Zhang, Xingyi; Cheng, Peixia; Schwebel, David C; Hu, Guoqing

    2018-03-05

    Public media reports about suicide are likely to influence the population's suicidal attempts and completed suicides. Irresponsible reports might trigger copycat suicidal behaviors, while responsible reports may help reduce suicide rates. The World Health Organization (WHO) released recommendations to encourage responsible suicide reports in 2008. However, little is known about whether these recommendations are reflected in the suicide news for most countries, including China. In this study, we assessed the responsibility of suicide stories published in the most influential newspaper and Internet media sources in China from 2003 to 2015, using the media reporting recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). In total, 3965 and 1836 eligible stories from newspaper and Internet-based media, respectively, were included in the study. Newspapers and Internet-based media performed similarly in applying WHO recommendations to report suicide news. Three recommendations were applied in over 88% of suicide stories. However, four recommendations were seldom applied, including offering information about where to seek help and linking the suicide event to mental disorders. Government and the journalism industry should work together to improve media reporting of news about suicide in China.

  14. The Current State and Future Directions of Organic No-Till Farming with Cover Crops in Canada, with Case Study Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Beach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating regular tillage practices in agriculture has numerous ecological benefits that correspond to the intentions of organic agriculture; yet, more tillage is conducted in organic agriculture than in conventional agriculture. Organic systems face more management challenges to avoid tillage. This paper identifies factors to consider when implementing no-till practices particularly in organic agronomic and vegetable crop agriculture and describes techniques to address these factors. In some cases, future research is recommended to effectively address the current limitations. The format includes a literature review of organic no-till (OrgNT research and two case studies of Ontario organic farmers that highlight no-till challenges and practices to overcome these challenges. Cover crops require significant consideration because they are the alternative to herbicides and fertilizers to manage weeds and provide nutrients in the OrgNT system. Equipment requirements have also proven to be unique in OrgNT systems. In the future, it is recommended that researchers involve organic farmers closely in studies on no-till implementation, so that the farmers’ concerns are effectively addressed, and research is guided by possibilities recognized by the practitioners.

  15. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  16. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Aghajafari

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations.Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine 25(OHD2, 25(OHD3, 3-epi-25(OHD3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day's diet.Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD age of 31.3 (4.3; BMI 25.8 (4.7; 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OHD2, 25(OHD3, and 3-epi-25(OHD3 were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OHD3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR total 25(OHD (D2+D3 was 92.7 (30.4 nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OHD concentration 75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated.

  17. The feasibility of a regional CTDIvol to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated CT exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; McMillan, Kyle L.; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; DeMarco, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In AAPM Task Group 204, the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) was developed by providing size adjustment factors which are applied to the Computed Tomography (CT) standardized dose metric, CTDI vol . However, that work focused on fixed tube current scans and did not specifically address tube current modulation (TCM) scans, which are currently the majority of clinical scans performed. The purpose of this study was to extend the SSDE concept to account for TCM by investigating the feasibility of using anatomic and organ specific regions of scanner output to improve accuracy of dose estimates. Methods: Thirty-nine adult abdomen/pelvis and 32 chest scans from clinically indicated CT exams acquired on a multidetector CT using TCM were obtained with Institutional Review Board approval for generating voxelized models. Along with image data, raw projection data were obtained to extract TCM functions for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Patient size was calculated using the effective diameter described in TG 204. In addition, the scanner-reported CTDI vol (CTDI vol,global ) was obtained for each patient, which is based on the average tube current across the entire scan. For the abdomen/pelvis scans, liver, spleen, and kidneys were manually segmented from the patient datasets; for the chest scans, lungs and for female models only, glandular breast tissue were segmented. For each patient organ doses were estimated using Monte Carlo Methods. To investigate the utility of regional measures of scanner output, regional and organ anatomic boundaries were identified from image data and used to calculate regional and organ-specific average tube current values. From these regional and organ-specific averages, CTDI vol values, referred to as regional and organ-specific CTDI vol , were calculated for each patient. Using an approach similar to TG 204, all CTDI vol values were used to normalize simulated organ doses; and the ability of each normalized dose to correlate with

  18. Current state of the employee performance appraisal system in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Venclová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee performance appraisal is one of the most important human resource management tools. The first part of the article concentrates on the theoretical background. The second part evaluates the results of the quantitative survey. The aim of the article is to evaluate the use of formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic and to test dependencies between selected qualitative characteristics. The results of the survey show that only 12.3% of agricultural organizations (n = 332 use formal appraisal of employees. They also confirm that the application of the formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations depends on the size of the agricultural organization (p-value 0.006, Phi coefficient 0.151 and the existence of a personnel department (p-value 0.000, Phi coefficient 0.210. 49.1% of agricultural organizations did not consider formal appraisal important. Only 5.8% of agricultural organizations that do not use any system of formal employee performance appraisal plan its implementation, despite the fact that currently people are considered to be the most important strategic asset of any organization for achieving a competitive advantage.

  19. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Kreugel, Gillian; Grassi, Giorgio; Halimi, Serge; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Laurence J; Smith, Mike J; Wellhoener, Regine; Bode, Bruce W; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalra, Sanjay; Ji, Linong; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015. Recommendations are organized around the themes of anatomy, physiology, pathology, psychology, and technology. Key among the recommendations are that the shortest needles (currently the 4-mm pen and 6-mm syringe needles) are safe, effective, and less painful and should be the first-line choice in all patient categories; intramuscular injections should be avoided, especially with long-acting insulins, because severe hypoglycemia may result; lipohypertrophy is a frequent complication of therapy that distorts insulin absorption, and, therefore, injections and infusions should not be given into these lesions and correct site rotation will help prevent them; effective long-term therapy with insulin is critically dependent on addressing psychological hurdles upstream, even before insulin has been started; inappropriate disposal of used sharps poses a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens; and mitigation is possible with proper training, effective disposal strategies, and the use of safety devices. Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytical Model for Voltage-Dependent Photo and Dark Currents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbahus Saleheen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A physics-based explicit mathematical model for the external voltage-dependent forward dark current in bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells is developed by considering Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH recombination and solving the continuity equations for both electrons and holes. An analytical model for the external voltage-dependent photocurrent in BHJ organic solar cells is also proposed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs, carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun’s model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The overall net current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum. The mathematical models are verified by comparing the model calculations with various published experimental results. We analyze the effects of the contact properties, blend compositions, charge carrier transport properties (carrier mobility and lifetime, and cell design on the current-voltage characteristics. The power conversion efficiency of BHJ organic solar cells mostly depends on electron transport properties of the acceptor layer. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport (both mobility and lifetime and dissociation of bound EHPs in organic blend are critically important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the BHJ solar cells.

  1. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant - Update and review of some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination techniques with immunoadsorption and anti-CD20 antibodies becoming the norm, and spleenectomy fading out. The implications and practices of transfusion medicine in organ transplant are also undergoing drastic changes. The practice of infusion of one unit of donor's blood preoperatively for immunomodulation is no longer practiced. Use of leuco-reduced products has shown decreasing trends of alloimmunization and graft rejection in cases of multiple surgeries related to organ transplants. Worldwide donor and recipient registry programmes are being setup and existing ones are being upgraded. Such a registry system has been opened in India for kidney transplant cases very recently. Due to such registry programmes the dependency on siblings and directed donations have decreased considerably. This review deals with some of the current issues contributing to the successful outcome of mismatched transplants and the changing concepts of transfusion medicine related to it.

  2. Tooth Matrix Analysis for Biomonitoring of Organic Chemical Exposure: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S.; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports associations between prenatal exposure to environmental organic chemicals and childhood health impairments. Unlike the common choice of biological matrices such as urine and blood that can be limited by short half-lives for some chemicals, teeth provide a stable repository for chemicals with half-life in the order of decades. Given the potential of the tooth bio-matrix to study long-term exposures to environmental organic chemicals in human biomonitoring programs, it is important to be aware of possible pitfalls and potential opportunities to improve on the current analytical method for tooth organics analysis. We critically review previous results of studies of this topic. The major drawbacks and challenges in currently practiced concepts and analytical methods in utilizing tooth bio-matrix are (i) no consideration of external (from outer surface) or internal contamination (from micro odontoblast processes), (ii) the misleading assumption that whole ground teeth represent prenatal exposures (latest formed dentine is lipid rich and therefore would absorb and accumulate more organic chemicals), (iii) reverse causality in exposure assessment due to whole ground teeth, and (iv) teeth are a precious bio-matrix and grinding them raises ethical concerns about appropriate use of a very limited resource in exposure biology and epidemiology studies. These can be overcome by addressing the important limitations and possible improvements with the analytical approach associated at each of the following steps (i) tooth sample preparation to retain exposure timing, (ii) organics extraction and pre-concentration to detect ultra-trace levels of analytes, (iii) chromatography separation, (iv) mass spectrometric detection to detect multi-class organics simultaneously, and (v) method validation, especially to exclude chance findings. To highlight the proposed improvements we present findings from a pilot study that utilizes tooth matrix biomarkers to

  3. Homeland Security: Compendium of Recommendations Relevant to House Committee Organization and Analysis of Considerations for the House

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koempel, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    .... The original report was not changed; its summary follows: The 9/11 Commission and other commissions and think tanks studying homeland security recommended congressional committee reorganization to increase Congress's policy and oversight coordination...

  4. Increased short circuit current in an azafullerene-based organic solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambarau, Werther; Fritze, Urs F; Viterisi, Aurélien; Palomares, Emilio; von Delius, Max

    2015-01-21

    We report the synthesis of a solution-processable, dodecyloxyphenyl-substituted azafullerene monoadduct (DPC59N) and its application as electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs). Due to its relatively strong absorption of visible light, DPC59N outperforms PC60BM in respect to short circuit current (JSC) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) in blends with donor P3HT.

  5. Folate and folic acid in the periconceptional period: recommendations from official health organizations in thirty-six countries worldwide and WHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sandra; Lopes, Carla; Pinto, Elisabete

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the recommendations on folate intake and folic acid supplementation and fortification in the periconceptional period, aimed at prevention of neural tube defects (NTD), provided by official health organizations in different countries worldwide and WHO. Information on recommendations for folate and folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was gathered from the websites of official national health organizations of several countries worldwide and from the WHO website. WHO, selected developed countries and emerging economies, totalling thirty-six countries worldwide (some European, BRICS, G8, Asian Tiger/Asian Dragon and Australia). Recommendations differ between countries, although the majority (69·4 %) recommend a healthy diet plus a folic acid supplement of 400 µg/d from preconception (4-12 weeks) until the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (8-12 weeks). The same recommendation is issued by the WHO. Dosages for women at high risk of NTD are up to 4-5 mg/d (for 41·7 % of studied countries). The recommended intake for folate is in the range of 300-400 µg/d for women of childbearing age and 500-600 µg/d for pregnant women in different countries and WHO. Five countries emphasize the importance of a healthy diet rendering supplementation needless. By contrast, five others advise a healthy diet and supplementation plus mandatory fortification. Only one mentions the importance of ensuring an adequate folate status and refers to checking with a health-care provider on the need for supplements. Different recommendations regarding folate and folic acid, seeking NTD prevention, are available worldwide; however, most countries and WHO focus on a healthy diet and folic acid supplementation of 400 µg/d periconceptionally.

  6. Pelvic organ prolapse in women: how is it diagnosed and treated currently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Milart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to summarize the current opinions about the management of pelvic organ prolapse in women. Food and Drug Administration safety announcements from 2008 and 2011 triggered the discussion about the methods of treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and the used materials and a partial return to the methods which had been totally criticized before the implementation of meshes. The decrease in mesh usage is also observed. The studies did not demonstrate the prevalence of any particular surgical procedure. The amount of studies concerning the evaluation and the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse ensures that the quality of care provided to women with urogynecological problems is continuously increasing.

  7. Resident Involvement in Professional Otolaryngology Organizations: Current Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Jang, Minyoung; Gilad, Amir; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-08-01

    Involvement by residents in professional medical organizations can enrich their training, but little data exist regarding the number and types of involvement opportunities available to otolaryngology residents. We sought to fill this gap in knowledge by quantifying the extent to which major otolaryngology-related organizations in the United States provide involvement opportunities to otolaryngology residents. Our analysis included 23 organizations and subspecialty societies. Results showed that many opportunities exist for residents to attend conferences and present research; however, fewer involvement and funding opportunities existed in any other leadership, health policy, or service-learning experiences. These findings were consistent across general and subspecialty societies. Given the many purported benefits of resident involvement in otolaryngology outside of the standard training environment, future efforts may be warranted to increase the number and type of involvement opportunities currently available in professional societies.

  8. Ionic currents and charge movements in organ-cultured rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, S; Marshall, M W; Robson, E

    1984-12-01

    The middle of the fibre voltage-clamp technique was used to measure ionic currents and non-linear charge movements in intact, organ-cultured (in vitro denervated) mammalian fast-twitch (rat extensor digitorum longus) muscle fibres. Muscle fibres organ cultured for 4 days can be used as electrophysiological and morphological models for muscles in vivo denervated for the same length of time. Sodium currents in organ-cultured muscle fibres are similar to innervated fibres except that in the temperature range 0-20 degrees C (a) in the steady state, the voltage distribution of inactivation in cultured fibres is shifted negatively some 20 mV; (b) at the same temperature and membrane potential, the time constant of inactivation in cultured fibres is about twice that of innervated fibres. Potassium currents in innervated and cultured fibres at 15 degrees C can be fitted with the Hodgkin-Huxley n variable raised to the second power. Despite the large range we would estimate that the maximum value of the steady-state potassium conductance of cultured fibres is about one-half that of innervated fibres. The estimated maximum amount of charge moved in cultured fibre is about one-third that in innervated fibres. Compared to innervated fibres, culturing doubles the kinetics of the decay phase of charge movement. The possibility of a negative shift of the voltage distribution of charge movements in cultured fibres is discussed.

  9. Accurate characterization of organic thin film transistors in the presence of gate leakage current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K. Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of gate leakage through polymer dielectric in organic thin film transistors (OTFT prevents accurate estimation of transistor characteristics especially in subthreshold regime. To mitigate the impact of gate leakage on transfer characteristics and allow accurate estimation of mobility, subthreshold slope and on/off current ratio, a measurement technique involving simultaneous sweep of both gate and drain voltages is proposed. Two dimensional numerical device simulation is used to illustrate the validity of the proposed technique. Experimental results obtained with Pentacene/PMMA OTFT with significant gate leakage show a low on/off current ratio of ∼ 102 and subthreshold is 10 V/decade obtained using conventional measurement technique. The proposed technique reveals that channel on/off current ratio is more than two orders of magnitude higher at ∼104 and subthreshold slope is 4.5 V/decade.

  10. Attenuation-based size metric for estimating organ dose to patients undergoing tube current modulated CT exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostani, Maryam, E-mail: mbostani@mednet.ucla.edu; McMillan, Kyle; Lu, Peiyun; Kim, Hyun J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); DeMarco, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Task Group 204 introduced effective diameter (ED) as the patient size metric used to correlate size-specific-dose-estimates. However, this size metric fails to account for patient attenuation properties and has been suggested to be replaced by an attenuation-based size metric, water equivalent diameter (D{sub W}). The purpose of this study is to investigate different size metrics, effective diameter, and water equivalent diameter, in combination with regional descriptions of scanner output to establish the most appropriate size metric to be used as a predictor for organ dose in tube current modulated CT exams. Methods: 101 thoracic and 82 abdomen/pelvis scans from clinically indicated CT exams were collected retrospectively from a multidetector row CT (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare) with Institutional Review Board approval to generate voxelized patient models. Fully irradiated organs (lung and breasts in thoracic scans and liver, kidneys, and spleen in abdominal scans) were segmented and used as tally regions in Monte Carlo simulations for reporting organ dose. Along with image data, raw projection data were collected to obtain tube current information for simulating tube current modulation scans using Monte Carlo methods. Additionally, previously described patient size metrics [ED, D{sub W}, and approximated water equivalent diameter (D{sub Wa})] were calculated for each patient and reported in three different ways: a single value averaged over the entire scan, a single value averaged over the region of interest, and a single value from a location in the middle of the scan volume. Organ doses were normalized by an appropriate mAs weighted CTDI{sub vol} to reflect regional variation of tube current. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlations between normalized organ doses and each size metric. Results: For the abdominal organs, the correlations between normalized organ dose and size metric were overall slightly higher for all three

  11. Assessment of an organ-based tube current modulation in thoracic computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Sugai, Mai; Toyoda, Asami; Koshida, Haruka; Sakuta, Keita; Takata, Tadanori; Koshida, Kichiro; Iida, Hiroji; Matsui, Osamu

    2012-03-08

    Recently, specific computed tomography (CT) scanners have been equipped with organ-based tube current modulation (TCM) technology. It is possible that organ-based TCM will replace the conventional dose-reduction technique of reducing the effective milliampere-second. The aim of this study was to determine if organ-based TCM could reduce radiation exposure to the breasts without compromising the image uniformity and beam hardening effect in thoracic CT examinations. Breast and skin radiation doses and the absorbed radiation dose distribution within a single section were measured with an anthropomorphic phantom and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters using four approaches to thoracic CT (reference, organ-based TCM, copper shielding, and the combination of the above two techniques, hereafter referred to as the combination technique). The CT value and noise level were measured using the same calibration phantom. Organ-based TCM and copper shielding reduced radiation doses to the breast by 23.7% and 21.8%, respectively. However, the CT value increased, especially in the anterior region, using copper shielding. In contrast, the CT value and noise level barely increased using organ-based TCM. The combination technique reduced the radiation dose to the breast by 38.2%, but greatly increased the absorbed radiation dose from the central to the posterior regions. Moreover, the CT value increased in the anterior region and the noise level increased by more than 10% in the entire region. Therefore, organ-based TCM can reduce radiation doses to breasts with only small increases in noise levels, making it preferable for specific groups of patients, such as children and young women.

  12. Evaluation of the validity of treatment decisions based on surrogate country models before introduction of the Polish FRAX and recommendations in comparison to current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech M; Narloch, Jerzy; Glinkowska, Bożena; Bandura, Małgorzata

    2018-03-01

    Patients diagnosed before the Polish FRAX was introduced may require re-evaluation and treatment changes if the diagnosis was established according to a surrogate country FRAX score. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of treatment decisions based on the surrogate country model before introduction of the Polish FRAX and to provide recommendations based on the current practice. We evaluated a group of 142 postmenopausal women (70.7 ±8.9 years) who underwent bone mineral density measurements. We used 22 country-specific FRAX models and compared these to the Polish model. The mean risk values for hip and major osteoporotic fractures within 10 years were 4.575 (from 0.82 to 8.46) and 12.47% (from 2.18 to 21.65), respectively. In the case of a major fracture, 94.4% of women would receive lifestyle advice, and 5.6% would receive treatment according to the Polish FRAX using the guidelines of the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). Polish treatment thresholds would implement pharmacotherapy in 32.4% of the study group. In the case of hip fractures, 45% of women according to the NOF would require pharmacotherapy but only 9.8% of women would qualify according to Polish guidelines. Nearly all surrogate FRAX calculator scores proved significantly different form Polish ( p > 0.05). More patients might have received antiresorptive medication before the Polish FRAX. This study recommends re-evaluation of patients who received medical therapy before the Polish FRAX was introduced and a review of the recommendations, considering the side effects of antiresorptive medication.

  13. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-01-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. PMID:26567188

  15. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  16. Some considerations on the current debate about typing resolution in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzi, Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    The shortage of suitable organs and achieved tolerance are uncontested main concerns in transplantation. Long waiting lists for deceased donors and limited numbers of living donors are the current scenarios. Kidney grafts from living donors have better overall survival compared to cadaveric and require less aggressive immunosuppressive regimens. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) labs have the key role to test the recipient and donors compatibility based on typing and antibody profile. The current standard molecular procedure in solid organ transplantation is low-resolution typing, at the antigen level. In this commentary, the merits of high versus low degree of typing resolution in solid organ transplantation are discussed. Critical questions and reasons to bring high-resolution typing as a routine test in health system are considered. Specifically, with the introduction of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) in HLA, the pros and cons in living donation and benefits after deceased donation are critically evaluated. NGS has the potential to improve the transplant rates and the overall graft survival. Alternative strategies to increase in demanding the number of transplants are briefly highlighted.

  17. The current state of Bayesian methods in medical product development: survey results and recommendations from the DIA Bayesian Scientific Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanegara, Fanni; Neuenschwander, Beat; Seaman, John W; Kinnersley, Nelson; Heilmann, Cory R; Ohlssen, David; Rochester, George

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian applications in medical product development have recently gained popularity. Despite many advances in Bayesian methodology and computations, increase in application across the various areas of medical product development has been modest. The DIA Bayesian Scientific Working Group (BSWG), which includes representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and academia, has adopted the vision to ensure Bayesian methods are well understood, accepted more broadly, and appropriately utilized to improve decision making and enhance patient outcomes. As Bayesian applications in medical product development are wide ranging, several sub-teams were formed to focus on various topics such as patient safety, non-inferiority, prior specification, comparative effectiveness, joint modeling, program-wide decision making, analytical tools, and education. The focus of this paper is on the recent effort of the BSWG Education sub-team to administer a Bayesian survey to statisticians across 17 organizations involved in medical product development. We summarize results of this survey, from which we provide recommendations on how to accelerate progress in Bayesian applications throughout medical product development. The survey results support findings from the literature and provide additional insight on regulatory acceptance of Bayesian methods and information on the need for a Bayesian infrastructure within an organization. The survey findings support the claim that only modest progress in areas of education and implementation has been made recently, despite substantial progress in Bayesian statistical research and software availability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  19. Establishing Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and Improving Cross-Border Collaboration in Criminal Cases: Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul; Rijken, Conny; D'Orsi, Sergio; Esser, Luuk; Hol, Floor; Gallagher, Anne; Greenberg, Galit; Helberg, Louis; Horvatits, Lisa; McCarthy, Sean; Ratel, Jonathan; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Forsythe, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in huma...

  20. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs.

  1. Establishing Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and Improving Cross-Border Collaboration in Criminal Cases: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Paul; Rijken, Conny; D'Orsi, Sergio; Esser, Luuk; Hol, Floor; Gallagher, Anne; Greenberg, Galit; Helberg, Louis; Horvatits, Lisa; McCarthy, Sean; Ratel, Jonathan; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Forsythe, John

    2016-02-01

    In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.

  2. Management of Patients Who Receive an Organ Transplant Abroad and Return Home for Follow-up Care: Recommendations From the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Danovitch, Gabriel; Martin, Dominique E; López-Fraga, Marta; Van Assche, Kristof; Morris, Michele L; Lavee, Jacob; Erlich, Gilad; Fadhil, Riadh; Busic, Mirela; Rankin, Glynn; Al-Rukhaimi, Mona; OʼConnell, Philip; Chin, Jacqueline; Norman, Triona; Massari, Pablo; Kamel, Refaat; Delmonico, Francis L

    2018-01-01

    Eradicating transplant tourism depends on complex solutions that include efforts to progress towards self-sufficiency in transplantation. Meanwhile, professionals and authorities are faced with medical, legal, and ethical problems raised by patients who return home after receiving an organ transplant abroad, particularly when the organ has been obtained through illegitimate means. In 2016, the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group convened an international, multidisciplinary workshop in Madrid, Spain, to address these challenges and provide recommendations for the management of these patients, which are presented in this paper. The core recommendations are grounded in the belief that principles of transparency, traceability, and continuity of care applied to patients who receive an organ domestically should also apply to patients who receive an organ abroad. Governments and professionals are urged to ensure that, upon return, patients are promptly referred to a transplant center for evaluation and care, not cover the costs of transplants resulting from organ or human trafficking, register standardized information at official registries on patients who travel for transplantation, promote international exchange of data for traceability, and develop a framework for the notification of identified or suspected cases of transnational transplant-related crimes by health professionals to law enforcement agencies.

  3. Dark Current And Voltage Measurements Of Metal-Organic-Semiconductor (M-Or-S) Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adianto

    1996-01-01

    . Some Metal-Organic-Semiconductor (M-Or-S) thin film diodes, constructed with an organic polymer (polymerized toluene) as an active component has been successfully fabricated. The thin film M-Or-S diodes were fabricated on an n-type silicon with resistivity of 250-500 Ocm and p type silicon with resistivity of 10-20 Ocm as a substrate with polymerized toluene used as insulator. When deposited on silicon wafers with electrode of evaporated Ni on the n-type silicon and evaporated Au as the electrode on the polymerized toluene film, the electronic devices of Metal-Organic- Semiconductor (M-Or-S) type can be produced with one of its characteristics is that their light sensitivity. A plasma ion deposition system was constructed and used to deposit organic monomeric substance (toluene) that functioned as an isolator between semiconductor and the evaporated metal electrodes. The current-voltage measurements for different configurations of M-Or-S devices were carried out to determine the current-voltage (1-V) characteristics for M-Or-S devices with different materials and thicknesses. In addition to the 1-V measurement mentioned before, 1-V measurements of the devices were also carried out by using a curve tracer oscilloscope, and the picture of the effective parameters of each of the device could be taken by using a polaroid camera. Since the devices are very sensitive to light, the devices were all tested in a black-box which was covered by a black cloth to make sure that there was no light coming through. The experimental results for p- and n-type silicon substrates showed that an M-Or-S diode with n-type gave a higher breakdown voltage than that p- type silicon. In addition, the reverse bias breakdown voltage increased as the thickness of the thin film increased in the range of 50 -2500 V/μm

  4. Removing the current-limit of vertical organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheleg, Gil; Greenman, Michael; Lussem, Bjorn; Tessler, Nir

    2017-11-01

    The reported Vertical Organic Field Effect Transistors (VOFETs) show either superior current and switching speeds or well-behaved transistor performance, especially saturation in the output characteristics. Through the study of the relationship between the device architecture or dimensions and the device performance, we find that achieving a saturation regime in the output characteristics requires that the device operates in the injection limited regime. In current structures, the existence of the injection limited regime depends on the source's injection barrier as well as on the buried semiconductor layer thickness. To overcome the injection limit imposed by the necessity of injection barrier, we suggest a new architecture to realize VOFETs. This architecture shows better gate control and is independent of the injection barrier at the source, thus allowing for several A cm-2 for a semiconductor having a mobility value of 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  5. Maximizing the Utility of the Serum Repository With Current Technologies and Recommendations to Meet Future Needs: Report of the Technical Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Coleen P

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR) of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Silver Spring, Maryland, has over 55 million specimens. Over 80% of these specimens are linked to individual health data. In response to Congressional and Department of Defense (DoD) concern about toxic exposures of deployed Service members and rapidly developing laboratory capabilities that may identify those exposed, the AFHSC hosted two panels in 2013. The first, the Needs Panel, focused on assessing the needs of the DoD that may be met using the current DoDSR and an enhanced repository. The second panel, the Technical Panel, focused on identifying the emerging laboratory technologies that are or will be available to DoD public health workers and researchers. This report summarizes the recommendations of the Technical Panel, to include identified gaps in the ability of the current DoDSR to address questions of interest to the DoD, the availability of laboratory technology to address these needs, and the types and quality of specimens required from Service members possibly exposed. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Modeling space-charge-limited currents in organic semiconductors: Extracting trap density and mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2011-11-28

    We have developed and have applied a mobility edge model that takes drift and diffusion currents to characterize the space-charge-limited current in organic semiconductors into account. The numerical solution of the drift-diffusion equation allows the utilization of asymmetric contacts to describe the built-in potential within the device. The model has been applied to extract information of the distribution of traps from experimental current-voltage measurements of a rubrene single crystal from Krellner showing excellent agreement across several orders of magnitude in the current. Although the two contacts are made of the same metal, an energy offset of 580 meV between them, ascribed to differences in the deposition techniques (lamination vs evaporation) was essential to correctly interpret the shape of the current-voltage characteristics at low voltage. A band mobility of 0.13cm 2V-1s-1 for holes is estimated, which is consistent with transport along the long axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The total density of traps deeper than 0.1 eV was 2.2×1016cm -3. The sensitivity analysis and error estimation in the obtained parameters show that it is not possible to accurately resolve the shape of the trap distribution for energies deeper than 0.3 eV or shallower than 0.1 eV above the valence-band edge. The total number of traps deeper than 0.3 eV, however, can be estimated. Contact asymmetry and the diffusion component of the current play an important role in the description of the device at low bias and are required to obtain reliable information about the distribution of deep traps. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  7. Early identification and intervention matters: A comprehensive review of current evidence and recommendations for the monitoring of bone health in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowicz, Thomas; Hadji, Peyman; Niepel, Daniela; Diel, Ingo

    2017-12-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced solid tumors, and many individuals experience debilitating skeletal-related events (SREs; e.g. pathologic fracture, hypercalcemia, radiotherapy or surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression). These events substantially affect disease outcomes, including survival and quality of life, and healthcare systems. Plain radiography is the most widely used imaging modality for the detection of bone metastases; skeletal scintigraphy, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer greater sensitivity but their use in routine practice is restricted by high costs and limited availability. Biomarkers of bone turnover may also have a role in the early detection of bone metastases and can provide valuable prognostic information on disease progression. SREs can be delayed or prevented using agents such as the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, denosumab, and bisphosphonates. Painful bone metastases can be treated with radiofrequency ablation, radiotherapy, or radionuclides such as radium-223 dichloride, which has been shown to delay the onset of SREs in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Close monitoring of bone health in patients with advanced cancer may lead to early identification of individuals with bone metastases who could benefit from early intervention to prevent SREs. This review examines current guideline recommendations for assessing and monitoring bone health in patients with advanced cancer, use of biomarkers and treatment of patients with bone metastases. The emerging evidence for the potential survival benefit conferred by early intervention with denosumab and bisphosphonates is also discussed, together with best practice recommendations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. [Current situation of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Lan, Zhang; Yan-Kun, Zhu; Wei-Qi, Chen; Yan, Deng; Peng, Li

    2018-01-10

    To understand the current status of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province, so as to provide the reference for promoting the integrative ability of the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in Henan Province. The questionnaires were designed and the method of census was adopted. The information, such as the amounts, majors, education background, technical titles, working years, and turnover in each parasitic disease control and prevention organization was collected by the centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) at all levels. The data were descriptively analyzed. Totally 179 CDCs were investigated, in which only 19.0% (34/179) had the independent parasitic diseases control institution (department) . There were only 258 full-time staffs working on parasitic disease control and prevention in the whole province, in which only 61.9% (159/258) were health professionals. Those with junior college degree or below in the health professionals accounted for 60.3% (96/159) . Most of them (42.1%) had over 20 years of experience, but 57.9% (92/159) of their technical post titles were at primary level or below. The proportion of the health professionals is low in the parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province. The human resource construction for parasitic disease control and prevention at all levels should be strengthened.

  9. A dynamic Monte Carlo study of anomalous current voltage behaviour in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, K.; Fell, C. J.; Zhou, X.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a substantial decrease in fill factor and thus power conversion efficiency. We show that this s-shaped behaviour is induced by charge traps that are located at the electrode interface rather than in the bulk of the active layer, and that the anomaly becomes more pronounced with increasing trap depth or density. Furthermore, the s-shape anomaly is correlated with interface recombination, but not bulk recombination, thus highlighting the importance of controlling the electrode interface. While thermal annealing is known to remove the s-shape anomaly, the reason has been not clear, since these treatments induce multiple simultaneous changes to the organic solar cell structure. The DMC modelling indicates that it is the removal of aluminium clusters at the electrode, which act as charge traps, that removes the anomalous I-V behaviour. Finally, this work shows that the s-shape becomes less pronounced with increasing electron-hole recombination rate; suggesting that efficient organic photovoltaic material systems are more susceptible to these electrode interface effects

  10. Some aspects of miners' exposure to radon in Poland in view of international organizations recommendations and European Union directives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chruscielewski, W.; Liniecki, J.; Jankowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure of miners to natural radiation in which radon-222 plays the major role has been studied in Poland since the end of the nineteen sixties. The work environment measurements and personal monitoring methods have been developed for monitoring the exposure. A quite wide range of doses resulting from big differences in radon concentrations in mines is characteristic of miners' exposure. It was estimated that about 16% of miners received doses above 5 mSv per year. This group of miners should be provided with individual dosimetry. In this paper methodological and legal aspects of the situation in mines are analyzed. A large number of Polish recommendations and legal regulations must be changed in order to harmonize them with the directives of the European Union. (author)

  11. Routine Immunization of Adults in Canada: Review of the Epidemiology of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and Current Recommendations for Primary Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Parkins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the greatest achievements in public health of the 20th century. However, the success of vaccine uptake and adherence to immunization guidelines seen in pediatric populations has not been observed among adult Canadians. As a result of the disparity in susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease, there has been an increasing shift of vaccine-preventable childhood diseases into adult populations. Accordingly, morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable illnesses now occur disproportionately in adults. All Canadians, irrespective of age, should have immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and varicella. All adult Canadians with significant medical comorbidities or those older than 65 years of age should receive the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and yearly trivalent inactivate influenza vaccines. The present review summarizes the burden of illness of these vaccine-preventable diseases in the Canadian adult population and reviews the current immunization recommendations. Vaccination of all Canadians to these common agents remains a vital tool to decrease individual morbidity and mortality and reduce the overall burden of preventable disease in Canada.

  12. Current Development in Treatment and Hydrogen Energy Conversion of Organic Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hang-Sik

    2008-02-01

    This manuscript summarized current developments on continuous hydrogen production technologies researched in Korea advanced institute of science and technology (KAIST). Long-term continuous pilot-scale operation of hydrogen producing processes fed with non-sterile food waste exhibited successful results. Experimental findings obtained by the optimization processes of growth environments for hydrogen producing bacteria, the development of high-rate hydrogen producing strategies, and the feasibility tests for real field application could contribute to the progress of fermentative hydrogen production technologies. Three major technologies such as controlling dilution rate depending on the progress of acidogenesis, maintaining solid retention time independently from hydraulic retention time, and decreasing hydrogen partial pressure by carbon dioxide sparging could enhance hydrogen production using anaerobic leaching beds reactors and anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. These findings could contribute to stable, reliable and effective performances of pilot-scale reactors treating organic wastes.

  13. Lean management in the current context of evolution of an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMALIA VENERA TODORUŢ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have approached issues concerning the importance of Lean Management method in the current context of evolution of an organization. With roots in the just in time method, Lean Management model focuses on the process of changes evolving and adapting to them and regards issues such as: the dimensioning of life cycle, the dimensioning of processes, the dimensioning of ranges of products. I have also presented the relationship between Lean Management method and the human factor as a determinant in forming an organizational culture which leads to the formation and development of Lean thinking. Relevant factors which determine the change and interact with the Lean Management method are: training, motivation, teamwork spirit, communication methods, training and motivation. An important aspect of this paper is to integrate Lean Management with Six Sigma, and with other managerial techniques leading to getting quality products at low costs

  14. Elucidating the interplay between dark current coupling and open circuit voltage in organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Erwin, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A short series of alkyl substituted perylenediimides (PDIs) with varying steric bulk are used to demonstrate the relationship between molecular structure, materials properties, and performance characteristics in organic photovoltaics. Devices were made with the structure indium tin oxide/copper phthalocyanine (200 Å)/PDI (200 Å)/bathocuproine (100 Å)/aluminum (1000 Å). We found that PDIs with larger substituents produced higher open circuit voltages (VOC\\'s) despite the donor acceptor interface gap (Δ EDA) remaining unchanged. Additionally, series resistance was increased simultaneously with VOC the effect of reducing short circuit current, making the addition of steric bulk a tradeoff that needs to be balanced to optimize power conversion efficiency. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Is there sufficient ‘sink’ in current bioaccessibility determinations of organic pollutants in soils?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.D.; Mosquera-Vazquez, M.; Gomez-Eyles, J.L.; Mayer, P.; Gouliarmou, V.; Blum, F.

    2013-01-01

    Bioaccessibility tests can be used to improve contaminated land risk assessments. For organic pollutants a ‘sink’ is required within these tests to better mimic their desorption under the physiological conditions prevailing in the intestinal tract, where a steep diffusion gradient for the removal of organic pollutants from the soil matrix would exist. This is currently ignored in most PBET systems. By combining the CEPBET bioaccessibility test with an infinite sink, the removal of PAH from spiked solutions was monitored. Less than 10% of spiked PAH remained in the stomach media after 1 h, 10% by 4 h in the small intestine compartment and c.15% after 16 h in the colon. The addition of the infinite sink increased bioaccessibility estimates for field soils by a factor of 1.2–2.8, confirming its importance for robust PBET tests. TOC or BC were not the only factors controlling desorption of the PAH from the soils. -- Highlights: •Inclusion of a ‘contaminant trap’ significantly increases bioaccessibility estimates of PAH in contaminated soils. •The ‘contaminant trap’ operated within realistic physiological timescales. •The inclusion of a colon compartment is important as it increases bioaccessibility of the high molecular weight PAH. •Soil carbon content as TOC or BC was not the only control on the desorption of PAH from field soils. -- The inclusion of a ‘contaminant trap’ within physiologically based extraction tests significantly increases the bioaccessibility estimates of PAHs in contaminated soils

  16. Effect of Localizer Radiography Projection on Organ Dose at Chest CT with Automatic Tube Current Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltybaeva, Natalia; Krauss, Andreas; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To calculate the effect of localizer radiography projections to the total radiation dose, including both the dose from localizer radiography and that from subsequent chest computed tomography (CT) with tube current modulation (TCM). Materials and Methods An anthropomorphic phantom was scanned with 192-section CT without and with differently sized breast attachments. Chest CT with TCM was performed after one localizer radiographic examination with anteroposterior (AP) or posteroanterior (PA) projections. Dose distributions were obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations based on acquired CT data. For Monte Carlo simulations of localizer radiography, the tube position was fixed at 0° and 180°; for chest CT, a spiral trajectory with TCM was used. The effect of tube start angles on dose distribution was investigated with Monte Carlo simulations by using TCM curves with fixed start angles (0°, 90°, and 180°). Total doses for lungs, heart, and breast were calculated as the sum of the dose from localizer radiography and CT. Image noise was defined as the standard deviation of attenuation measured in 14 circular regions of interest. The Wilcoxon signed rank test, paired t test, and Friedman analysis of variance were conducted to evaluate differences in noise, TCM curves, and organ doses, respectively. Results Organ doses from localizer radiography were lower when using a PA instead of an AP projection (P = .005). The use of a PA projection resulted in higher TCM values for chest CT (P chest CT. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandegan, Arash; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul B; Lemon, Peter Wr

    2017-05-01

    Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise." Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1- 13 C]phenylalanine to 13 CO 2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique]. Methods: Eight men (means ± SDs: age, 22.5 ± 1.7 y; weight, 83.9 ± 11.6 kg; 13.0% ± 6.3% body fat) were studied at rest on a nontraining day, on several occasions (4-8 times) each with protein intakes ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 , for a total of 42 experiments. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each individual's measured resting energy expenditure and were isoenergetic across all treatments. Protein was fed as an amino acid mixture based on the protein pattern in egg, except for phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained at constant amounts across all protein intakes. For 2 d before the study, all participants consumed 1.5 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 On the study day, the protein requirement was determined by identifying the breakpoint in the F 13 CO 2 with graded amounts of dietary protein [mixed-effects change-point regression analysis of F 13 CO 2 (labeled tracer oxidation in breath)]. Results: The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of protein and the upper 95% CI RDA for these young male bodybuilders were 1.7 and 2.2 g · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. Conclusion: These IAAO data suggest that the protein EAR and recommended intake for male bodybuilders at rest on a nontraining day exceed the current recommendations of the Institute of Medicine by ∼2.6-fold

  18. Critical carbon input to maintain current soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing

    2016-01-13

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  19. Optical effects of shadow masks on short circuit current of organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Feng; Lin, Bing-Hong; Liu, Shun-Wei; Hsu, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Mi; Chiu, Tien-Lung; Wei, Mau-Kuo; Lee, Jiun-Haw

    2012-03-21

    In this paper, we have employed different shadow masks attached on top of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices to study the optical effects of the former on the short circuit current (J(SC)). To rule out possible lateral electrical conduction and simplify the optical effects inside the device, a small-molecular heterojunction OPV device with a clear donor/acceptor interface was employed with a hole extraction layer exhibiting high resistance intentionally. Careful calibration with a shadow mask was employed. By attaching two layers of opaque masks in combination with a suitable holder design to shield the light from the edges and backside, the value of J(SC) approached that of the dark current, even under 1-sun radiation. With different illumination areas, we found that the photons illuminating the non-active region of the device contributed to 40% of the J(SC) by optical effect within the width of about 1 mm around the active region. When illuminating the non-active area with 12 mm to the active area, a 5.6 times improvement in the J(SC) was observed when the incident angle was 75°. With the introduction of a microstructured film onto the OPV device and an increase in the reflection from the non-active region, a 15% enhancement of the J(SC) compared to the control device was achieved.

  20. Can Public Managers Make Their Welfare Organizations Adapt to the New Performance Landscape Shaped by the Current Austerity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Aagaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How managers try to adapt their organizations to the new performance landscape shaped by the current austerity by new forms of change management in Denmark, in the public sector of citizens with disabilities and socially disadvantaged people.......How managers try to adapt their organizations to the new performance landscape shaped by the current austerity by new forms of change management in Denmark, in the public sector of citizens with disabilities and socially disadvantaged people....

  1. Tratamento da tuberculose de infecção latente: As recomendações actuais Latent tuberculosis infection treatment: Current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Duarte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico e tratamento da infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis reduz significativamente o risco de desenvolvimento de tuberculose activa e a transmissão da doença na comunidade. O rastreio da tuberculose infecção latente deve passar pela exclusão de doença activa (inquérito de sintomas e radiografia pulmonar e avaliação da resposta imunológica ao M. tuberculosis através dos testes actualmente ao dispor, como o teste tuberculínico e os testes IGRA (interferon-gamma release assay. A escolha do esquema de tratamento deve ter em linha de conta a eficácia, a adesão e os efeitos colaterais associados ao mesmo Este documento actualiza as recomendações sobre tratamento da tuberculose infecção latente. São apresentadas indicações sobre quem deve ser rastreado e revistos os esquemas de tratamento.Diagnosis and treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI, significantly reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis and the transmission of the disease in the community. LTBI screening must pass by the exclusion of active disease (symptoms enquiry and chest radiography and assessment of immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis testing with the tests currently available - tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA. The choice of treatment must take into account the efficacy and side effects associated with the same. This document provides updated recommendations on latent tuberculosis infection treatment. Topics covered include whom to test for TB and reviewed LTBI treatment regimens.

  2. 75 FR 29967 - National Organic Program Request for an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... the organic certification system. They create a paper trail that is a critical element in carrying out..., organic inspectors, certified organic producers and handlers, those seeking accreditation or certification.... USDA also permits States to establish their own organic certification programs after the programs are...

  3. Easier said than done: World Health Organization recommendations for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-areas of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombi, Leonardo; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Giuliano, Marina; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

    2011-08-01

    The World Health Organization released recommendations on treatment, prevention, and infant feeding practices within the context of HIV infection based on the "latest scientific evidence" available. The "Rapid Advice" document anticipates the release of official HIV Prevention-of-Mother-to-Child Transmission guidelines. As investigators involved in public health programs providing HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, we are concerned about the ramifications of specific recommendations, often viewed as dogma by policy makers in this setting. The recommendation that CD4 cell counts be available antenatally so that decisions can be made regarding maternal antiretroviral eligibility is problematic because the ability to measure CD4 cells is nonexistent in many African health centers. As a result, antiretroviral treatment initiation in pregnancy will either be unnecessarily delayed or patients in need of treatment may receive prolonged courses of monotherapy. It is critical that exceptions be made for populations without access to flow cytometry. Another point of concern is that the massive unrestricted use of efavirenz during pregnancy is encouraged. Given that surveillance of pregnancy outcomes is not routinely performed in such settings and in light of the teratogenic potential of efavirenz (contraindicated during the first trimester in developed countries), we are concerned that its indiscriminate use will lead to further problems in vulnerable populations. Another premature recommendation is the use of daily administration of nevirapine to HIV-exposed infants throughout the entire duration of breastfeeding. Results of clinical trials documenting the efficacy of this approach for extended periods of time are not yet available. Single dose nevirapine has been shown to compromise future treatment options in HIV-infected women and infants. In addition, the long-term safety profile of this agent in immune-competent infants has not been established. In summary, although the

  4. Evaluation of ink-jet printed current collecting grids and bushbars for ITO-free organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E,W.C.; Sabik, S.; Gorter, H.H.; Barink, M.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    ITO-free organic solar cells with ink-jet printed current collecting grids and high conducting PEDOT:PSS as composite anode are demonstrated. Inkjet printed current collecting grids with different cross-sectional are as have been investigated. The effect of the width and height of the gridlines and

  5. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Following World Health Organization-Recommended Criteria in Severely Malnourished Children Presenting With Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Shahid, Abu S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Das, Sumon Kumar; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2017-01-01

    Evidences on diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) following the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are lacking. We sought to evaluate the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of TB in such children. In this prospective study, we enrolled SAM children aged <5 with radiological pneumonia. We collected induced sputum and gastric lavage for smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Using the last 2 methods as the gold standard, we determined sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of WHO criteria (n = 388). However, Xpert MTB/RIF was performed on the last 214 children. Compared to mycobacterial culture-confirmed TB, sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of WHO criteria were 40 (14% to 73%) and 84 (80% to 87%), respectively. Compared to culture- and/or Xpert MTB/RIF-confirmed TB, the values were 22% (9% to 43%) and 83 (79% to 87%), respectively. Thus, the good specificity of the WHO criteria may help minimize overtreatment with anti-TB therapy in SAM children, especially in resource-limited settings.

  6. Current activities and future plans of the Urenco/Centec organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, J.V.L.; Aston, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Urenco/Centec organization has three pilot plant projects which remain the three largest centrifuge enrichment experiments in the world. The pilot plants have provided a test bed to demonstrate the designs currently being installed in the two 200 te SWU/a plants. Thus they were able to proceed to full commercial opertion with considerable confidence in the performance of the plants being commissioned. They have been enriching uranium for sale. Urenco has already secured firm business in excess of 2000 te SWU/a for delivery in the early 1980's and beyond. To meet this obligation, two new 1000 te SWU/a plants were commissioned at Almelo and Capenhurst from 1979 onwards. Urenco's research strategy will be to evolve centrifuges from well proven designs, to develop simple and inexpensive production techniques for the critical components of the centrifuge, to develop and prove centrifuge and plant systems, and to devise cascade systems and associated equipment without the need for costly automatic control. Urenco has arrived as a commercial supplier of enrichment and the European centrifuge technology has been well proven and established both technically and economically. 5 figures

  7. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: Current status and long-term prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Thorsteinson, L.; Koster, B.J.; Rowles, T.

    1997-01-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  8. Current status and regulatory aspects of pesticides considered to be persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2010-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. The information about their environmental properties, banned use, carcinogenic toxicity and environmental levels, can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Council of Agriculture, and Council of Labor Affairs). The significant progress to be reported is that the residual levels of these pesticide-POPs, ranging from trace amounts to a few ppb, have declined notably in recent years.

  9. Current Status and Regulatory Aspects of Pesticides Considered to be Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. The information about their environmental properties, banned use, carcinogenic toxicity and environmental levels, can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Council of Agriculture, and Council of Labor Affairs. The significant progress to be reported is that the residual levels of these pesticide-POPs, ranging from trace amounts to a few ppb, have declined notably in recent years.

  10. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (pcarbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Maximizing the short circuit current of organic solar cells by partial decoupling of electrical and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qarony, Wayesh; Hossain, Mohammad I.; Jovanov, Vladislav; Knipp, Dietmar; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2018-03-01

    The partial decoupling of electronic and optical properties of organic solar cells allows for realizing solar cells with increased short circuit current and energy conversion efficiency. The proposed device consists of an organic solar cell conformally prepared on the surface of an array of single and double textured pyramids. The device geometry allows for increasing the optical thickness of the organic solar cell, while the electrical thickness is equal to the nominal thickness of the solar cell. By increasing the optical thickness of the solar cell, the short circuit current is distinctly increased. The quantum efficiency and short circuit current are determined using finite-difference time-domain simulations of the 3D solar cell structure. The influence of different solar cell designs on the quantum efficiency and short circuit current is discussed and optimal device dimensions are proposed.

  12. Electric fields and currents induced in organs of the human body when exposed to ELF and VLF electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronold W. P.; Sandler, Sheldon S.

    1996-09-01

    Formulas for the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields of the traveling-wave currents of three different types of three-wire, three-phase high-voltage power lines and of a typical VLF transmitter are given. From them, exposure situations for the human body are chosen which permit the analytical determination of the total current induced in that body. With this, the fraction of the total axial current, the axial current density, and the axial electric field in each organ of the body are obtained at any desired cross section. The dimensions and conductivity of these organs must be known. The electric field so obtained is the average macroscopic field in which the cells in each organ are immersed when the whole body is exposed to a known incident field. It corresponds in vivo to the electric field used in vitro to expose cells in tissues.

  13. Modeling the Current and Future Roles of Particulate Organic Nitrates in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Havala O T; Luecken, Deborah J; Xu, Lu; Boyd, Christopher M; Ng, Nga L; Baker, Kirk R; Ayres, Benjamin R; Bash, Jesse O; Baumann, Karsten; Carter, William P L; Edgerton, Eric; Fry, Juliane L; Hutzell, William T; Schwede, Donna B; Shepson, Paul B

    2015-12-15

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate radicals (the primary source of particle-phase organic nitrates in the Southeast United States), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models can underestimate yields. Furthermore, SOA parametrizations do not explicitly take into account organic nitrate compounds produced in the gas phase. In this work, we developed a coupled gas and aerosol system to describe the formation and subsequent aerosol-phase partitioning of organic nitrates from isoprene and monoterpenes with a focus on the Southeast United States. The concentrations of organic aerosol and gas-phase organic nitrates were improved when particulate organic nitrates were assumed to undergo rapid (τ = 3 h) pseudohydrolysis resulting in nitric acid and nonvolatile secondary organic aerosol. In addition, up to 60% of less oxidized-oxygenated organic aerosol (LO-OOA) could be accounted for via organic nitrate mediated chemistry during the Southern Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). A 25% reduction in nitrogen oxide (NO + NO2) emissions was predicted to cause a 9% reduction in organic aerosol for June 2013 SOAS conditions at Centreville, Alabama.

  14. Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregni, F; Nitsche, MA; Loo, C.K.; Brunoni, AR; Marangolo, P; Leite, J; Carvalho, S; Bolognini, N; Caumo, W; Paik, NJ; Simis, M; Ueda, K; Ekhitari, H; Luu, P; Tucker, DM; Tyler, WJ; Brunelin, J; Datta, A; Juan, CH; Venkatasubramanian, G; Boggio, PS; Bikson, M

    2014-01-01

    The field of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has experienced significant growth in the past 15 years. One of the tES techniques leading this increased interest is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Significant research efforts have been devoted to determining the clinical potential of tDCS in humans. Despite the promising results obtained with tDCS in basic and clinical neuroscience, further progress has been impeded by a lack of clarity on international regulatory pathways. We therefore convened a group of research and clinician experts on tDCS to review the research and clinical use of tDCS. In this report, we review the regulatory status of tDCS, and we summarize the results according to research, off-label and compassionate use of tDCS in the following countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, Taiwan and United States. Research use, off label treatment and compassionate use of tDCS are employed in most of the countries reviewed in this study. It is critical that a global or local effort is organized to pursue definite evidence to either approve and regulate or restrict the use of tDCS in clinical practice on the basis of adequate randomized controlled treatment trials. PMID:25983531

  15. Modeling the current and future role of particulate organic nitrates in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate ...

  16. Historical development and current status of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kirk C; Caplan, Arthur; Shapiro, Michael E; Els, Charl; Paul, Norbert W; Li, Huige

    2015-12-03

    In December 2014, China announced that only voluntarily donated organs from citizens would be used for transplantation after January 1, 2015. Many medical professionals worldwide believe that China has stopped using organs from death-row prisoners. In the present article, we briefly review the historical development of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China and comprehensively analyze the social-political background and the legal basis of the announcement. The announcement was not accompanied by any change in organ sourcing legislations or regulations. As a fact, the use of prisoner organs remains legal in China. Even after January 2015, key Chinese transplant officials have repeatedly stated that death-row prisoners have the same right as regular citizens to "voluntarily donate" organs. This perpetuates an unethical organ procurement system in ongoing violation of international standards. Organ sourcing from death-row prisoners has not stopped in China. The 2014 announcement refers to the intention to stop the use of organs illegally harvested without the consent of the prisoners. Prisoner organs procured with "consent" are now simply labelled as "voluntarily donations from citizens". The semantic switch may whitewash sourcing from both death-row prisoners and prisoners of conscience. China can gain credibility only by enacting new legislation prohibiting use of prisoner organs and by making its organ sourcing system open to international inspections. Until international ethical standards are transparently met, sanctions should remain.

  17. Organ Donation Registration and Decision-Making Among Current Blood Donors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ

  18. Organic Production: Recent Publications and Current Information Sources. Special Reference Briefs: SRB 95-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD.

    The activities of the National Organic Standards Board, coupled with the movement towards "sustainable systems" and continued consumer support for organic foods, have made farming organically an increasingly viable alternative for many U.S. farmers. This list of resources is provided to accommodate increasing requests for information on…

  19. 78 FR 38913 - National Organic Program: Request for an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... essential to the integrity of the organic certification system. They create a paper trail that is a critical... States to establish their own organic certification programs after the programs are approved by the... date, one State organic certification program is approved by USDA. Certifying agents. Certifying agents...

  20. The development and current status of Intensive Care Unit management of prospective organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kathleen Menzel Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Management of deceased organ donors should focus first on maintaining adequate perfusion to all organ systems through adherence to standard critical care guidelines, early referral to OPOs, and family support. Furthermore, several specific DMGs and strategies have been recently shown to improve both the rates and outcomes of organ transplantation.

  1. The effect of angular and longitudinal tube current modulations on the estimation of organ and effective doses in x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straten, Marcel van; Deak, Paul; Shrimpton, Paul C.; Kalender, Willi A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Tube current modulation (TCM) is one of the recent developments in multislice CT that has proven to reduce the patient radiation dose without affecting the image quality. Presently established methods and published coefficients for estimating organ doses from the dose measured free in air on the axis of rotation or in the CT dose index (CTDI) dosimetry phantoms do not take into account this relatively new development in CT scanner design and technology. Based on these organ dose coefficients effective dose estimates can be made. The estimates are not strictly valid for CT scanning protocols utilizing TCM. In this study, the authors investigated the need to take TCM into account when estimating organ and effective dose values. Methods: A whole-body adult anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson Rando) was scanned with a multislice CT scanner (Somatom Definition, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) utilizing TCM (CareDose4D). Tube voltage was 120 kV, beam collimation 19.2 mm, and pitch 1. A voxelized patient model was used to define the tissues and organs in the phantom. Tube current values as a function of tube angle were obtained from the raw data for each individual tube rotation of the scan. These values were used together with the Monte Carlo dosimetry tool IMPACTMC (VAMP GmbH, Erlangen, Germany) to calculate organ dose values both with and without account of TCM. Angular and longitudinal modulations were investigated separately. Finally, corresponding effective dose conversion coefficients were determined for both cases according to the updated 2007 recommendations of the ICRP. Results: TCM amplitude was greatest in the shoulder and pelvic regions. Consequently, dose distributions and organ dose values for particular cross sections changed considerably when taking angular modulation into account. The effective dose conversion coefficients were up to 11% lower for a single rotation in the shoulder region and 17% lower in the pelvis when taking angular TCM into

  2. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  3. Effects on instruments of the World Health Organization--recommended protocols for decontamination after possible exposure to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-contaminated tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stanley A; Merritt, Katharine; Woods, Terry O; Busick, Deanna N

    2005-01-15

    It has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that rigorous decontamination protocols be used on surgical instruments that have been exposed to tissue possibly contaminated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). This study was designed to examine the effects of these protocols on various types of surgical instruments. The most important conclusions are: (1) autoclaving in 1N NaOH will cause darkening of some instruments; (2) soaking in 1N NaOH at room temperature damages carbon steel but not stainless steel or titanium; (3) soaking in chlorine bleach will badly corrode gold-plated instruments and will damage some, but not all, stainless-steel instruments, especially welded and soldered joints. Damage became apparent after the first exposure and therefore long tests are not necessary to establish which instruments will be damaged. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  5. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  6. Comparison of Measured and Estimated CT Organ Doses for Modulated and Fixed Tube Current:: A Human Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padole, Atul; Deedar Ali Khawaja, Ranish; Otrakji, Alexi; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Xu, X George; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the directly measured and the estimated computed tomography (CT) organ doses obtained from commercial radiation dose-tracking (RDT) software for CT performed with modulated tube current or automatic exposure control (AEC) technique and fixed tube current (mAs). With the institutional review board (IRB) approval, the ionization chambers were surgically implanted in a human cadaver (88 years old, male, 68 kg) in six locations such as liver, stomach, colon, left kidney, small intestine, and urinary bladder. The cadaver was scanned with routine abdomen pelvis protocol on a 128-slice, dual-source multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner using both AEC and fixed mAs. The effective and quality reference mAs of 100, 200, and 300 were used for AEC and fixed mAs, respectively. Scanning was repeated three times for each setting, and measured and estimated organ doses (from RDT software) were recorded (N = 3*3*2 = 18). Mean CTDIvol for AEC and fixed mAs were 4, 8, 13 mGy and 7, 14, 21 mGy, respectively. The most estimated organ doses were significantly greater (P < 0.01) than the measured organ doses for both AEC and fixed mAs. At AEC, the mean estimated organ doses (for six organs) were 14.7 mGy compared to mean measured organ doses of 12.3 mGy. Similarly, at fixed mAs, the mean estimated organ doses (for six organs) were 24 mGy compared to measured organ doses of 22.3 mGy. The differences among the measured and estimated organ doses were higher for AEC technique compared to the fixed mAs for most organs (P < 0.01). The most CT organ doses estimated from RDT software are greater compared to directly measured organ doses, particularly when AEC technique is used for CT scanning. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE ON LABOUR POLICIES IN THE, ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    BALANEASA MARIA-CRISTINA

    2013-01-01

    The policies on labour relations can be considered as the philosophy or values promoted by an organization and help ensure a unitary approach within it. The existence of such policies in each organization has the maximum utility because helps employees to understand the values promoted by them and the behaviour that must be adopted. The main areas that can be covered by policies concerning labour relations are human resources planning, the quality of the employees, hiring and promoting employ...

  8. Iron overload of organism and current options of chelation treatment in onco haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guman, T.; Rothova, E.; Kafkova, A.; Fricova, M.; Dulova, I.; Stecova, N.; Hlebaskova, M.; Surova, M.; Takac, V.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the biological importance of iron in the organism, primary and secondary causes of iron overload, complications in function of liver, heart and endocrine organs due to overload of iron, the pathophysiology of iron overload, transfusion risks associated with the iron overload, assessment of risk groups of patients suitable for chelation treatment fulfilling the indication criteria, treatment modalities of chelation therapy and its significance regarding the prevention and treatment effectiveness. (author)

  9. Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Metal / Organic Semiconductor / Metal Structures: Top and Bottom Contact Configuration Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas MEŠKINIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study five synthesized organic semiconductor compounds have been used for fabrication of the planar metal / organic semiconductor / metal structures. Both top electrode and bottom electrode configurations were used. Current-voltage (I-V characteristics of the samples were investigated. Effect of the hysteresis of the I-V characteristics was observed for all the investigated samples. However, strength of the hysteresis was dependent on the organic semiconductor used. Study of I-V characteristics of the top contact Al/AT-RB-1/Al structures revealed, that in (0 – 500 V voltages range average current of the samples measured in air is only slightly higher than current measured in nitrogen ambient. Deposition of the ultra-thin diamond like carbon interlayer resulted in both decrease of the hysteresis of I-V characteristics of top contact Al/AT-RB-1/Al samples. However, decreased current and decreased slope of the I-V characteristics of the samples with diamond like carbon interlayer was observed as well. I-V characteristic hysteresis effect was less pronounced in the case of the bottom contact metal/organic semiconductor/metal samples. I-V characteristics of the bottom contact samples were dependent on electrode metal used.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3816

  10. Is the World Health Organization-recommended dose of pralidoxime effective in the treatment of organophosphorus poisoning? A randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus poisoning (OPP is a major global public health problem. Pralidoxime has been used in a complimentary role to atropine for the management of OPP. World Health Organization (WHO recommends use of pralidoxime but studies regarding its role have been inconclusive, ranging from being ineffective to harmful or beneficial. Materials and Methods: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of pralidoxime. Eddleston′s study was the most compelling factor for our study, as he showed worst outcomes using pralidoxime. Our practice of continuous use of pralidoxime was based on the WHO guidelines and the study by Pawar (2006, which showed better outcome with higher doses of pralidoxime. These conflicting results suggested that a re-evaluation of its use in our clinical practice was indicated. Results: There was no difference in mortality rates, hemodynamic parameters and atropine requirements between the AP and A groups. Mean duration of ventilation (3.6 ± 4.6 in AP group vs. 3.6 ± 4.4 in A group and Intensive Care Unit stay (7.1 ± 5.4 in AP group vs. 6.8 ± 4.7 in A group was comparable. Serum sodium concentrations showed a correlation with mortality, with lower concentrations associated with better outcomes. Conclusion: The study suggests that add-on WHO-recommended pralidoxime therapy does not provide any benefit over atropine monotherapy. Adding pralidoxime does not seem to be beneficial and at the same time does not result in increased mortality rates. Our practice changed after completion of this study, and it has proven to be of significant benefit to patients who had to bear the expense of treatment.

  11. Bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin: A review on current knowledge and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganyado, Edmond; Rajput, Imran Rashid; Liu, Wenhua

    2018-06-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) are chronically exposed to organic pollutants since they inhabit shallow coastal waters that are often impacted by anthropogenic activities. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing knowledge on the occurrence of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, identify knowledge gaps, and offer recommendations for future research directions. We discussed the trends in the bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins focusing on sources, physicochemical properties, and usage patterns. Furthermore, we examined factors that influence bioaccumulation such as gender, age, dietary intake and tissue-specific distribution. Studies on bioaccumulation in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin remain scarce, despite high concentrations above 13,000 ng/g lw we previously detected for PFOS, ∑PBDE and chlorinated paraffins. The maximum concentration of organochlorines detected was 157,000 ng/g wt. Furthermore, variations in bioaccumulation were shown to be caused by factors such as usage patterns and physicochemical properties of the pollutant. However, restrictions in sampling inhibit investigations on exposure pathway and toxicity of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. We proposed the use of biopsy sampling, predictive bioaccumulation and toxicity modeling, and monitoring other emerging contaminants such as microplastics and pharmaceuticals for future health risk assessment on this critically endangered marine mammal species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoparticle mediated electron transfer across organic layers: from current understanding to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooding, J. Justin; Alam, Muhammad Tanzirul; Barfidokht, Abbas; Carter, Lachlan, E-mail: justin.gooding@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine, The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    In the last few years electrode-organic layer-nanoparticle constructs have attracted considerable research interest for systems where in the absence of the nanoparticles the electrode is passivated. This is because it has been observed that if the organic layer is a good self-assembled monolayer that passivates the electrode, the presence of the nanoparticles 'switches on' faradaic electrochemistry and because electron transfer between the electrode and the nanoparticles is apparently independent of the thickness of the organic layer. This review 1) outlines the full extent of the experimental observations regarding this phenomenon, 2) discusses a recent theoretical description to explain the observations that have just been supported with experimental evidences and 3) provides an overview of the application of these systems in sensing and photovoltaic. (author)

  13. Bulk-Like Electrical Properties Induced by Contact-Limited Charge Transport in Organic Diodes: Revised Space Charge Limited Current

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guangwei

    2018-02-22

    Charge transport governs the operation and performance of organic diodes. Illuminating the charge-transfer/transport processes across the interfaces and the bulk organic semiconductors is at the focus of intensive investigations. Traditionally, the charge transport properties of organic diodes are usually characterized by probing the current–voltage (I–V) curves of the devices. However, to unveil the landscape of the underlying potential/charge distribution, which essentially determines the I–V characteristics, still represents a major challenge. Here, the electrical potential distribution in planar organic diodes is investigated by using the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy technique, a method that can clearly separate the contact and bulk regimes of charge transport. Interestingly, by applying to devices based on novel, high mobility organic materials, the space-charge-limited-current-like I–V curves, which are previously believed to be a result of the bulk transport, are surprisingly but unambiguously demonstrated to be caused by contact-limited conduction. A model accounting is developed for the transport properties of both the two metal/organic interfaces and the bulk. The results indicate that pure interface-dominated transport can indeed give rise to I–V curves similar to those caused by bulk transport. These findings provide a new insight into the charge injection and transport processes in organic diodes.

  14. ITO-free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Fan, C.C.; Blom, P.W.M.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a transparent conductive electrode such as indium tin oxide (ITO) limits the reliability and cost price of organic photovoltaic devices as it is brittle and expensive. Moreover, the relative high sheet resistance of an ITO electrode on flexible substrates limits the maximum width of

  15. PROJECT: RECOMMENDATIONS ON TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DEVELOPED BY ALL-RUSSIAN PUBLIC ORGANIZATION «ASSOCIATION OF RHEUMATOLOGISTS OF RUSSIA» – 2014 (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report new recommendations of All-Russian Public Organization «Association of Rheumatologists of Russia» (ARR on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, which adapts contemporary concept accepted in the respective field of pharmacotherapy known as «Treat to Target». According to it, the main objective of RA pharmacotherapy is a remission (or low disease activity. To achieve it, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD should be administered to all RA patients as early as possible, with efficacy monitoring and therapy correction according to the disease activity. Special attention has been paid to the use of methotrexate (MTX as «the gold standard» of RA pharmacotherapy and the key component of «Treat to Target» strategy. Early MTX administration (including subcutaneous injections should become an obligatory component of RA treatment at all stages of the disease. If MTX is not efficient or not well tolerated (including subcutaneous form of the drug as monotherapy or combined with conventional DMARD, biological agents should be used. Those include TNFα inhibitors, antagonist of interleukin-6 receptor (Tocilizumab, anti-B-cell drugs (Rituximab and agents blocking T-cell activation (Abatacept. Tofacitinib therapy (JAK inhibitor is indicated in patients who are resistant to conventional DMARDs and biologics. All biologics and Tofacitinib are more effective in combination with MTX (or other DMARD. 

  16. PROJECT: RECOMMENDATIONS ON TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DEVELOPED BY ALL-RUSSIAN PUBLIC ORGANIZATION «ASSOCIATION OF RHEUMATOLOGISTS OF RUSSIA» – 2014 (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report new recommendations of All-Russian Public Organization «Association of Rheumatologists of Russia» (ARR on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, which adapts contemporary concept accepted in the respective field of pharmacotherapy known as «Treat to Target». According to it, the main objective of RA pharmacotherapyis a remission (or low disease activity. To achieve it, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD should be administered to all RA patients as early as possible, with efficacy monitoring and therapy correction according to the disease activity. Special attention has been paid to the use of methotrexate (MTX as «the gold standard» of RA pharmacotherapy and the key component of «Treat to Target» strategy. Early MTX administration (including subcutaneous injections should become an obligatory component of RA treatment at all stages of the disease. If MTX is not efficient or not well tolerated (including subcutaneous form of the drug as monotherapy or combined with conventional DMARD, biological agents should be used. Those include TNFα inhibitors, antagonist of interleukin-6 receptor (Tocilizumab, anti-B-cell drugs  Rituximab and agents blocking T-cell activation (Abatacept. Tofacitinib therapy (JAK inhibitor is indicated in patients who are resistant to conventional DMARDs and biologics. All biologics and Tofacitinib are more effective in combination with MTX (or other DMARD.

  17. Current direction, benthic organisms, temperature, and wind direction data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 22 September 1977 - 30 November 1978 (NODC Accession 7900110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, temperature, and wind direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from September 22,...

  18. Current direction, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 18 October 1977 to 01 May 1979 (NODC Accession 7900270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, zooplankton, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the...

  19. Current direction, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-09-01 to 1982-05-19 (NODC Accession 8200154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from July 15, 1980 to March 20, 1981. Data...

  20. Current direction, zooplankton, phytoplankton, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 17 February 1981 - 22 June 1982 (NODC Accession 8200230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of...

  1. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1981-01-21 to 1982-07-27 (NODC Accession 8200207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  2. Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-01-12 to 1980-06-01 (NODC Accession 8000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and...

  3. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1980-03-10 to 1981-07-29 (NODC Accession 8100727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from March...

  4. Compliance of clinical microbiology laboratories in the United States with current recommendations for processing respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juyan; Garber, Elizabeth; Desai, Manisha; Saiman, Lisa

    2006-04-01

    Respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) require unique processing by clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure detection of all potential pathogens. The present study sought to determine the compliance of microbiology laboratories in the United States with recently published recommendations for CF respiratory specimens. Microbiology laboratory protocols from 150 of 190 (79%) CF care sites were reviewed. Most described the use of selective media for Burkholderia cepacia complex (99%), Staphylococcus aureus (82%), and Haemophilus influenzae (89%) and identified the species of all gram-negative bacilli (87%). Only 52% delineated the use of agar diffusion assays for susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Standardizing laboratory practices will improve treatment, infection control, and our understanding of the changing epidemiology of CF microbiology.

  5. Nanoscale leakage current measurements in metal organic chemical vapor deposition crystalline SrTiO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozier, Y.; Gautier, B.; Hyvert, G.; Descamps, A.; Plossu, C.; Dubourdieu, C.; Ducroquet, F.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of SrTiO 3 thin films, grown by liquid injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition on Si/SiO 2 , using a mixture of precursors, have been investigated at the nanoscale using an Atomic Force Microscope in the so-called Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy mode. Maps of the leakage currents with a nanometric resolution have been obtained on films elaborated at different temperatures and stoichiometries in order to discriminate the role of each parameter on the onset of leakage currents in the resulting layers. It appears that the higher the deposition temperature, the higher the leakage currents of the films. The mapping with a nanometric precision allows to show a heterogeneous behaviour of the surface with leaky grains and insulating boundaries. The study of films elaborated at the same temperature with different compositions supports the assumption that the leakage currents on Ti-rich layers are far higher than on Sr-rich layers

  6. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  7. Current Knowledge on the Importance of Selenium in Food for Living Organisms: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław

    2016-05-10

    Selenium is one of the elements classified within the group of micronutrients which are necessary in trace amounts for the proper functioning of organisms. Selenium participates in the protection of cells against excess H₂O₂, in heavy metal detoxification, and regulation of the immune and reproductive systems as well. It also ensures the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Selenium induces the occurrence of the selenoprotein synthesis process involved in the antioxidant defense mechanism of the organism. Recent years have brought much success in the studies on selenium. Anticarcinogenic properties of selenium against some cancers have been reported. Supplementation is increasingly becoming a solution to this problem. A large number of different supplementation methods are promoting studies in this area. Slight differences in the selenium content can result in excess or deficiency, therefore supplementation has to be done carefully and cautiously.

  8. [Current state of transvaginal meshes by resolution of pelvic organ prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jírová, J; Pán, M

    Treatment of pelvic organs prolapse with transvaginal mesh kits represents nowadays a widespread surgical method, which partially replaced classic operations due to high success rate and low count of recurrences. Just like any other surgical method, the placement of transvaginal mesh is linked with occurrence of complications. In this article we attempt to review the more and less known facts about trans-vaginal meshes, their efficacy, count of recurrence and the spectrum of complications and we try to compare this technique with traditional surgical methods used to treat pelvic organs prolapse (without graft materials). Review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Regional hospital Mladá Boleslav a.s., Mladá Boleslav. Overview of the results of recent studies published in the Czech and English language in recent years. Pelvic organ prolapse repair with vaginal mesh has generally lower count of relapse especially in patients with wide genital hiatal area and with major levator ani avulsion. The spectrum of complications differs from classical techniques because of the presence of synthetic nonabsorbable material. Some of the specific complications we did not encounter during classical operations include vaginal mesh erosion, infection of mesh associated with chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia, protrusion of the mesh into the closest organs or the rejection and progressive extrusion of the mesh. Primary enthusiasm has now been replaced with worries of major complications. Future tasks should therefore be aimed at minimizing the rate of complications associated with transvaginal meshes. Except using well-known and safe materials and providing specialized training of physicians for each mesh implantation technique, other precautions outlined in this article should help, such as a closer specification of indication for the application of transvaginal mesh.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE ON LABOUR POLICIES IN THE ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂNEASA MARIA-CRISTINA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The policies on labour relations can be considered as the philosophy or values promoted by an organization and help ensure a unitary approach within it. The existence of such policies in each organization has the maximum utility because helps employees to understand the values promoted by them and the behaviour that must be adopted. The main areas that can be covered by policies concerning labour relations are human resources planning, the quality of the employees, hiring and promoting employees, work-life balance, non-discrimination, dismissal, work discipline, complains, substance abuse, smoking at work, employment and relations with employees infected with HIV and other fields mentioned in the paper. Throughout the study, the attention was given preponderantly on three categories of policies: discipline policy, equal opportunities policy and work-life balance policy, the last two also being promoted by European institutions. Therefore, these policies were analysed in practical terms within Romanian organizations. We found that discipline policies are widely used at work, while the other two types of policies exist at a lower percentage within the analysed establishments. Most units having such policies concerning non-discrimination and work-life balance are oversized. This situation requires action from the management of small and medium-sized units in order to draw up and respect the non-discrimination policy and the balance between work and family life.

  10. Parasitism as the main factor shaping peptide vocabularies in current organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Michaela; Zahradník, Daniel; Mokrejš, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    Self/non-self-discrimination by vertebrate immune systems is based on the recognition of the presence of peptides in proteins of a parasite that are not contained in the proteins of a host. Therefore, a reduction of the number of 'words' in its own peptide vocabulary could be an efficient evolutionary strategy of parasites for escaping recognition. Here, we compared peptide vocabularies of 30 endoparasitic and 17 free-living unicellular organisms and also eight multicellular parasitic and 16 multicellular free-living organisms. We found that both unicellular and multicellular parasites used a significantly lower number of different pentapeptides than free-living controls. Impoverished pentapeptide vocabularies in parasites were observed across all five clades that contain both the parasitic and free-living species. The effect of parasitism on a number of peptides used in an organism's proteins is larger than effects of all other studied factors, including the size of a proteome, the number of encoded proteins, etc. This decrease of pentapeptide diversity was partly compensated for by an increased number of hexapeptides. Our results support the hypothesis of parasitism-associated reduction of peptide vocabulary and suggest that T-cell receptors mostly recognize the five amino acids-long part of peptides that are presented in the groove of major histocompatibility complex molecules.

  11. Southwestern Avian Community Organization in Exotic Tamarix: Current Patterns and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Tamarisk (saltcedar: Tamarix), an invasive exotic tree native to the Eastern Hemisphere, is currently the dominant plant species in most southwestern riparian ecosystems at elevations below 1500 m. Tamarisk alters abiotic conditions and the floral composition of native southwestern riparian ecosystems and, in turn, affects native southwestern animal communities....

  12. ORGAN-SPARING SURGERY FOR RECTAL CANCER: EVOLUTION, CURRENT TRENDS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tamrazov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. An historical look at this issue from the standpoint of research of past years in our country and abroad, as well as analysis of current sphincter-preserving surgery and future directions in this area.

  13. Organs-on-a-chip: Current applications and consideration points for in vitro ADME-Tox studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Seiichi

    2018-02-01

    Assay systems using in vitro cultured cells are increasingly applied for evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of drug candidates. In vitro cell-based assays have two main applications in the drug discovery process: searching for a compound that is effective against the target disease (seed investigation) and confirmation of safety during use of the identified compounds (safety assessment). Currently available in vitro cell-based assays have been designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity in single organs, but the in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the administered drug candidates have not been considered. Thus, an evaluation system that interconnects cell culture units, one of which has appropriate drug metabolism activities and the other assesses the efficacy and toxicity of compounds, is needed. Accordingly, the in vitro ADME-Tox culture system known as organs-on-a-chip has been proposed. In this review, after introducing the organs-on-a-chip system, the evaluation of enterohepatic circulation and the gut-liver axis relationship will be presented as an example of the application of the organs-on-a-chip system for ADME studies based on inter-organ network. Additionally, the functions required for the organs-on-a-chip system and the necessity of standardization of cells mounted on the chip system will be discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Homeland Security: Compendium of Recommendations Relevant to House Committee Organization and Analysis of Considerations for the House, and 109th and 110th Congresses: Epilogue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koempel, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    ...: The 9/11 Commission and other commissions and think tanks studying homeland security recommended congressional committee reorganization to increase Congress's policy and oversight coordination...

  15. Abdominal pain endpoints currently recommended by the FDA and EMA for adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome may not be reliable in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, M; Lavigne, J V

    2015-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended ≥30% decrease on patient-reported outcomes for pain be considered clinically significant in clinical trials for adults with irritable bowel syndrome. This percent change approach may not be appropriate for children. We compared three alternate approaches to determining clinically significant reductions in pain among children. 80 children with functional abdominal pain participated in a study of the efficacy of amitriptyline. Endpoints included patient-reported estimates of feeling better, and pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The minimum clinically important difference in pain report was calculated as (i) mean change in VAS score for children reporting being 'better'; (ii) percent changes in pain (≥30% and ≥50%) on the VAS; and (iii) statistically reliable changes on the VAS for 68% and 95% confidence intervals. There was poor agreement between the three approaches. 43.6% of the children who met the FDA ≥30% criterion for clinically significant change did not achieve a reliable level of improvement (95% confidence interval). Children's self-reported ratings of being better may not be statistically reliable. A combined approach in which children must report improvement as better and achieve a statistically significant change may be more appropriate for outcomes in clinical trials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Efficacy of the World Health Organization-recommended handwashing technique and a modified washing technique to remove Clostridium difficile from hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Philippe; Chano, Frédéric; Dionne, Léa-Laurence; Pittet, Didier; Longtin, Yves

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended handwashing technique against Clostridium difficile is uncertain, and whether it could be improved remains unknown. Also, the benefit of using a structured technique instead of an unstructured technique remains unclear. This study was a prospective comparison of 3 techniques (unstructured, WHO, and a novel technique dubbed WHO shortened repeated [WHO-SR] technique) to remove C difficile. Ten participants were enrolled and performed each technique. Hands were contaminated with 3 × 10 6 colony forming units (CFU) of a nontoxigenic strain containing 90% spores. Efficacy was assessed using the whole-hand method. The relative efficacy of each technique and of a structured (either WHO or WHO-SR) vs an unstructured technique were assessed by Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The median effectiveness of the unstructured, WHO, and WHO-SR techniques in log 10 CFU reduction was 1.30 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.27-1.43), 1.71 (IQR, 1.34-1.91), and 1.70 (IQR, 1.54-2.42), respectively. The WHO-SR technique was significantly more efficacious than the unstructured technique (P = .01). Washing hands with a structured technique was more effective than washing with an unstructured technique (median, 1.70 vs 1.30 log 10 CFU reduction, respectively; P = .007). A structured washing technique is more effective than an unstructured technique against C difficile. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The current situation of acupuncture definition in international organizations and legislation of some countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Baoyan; He, Liyun; Wu, Xiaodong; Liu, Jia

    2017-12-12

    Acupuncture is developing rapidly in the world, and more attention is paid on acupuncture in various countries. Because of the cultural differences, there are different views on acupuncture between China and the west, which has brought influence and challenge to the development of acupuncture in the world. Acupuncture-related research is becoming increasingly extensive and complex, but the definition of acupuncture is lack of unified standards. The definition of acupuncture is in urgent need. Based on the analysis of acupuncture definition in the 201 international organizations of 48 countries on five continents and legislation of representative countries, this paper summarized the development status of acupuncture in foreign countries, and put forward that the definition of acupuncture should adopt the model of small connotation and large extension, integrate discipline superiority, expand the scope of acupuncture, and focus on the overall situation.

  18. The Remote Employment: Current Trends in the Organization and Remuneration of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herasymenko Oksana O.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at distinguishing between the concepts of «freelance», «remote employment», «work from home» with highlighting of differences affecting the organizational-legal format and the economic aspects of social and labor relations between the parties to the agreements on work in remote mode. The prerequisites for the emergence of the non-standard forms of employment in the conditions of establishing the post economy and the electronic-network society have been determined. The data of sociological researches on the current condition and prospects of prevalence of remote employment in Ukraine have been provided. The types and forms of remote employment have been generalized according to different classifications. Using a number of criteria, the article discloses characteristic features of such atypical forms of employment as freelance, distance employment, and work from home. The disadvantages of the atypical forms of employment have been allocated and their advantages have been generalized. An analysis of the current normative-legal regulation has been carried out and the substantiation of organizational and economic foundations of freelancing, remote employment, work from home in Ukraine has been provided.

  19. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  20. Asymptotic and numerical prediction of current-voltage curves for an organic bilayer solar cell under varying illumination and comparison to the Shockley equivalent circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Richardson, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified

  1. Enhanced light emission efficiency and current stability by morphology control and thermal annealing of organic light emitting diode devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caria, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Como, E Da [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Murgia, M [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Zamboni, R [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Melpignano, P [Centro Ricerche Plast-Optica (CRP), via Jacopo Linussio 1, 33020 Amaro (UD) (Italy); Biondo, V [Centro Ricerche Plast-Optica (CRP), via Jacopo Linussio 1, 33020 Amaro (UD) (Italy)

    2006-08-23

    The electro-optical behaviour of organic light emitting diode devices (OLEDs) is greatly influenced by the morphology of the films. A major parameter is due to the important role that the morphology of the active organic thin films plays in the phenomena that lead to light emission. For vacuum-grown OLEDs, the morphology of the specific thin films can be varied by modification of the deposition conditions. We have assessed the method (ultrahigh-vacuum organic molecular beam deposition) and conditions (variation of the deposition rate) for electro-emission (EL) optimization in a standard {alpha}-NPB (N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N' diphenyl-1,1' biphenyl-4-4' diamine)/Alq3 (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium) vacuum-grown OLED device. The best EL performances have been obtained for OLEDs made in ultrahigh vacuum with the Alq3 layer deposited with a differential deposition rate ranging from 1.0 to 0.3Angsts{sup -1}. The results are consistent with a model of different Alq3 morphologies, allowing efficient charge injection at the metal/organic interface, and of the minimization of grain boundaries at the electron-hole recombination interface, allowing efficient radiative excitonic decay. At the same time, with the objective of controlling and stabilizing the morphology changes and stabilizing the charge transport over a long OLED operating time, we have studied the effect of thermal annealing processing in the standard current behaviour of OLEDs. The large current fluctuations typically observed for standard vacuum-grown OLEDs have been smeared out and kept constant over a long operating time by the given thermal annealing conditions. The results are interpreted in terms of the stabilization of intrinsic polymorphism of the organic film's structure induced by thermal energy and leading the morphology to a lowest-energetic configuration.

  2. Current status of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: Application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Hiroaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many studies are currently investigating the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent various infectious diseases. Multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems have been developed to avoid the adverse effects associated with conventional vaccines (i.e., live-attenuated, killed or inactivated pathogens, carrier proteins and cytotoxic adjuvants. Recently, two main approaches have been used to develop multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: (1 the addition of functional components, e.g., T-cell epitopes, cell-penetrating peptides, and lipophilic moieties; and (2 synthetic approaches using size-defined nanomaterials, e.g., self-assembling peptides, non-peptidic dendrimers, and gold nanoparticles, as antigen-displaying platforms. This review summarizes the recent experimental studies directed to the development of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems.

  3. Environmental release of living modified organisms: current approaches and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; Nickson, Ph D

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is being rapidly adopted as evidenced by the acreage of genetically modified (GM) crops planted and tonnes of product (grain and fiber) harvested. Concurrent with this technological progress, is a growing concern that the worlds biological diversity is coming under increasing threat from human activities. As such, ecological risk assessment approaches are being developed for GM crop plants as international agreements regulating the transboundary movements of these products are being implemented. This paper reviews the ecological risk assessment approach that has been used to date to approve GM crops to date. The process has been case-by-case, using a comparative, science-based approach balancing the potential risks and benefits of the new technology versus those present with the currently accepted practices. The approach used to evaluate and approve these products is consistent with the conditions and requirements outlined in the Cartagena Protocol.

  4. Structure and logical organization of current studies in track and field sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Bobrovnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a system of assessment and prediction of technical skill athletes-athletes. Material : the study involved 450 athletes qualifications. Results : in the process of preparing members of the Ukrainian national team implemented a system of assessment of mental state. It includes: a set of informative indicators biomechanical laws and their changes; biomechanical model of motor actions; technology operational biomechanical modeling, changes in the functional state of the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle vestibulomotornoy system and speed- force readiness, evaluation and prediction of physical condition of athletes qualified. And complex pedagogical tests and scorecards. For the evaluation of the functional state of the autonomic nervous, cardiovascular system, external respiration system by analyzing the electrocardiogram, heart rate variability, the definition of autonomic balance, state of the myocardium, cardiac arrhythmias, spirometric studies, system performance evaluation of the athlete in extreme conditions by identifying the type and properties of temperament, level of personal anxiety and psychological evaluation reliability athletes. Conclusions : the structure and logical organization of modern studies of different primary focus, based on the assessment of technical skills, physical fitness, functional and mental state of highly skilled athletes.

  5. Recommending Multidimensional Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Arnaud; Marcel, Patrick; Negre, Elsa

    Interactive analysis of datacube, in which a user navigates a cube by launching a sequence of queries is often tedious since the user may have no idea of what the forthcoming query should be in his current analysis. To better support this process we propose in this paper to apply a Collaborative Work approach that leverages former explorations of the cube to recommend OLAP queries. The system that we have developed adapts Approximate String Matching, a technique popular in Information Retrieval, to match the current analysis with the former explorations and help suggesting a query to the user. Our approach has been implemented with the open source Mondrian OLAP server to recommend MDX queries and we have carried out some preliminary experiments that show its efficiency for generating effective query recommendations.

  6. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from the Eurasian taiga: current knowledge and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Baeck, J. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Hakola, H. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    n this paper, the research conducted on the emissions of the biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the European boreal zone, or taiga, is reviewed. We highlight the main findings and the key gaps in our knowledge. Ecosystem scale BVOC emissions from the Eurasian taiga are observed to be relatively low as compared with those from some forest ecosystems in warmer climates. One of the distinctive features of the Eurasian taiga is the predominance of monoterpene emitting coniferous trees. Recent research indicates that in addition to evaporation from storage structures, part of the monoterpene emission of conifers originates directly from synthesis. Monoterpene emission from boreal deciduous trees originates mainly directly from synthesis. The boreal trees exhibit distinct intra-species variation in the monoterpene mixtures they emit. Important sources of isoprene in the Eurasian taiga include Norway spruce, open wetland ecosystems and some non-dominant woody species, such as European aspen and willows. Many boreal tree species also emit non-terpenoid compounds and highly reactive sesquiterpenes. The future challenges in the research on BVOC emissions from the Eurasian taiga include (i) quantification and understanding the non-terpenoid VOC emissions from the taiga ecosystems, (ii) bringing ecosystems in the eastern Eurasian taiga into the sphere of BVOC emission studies, (iii) establishing long-term ecosystem flux studies combined with plant physiological measurements, and (iv) integrating knowledge and research skills on BVOC synthesis, storages and emissions, land cover changes and atmospheric processes in different spatial and temporal scales in order to better understand the impact of biosphere on atmospheric chemistry and composition in changing climate. (orig.)

  7. Paediatric cardiac intensive care unit: current setting and organization in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, Alain; Le Bel, Stéphane; Mas, Bertrand; Macrae, Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Over recent decades, specialized paediatric cardiac intensive care has emerged as a central component in the management of critically ill, neonatal, paediatric and adult patients with congenital and acquired heart disease. The majority of high-volume centres (dealing with over 300 surgical cases per year) have dedicated paediatric cardiac intensive care units, with the smallest programmes more likely to care for paediatric cardiac patients in mixed paediatric or adult intensive care units. Specialized nursing staff are also a crucial presence at the patient's bedside for quality of care. A paediatric cardiac intensive care programme should have patients (preoperative and postoperative) grouped together geographically, and should provide proximity to the operating theatre, catheterization laboratory and radiology department, as well as to the regular ward. Age-appropriate medical equipment must be provided. An optimal strategy for running a paediatric cardiac intensive care programme should include: multidisciplinary collaboration and involvement with paediatric cardiology, anaesthesia, cardiac surgery and many other subspecialties; a risk-stratification strategy for quantifying perioperative risk; a personalized patient approach; and anticipatory care. Finally, progressive withdrawal from heavy paediatric cardiac intensive care management should be institutionalized. Although the countries of the European Union do not share any common legislation on the structure and organization of paediatric intensive care or paediatric cardiac intensive care, any paediatric cardiac surgery programme in France that is agreed by the French Health Ministry must perform at least '150 major procedures per year in children' and must provide a 'specialized paediatric intensive care unit'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of current knowledge and future prospects regarding persistent organic pollutants over the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Wang, Chuanfei; Ren, Jiao; Yao, Tandong

    2016-12-15

    Since the turn of the century, our understanding of the quantities, transport pathways, and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the largest and highest plateau on Earth, has greatly enhanced. We begin in this article by reviewing the available literature on the levels of POPs over the TP. In general, the levels of most POPs are similar or lower than values reported for other background regions. However, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) levels in air and soil far exceed those measured in other mountainous areas. The East Asian monsoon, Indian Monsoon and westerly winds are responsible for the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and arrival of POPs over the TP. Surface soil and vegetation act as "final sinks" for DDTs and other high molecular weight POPs. Linked to the continuous use of POPs in surrounding counties, LRAT and "cold trapping" by the TP can happen following emission-transport-deposition events, leading to the enrichment of POPs in the TP environment. Bioaccumulation of DDTs and high chlorinated PCBs have been found in Tibetan terrestrial and aquatic food chains, and newly emerging compounds such as polyfluoroalkyl substances and hexabromocyclododecanes have been widely detected in wild fish species. The corresponding ecological risks should be of great concern. Climate change, such as increased temperatures and changing coverage of snow and glaciers, has the potential to affect the behavior and distribution of POPs. Therefore, long-term monitoring data are required. Ineffective regulation regarding POPs has been reported for countries in South Asia, emissions patterns, the outflow of POPs, and their seasonal and inter-annual variability should therefore be clarified. Estimating the loading of POPs, as well as how they move, within the TP, especially under the impact of glacial melt and global warming, should be a priority. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Eleanor E; Paustian, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. We conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4) SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5) SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions. (topical review)

  10. Current Enhancement with Contact-Area-Limited Doping for Bottom-Gate, Bottom-Contact Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kei; Wakatsuki, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Yuji; Wada, Yasuo; Toyabe, Toru; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2013-02-01

    The current enhancement mechanism in contact-area-limited doping for bottom-gate, bottom-contact (BGBC) p-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) was investigated both by simulation and experiment. Simulation results suggest that carrier shortage and large potential drop occur in the source-electrode/channel interface region in a conventional BGBC OTFT during operation, which results in a decrease in the effective field-effect mobility. These phenomena are attributed to the low carrier concentration of active semiconductor layers in OTFTs and can be alleviated by contact-area-limited doping, where highly doped layers are prepared over source-drain electrodes. According to two-dimensional current distribution obtained from the device simulation, a current flow from the source electrode to the channel region via highly doped layers is generated in addition to the direct carrier injection from the source electrode to the channel, leading to the enhancement of the drain current and effective field-effect mobility. The expected current enhancement mechanism in contact-area-limited doping was experimentally confirmed in typical α-sexithiophene (α-6T) BGBC thin-film transistors.

  11. Suppression of external quantum efficiency roll-off of nanopatterned organic-light emitting diodes at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwae, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Takashi [Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nitta, Atsushi; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shoji, Shuichi [Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Mizuno, Jun [JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Research Organization for Nano and Life Innovation, Waseda University, 513 Waseda Tsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)

    2015-10-21

    We developed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with nanopatterned current flow regions using electron-beam lithography with the aim of suppressing singlet–polaron annihilation (SPA). Nanopatterns composed of lines and circles were used in the current flow regions of nano-line and nano-dot OLEDs, respectively. Excitons partially escape from the current flow regions where SPA takes place. As such, current densities where external quantum efficiencies were half of their initial values (J{sub 0}) increased as line width and circle diameter were decreased to close to the exciton diffusion length. Circles were more efficient at enhancing exciton escape and increasing J{sub 0} than lines. The J{sub 0} increase in the nano-dot OLEDs containing nanopatterned circles with a diameter of 50 nm was approximately 41-fold that of a conventional OLED with a current flow region of 4 mm{sup 2}. The dependence of J{sub 0} on the size and shape of the nanopatterns was well explained by an SPA model that considered exciton diffusion. Nanopatterning of OLEDs is a feasible method of obtaining large J{sub 0}.

  12. Towards Geosocial Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.; de By, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    The usage of social networks sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, and geosocial networks (GSNs), such as Foursquare, has increased tremendously over the past years. The willingness of users to share their current locations and experiences facilitate the creation of geographical recommender systems based

  13. Mechanisms of Silver Nanoparticle Release, Transformation and Toxicity: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Studies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseult Lynch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, due to its small particle size and enormous specific surface area, facilitates more rapid dissolution of ions than the equivalent bulk material; potentially leading to increased toxicity of nanosilver. This, coupled with their capacity to adsorb biomolecules and interact with biological receptors can mean that nanoparticles can reach sub-cellular locations leading to potentially higher localized concentrations of ions once those particles start to dissolve or degrade in situ. Further complicating the story is the capacity for nanoparticles to generate reactive oxygen species, and to interact with, and potentially disturb the functioning of biomolecules such as proteins, enzymes and DNA. The fact that the nanoparticle size, shape, surface coating and a host of other factors contribute to these interactions, and that the particles themselves are evolving or ageing leads to further complications in terms of elucidating mechanisms of interaction and modes of action for silver nanoparticles, in contrast to dissolved silver species. This review aims to provide a critical assessment of the current understanding of silver nanoparticle toxicity, as well as to provide a set of pointers and guidelines for experimental design of future studies to assess the environmental and biological impacts of silver nanoparticles. In particular; in future we require a detailed description of the nanoparticles; their synthesis route and stabilisation mechanisms; their coating; and evolution and ageing under the exposure conditions of the assay. This would allow for comparison of data from different particles; different environmental or biological systems; and structure-activity or structure-property relationships to emerge as the basis for predictive toxicology. On the basis of currently available data; such comparisons or predictions are difficult; as the characterisation and time-resolved data is not available; and a full understanding of silver

  14. Effective dose and organ doses estimation taking tube current modulation into account with a commercial software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Rendon, X.; Bosmans, H.; Zanca, F.; Oyen, R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) versus using the average mAs in estimating organ and effective dose (E) using commercial software. Forty adult patients (24 females, 16 males) with normal BMI underwent chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) performed with TCM at 120 kVp, reference mAs of 110 (chest) and 200 (abdomen). Doses to fully irradiated organs (breasts, lungs, stomach, liver and ovaries) and E were calculated using two versions of a dosimetry software: v.2.0, which uses the average mAs, and v.2.2, which accounts for TCM by implementing a gender-specific mAs profile. Student's t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences between organ doses calculated with the two versions. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found for E on chest and abdomen CT, with E being lower by 4.2 % when TCM is considered. Similarly, organ doses were also significantly lower (p < 0.001): 13.7 % for breasts, 7.3 % for lungs, 9.1 % for the liver and 8.5 % for the stomach. Only the dose to the ovaries was higher with TCM (11.5 %). When TCM is used, for the stylized phantom, the doses to lungs, breasts, stomach and liver decreased while the dose to the ovaries increased. (orig.)

  15. Effective dose and organ doses estimation taking tube current modulation into account with a commercial software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, X. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H.; Zanca, F. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Oyen, R. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) versus using the average mAs in estimating organ and effective dose (E) using commercial software. Forty adult patients (24 females, 16 males) with normal BMI underwent chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) performed with TCM at 120 kVp, reference mAs of 110 (chest) and 200 (abdomen). Doses to fully irradiated organs (breasts, lungs, stomach, liver and ovaries) and E were calculated using two versions of a dosimetry software: v.2.0, which uses the average mAs, and v.2.2, which accounts for TCM by implementing a gender-specific mAs profile. Student's t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences between organ doses calculated with the two versions. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found for E on chest and abdomen CT, with E being lower by 4.2 % when TCM is considered. Similarly, organ doses were also significantly lower (p < 0.001): 13.7 % for breasts, 7.3 % for lungs, 9.1 % for the liver and 8.5 % for the stomach. Only the dose to the ovaries was higher with TCM (11.5 %). When TCM is used, for the stylized phantom, the doses to lungs, breasts, stomach and liver decreased while the dose to the ovaries increased. (orig.)

  16. Do we need 3D tube current modulation information for accurate organ dosimetry in chest CT? Protocols dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, Xochitl; Develter, Wim [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Leuven (Belgium); Zhang, Guozhi; Coudyzer, Walter; Zanca, Federica [University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    To compare the lung and breast dose associated with three chest protocols: standard, organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and fast-speed scanning; and to estimate the error associated with organ dose when modelling the longitudinal (z-) TCM versus the 3D-TCM in Monte Carlo simulations (MC) for these three protocols. Five adult and three paediatric cadavers with different BMI were scanned. The CTDI{sub vol} of the OBTCM and the fast-speed protocols were matched to the patient-specific CTDI{sub vol} of the standard protocol. Lung and breast doses were estimated using MC with both z- and 3D-TCM simulated and compared between protocols. The fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. A slight reduction for breast dose (up to 5.1%) was observed for two of the three female cadavers with the OBTCM in comparison to the standard. For both adult and paediatric, the implementation of the z-TCM data only for organ dose estimation resulted in 10.0% accuracy for the standard and fast-speed protocols, while relative dose differences were up to 15.3% for the OBTCM protocol. At identical CTDI{sub vol} values, the standard protocol delivered the lowest overall doses. Only for the OBTCM protocol is the 3D-TCM needed if an accurate (<10.0%) organ dosimetry is desired. (orig.)

  17. Treating an Established Episode of Delirium in Palliative Care: Expert Opinion and Review of the Current Evidence Base With Recommendations for Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José L.; Davis, Daniel H.J.; Currow, David C.; Meagher, David; Rabheru, Kiran; Wright, David; Bruera, Eduardo; Hartwick, Michael; Gagnon, Pierre R.; Gagnon, Bruno; Breitbart, William; Regnier, Laura; Lawlor, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium is a highly prevalent complication in patients in palliative care settings, especially in the end-of-life context. Objectives To review the current evidence base for treating episodes of delirium in palliative care settings and propose a framework for future development. Methods We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and other purposely selected stakeholders at an international delirium study planning meeting. This was supplemented by a literature search of multiple databases and relevant reference lists to identify studies regarding therapeutic interventions for delirium. Results The context of delirium management in palliative care is highly variable. The standard management of a delirium episode includes the investigation of precipitating and aggravating factors followed by symptomatic treatment with drug therapy. However, the intensity of this management depends on illness trajectory and goals of care in addition to the local availability of both investigative modalities and therapeutic interventions. Pharmacologically, haloperidol remains the practice standard by consensus for symptomatic control. Dosing schedules are derived from expert opinion and various clinical practice guidelines as evidence-based data from palliative care settings are limited. The commonly used pharmacologic interventions for delirium in this population warrant evaluation in clinical trials to examine dosing and titration regimens, different routes of administration, and safety and efficacy compared with placebo. Conclusion Delirium treatment is multidimensional and includes the identification of precipitating and aggravating factors. For symptomatic management, haloperidol remains the practice standard. Further high-quality collaborative research investigating the appropriate treatment of this complex syndrome is needed. PMID:24480529

  18. CT breast dose reduction with the use of breast positioning and organ-based tube current modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sturgeon, Gregory M; Agasthya, Greeshma; Segars, William Paul; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Kazerooni, Ella A; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the breast dose reduction potential of a breast-positioning (BP) technique for thoracic CT examinations with organ-based tube current modulation (OTCM). This study included 13 female anthropomorphic computational phantoms (XCAT, age range: 27-65 y.o., weight range: 52-105.8 kg). Each phantom was modified to simulate three breast sizes in standard supine geometry. The modeled breasts were then morphed to emulate BP that constrained the majority of the breast tissue inside the 120° anterior tube current (mA) reduction zone. The OTCM mA value was modeled using a ray-tracing program, which reduced the mA to 20% in the anterior region with a corresponding increase to the posterior region. The organ doses were estimated by a validated Monte Carlo program for a typical clinical CT system (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare). The simulated organ doses and organ doses normalized by CTDI vol were used to compare three CT protocols: attenuation-based tube current modulation (ATCM), OTCM, and OTCM with BP (OTCM BP ). On average, compared to ATCM, OTCM reduced breast dose by 19.3 ± 4.5%, whereas OTCM BP reduced breast dose by 38.6 ± 8.1% (an additional 23.8 ± 9.4%). The dose saving of OTCM BP was more significant for larger breasts (on average 33, 38, and 44% reduction for 0.5, 1, and 2 kg breasts, respectively). Compared to ATCM, OTCM BP also reduced thymus and heart dose by 15.1 ± 7.4% and 15.9 ± 6.2% respectively. In thoracic CT examinations, OTCM with a breast-positioning technique can markedly reduce unnecessary exposure to radiosensitive organs in anterior chest wall, specifically breast tissue. The breast dose reduction is more notable for women with larger breasts. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Modeling and visualization of carrier motion in organic films by optical second harmonic generation and Maxwell-displacement current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki; Taguchi, Dai

    2015-09-01

    The probing and modeling of carrier motions in materials as well as in electronic devices is a fundamental research subject in science and electronics. According to the Maxwell electromagnetic field theory, carriers are a source of electric field. Therefore, by probing the dielectric polarization caused by the electric field arising from moving carriers and dipoles, we can find a way to visualize the carrier motions in materials and in devices. The techniques used here are an electrical Maxwell-displacement current (MDC) measurement and a novel optical method based on the electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. The MDC measurement probes changes of induced charge on electrodes, while the EFISHG probes nonlinear polarization induced in organic active layers due to the coupling of electron clouds of molecules and electro-magnetic waves of an incident laser beam in the presence of a DC field caused by electrons and holes. Both measurements allow us to probe dynamical carrier motions in solids through the detection of dielectric polarization phenomena originated from dipolar motions and electron transport. In this topical review, on the basis of Maxwell’s electro-magnetism theory of 1873, which stems from Faraday’s idea, the concept for probing electron and hole transport in solids by using the EFISHG is discussed in comparison with the conventional time of flight (TOF) measurement. We then visualize carrier transit in organic devices, i.e. organic field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and others. We also show that visualizing an EFISHG microscopic image is a novel way for characterizing anisotropic carrier transport in organic thin films. We also discuss the concept of the detection of rotational dipolar motions in monolayers by means of the MDC measurement, which is capable of probing the change of dielectric spontaneous polarization formed by dipoles in organic monolayers. Finally we

  20. Effect of trapped electrons on the transient current density and luminance of organic light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiun-Haw; Chen, Chia-Hsun; Lin, Bo-Yen; Shih, Yen-Chen; Lin, King-Fu; Wang, Leeyih; Chiu, Tien-Lung; Lin, Chi-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Transient current density and luminance from an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) driven by voltage pulses were investigated. Waveforms with different repetition rate, duty cycle, off-period, and on-period were used to study the injection and transport characteristics of electron and holes in an OLED under pulse operation. It was found that trapped electrons inside the emitting layer (EML) and the electron transporting layer (ETL) material, tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum (Alq3) helped for attracting the holes into the EML/ETL and reducing the driving voltage, which was further confirmed from the analysis of capacitance-voltage and displacement current measurement. The relaxation time and trapped filling time of the trapped electrons in Alq3 layer were ~200 µs and ~600 µs with 6 V pulse operation, respectively.

  1. Do we need 3D tube current modulation information for accurate organ dosimetry in chest CT? Protocols dose comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rendon, Xochitl; Zhang, Guozhi; Coudyzer, Walter; Develter, Wim; Bosmans, Hilde; Zanca, Federica

    2017-11-01

    To compare the lung and breast dose associated with three chest protocols: standard, organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and fast-speed scanning; and to estimate the error associated with organ dose when modelling the longitudinal (z-) TCM versus the 3D-TCM in Monte Carlo simulations (MC) for these three protocols. Five adult and three paediatric cadavers with different BMI were scanned. The CTDI vol of the OBTCM and the fast-speed protocols were matched to the patient-specific CTDI vol of the standard protocol. Lung and breast doses were estimated using MC with both z- and 3D-TCM simulated and compared between protocols. The fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. A slight reduction for breast dose (up to 5.1%) was observed for two of the three female cadavers with the OBTCM in comparison to the standard. For both adult and paediatric, the implementation of the z-TCM data only for organ dose estimation resulted in 10.0% accuracy for the standard and fast-speed protocols, while relative dose differences were up to 15.3% for the OBTCM protocol. At identical CTDI vol values, the standard protocol delivered the lowest overall doses. Only for the OBTCM protocol is the 3D-TCM needed if an accurate (<10.0%) organ dosimetry is desired. • The z-TCM information is sufficient for accurate dosimetry for standard protocols. • The z-TCM information is sufficient for accurate dosimetry for fast-speed scanning protocols. • For organ-based TCM schemes, the 3D-TCM information is necessary for accurate dosimetry. • At identical CTDI vol , the fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. • Lung dose was higher in XCare than standard protocol at identical CTDI vol .

  2. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  3. Transplante de órganos en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: Actualización y recomendaciones Organ transplants in HIV infected patients: Update and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barcán

    2011-02-01

    now reconsidered for organ transplantation. In 2008, the Argentine Society of Transplants (SAT and the Argentine Infectious Diseases Society (SADI, encouraged by the increasing published experience on kidney and liver transplants in this population, decided to form a Working Group, to prepare an update on this issue and elaborate practical recommendations for the better management of these patients. The first meeting was held on December 4th 2008. The most important conclusion was that HIV infection did not contraindicate a solid organ transplant. Later on, taking into account the accumulated experience and the available literature, the current document was prepared. HIV infected patients must fulfill certain clinical, immunological, virological and psychosocial criteria to be considered for solid organ transplants. HIV infected recipients of kidney and liver transplants currently show similar short and middle term survival to non HIV infected patients. There is not yet enough data on intrathoracic transplants in these patients in order to include them on a waiting list for these organs-transplants. Interactions between immunosupressors and antiretroviral drugs (specially protease inhibitors are very important, and require a strict monitoring of immunosupressor levels.

  4. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L. [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E. [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No 186, C.P 09340, México D.F (Mexico); Peñuela, Gustavo [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Torres-Palma, Ricardo A., E-mail: rtorres@matematicas.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Pathway and efficiency are linked to the current-electrode–electrolyte interaction. • Unlike BDD, IrO{sub 2} route was independent of current but dependent on the electrolyte. • IrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} routes were via IrO{sub 3} and chlorine species, respectively. • BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems were favored at low and high currents, respectively. - Abstract: Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO{sub 2}) used as anode materials were tested with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode–electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If i < the limiting current density (i{sub lim}), CV is mainly degraded by ·OH radicals, whereas if i > i{sub lim}, generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO{sub 2} was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on IrO{sub 2} seems to occur via IrO{sub 3}; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO{sub 2}. Thus, the IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} and BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively.

  5. Maternal medication and breastfeeding: Current recommendations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The benefits of breastfeeding for infants in the first year of life in developing countries1 and developed countries2 are well established. In addition, maternal benefits such as earlier return to pre-pregnant weight,3 increased child spacing,4 improved bone re-mineralization postpartum,5 reduction in hip fractures in the ...

  6. Current use of wild plants with edible underground storage organs in a rural population of Patagonia: between tradition and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydee

    2015-09-25

    Edible plants with underground storage organs (USOs) are neglected resources. We studied the local ecological knowledge edible plants with (USOs) in rural populations of North-Patagonia in order to establish how people are utilizing these plants. Some aspect of corpus-praxis-cosmos complex associated to the local ecological knowledge was documented and discussed. In addition, variation in this ecological knowledge due to age, gender, family structure, ethnic self-determination was also evaluated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 inhabitants in order to study the relationship between the current use of plants with USOs and the age, sex, family group composition and ethnic self-identification of interviewees. In addition, the Cultural Importance Index for each species was calculated. The current richness of known species in these populations is a total of 9 plants. Plants with USOs tend to be used more frequently as the age of the interviewee increases. Women and men showed no differences in the average richness of species cited. The interviewees who share their homes with other generations use these plants more frequently than those who live alone. Our results indicate that the interviewees who identified themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people use these plants more frequently. For the Mapuche people, wild plants have constituted material and symbolic resources of great importance in their historical subsistence. In addition, they are currently being redefined as elements which present a connection with ancestral practices, produce a strong relationship with the 'land', and become markers which identify the 'natural' (historical) ways of their people; these are key elements in the current political processes of identity revaluation. This research is valuable to stimulate cultural revival and health promotion programs in the communities with their own local, cultural food.

  7. Citizenship and withdrawal in the workplace: relationship between organizational citizenship behavior, intention to leave current job and intention to leave the organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillé, Pascal; Grima, François

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and employee intention to leave the organization and current job using a sample of French employees. A survey was sent to 1,200 alumni of a business school in France. Participation in the study was voluntary. The participants were 355 working adults with French citizenship. This paper provides several interesting findings. While no relationship was found between altruism and intention to leave both the organization and the current job, sportsmanship, civic virtue and helping others emerged as the strongest predictors of intention to leave the organization and intention to leave the current job. Results are discussed.

  8. Development of soft ionization using direct current pulse glow discharge plasma source in mass spectrometry for volatile organic compounds analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunome, Yoko; Kodama, Kenji; Ueki, Yasuaki; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2018-01-01

    This study describes an ionization source for mass analysis, consisting of glow discharge plasma driven by a pulsed direct-current voltage for soft plasma ionization, to detect toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) rapidly and easily. The novelty of this work is that a molecular adduct ion, in which the parent molecule attaches with an NO+ radical, [M + NO]+, can be dominantly detected as a base peak with little or no fragmentation of them in an ambient air plasma at a pressure of several kPa. Use of ambient air as the discharge plasma gas is suitable for practical applications. The higher pressure in an ambient air discharge provided a stable glow discharge plasma, contributing to the soft ionization of organic molecules. Typical mass spectra of VOCs toluene, benzene, o-xylene, chlorobenzene and n-hexane were observed as [M + NO]+ adduct ion whose peaks were detected at m/z 122, 108, 136, 142 and 116, respectively. The NO generation was also confirmed by emission bands of NO γ-system. The ionization reactions were suggested, such that NO+ radical formed in an ambient air discharge could attach with the analyte molecule.

  9. Reduced radiation exposure to the mammary glands in thoracic computed tomography using organ-based tube-current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munechika, Jiro; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu; Gokan, Takehiko; Hashimoto, Toshi; Iwai, Tsugunori

    2013-01-01

    Organ-based tube-current modulation has been used to reduce radiation exposure to specific organs. However, there are no reports yet published on reducing radiation exposure in clinical cases. In this study, we assessed the reduction in radiation exposure to the mammary glands during thoracic computed tomography (CT) using X-CARE. In a phantom experiment, the use of X-CARE reduced radiation exposure at the midline of the precordial region by a maximum of 45.1%. In our corresponding clinical study, CT was performed using X-CARE in 15 patients, and without X-CARE in another 15. Compared to the non-X-CARE group, radiation exposure was reduced in the X-CARE group at the midline of the precordial region by 22.3% (P 0.05). X-CARE thus reduced radiation exposure at the midline of the precordial region and allowed us to obtain consistent CT values without increasing noise. However, this study revealed increases in radiation exposure at the lateral sides of the breasts. It is conceivable that patients' breasts were laterally displaced by gravity under the standard thoracic imaging conditions. Further studies that consider factors such as body size and adjustment of imaging conditions may be needed in the future. (author)

  10. Photocatalytic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms-Current knowledge and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Vena N; Ward, J Evan; Russell, Brandon J; Agrios, Alexander G

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticles are entering natural systems through product usage, industrial waste and post-consumer material degradation. As the production of nanoparticles is expected to increase in the next decade, so too are predicted environmental loads. Engineered metal-oxide nanomaterials, such as titanium dioxide, are known for their photocatalytic capabilities. When these nanoparticles are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the environment, however, they can produce radicals that are harmful to aquatic organisms. There have been a number of studies that have reported the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the absence of light. An increasing number of studies are assessing the interactive effects of nanoparticles and ultraviolet light. However, most of these studies neglect environmentally-relevant experimental conditions. For example, researchers are using nanoparticle concentrations and light intensities that are too high for natural systems, and are ignoring water constituents that can alter the light field. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the photocatalytic effects of TiO 2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, discuss the limitations of these studies, and outline environmentally-relevant factors that need to be considered in future experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Current situation of International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 249 international standards of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Qi; Wang, Yue-Xi; Shi, Nan-Nan; Han, Xue-Jie; Lu, Ai-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To review the current situation and progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) international standards, standard projects and proposals in International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ technical committee (TC) 249. ISO/TC 249 standards and standard projects on the ISO website were searched and new standard proposals information were collected from ISO/TC 249 National Mirror Committee in China. Then all the available data were summarized in 5 closely related items, including proposed time, proposed country, assigned working group (WG), current stage and classifification. In ISO/TC 249, there were 2 international standards, 18 standard projects and 24 new standard proposals proposed in 2014. These 44 standard subjects increased year by year since 2011. Twenty-nine of them were proposed by China, 15 were assigned to WG 4, 36 were in preliminary and preparatory stage and 8 were categorized into 4 fifields, 7 groups and sub-groups based on International Classifification Standards. A rapid and steady development of international standardization in TCM can be observed in ISO/TC 249.

  12. Inverse spin Hall effect from pulsed spin current in organic semiconductors with tunable spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dali; van Schooten, Kipp J; Kavand, Marzieh; Malissa, Hans; Zhang, Chuang; Groesbeck, Matthew; Boehme, Christoph; Valy Vardeny, Z

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of spin currents in organic semiconductors (OSECs) induced by resonant microwave absorption in ferromagnetic substrates is appealing for potential spintronics applications. Owing to the inherently weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of OSECs, their inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) response is very subtle; limited by the microwave power applicable under continuous-wave (cw) excitation. Here we introduce a novel approach for generating significant ISHE signals in OSECs using pulsed ferromagnetic resonance, where the ISHE is two to three orders of magnitude larger compared to cw excitation. This strong ISHE enables us to investigate a variety of OSECs ranging from π-conjugated polymers with strong SOC that contain intrachain platinum atoms, to weak SOC polymers, to C60 films, where the SOC is predominantly caused by the curvature of the molecule's surface. The pulsed-ISHE technique offers a robust route for efficient injection and detection schemes of spin currents at room temperature, and paves the way for spin orbitronics in plastic materials.

  13. Recommendation System for Adaptive Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang

    2018-01-01

    An adaptive learning system aims at providing instruction tailored to the current status of a learner, differing from the traditional classroom experience. The latest advances in technology make adaptive learning possible, which has the potential to provide students with high-quality learning benefit at a low cost. A key component of an adaptive learning system is a recommendation system, which recommends the next material (video lectures, practices, and so on, on different skills) to the learner, based on the psychometric assessment results and possibly other individual characteristics. An important question then follows: How should recommendations be made? To answer this question, a mathematical framework is proposed that characterizes the recommendation process as a Markov decision problem, for which decisions are made based on the current knowledge of the learner and that of the learning materials. In particular, two plain vanilla systems are introduced, for which the optimal recommendation at each stage can be obtained analytically.

  14. Identification of Liver Transplant Candidates with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Very Low Dropout Risk: Implications for the Current Organ Allocation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Dodge, Jennifer L.; Goel, Aparna; Roberts, John P.; Hirose, Ryutaro; Yao, Francis Y.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) meeting UNOS T2 (Milan) criteria are advantaged compared to patients without HCC under the current organ allocation system for liver transplant (LT). We hypothesize that within T2 HCC, there is a subgroup with a low risk of waitlist dropout, and should not receive the same listing priority. This study evaluated 398 consecutive patients with T2 HCC listed for LT with MELD exception from 2005 to 2010 at our center. Competing risk (CR) regression was used to determine predictors of dropout. Probabilities of dropout due to tumor progression or death without LT by CR analysis were 9.4% at 6 months and 19.6% at 12 months. The median time from listing to LT was 8.8 months, and from listing to dropout or death without LT was 7.2 months. Significant predictors of dropout or death without LT by multivariate CR regression included 1 tumor 3–5 cm (vs. ≤3 cm), 2 or 3 tumors, lack of a complete response to first loco-regional therapy (LRT), and high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) after the first LRT. A subgroup (19.9%) meeting the following criteria: 1 tumor 2 to 3 cm, complete response after first LRT, and AFP ≤20 ng/mL after first LRT, had 1- and 2-year probabilities of dropout of 1.3% and 1.6%, respectively, compared to 21.6% and 26.5% for all other patients (p=0.004). In conclusion, a combination of tumor characteristics and complete response to the first LRT define a subgroup of patients with a very low risk of waitlist dropout who does not require the same listing priority. Our results may have important implications for the organ allocation policy for HCC. PMID:24285611

  15. The new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.

    1977-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations are based on the concept of risk. The doses received by workers have to be justified and kept as low as practically achievable. The acceptable annual occupational risk is of the order of 10 -4 . This corresponds to an average annual dose equivalent of about 5 mSv(0.5 Rem). The annual dose equivalent limit for whole body irradiation will remain 50 mSv/year (5 Rem/year) provided that the average is about 1/10th of this value. The concept of the critical organ is abandoned and is replaced by the concept of equidetriment. (author)

  16. Assigning Oxidation States to Organic Compounds via Predictions from X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: A Discussion of Approaches and Recommended Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Ganegoda, Hasitha; Engelhard, Mark H.; Terry, Jeff; Linford, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The traditional assignment of oxidation states to organic molecules is problematic. Accordingly, in 1999, Calzaferri proposed a simple and elegant solution that is based on the similar electronegativities of carbon and hydrogen: hydrogen would be assigned an oxidation state of zero when bonded to carbon. Here, we show that X-ray photoelectron…

  17. Assigning Oxidation States to Organic Compounds via Predictions from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: A Discussion of Approaches and Recommended Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vipul; Ganegoda, Hasitha; Engelhard, Mark H.; Terry, Jeff H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2014-02-11

    The traditional assignment of oxidation numbers to organic molecules is problematic. Accordingly, in 1999, Calzaferri proposed a simple and elegant solution that is based on the similar electronegativities of carbon and hydrogen: hydrogen would be assigned an oxidation number of zero when bonded to carbon. Here we show that X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a core electron spectroscopy that is sensitive to oxidation states of elements, confirms his suggestion. In particular, in this work we: (i) list the typical rules for assigning oxidation numbers, (ii) discuss the traditional assignment of oxidation numbers to organic molecules, (iii) review Calzaferri’s solution, (iv) introduce X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), (v) show the consistency of Calzaferri’s suggestion with XPS results, (vi) provide supporting examples from the literature, (vii) provide examples from our own research, and (viii) further confirm the Calzaferri suggestion/photoelectron spectroscopy results by discussing two organic well-known reactions. We end by reechoing Calzaferri’s suggestion that the traditional rules for assigning oxidation numbers to organic molecules be modified.

  18. Utilization of organs from donors after circulatory death for vascularized pancreas and islet of Langerhans transplantation : recommendations from an expert group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berney, Thierry; Boffa, Catherine; Augustine, Titus; Badet, Lionel; de Koning, Eelco; Pratschke, Johann; Socci, Carlo; Friend, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are increasingly being used as a source of pancreas allografts for vascularized organ and islet transplantation. We provide practice guidelines aiming to increase DCD pancreas utilization. We review risk assessment and donor selection criteria. We report

  19. Seasonal and nonseasonal variability of satellite-derived chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter concentration in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, Mati; Mitchell, B. Greg

    2001-02-01

    Time series of surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) derived from the Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor were evaluated for the California Current area using regional algorithms. Satellite data composited for 8-day periods provide the ability to describe large-scale changes in surface parameters. These changes are difficult to detect based on in situ observations alone that suffer from undersampling the large temporal and spatial variability, especially in Chl. We detected no significant bias in satellite Chl estimates compared with ship-based measurements. The variability in CDOM concentration was significantly smaller than that in Chl, both spatially and temporally. While being subject to large interannual and short-term variations, offshore waters (100-1000 km from the shore) have an annual cycle of Chl and CDOM with a maximum in winter-spring (December-March) and a minimum in late summer. For inshore waters the maximum is more likely in spring (April-May). We detect significant increase in both Chl and CDOM off central and southern California during the La Niña year of 1999. The trend of increasing Chl and CDOM from October 1996 to June 2000 is statistically significant in many areas.

  20. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  1. Record Recommendations for the CERN Document Server

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2096025; Marian, Ludmila

    CERN Document Server (CDS) is the institutional repository of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It hosts all the research material produced at CERN, as well as multi- media and administrative documents. It currently has more than 1.5 million records grouped in more than 1000 collections. It’s underlying platform is Invenio, an open source digital library system created at CERN. As the size of CDS increases, discovering useful and interesting records becomes more challenging. Therefore, the goal of this work is to create a system that supports the user in the discovery of related interesting records. To achieve this, a set of recommended records are displayed on the record page. These recommended records are based on the analyzed behavior (page views and downloads) of other users. This work will describe the methods and algorithms used for creating, implementing, and the integration with the underlying software platform, Invenio. A very important decision factor when designing a recomme...

  2. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  4. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 6, Infectious organisms of military concern associated with nonconsumptive exposure: Assessment of health risks and recommendations for establishing related standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.C.; Olivieri, A.W.; Danielson, R.E.; Badger, P.G.

    1986-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the risk of illness due to exposure to water-related (i.e., water-based, water-washed) infectious organisms. The organisms under consideration are Aeromonas spp., Leptospira spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-cholerae Vibrio spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Balantidium coli, Naegleria spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Dracunculus medinesis, Schistosoma spp., and the agents responsible for cercarial dermatitis (i.e., Trichobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia). Evaluation of the risk to disease associated with the above pathogens requires information in specific areas such as dose response, concentration of agents in the environment, and environmental persistence. The existing body of knowledge concerning these agents ranges from speculation to established fact. Unfortunately, areas of information critical to risk assessment are frequently unavailable. Because of this lack of data, the risk assessment presented is semiquantitative and limited to the presentation of an environmental classification scheme. 14 refs., 2 figs., 57 tabs.

  5. Utilization of organs from donors after circulatory death for vascularized pancreas and islet of Langerhans transplantation: recommendations from an expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Thierry; Boffa, Catherine; Augustine, Titus; Badet, Lionel; de Koning, Eelco; Pratschke, Johann; Socci, Carlo; Friend, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are increasingly being used as a source of pancreas allografts for vascularized organ and islet transplantation. We provide practice guidelines aiming to increase DCD pancreas utilization. We review risk assessment and donor selection criteria. We report suggested factors in donor and recipient clinical management and provide an overview of the activities and outcomes of vascularized pancreas and islet transplantation. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  6. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  7. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  8. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1- 13 C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1- 13 C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1- 13 C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 (R 2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This

  9. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  10. Controlling Blend Morphology for Ultra-High Current Density in Non-Fullerene Acceptor Based Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin; Gasparini, Nicola; Ye, Long; Yao, Huifeng; Hou, Jianhui; Ade, Harald; Baran, Derya

    2018-01-01

    Due to the high absorption coefficient and modulated band gap of non-fullerene small molecule acceptors (NFAs), photons can be utilized more efficiently in near-infrared (NIR) range. In this report, we highlight a system with a well-known polymer donor (PTB7-Th) blended with a narrow bandgap non-fullerene acceptor (IEICO-4F) as active layer and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as the solvent additive. The optimization of the photoactive layer nanomorphology yields short-circuit current density value (Jsc) of 27.3 mA/cm2, one of the highest value in OSCs reported to date, which competes with other types of solution processed solar cells such as perovskite or quantum dot devices. Along with decent open-circuit voltage (0.71V) and fill factor values (66%), a power conversion efficiency of 12.8% is achieved for the champion devices. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) patterns and resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) elucidate that the origin of this high photocurrent is mainly due to increased π-π coherence length of the acceptor, the domain spacing as well as the mean-square composition variation of the blend. Optoelectronic measurements confirm a balanced hole and electron mobility and reduced trap-assisted recombination for the best devices. These findings unveil the relevant solvent processing-nanostructure-electronic properties correlation in low band gap non-fullerene based solar cells, which provide a helpful guide for maximizing photocurrent that can pave the way for high efficiency organic solar cells.

  11. Controlling Blend Morphology for Ultra-High Current Density in Non-Fullerene Acceptor Based Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin

    2018-01-23

    Due to the high absorption coefficient and modulated band gap of non-fullerene small molecule acceptors (NFAs), photons can be utilized more efficiently in near-infrared (NIR) range. In this report, we highlight a system with a well-known polymer donor (PTB7-Th) blended with a narrow bandgap non-fullerene acceptor (IEICO-4F) as active layer and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as the solvent additive. The optimization of the photoactive layer nanomorphology yields short-circuit current density value (Jsc) of 27.3 mA/cm2, one of the highest value in OSCs reported to date, which competes with other types of solution processed solar cells such as perovskite or quantum dot devices. Along with decent open-circuit voltage (0.71V) and fill factor values (66%), a power conversion efficiency of 12.8% is achieved for the champion devices. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) patterns and resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) elucidate that the origin of this high photocurrent is mainly due to increased π-π coherence length of the acceptor, the domain spacing as well as the mean-square composition variation of the blend. Optoelectronic measurements confirm a balanced hole and electron mobility and reduced trap-assisted recombination for the best devices. These findings unveil the relevant solvent processing-nanostructure-electronic properties correlation in low band gap non-fullerene based solar cells, which provide a helpful guide for maximizing photocurrent that can pave the way for high efficiency organic solar cells.

  12. Organ retrieval and banking in brain dead trauma patients: Our experience at level-1 trauma centre and current views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Gupta, Babita; Balakrishnan, Ira; Vij, Aarti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Organ retrieval from brain dead patients is getting an increased attention as the waiting list for organ recipients far exceeds the organ donor pool. In our country, despite a large population the number of brain dead donors undergoing organ donation is very less (2% in our study). Aims: The present study was undertaken to address issues related to organ donation and share our experience for the same. Methods: A retrospective case record analysis of over 5 years from September 2007 to August 2012 was performed and the patients fulfilling brain death criterion as per Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue (Amendment) Act were included. Patient demographics (age, sex), mode of injury, time from injury to the diagnosis of brain death, time from diagnosis of brain death to organ retrieval and complications were analysed. Statistics Analysis: Student's t test was used for parametric data and Chi square was used for categorical data. Results: Out of 205 patients who were identified as brain dead, only 10 patients became potential organ donors. Conclusion: Aggressive donor management, increasing public awareness about the concept of organ donation, good communication between clinician and the family members and a well-trained team of transplant coordinators can help in improving the number of organ donations. PMID:23983281

  13. [Recommendations of the Seminar on "Women, Population and Development", jointly organized by the Projet Institut de Recherches et d'Etudes de Population and the United Nations Population Fund, Tunis, June 29 - July 3, 1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This work outlines actions recommended by the 1992 Tunis Seminar on Women, Population, and Development to be taken by national governments, international organizations and nongovernmental organizations. In the area of fertility, seminar participants urged adherence to the 1979 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, which was ratified in 1992 by more than 100 UN member nations; respect for the basic right of women and especially for their access to family planning information and services; close monitoring of the quality and availability of family planning and maternal-child health services and the use of contraceptive methods; and initiation of studies on the impact of socioeconomic factors on fertility to aid in design of policies concerning promotion of women, population, and development. In the area of health, seminar participants urged governments and international organizations to increase efforts to control maternal mortality; to provide information and education for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and elimination of social practices harmful to women such as excision, forced marriage, and early pregnancy; and to encourage research and programs relating to the socioeconomic causes of mortality among infants and women. Governments and international organizations were urged to take necessary measures to improve conditions among migrant and refugee women and to conduct in-depth studies of the socioeconomic determinants of female migration and the condition of wives of migrants. In the area population policy, the seminar recommended that population policy address not just fertility and population growth but also mortality and migration; that governments reinforce their institutional facilities related to population policy, especially through creation of a high level population institute; the nongovernmental organizations educate women about their individual and collective rights, fertility behavior

  14. 45 CFR 1616.4 - Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recipient shall similarly notify and seek recommendations from other organizations, deemed appropriate by the recipient, that have knowledge of the legal needs of persons in the community unable to afford... § 1616.4 Recommendations. (a) Before filling an attorney position, a recipient shall notify the organized...

  15. [The Results of Self-Assessment by Medical Organizations Their Correspondence to Proposals (Practical Recommendations) of the Roszdravnadzor Concerning Organization of Internal Control of Quality and Safety of Medical Activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I V; Shvabsky, O R; Minulin, I B

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the results of internal audits (self-rating) in medical organizations implemented on the basis of Proposals (practical guidelines) of the Roszdravnadzor concerning organization of inner control of quality and safety of medical activities in medical organization (hospital). The self-rating was implemented by the medical organizations themselves according the common criteria of the Proposals as provided the following plan: planning of self-rating, collection and processing of data, application of self-rating, analysis of obtained results, preparation of report. The article uses the results of self-rating of medical organizations corresponding to following criteria: profile of activity-multi-field hospital-number of beds more than 350-state property. The self-rating was implemented according to 11 basic parts of the Proposals. The criteria were developed for every part. The evaluation lists developed on the basis of the given Proposals permitted to medical organizations to independently establish problems in their activities. Within the framework of implemented self-rating medical organizations mentioned the directions of activity related to personnel management, identification of personality of patient, support of epidemiological and surgical safety as having significant discrepancies with the Proposals and requiring implementation of improvement measures.

  16. World Health Organization guidelines should not change the CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends that HIV-positive adults start antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 counts <350 cells/μl. Several countries have changed their guidelines to recommend ART irrespective of CD4 count or at a threshold of 500 CD4 cells/μl. Consequently, WHO is currently revising its ...

  17. Achieving 12.8% Efficiency by Simultaneously Improving Open-Circuit Voltage and Short-Circuit Current Density in Tandem Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunpeng; Chen, Yu; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Yao, Huifeng; Huang, Jiang; Li, Wanning; Zheng, Zhong; Hou, Jianhui

    2017-06-01

    Tandem organic solar cells (TOSCs), which integrate multiple organic photovoltaic layers with complementary absorption in series, have been proved to be a strong contender in organic photovoltaic depending on their advantages in harvesting a greater part of the solar spectrum and more efficient photon utilization than traditional single-junction organic solar cells. However, simultaneously improving open circuit voltage (V oc ) and short current density (J sc ) is a still particularly tricky issue for highly efficient TOSCs. In this work, by employing the low-bandgap nonfullerene acceptor, IEICO, into the rear cell to extend absorption, and meanwhile introducing PBDD4T-2F into the front cell for improving V oc , an impressive efficiency of 12.8% has been achieved in well-designed TOSC. This result is also one of the highest efficiencies reported in state-of-the-art organic solar cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 78 FR 67331 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Assessment Exemption for Organic Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...: Title: Organic Handler Market Promotion Assessment Exemption under 26 Federal Marketing Orders. OMB... from Market Promotion Assessments Paid Under Federal Marketing Orders,'' and submitting it to the... / Tuesday, November 12, 2013 / Notices#0;#0; [[Page 67331

  19. Modelling the temperature induced degradation kinetics of the short circuit current in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conings, B.S.T.; Bertho, S.; Vandewal, K.; Senes, A.; D'Haen, J.; Manca, J.V.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, the nanoscale morphology of interpenetrating donor-acceptor materials and the resulting photovoltaic parameters alter as a consequence of prolonged operation at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. Thermal annealing induces clustering of

  20. Bulk-Like Electrical Properties Induced by Contact-Limited Charge Transport in Organic Diodes: Revised Space Charge Limited Current

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guangwei; Gao, Nan; Lu, Congyan; Wang, Wei; Ji, Zhuoyu; Bi, Chong; Han, Zhiheng; Lu, Nianduan; Yang, Guanhua; Li, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming

    2018-01-01

    , the charge transport properties of organic diodes are usually characterized by probing the current–voltage (I–V) curves of the devices. However, to unveil the landscape of the underlying potential/charge distribution, which essentially determines the I

  1. High-conductance low-voltage organic thin film transistor with locally rearranged poly(3-hexylthiophene) domain by current annealing on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zingway; Tsai, Hsing-Wang; Lai, Hsin-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The organic material based thin film transistors (TFTs) are attractive for flexible optoelectronics applications due to the ability of lager area fabrication by solution and low temperature process on plastic substrate. Recently, the research of organic TFT focus on low operation voltage and high output current to achieve a low power organic logic circuit for optoelectronic device,such as e-paper or OLED displayer. To obtain low voltage and high output current, high gate capacitance and high channel mobility are key factors. The well-arranged polymer chain by a high temperature postannealing, leading enhancement conductivity of polymer film was a general method. However, the thermal annealing applying heat for all device on the substrate and may not applicable to plastic substrate. Therefore, in this work, the low operation voltage and high output current of polymer TFTs was demonstrated by locally electrical bias annealing. The poly(styrene-comethyl methacrylate) (PS-r-PMMA) with ultra-thin thickness is used as gate dielectric that the thickness is controlled by thermal treatment after spin coated on organic electrode. In electrical bias-annealing process, the PS-r- PMMA is acted a heating layer. After electrical bias-annealing, the polymer TFTs obtain high channel mobility at low voltage that lead high output current by a locally annealing of P3HT film. In the future, the locally electrical biasannealing method could be applied on plastic substrate for flexible optoelectronic application.

  2. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  3. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/IAEA/GSF/SIDA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Cereal Grain Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques was a follow-up to the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Seed Protein Improvement. It was initiated in 1969 and ended in 1981. The objectives of the meeting were to review and evaluate the achievements of the current and previous programmes in order to draw conclusions on the possibility of genetic improvement of cereal grain protein using nuclear techniques, to identify unsolved problems and to discuss and propose possible approaches for their solution. Through reviews and discussions, conclusions and recommendations were made by the participants

  4. ORGANIC FOOD – food quality and potential health effects. A review of current knowledge, and a discussion of uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Mie, Axel; Wivstad, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we try to approach the question “Is organic food healthier than conventional food?” from a scientific perspective. We can conclude that science does not provide a clear answer to this question. A small number of animal studies and epidemiological studies on health effects from the consumption of organic vs. conventional feed/food have been performed. These studies indicate that the production system of the food has some influence on the immune system of the consuming animal or...

  5. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuñ a, Javier; Xie, Wei; Salleo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact

  6. Change of the dominant luminescent mechanism with increasing current density in molecularly doped organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liang; Zhang Hongjie; Meng Qingguo; Liu Fengyi; Yu Jiangbo; Deng Ruiping; Peng Zeping; Li Zhefeng; Guo Zhiyong

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated and measured a series of electroluminescent devices with the structure of ITO/TPD/Eu(TTA) 3 phen (x):CBP/BCP/ALQ/LiF/Al, where x is the weight percentage of Eu(TTA) 3 phen (from 0% to 6%). At very low current density, carrier trapping is the dominant luminescent mechanism and the 4% doped device shows the highest electroluminescence (EL) efficiency among all these devices. With increasing current density, Foerster energy transfer participates in EL process. At the current density of 10.0 and 80.0 mA/cm 2 , 2% and 3% doped devices show the highest EL efficiency, respectively. From analysis of the EL spectra and the EL efficiency-current density characteristics, we found that the EL efficiency is manipulated by Foerster energy transfer efficiency at high current density. So we suggest that the dominant luminescent mechanism changes gradually from carrier trapping to Foerster energy transfer with increasing current density. Moreover, the conversion of dominant EL mechanism was suspected to be partly responsible for the EL efficiency roll-off because of the lower EL quantum efficiency of Foerster energy transfer compared with carrier trapping

  7. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2012-09-06

    We used a mobility edge transport model and solved the drift-diffusion equation to characterize the space-charge-limited current of a rubrene single-crystal hole-only diode. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that current is injection-limited at high voltage when holes are injected from the bottom contact (reverse bias). In contrast, the low-voltage regime shows that the current is higher when holes are injected from the bottom contact as compared to hole injection from the top contact (forward bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact. Accounting for a localized trap distribution near the contact allows us to reproduce the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics in forward and reverse bias simultaneously, i.e., with a single set of model parameters. We estimated that the local trap distribution contains 1.19×1011 cm -2 states and decays as exp(-x/32.3nm) away from the semiconductor-contact interface. The local trap distribution near one contact mainly affects injection from the same contact, hence breaking the symmetry in the charge transport. The model also provides information of the band mobility, energy barrier at the contacts, and bulk trap distribution with their corresponding confidence intervals. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  8. Research and Design of a Grid Based Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yueling; Nie, Guihua

    2010-01-01

    Current electronic commerce recommendation system is designed for single electronic commerce website and current recommendation technologies have obvious deficiencies Centralized recommendation systems can not resolve the contradiction between high recommendation quality and timely response, as well as that between limited recommendation range and ever rich information on the web. Distributed recommendation systems are expected to improve the recommendation quality while maintaining high perf...

  9. Review of laboratory-based terrestrial bioaccumulation assessment approaches for organic chemicals: Current status and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Robert; Huggett, Duane; Brasfield, Sandra; Brown, Becky; Embry, Michelle; Fairbrother, Anne; Kivi, Michelle; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Prosser, Ryan; Salvito, Dan; Scroggins, Rick

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, interest has been renewed in approaches for the assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals, principally driven by the need to evaluate large numbers of chemicals as part of new chemical legislation, while reducing vertebrate test organism use called for in animal welfare legislation. This renewed interest has inspired research activities and advances in bioaccumulation science for neutral organic chemicals in aquatic environments. In January 2013, ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute convened experts to identify the state of the science and existing shortcomings in terrestrial bioaccumulation assessment of neutral organic chemicals. Potential modifications to existing laboratory methods were identified, including areas in which new laboratory approaches or test methods could be developed to address terrestrial bioaccumulation. The utility of "non-ecotoxicity" data (e.g., mammalian laboratory data) was also discussed. The highlights of the workshop discussions are presented along with potential modifications in laboratory approaches and new test guidelines that could be used for assessing the bioaccumulation of chemicals in terrestrial organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. The use of radiocarbon to constrain current and future soil organic matter turnover and transport in a temperate forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Beer, C.; Schrumpf, M.; Ahrens, B.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.; Reichstein, M.; Ekici, A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the merits of radiocarbon measurements for estimating soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and vertical transport for a temperate deciduous forest in Germany. Eleven parameters, defining decomposition and transport in the soil carbon model SOMPROF, were estimated using a Bayesian

  11. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs deposited by spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO / PEDOT:PSS / MDMO-PPV / Metal were prepared by spincoating. It is known that electroluminescence of these devices is strongly dependent on the material used as cathode and on the depositionparameters of the polymer electroluminescent layer MDMO-PPV. Objective. In this work the effect of i the frequency of the spin coater(1000-8000 rpm, ii the concentration of the MDMO-PPV: Toluene solution, and iii the material used as cathode (Aluminium or Silveron the electrical response of the devices, was evaluated through current-voltage (I-V measurements. Materials and methods. PEDOT:PPSand MDMO-PPV organic layers were deposited by spin coating on ITO substrates, and the OLED structure was completed with cathodesof aluminium and silver. The electric response of the devices was evaluated based on the I-V characteristics. Results. Diodes prepared withthinner organic films allow higher currents at lower voltages; this can be achieved either by increasing the frequency of the spin coater orby using concentrations of MDMO-PPV: Toluene lower than 2% weight. A fit of the experimental data showed that the diodes have twocontributions to the current. The first one is attributed to parasitic currents between anode and cathode, and the other one is a parallel currentthrough the organic layer, in which the carrier injection mechanism is mediated by thermionic emission. Conclusions. The results of thefitting and the energy level alignment through the whole structure show that PPV-based OLEDs are unipolar devices, with current mainlyattributed to hole transport.

  12. A database for estimating organ dose for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans for arbitrary spectra and angular tube current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupcich, Franco; Badal, Andreu; Kyprianou, Iacovos; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a database for estimating organ dose in a voxelized patient model for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT acquisitions with any spectra and angular tube current modulation setting. The database enables organ dose estimation for existing and novel acquisition techniques without requiring Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The study simulated transport of monoenergetic photons between 5 and 150 keV for 1000 projections over 360° through anthropomorphic voxelized female chest and head (0° and 30° tilt) phantoms and standard head and body CTDI dosimetry cylinders. The simulations resulted in tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs quantifying the organ dose per emitted photon for each incident photon energy and projection angle for coronary angiography and brain perfusion acquisitions. The values in a table can be multiplied by an incident spectrum and number of photons at each projection angle and then summed across all energies and angles to estimate total organ dose. Scanner-specific organ dose may be approximated by normalizing the database-estimated organ dose by the database-estimated CTDI vol and multiplying by a physical CTDI vol measurement. Two examples are provided demonstrating how to use the tables to estimate relative organ dose. In the first, the change in breast and lung dose during coronary angiography CT scans is calculated for reduced kVp, angular tube current modulation, and partial angle scanning protocols relative to a reference protocol. In the second example, the change in dose to the eye lens is calculated for a brain perfusion CT acquisition in which the gantry is tilted 30° relative to a nontilted scan. Results: Our database provides tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans. Validation results indicate total organ doses calculated using our database are

  13. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Beitsch, Peter D. [Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Arthur, Doug [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Keisch, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, Florida (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat International, Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States); Chen, Peter Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

  14. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J. Ben; Beitsch, Peter D.; Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Doug; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wazer, David E.; Keisch, Martin; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Lyden, Maureen; Chen, Peter Y.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort

  15. "The effects of the frequency and waveform of the activating current on physiochemical oxidation of organic wastes," Yegor Morozov et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports work on the optimization of energy usage in a promising approach to increasing cycling of key nutrients in space bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The work comes from researchers at the Institute of Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk who have since their landmark BLSS test bed, Bios-3, continued to advance the field. They have been working on methods to return the key components of human waste products and inedible biomass to biotic availability in the system. The approach uses wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) powered by an alternating electric current. Previous research has demonstrated that the hydrogen peroxide can be generated within a BLSS and that the liquid and gas products of the wet oxidation can be used to grow food crops without any loss of productivity. The paper reports that at the beginning of organic waste processing by this method, reaction rates are doubled using 35 Hz meander current compared to 50 Hz sinusoidal current (Fig. 1). This represents a 17-18% reduction in energy consumption. A possible explanation for this finding is that meander current involves sharp alternations in current, as opposed to the smoother variations in sinusoidal currents, which results in greater breakdown of H2O2 into the OH- radical which is responsible for most breakdown of organic wastes. When long-term (30 day) oxidation is evaluated, there is little difference between the tested variations of the activating current due to the overall increase in the number of radicals. But long-term oxidation and storage may be inadvisable in the rapidly cycling BLSS due to increased production of potentially hazardous gaseous by-products such as ammonia, volatile organic compounds, and hydrogen peroxide vapor. These problematic byproducts are minimized if the wet oxidation is done quickly and if smaller amounts of organic materials are processed at a time. The authors note that limits in efficiency of using hydrogen peroxide have not been reached as

  16. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Szulczyński; Jacek Gębicki

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric), photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their ...

  17. Anisotrophic currents and flux jumps in high-Tc superconducting films with self-organized arrays of planar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchenko, V.V.; Qviller, A.J.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Mozhaeva, J.E.; Hansen, J.B.; Jacobsen, C.S.; Kotelyanskii, I.M.; Pan, A.V.; Johansen, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Regular arrays of planar defects with a period of a few nanometers can be introduced in superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) thin films by depositing them on vicinal (also called miscut or tilted) substrates. This results in the anisotropy of critical currents flowing in the plane of the film. We present results of real-time magneto-optical imaging (MOI) of magnetic flux distribution and dynamics in a series of YBCO thin films deposited on NdGaO 3 substrates with different miscut angles θ. MOI allows reconstructing the current flow profiles. From the angle formed between domains with different directions of the current flow we determine the anisotropy parameter of the in-plane current, as well as its field and temperature dependences. The artificially introduced defects also have a dramatic effect on the dynamics of the flux propagation: for 10 o o the magnetic flux propagates along the easy channels intermittently, i.e. in a form of flux jumps. This behavior is indicative of thermo-magnetic instability in superconductors, but we argue that this effect can be of a different nature.

  18. Anisotrophic currents and flux jumps in high-T-c superconducting films with self-organized arrays of planar defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yurchenko, V.V.; Qviller, A.J.; Mozhaev, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Regular arrays of planar defects with a period of a few nanometers can be introduced in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO) thin films by depositing them on vicinal (also called miscut or tilted) substrates. This results in the anisotropy of critical currents flowing in the plane of the film. ...

  19. Suppression of roll-off characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes by narrowing current injection/transport area to 50 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kyohei, E-mail: k-hayashi@bioorg.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Inoue, Munetomo; Yoshida, Kou [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakanotani, Hajime [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c/o OPERA, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Innovative Organic Device Laboratory, Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies (ISIT), 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Mikhnenko, Oleksandr; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9510 (United States); Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c/o OPERA, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Innovative Organic Device Laboratory, Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies (ISIT), 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-03-02

    Using e-beam nanolithography, the current injection/transport area in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was confined into a narrow linear structure with a minimum width of 50 nm. This caused suppression of Joule heating and partial separation of polarons and excitons, so the charge density where the electroluminescent efficiency decays to the half of the initial value (J{sub 0}) was significantly improved. A device with a narrow current injection width of 50 nm exhibited a J{sub 0} that was almost two orders of magnitude higher compared with that of the unpatterned OLED.

  20. Canadian solar export market study. Export policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This report outlines policies and recommendations on the export of Canadian solar equipment and technology, with a view toward stimulating the domestic solar industry. The current picture is of an industry which is relatively small, operates in a competitive domestic market with low profit margins, and needs assistance in order to break into the world market. A number of recommendations are therefore made on the main thrust of industry and government solar export development activities. An export development program is described which includes a strategy of concentrating on a limited number of product lines, namely: low-temperature solar heating systems for recreational applications, integrated residential water heating systems, prepackaged commercial water heating systems, and industrial pre-heat systems. It is also recommended that this strategy be directed only at a limited number of target countries where the market justifies such activity. Market research, international cooperation agreements, promotional services, and proper export organization are also needed.

  1. Understanding Student Recommendations to Attend NIACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Successful organizations, both public and private, rely heavily on "word-of-mouth recommendations" for their products and services. Financial viability of any organization depends profoundly on formal and informal networks of customers who pass their assessments of an organization's performance to acquaintances, friends and families.…

  2. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  3. Semantically Enhanced Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montiel, Manuela; Aldana-Montes, José F.

    Recommender Systems have become a significant area in the context of web personalization, given the large amount of available data. Ontologies can be widely taken advantage of in recommender systems, since they provide a means of classifying and discovering of new information about the items to recommend, about user profiles and even about their context. We have developed a semantically enhanced recommender system based on this kind of ontologies. In this paper we present a description of the proposed system.

  4. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szulczyński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric, photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their metrological parameters—measurement range, limit of detection, measurement resolution, sensitivity and response time—were presented. Moreover, development trends and prospects of improvement of the metrological parameters of these sensors were highlighted.

  5. Cotton in Zambia: An Assessment of its Organization, Performance, Current Policy Initiatives, and Challenges for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; Zulu, Ballard; Shaffer, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper grows out of earlier work on cotton by the Food Security Research Project. It is directed towards policy makers and private stakeholders in Zambia’s cotton sector, and has four main purposes: (a) To provide a detailed descriptive overview of the organization of the sector and of the behavior of key public and private participants in the sector; (b) To assess cotton’s role in smallholder livelihood strategies, and its competitiveness at the farm level with a key alternative crop–mai...

  6. Highly Reliable Organizations in the Onshore Natural Gas Sector: An Assessment of Current Practices, Regulatory Frameworks, and Select Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paranhos, Elizabeth [Energy Innovation Partners, Seattle, WA (United States); Kozak, Tracy G. [Energy Innovation Partners, Seattle, WA (United States); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This study focuses on onshore natural gas operations and examines the extent to which oil and gas firms have embraced certain organizational characteristics that lead to 'high reliability' - understood here as strong safety and reliability records over extended periods of operation. The key questions that motivated this study include whether onshore oil and gas firms engaged in exploration and production (E&P) and midstream (i.e., natural gas transmission and storage) are implementing practices characteristic of high reliability organizations (HROs) and the extent to which any such practices are being driven by industry innovations and standards and/or regulatory requirements.

  7. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment

  8. The current fight against organized crime in Mexico / La lucha actual contra la delincuencia organizada en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carreón Guillén

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Of all the problems afflicting the country, it is clear that public safety is the most conspicuous one. Indeed, more than 50 thousand people dead over the administration of President Felipe Calderón (2006-2012, explain at length the importance of the problem. Undoubtedly, the phenomenon mainly generated by organized crime has become more complex so that it is just not about drugs, but for example, kidnapping and extortion are now prevalent as well. However, it is noteworthy that in the various analyzes on this elusive matter, studies are lacking on the conditions of the state of the art in this area.

  9. Origin of switching current transients in TIPS-pentacene based organic thin-film transistor with polymer dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Subhash; Mohapatra, Y. N.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated switch-on drain-source current transients in fully solution-processed thin film transistors based on 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) using cross-linked poly-4-vinylphenol as a dielectric. We show that the nature of the transient (increasing or decreasing) depends on both the temperature and the amplitude of the switching pulse at the gate. The isothermal transients are analyzed spectroscopically in a time domain to extract the degree of non-exponentiality and its possible origin in trap kinetics. We propose a phenomenological model in which the exchange of electrons between interfacial ions and traps controls the nature of the drain current transients dictated by the Fermi level position. The origin of interfacial ions is attributed to the essential fabrication step of UV-ozone treatment of the dielectric prior to semiconductor deposition.

  10. Organic Field-Effect Transistors: A 3D Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of the Current Characteristics in Micrometer-Sized Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Haoyuan

    2017-01-16

    The electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are usually characterized by applying models initially developed for inorganic-based devices, which often implies the use of approximations that might be inappropriate for organic semiconductors. These approximations have brought limitations to the understanding of the device physics associated with organic materials. A strategy to overcome this issue is to establish straightforward connections between the macroscopic current characteristics and microscopic charge transport in OFETs. Here, a 3D kinetic Monte Carlo model is developed that goes beyond both the conventional assumption of zero channel thickness and the gradual channel approximation to simulate carrier transport and current. Using parallel computing and a new algorithm that significantly improves the evaluation of electric potential within the device, this methodology allows the simulation of micrometer-sized OFETs. The current characteristics of representative OFET devices are well reproduced, which provides insight into the validity of the gradual channel approximation in the case of OFETs, the impact of the channel thickness, and the nature of microscopic charge transport.

  11. Organic Field-Effect Transistors: A 3D Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of the Current Characteristics in Micrometer-Sized Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Haoyuan; Li, Yuan; Li, Hong; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are usually characterized by applying models initially developed for inorganic-based devices, which often implies the use of approximations that might be inappropriate for organic semiconductors. These approximations have brought limitations to the understanding of the device physics associated with organic materials. A strategy to overcome this issue is to establish straightforward connections between the macroscopic current characteristics and microscopic charge transport in OFETs. Here, a 3D kinetic Monte Carlo model is developed that goes beyond both the conventional assumption of zero channel thickness and the gradual channel approximation to simulate carrier transport and current. Using parallel computing and a new algorithm that significantly improves the evaluation of electric potential within the device, this methodology allows the simulation of micrometer-sized OFETs. The current characteristics of representative OFET devices are well reproduced, which provides insight into the validity of the gradual channel approximation in the case of OFETs, the impact of the channel thickness, and the nature of microscopic charge transport.

  12. Numerical study of the influence of applied voltage on the current balance factor of single layer organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Fei-ping; Liu, Xiao-bin; Xing, Yong-zhong

    2014-01-01

    Current balance factor (CBF) value, the ratio of the recombination current density and the total current density of a device, has an important function in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), as well as in the performance of the organic electrophosphorescent devices. This paper investigates the influence of the applied voltage of a device on the CBF value of single layer OLED based on the numerical model of a bipolar single layer OLED with organic layer trap free and without doping. Results show that the largest CBF value can be achieved when the electron injection barrier (ϕ n ) is equal to the hole injection barrier (ϕ p ) in the lower voltage region at any instance. The largest CBF in the higher voltage region can be achieved in the case of ϕ n  > ϕ p under the condition of electron mobility (μ 0n ) > hole mobility (μ 0p ), whereas the result for the case of μ 0n   0p , is opposite. The largest CBF when μ 0n  = μ 0p can be achieved in the case of ϕ n  = ϕ p in the entire region of the applied voltage. In addition, the CBF value of the device increases with increasing applied voltage. The results obtained in this paper can present an in-depth understanding of the OLED working mechanism and help in the future fabrication of high efficiency OLEDs

  13. [Organizational recommendations for day surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    In France, the delayed development of day surgery compared to other countries led the ANAP and the HAS in 2011 to enter into a joint work program to provide some reference guide for hospitals to change their practices to outpatient. In this context, organizational guidelines and operational tools were published in May 2013. The method of construction of the recommendations resulting from an original work that combined a three-fold approach: field vision by identifying the highlights of 15 hospitals selected for their representative performance and analyzing the risks of five voluntary hospitals, mobilization organizational theories from the social sciences, using 53 professional experts. The work concluded on 16 organizational recommendations under four forms (basic principles, strategic elements, operational elements and perspectives). These recommendations are accompanied by tools and guides diagnosis and implementation, as well as productions for further reflection. These organizational recommendations confirmed the specificity of day surgery, which is not related to the act, but to the organization, management and optimization of different flows of a hospital (patient flow, professional flows, logistical, informational…). The performance of a day surgery organization is linked to its ability to control its flow and anticipation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  15. European framework for tuberculosis control and elimination in countries with a low incidence. Recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekmans, J F; Migliori, G B; Rieder, H L; Lees, J; Ruutu, P; Loddenkemper, R; Raviglione, M C

    2002-04-01

    As countries approach the elimination phase of tuberculosis, specific problems and challenges emerge, due to the steadily declining incidence in the native population, the gradually increasing importance of the importation of latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis from other countries and the emergence of groups at particularly high risk of tuberculosis. Therefore, a Working Group of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and the Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) have developed a new framework for low incidence countries based on concepts and definitions consistent with those of previous recommendations from WHO/IUATLD Working Groups. In low-incidence countries, a broader spectrum of interventions is available and feasible, including: 1) a general approach to tuberculosis which ensures rapid detection and treatment of all the cases and prevention of unnecessary deaths; 2) an overall control strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of tuberculosis infection (risk-group management and prevention of transmission of infection in institutional settings) and 3) a tuberculosis elimination strategy aimed at reducing the prevalence of tuberculosis infection (outbreak management and provision of preventive therapy for specified groups and individuals). Government and private sector commitment towards elimination, effective case detection among symptomatic individuals together with active case finding in special groups, standard treatment of disease and infection, access to tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services, prevention (e.g. through screening and bacille Calmette-Guéria immunization in specified groups), surveillance and treatment outcome monitoring are prerequisites to implementing the policy package recommended in this new framework document.

  16. El VIH/sida en el lugar de trabajo: Recomendaciones prácticas de la OIT HIV/AIDS in the workplace: Practical recommendations from the International Labor Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available There are now some 36 million people in the world infected with HIV/AIDS. It is estimated that more than 23 million of them are economically active, including 642 000 persons in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the workplace, HIV/ AIDS reduces incomes, imposes added costs on companies, and undermines fundamental labor laws due to the discrimination and rejection that infected individuals suffer. In response, the International Labor Organization (ILO has produced a document entitled An ILO code of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work, which is summarized in this piece. The ILO document aims to help those in the workplace to cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic through a set of guidelines related to: (a preventing infection, (b managing and reducing the impact that HIV/AIDS has on the workplace, (c delivering care and support for infected workers and, in general, to all the people affected by this epidemic, and (d eliminating discrimination against persons who are infected or are suspected of being infected. The ILO Code is intended to help in preparing and adopting specific measures in the workplace, thus promoting dialogue and other forms of cooperation among the government, employers, workers and their representatives, workplace health and safety officers, HIV/AIDS specialists, and other interested parties. The intention is also for the Code recommendations to be implemented and integrated with national laws, policies, and programs; company or business agreements; and workplace policies and action plans. This ILO Code is an important step in the struggle against HIV/AIDS. Aimed at governments, employers, and workers throughout the world, the Code recommendations constitute a useful tool in addressing the problem of HIV/AIDS in the workplace, in a just manner. As a "motor" of society, work cannot remain separated from issues of such great social impact.

  17. Current state of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward organ transplantation among academic students in Poland and the potential means for altering them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, E; Pfitzner, R; Koźlik, P; Kozynacka, A; Durajski, L; Przybyłowski, P

    2014-10-01

    Students manifest a high level of social commitment. Improving their knowledge and developing more positive attitudes toward organ transplantation may increase the number of organ donations. This study was an assessment of the knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation among young people in Poland, with an overview of current beliefs and potential methods for improving transplantology awareness. The study included 400 medical students and 400 nonmedical students from public universities in Kraków, Poland. Data were collected by using an anonymous questionnaire examining demographic factors and transplantology issues. Despite the overall positive attitude toward transplantology among academic students in Poland, the state of knowledge of the nonmedical population remains relatively low. The most important issues for social education to focus on are the role of presumed consent and brain death diagnosis, actual hazards of living donations, recipient qualification criteria, and the attitudes of religious authorities. The overall level of knowledge and the number of positive attitudes were significantly higher among medical students than among nonmedical students, proving that formal educational programs are more efficient than the more accessible but less reliable sources of knowledge. Introduction of transplantology issues in schools and churches, promoting the positive outcomes of organ transplantation rather than negating false beliefs, and eliminating misleading information from the media may significantly increase young people's knowledge and result in more positive attitudes toward transplantology in a society-wide fashion. This outcome could create a favorable background for introducing an opt-in system of consent for organ donation.

  18. The new ICRP general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Ch.; Kosako, T.; Kuniyoshi, H.; Kiryu, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Burns, P.A.; Pan, Z.Q.; Xia, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory views from Japan, South Korea, Australia, China and Indonesia were explained based on their regional context. Some issues, for example 'optimisation', 'dose constrains', 'natural radioactivity', were addressed from the viewpoint of how each country's current regulation system would adopt these new recommendations. It was noted that there would be a need for some flexibility in applying these new recommendations since different countries have different regulatory criteria and benchmarks as well different decision-making processes. It was also noted that definitions and terminologies should be given serious consideration with regard to non-English speaking countries to assure that the new ICRP recommendations are clearly understood, not misinterpreted, easily translated and finally applied in the field of radiation protection. In addition, some recent radiation protection activities, as well as views on utilisation of nuclear power in several countries were presented. (authors)

  19. Grating-coupled surface plasmon enhanced short-circuit current in organic thin-film photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Akira; Aoki, Nobutaka; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced organic thin-film photovoltaic cells and their improved photocurrent properties. The cell consists of a grating substrate/silver/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS structure. Blu-ray disk recordable substrates are used as the diffraction grating substrates on which silver films are deposited by vacuum evaporation. P3HT:PCBM films are spin-coated on silver/grating substrates. Low conductivity PEDOT:PSS/PDADMAC layer-by-layer ultrathin films deposited on P3HT:PCBM films act as the hole transport layer, whereas high conductivity PEDOT:PSS films deposited by spin-coating act as the anode. SPR excitations are observed in the fabricated cells upon irradiation with white light. Up to a 2-fold increase in the short-circuit photocurrent is observed when the surface plasmon (SP) is excited on the silver gratings as compared to that without SP excitation. The finite-difference time-domain simulation indicates that the electric field in the P3HT:PCBM layer can be increased using the grating-coupled SP technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Current PCR Methods for the Detection, Identification and Quantification of Genetically Modified Organisms(GMOs: a Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadani F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technology are increasingly used for the detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequences associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs. In the European Union and Switzerland, mandatory labeling of novel foods and food ingredients consisting of, or containing GMOs is required according to food regulations and is triggered by the presence of newly introduced foreign DNA sequences, or newly expressed proteins. In order to meet regulatory and consumer demand, numerous PCR-based methods have been developed which can detect, identify and quantify GMOs in agricultural crops, food and feed. Moreover, the determination of genetic identity allows for segregation and traceability (identity preservation throughout the supply chain of GM crops that have been enhanced with value-added quality traits. Prerequisites for GMO detection include a minimum amount of the target gene and prior knowledge of the type of genetic modification, such as virus or insect resistance traits, including controlling elements (promoters and terminators. Moreover, DNA extraction and purification is a critical step for the preparation of PCR-quality samples, particularly for processed agricultural crops such as tobacco. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PCR-based method development for the qualitative and quantitative determination and identification of GMOs, and includes a short summary of official and validated GMO detection methods.

  1. Omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid intake of children and older adults in the U.S.: dietary intake in comparison to current dietary recommendations and the Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly W; Cheatham, Carol L

    2018-03-09

    Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their ratio have been shown to affect cognitive function in children and older adults. With these analyses, we aimed to describe omega-6 and omega-3 FA intake among children and older adults in light of FA intake recommendations and with consideration of overall diet. Data were merged from two cross-sectional studies with 219 children 7 to 12 years old and one longitudinal study with 133 adults 65 to 79 years old. Demographic data, anthropometric data, and Healthy Eating Index scores were used to study relations among the omega-6 to omega-3 FA ratio and age, education, body mass index, and diet quality. FA intake, demographic, and anthropometric data were examined using partial correlations, t-tests, and analysis of variance. Most children and adults consumed at least the recommended amount of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; omega-3) for their age and gender without consuming high amounts of linoleic acid (LA; omega-6), but did not consume sufficient eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; omega-) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; omega-3). The average omega-6 to omega-3 ratios in both groups were lower than previously reported. Eating lower ratios was associated with healthier diets and consuming adequate amounts of several other nutrients. No demographic or anthropometric variables were related to FA intake in children. Adults with a college degree had significantly lower ratios than those without a college degree. American children and older adults are able to consume more balanced omega-6 to omega-3 ratios than has been indicated by commodity data. However, very few American children met even the lowest recommendations for EPA and DHA intake. Research is needed to clarify recommendations for the optimal ratio across development, which may aid in increasing EPA and DHA intake and improving health outcomes in the United States. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02199808 13 July 2014, NCT01823419 (retrospectively registered) 20 March 2013, and NCT

  2. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Defining and Supporting Narrative-driven Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    Research into recommendation algorithms has made great strides in recent years. However, these algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios: given information about a user's past preferences, what will they like in the future? Recommendation is often more complex......: evaluating recommended items never takes place in a vacuum, and it is often a single step in the user's more complex background task. In this paper, we define a specific type of recommendation scenario called narrative-driven recommendation, where the recommendation process is driven by both a log...... of the user's past transactions as well as a narrative description of their current interest(s). Through an analysis of a set of real-world recommendation narratives from the LibraryThing forums, we demonstrate the uniqueness and richness of this scenario and highlight common patterns and properties...

  4. Rating Methods for Proactive Recommendation on Smartwatches

    OpenAIRE

    Janosch Maier, Wolfgang Wörndl

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes possible interaction methods for using a recommender system on a smartwatch. As prerequisite, we describe interaction patterns currently used by Android Wear applications. Based on a prototype implementation the interaction methods action buttons, two button card and swipes are compared against each other. In a user study, 31 participating students were asked to rate restaurant recommendations offered in the setting of a context-aware, proactive recommender system. For eac...

  5. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  6. Barrier Parameters and Current Transport Characteristics of Ti/ p-InP Schottky Junction Modified Using Orange G (OG) Organic Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenu, K.; Venkata Prasad, C.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2017-10-01

    A Ti/Orange G/ p-InP metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) junction has been prepared with Orange G (OG) organic layer by electron beam evaporation and spin coating processes. The electrical properties of Ti/ p-InP metal/semiconductor (MS) and Ti/OG/ p-InP MIS junctions have been analyzed based on current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics. The MIS junction exhibited higher rectifying behavior than the MS junction. The higher barrier height (BH) of the MIS junction compared with the MS junction indicates effective modification by the OG layer. Also, the BH, ideality factor, shunt resistance, and series resistance were extracted based on the I- V characteristic, Cheung's and Norde's methods, and the ΨS- V plot. The BH evaluated by Cheung's and Norde's methods and the ΨS- V plot was shown to be similar, confirming the reliability and validity of the methods applied. The extracted interface state density ( N SS) of the MIS junction was less than for the MS junction, revealing that the OG organic layer reduced the N SS value. Analysis demonstrated that, in the lower bias region, the reverse current conduction mechanism was dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission for both the MS and MIS junction. Meanwhile, in the higher bias region, Schottky emission governed the reverse current conduction mechanism. The results suggest that such OG layers have potential for use in high-quality electronic devices.

  7. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abaidani, Idris Al; Fazlalipour, Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Memish, Ziad A; Hewson, Roger; Petersen, Eskild; Mala, Peter; Nhu Nguyen, Tran Minh; Rahman Malik, Mamunur; Formenty, Pierre; Jeffries, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR), with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae) in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif S. Al-Abri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR, with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV.

  9. World Health Organization guidelines should not change the CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-02

    Mar 2, 2013 ... The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends that HIV-positive adults start antiretroviral therapy (ART) at. CD4 counts <350 cells/µl. Several countries have changed their guidelines to recommend ART irrespective of CD4 count or at a threshold of 500 CD4 cells/µl. Consequently, WHO is ...

  10. Management of premature rupture of membranes at term: the need to correct a recurring mistake in articles, chapters, and recommendations of professional organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krispin, Eyal

    2017-12-01

    Recommendations about the management of premature rupture of membranes at term are based, in part, on a large, randomized controlled trial published in 1996: the TERMPROM trial. The original article contained an error in Table 1, in which "Interval from membrane rupture to delivery" was listed instead of "Interval from membrane rupture to study entry." While the authors and journal corrected this error, the mistake published in the original paper has made its way into subsequent publications and even in guidelines or practice bulletins issued by professional organizations, textbooks, and other publications around the world. The mistake, that half of women with premature rupture of membranes at term who were managed expectantly delivered within 5 hours and 95% delivered within 28 hours of membrane rupture, should be replaced with the actual fact that half of women with premature rupture of membranes at term who were managed expectantly delivered within 33 hours, and 95% delivered within 94-107 hours of membrane rupture. Correcting this error in contemporary health care information and publications is important to counsel patients accurately and to optimize the clinical care of women with premature rupture of membranes at term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual kidney transplantation involving organs from expanded criteria donors: a review of our series and an update on current indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Polo, J; Pamplona-Casamayor, M; Miranda-Utrera, N; González-Monte, E; Passas-Martínez, J B; Andrés Belmonte, A

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose was to review our kidney transplantation program based on the use of expanded criteria donors, and to determine current indications for dual kidney transplantation (DKT). In 1996, a program was initiated to transplant kidneys from donors of over 60 years performing single or dual transplantation. In 1996, a program was initiated to transplant kidneys from donors of over 60 years performing single or dual transplantation. DKT were performed with donors >75 and donors between 60 and 74 years of age and glomerulosclerosis of >15%. The kidneys of donors between 60 and 74 years of age and with glomerulosclerosis of 15%, taking into account donor and recipient characteristics. From 1996 to 2004, 222 SKTs and 88 DKTs were performed. Graft survival after 1 and 4 years was, respectively, 91% and 78% for SKT and 95% and 79% for DKT. In 2005, we started to perform SKT despite glomerulosclerosis being >15%, taking into account donor and recipient characteristics. From 2005 to 2011, 328 SKT and 32 DKT were performed. During this period most kidneys used for DKT were from female donors >75 years old, weighing 1 mg/dL and glomerulosclerosis of >15%. The recipients for DKT were mostly male, 75 kg. DKT from expanded criteria donors shows good outcomes. However, in many cases SKT may fulfill the need of the recipient. The archetype for DKT is an older female weighing <65 kg and the most common recipient is an overweight male who is <70 years old. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-10-14 to 1979-08-24 (NODC Accession 7900335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind direction data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  13. Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxis substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1981-03-24 to 1982-02-19 (NODC Accession 8200129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxic substances, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments...

  14. Numerical study of the influence of applied voltage on the current balance factor of single layer organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Fei-ping, E-mail: lufp-sysu@163.com; Liu, Xiao-bin; Xing, Yong-zhong [College of Physics and Information Science, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741001 (China)

    2014-04-28

    Current balance factor (CBF) value, the ratio of the recombination current density and the total current density of a device, has an important function in fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), as well as in the performance of the organic electrophosphorescent devices. This paper investigates the influence of the applied voltage of a device on the CBF value of single layer OLED based on the numerical model of a bipolar single layer OLED with organic layer trap free and without doping. Results show that the largest CBF value can be achieved when the electron injection barrier (ϕ{sub n}) is equal to the hole injection barrier (ϕ{sub p}) in the lower voltage region at any instance. The largest CBF in the higher voltage region can be achieved in the case of ϕ{sub n} > ϕ{sub p} under the condition of electron mobility (μ{sub 0n}) > hole mobility (μ{sub 0p}), whereas the result for the case of μ{sub 0n} < μ{sub 0p}, is opposite. The largest CBF when μ{sub 0n} = μ{sub 0p} can be achieved in the case of ϕ{sub n} = ϕ{sub p} in the entire region of the applied voltage. In addition, the CBF value of the device increases with increasing applied voltage. The results obtained in this paper can present an in-depth understanding of the OLED working mechanism and help in the future fabrication of high efficiency OLEDs.

  15. Correlation between the critical current and the structural transformation near 80 K in the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirbiyine, A.; Senoussi, S.; Pesty, F.; Taoufik, A.; Ramzi, A.; Labrag, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have systematically studied the critical current and the magnetic susceptibility as a function of the cooling rate through the order-disorder transformation near 80 K for the κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Br organic superconductor. Our results show that the magnetic properties of these compounds depend strongly on the cooling rate V c , and this disorder can influence very strongly the physics of the vortex lattice. The degree of ordering depends on the cooling rate through 80 K. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Polio vaccines: WHO position paper, January 2014--recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    This article presents the World Health Organizations (WHO) evidence and recommendations for the use of polio vaccination from the WHO position paper on polio vaccines - January 2014 recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules as a strategy to mitigate the potential risk of re-emergence of type 2 polio following the withdrawal of Sabin type 2 strains from oral polio vaccine (OPV). The current document replaces the position paper on the use of polio vaccines published in 2010 [2]. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its November 2013 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2014 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. HGVS Recommendations for the Description of Sequence Variants: 2016 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Dunnen, Johan T; Dalgleish, Raymond; Maglott, Donna R; Hart, Reece K; Greenblatt, Marc S; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Roux, Anne-Francoise; Smith, Timothy; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Taschner, Peter E M

    2016-06-01

    The consistent and unambiguous description of sequence variants is essential to report and exchange information on the analysis of a genome. In particular, DNA diagnostics critically depends on accurate and standardized description and sharing of the variants detected. The sequence variant nomenclature system proposed in 2000 by the Human Genome Variation Society has been widely adopted and has developed into an internationally accepted standard. The recommendations are currently commissioned through a Sequence Variant Description Working Group (SVD-WG) operating under the auspices of three international organizations: the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS), the Human Variome Project (HVP), and the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Requests for modifications and extensions go through the SVD-WG following a standard procedure including a community consultation step. Version numbers are assigned to the nomenclature system to allow users to specify the version used in their variant descriptions. Here, we present the current recommendations, HGVS version 15.11, and briefly summarize the changes that were made since the 2000 publication. Most focus has been on removing inconsistencies and tightening definitions allowing automatic data processing. An extensive version of the recommendations is available online, at http://www.HGVS.org/varnomen. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...

  19. EURRECA—Framework for Aligning Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Grammatikaki, E.; Matthys, C.; Raats, M.M.; Contor, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no standard approach for deriving micronutrient recommendations, and large variations exist across Europe, causing confusion among consumers, food producers, and policy makers. More aligned information could influence dietary behaviors and potentially lead to a healthier

  20. Asymptotic and numerical prediction of current-voltage curves for an organic bilayer solar cell under varying illumination and comparison to the Shockley equivalent circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified version of the standard drift-diffusion equations is employed in which minority carrier densities are neglected. This is justified by the large disparities in electron affinity and ionisation potential between the two materials. The resulting equations are solved (via both asymptotic and numerical techniques) in conjunction with (i) Ohmic boundary conditions on the contacts and (ii) an internal boundary condition, imposed on the interface between the two materials, that accounts for charge pair generation (resulting from the dissociation of excitons) and charge pair recombination. Current-voltage curves are calculated from the solution to this model as a function of the strength of the solar charge generation. In the physically relevant power generating regime, it is shown that these current-voltage curves are well-approximated by a Shockley equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, since our drift-diffusion model is predictive, it can be used to directly calculate equivalent circuit parameters from the material parameters of the device. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  1. Nursing recruitment: relationship between perceived employer image and nursing employees' recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the relationship between nursing employees' perceptions of instrumental and symbolic dimensions of employer image on the one hand and their intentions to recommend their organization as an employer and their willingness to testify in their organization's recruitment materials on the other. Previous research suggests that word-of-mouth recommendations by current nursing employees can enhance healthcare organizations' attractiveness as an employer for potential applicants. However, it is not known what motivates employees to provide positive word-of-mouth comments and to endorse their employer in recruitment testimonials. The instrumental-symbolic framework was applied to identify relevant dimensions of perceived employer image that might relate to employee recommendations. A questionnaire was administered in 2006 to 106 nurses and nursing aides from four non-profit nursing homes in Belgium. The response rate was 55%. Overall, nursing employees were more willing to recommend their nursing home to others than to testify in recruitment materials. Both instrumental and symbolic employer image dimensions predicted nursing employees' recommendation intentions. Conversely, willingness to testify was only predicted by symbolic image dimensions. Specifically, the more the nursing employees perceived that their nursing home offers task diversity, offers the possibility to help people and is prestigious, the more they intended to recommend their organization to others. The more they perceived their nursing home as competent, the higher were their recommendation intentions and their willingness to testify in recruitment communication. To increase nursing employees' willingness to recommend their employer to potential applicants, organizations should enhance their perceived employer image.

  2. Global Advisory Group: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The conclusions and recommendations formulated for the global program by the 8th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group, which took place during November 1985, are summarized. The Global Advisory Group recommends that, in furtherance of the Five-Point Action Program endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 1983, 3 general and 4 specific actions be taken by national immunization programs with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) to accelerate EPI progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world can be realized but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. The general actions are: to promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; to adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and to ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen th delivery of other primary health care interventions. The specific actions are as follows: to provide immunization at every contact point; to reduce dropout rates between 1st and last immunizations; to improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas; and to increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. The WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have collaborated in support of the EPI since the early days of the program. The acceleration of national efforts heightens the importance of this collaboration, particularly at the national level. It may be further facilitated by the provision of policy guidance from global and regional levels, by WHO and UNICEF collaborative agreements at the regional level, and by country agreements

  3. The drift-diffusion interpretation of the electron current within the organic semiconductor characterized by the bulk single energy trap level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvikl, B.

    2010-01-01

    The closed solution for the internal electric field and the total charge density derived in the drift-diffusion approximation for the model of a single layer organic semiconductor structure characterized by the bulk shallow single trap-charge energy level is presented. The solutions for two examples of electric field boundary conditions are tested on room temperature current density-voltage data of the electron conducting aluminum/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum/calcium structure [W. Brütting et al., Synth. Met. 122, 99 (2001)] for which jexp∝Va3.4, within the interval of bias 0.4 V≤Va≤7. In each case investigated the apparent electron mobility determined at given bias is distributed within a given, finite interval of values. The bias dependence of the logarithm of their lower limit, i.e., their minimum values, is found to be in each case, to a good approximation, proportional to the square root of the applied electric field. On account of the bias dependence as incorporated in the minimum value of the apparent electron mobility the spatial distribution of the organic bulk electric field as well as the total charge density turn out to be bias independent. The first case investigated is based on the boundary condition of zero electric field at the electron injection interface. It is shown that for minimum valued apparent mobilities, the strong but finite accumulation of electrons close to the anode is obtained, which characterize the inverted space charge limited current (SCLC) effect. The second example refers to the internal electric field allowing for self-adjustment of its boundary values. The total electron charge density is than found typically to be of U shape, which may, depending on the parameters, peak at both or at either Alq3 boundary. It is this example in which the proper SCLC effect is consequently predicted. In each of the above two cases, the calculations predict the minimum values of the electron apparent mobility, which substantially

  4. Recommender Systems for Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Technology enhanced learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test sociotechnical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of both individuals and organisations. It is therefore an application domain that generally covers technologies that support all forms of teaching and learning activities. Since information retrieval (in terms of searching for relevant learning resources to support teachers or learners) is a pivotal activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has attracted increased interest. This brief attempts to provide an introduction to recommender systems for TEL settings, as well as to highlight their particularities compared to recommender systems for other application domains.

  5. 1990 recommendations of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Main Commission of ICRP finalised its new recommendations during its November 1990 meeting. The recommendations will appear in the Annals of the ICRP in 1991 as Publication 60. This paper represents a personal summary of these recommendations. It covers the basic biological risk estimates and the conceptual framework of the system of radiological protection, the definition of radiation detriment and its use both in the definition of radiation quantities and in the establishment of the dose limits adopted by the Main Commissions. (author)

  6. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  7. Efficiency roll-off suppression in organic light-emitting diodes using size-tunable bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas at high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yukun; Yun, Feng; Li, Yufeng; Feng, Lungang; Ding, Wen; Huang, Yi; Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiao, Bo; Li, Sanfeng; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Size-tunable bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas have been utilized to suppress the efficiency roll-off characteristics in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using both the numerical and experimental approaches. The resonant range can be widened by the strong dual-atomic couplings in bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas. Compared with the green OLED with conventional bowtie nanoantennas at a high current density of 800 mA/cm"2, the measured efficiency roll-off ratio of the OLED with size-modulated bowtie nanoantennas is decreased from 53.2% to 41.8%, and the measured current efficiency is enhanced by 29.9%. When the size-modulated bowtie nanoantennas are utilized in blue phosphorescent OLEDs, the experimental roll-off ratio is suppressed from 43.6% to 25.9% at 250 mA/cm"2, and the measured current efficiency is also enhanced significantly. It is proposed that the efficiency roll-off suppression is mainly related to the enhanced localized surface plasmon effect, which leads to a shorter radiative lifetime.

  8. Efficiency roll-off suppression in organic light-emitting diodes using size-tunable bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yukun [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics & Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Yun, Feng, E-mail: fyun2010@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, Yufeng; Feng, Lungang; Ding, Wen [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics & Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Huang, Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiao, Bo; Li, Sanfeng [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics & Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhang, Ye [Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-07-04

    Size-tunable bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas have been utilized to suppress the efficiency roll-off characteristics in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using both the numerical and experimental approaches. The resonant range can be widened by the strong dual-atomic couplings in bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas. Compared with the green OLED with conventional bowtie nanoantennas at a high current density of 800 mA/cm{sup 2}, the measured efficiency roll-off ratio of the OLED with size-modulated bowtie nanoantennas is decreased from 53.2% to 41.8%, and the measured current efficiency is enhanced by 29.9%. When the size-modulated bowtie nanoantennas are utilized in blue phosphorescent OLEDs, the experimental roll-off ratio is suppressed from 43.6% to 25.9% at 250 mA/cm{sup 2}, and the measured current efficiency is also enhanced significantly. It is proposed that the efficiency roll-off suppression is mainly related to the enhanced localized surface plasmon effect, which leads to a shorter radiative lifetime.

  9. Probabilistic approaches to recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Nicola; Ritacco, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accurate recommender systems has been widely recognized by academia and industry, and recommendation is rapidly becoming one of the most successful applications of data mining and machine learning. Understanding and predicting the choices and preferences of users is a challenging task: real-world scenarios involve users behaving in complex situations, where prior beliefs, specific tendencies, and reciprocal influences jointly contribute to determining the preferences of users toward huge amounts of information, services, and products. Probabilistic modeling represents a robus

  10. Scientific and educational recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, A. I.; Kireev, V. S.; Bochkarev, P. V.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Philippov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the questions associated with the use of reference systems in the preparation of graduates in physical function. The objective of this research is creation of model of recommender system user from the sphere of science and education. The detailed review of current scientific and social network for scientists and the problem of constructing recommender systems in this area. The result of this study is to research user information model systems. The model is presented in two versions: the full one - in the form of a semantic network, and short - in a relational form. The relational model is the projection in the form of semantic network, taking into account the restrictions on the amount of bonds that characterize the number of information items (research results), which interact with the system user.

  11. What is the gold standard for comprehensive interinstitutional communication of perioperative information for thyroid cancer patients? A comparison of existing electronic health records with the current American Thyroid Association recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Laura L; Tuttle, R Michael; Alon, Eran; Bergman, Donald A; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise M; Cobin, Rhoda; Doherty, Gerard; Harris, Jeffrey R; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L; Lupo, Mark; Milas, Mira; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Orloff, Lisa; Randolph, Gregory; Ross, Douglas S; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David James; Tufano, Ralph P; Mehra, Saral; Scherl, Sophie; Clain, Jason B; Urken, Mark L

    2014-10-01

    Appropriate management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer requires treating clinicians to have access to critical elements of the patient's presentation, surgical management, postoperative course, and pathologic assessment. Electronic health records (EHRs) provide an effective method for the storage and transmission of patient information, although most commercially available EHRs are not intended to be disease-specific. In addition, there are significant challenges for the sharing of relevant clinical information when providers involved in the care of a patient with thyroid cancer are not connected by a common EHR. In 2012, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) defined the critical elements for optimal interclinician communication in a position paper entitled, "The Essential Elements of Interdisciplinary Communication of Perioperative Information for Patients Undergoing Thyroid Cancer Surgery." We present a field-by-field comparison of the ATA's essential elements as applied to three contemporary electronic reporting systems: the Thyroid Surgery e-Form from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the Alberta WebSMR from the University of Calgary, and the Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC). The MSKCC e-form fulfills 21 of 32 intraoperative fields and includes an additional 14 fields not specifically mentioned in the ATA's report. The Alberta WebSMR fulfills 45 of 82 preoperative and intraoperative fields outlined by the ATA and includes 13 additional fields. The TCCC fulfills 117 of 120 fields outlined by the ATA and includes 23 additional fields. Effective management of thyroid cancer is a highly collaborative, multidisciplinary effort. The patient information that factors into clinical decisions about thyroid cancer is complex. For these reasons, EHRs are particularly favorable for the management of patients with thyroid cancer. The MSKCC Thyroid Surgery e-Form, the Alberta WebSMR, and the TCCC each meet all of the general recommendations for

  12. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  13. Soft sensors in bioprocessing: A status report and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luttmann, Reiner; Bracewell, Daniel G.; Cornelissen, Gesine

    2012-01-01

    The following report with recommendations is the result of an expert panel meeting on soft sensor applications in bioprocess engineering that was organized by the Measurement, Monitoring, Modelling and Control (M3C) Working Group of the European Federation of Biotechnology - Section of Biochemical...... Engineering Science (ESBES). The aim of the panel was to provide an update on the present status of the subject and to identify critical needs and issues for the furthering of the successful development of soft sensor methods in bioprocess engineering research and for industrial applications, in particular...... with focus on biopharmaceutical applications. It concludes with a set of recommendations, which highlight current prospects for the extended use of soft sensors and those areas requiring development....

  14. ICRP-recommendations on dose limits for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Dose limits proposed by the ICRP have been incorporated in most national and international standards and their respect has caused a distribution of doses with a average not exceeding 1/10 of the maximum permissible dose. This distribution corresponds to a risk which is well within the risks in 'safe industries'. There are at present some inconsistancies in the current system of recommended limits, for example having the same limit of 5 rem for the whole-body and also for some organs. Hopefully, this incosistancy will be removed in the next recommendation of the ICRP. But the whole-body limit of 5 rem in a year has been safe and there is little ground to reduce this limit on the basis of comparisons with 'safe industries'. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Global initiatives to tackle organ trafficking and transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza; Delmonico, Francis L

    2013-11-01

    The increasing gap between organ supply and demand has opened the door for illegal organ sale, trafficking of human organs, tissues and cells, as well as transplant tourism. Currently, underprivileged and vulnerable populations in resource-poor countries are a major source of organs for rich patient-tourists who can afford to purchase organs at home or abroad. This paper presents a summary of international initiatives, such as World Health Organization's Principle Guidelines, The Declaration of Istanbul, Asian Task Force Recommendations, as well as UNESCO's and the United Nation's initiatives against trafficking of human organs, tissues, cells, and transplant tourism. Beyond the summary, it calls for more practical measures to be taken to implement the existing guidelines and recommendations, in order to prevent exploitation of the poor as organ providers. The paper suggests that an international legally binding agreement in criminalizing organ trafficking would be a step forward to bring a change in the global picture of organ trafficking and transplant tourism.

  16. Maximization of current efficiency for organic pollutants oxidation at BDD, Ti/SnO2-Sb/PbO2, and Ti/SnO2-Sb anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xuan; Ni, Jinren; Zhu, Xiuping; Jiang, Yi; Xia, Jianxin

    2018-08-01

    Whereas electrochemical oxidation is noted for its ability to degrade bio-refractory organics, it has also been incorrectly criticized for excessive energy consumption. The present paper rectifies this misunderstanding by demonstrating that the energy actually consumed in the degradation process is much less than that wasted in the side reaction of oxygen evolution. To minimize the side reaction, the possible highest instantaneous current efficiency (PHICE) for electrochemical oxidation of phenol at Boron-doped Diamond (BDD), Ti/SnO 2 -Sb/PbO 2 (PbO 2 ), and Ti/SnO 2 -Sb (SnO 2 ) anodes has been investigated systematically, and found to reach almost 100% at the BDD anode compared with 23% at the PbO 2 anode and 9% at the SnO 2 anode. The significant discrepancy between PHICE values at the various anodes is interpreted in terms of different existing forms of hydroxyl radicals. For each anode system, the PHICEs are maintained experimentally using a computer-controlled exponential decay current mode throughout the electrolysis process. For applications, the minimized energy consumption is predicted by response surface methodology, and demonstrated for the BDD anode system. Consequently, almost 100% current efficiency is achieved (for a relatively meagre energy consumption of 17.2 kWh kgCOD -1 ) along with excellent COD degradation efficiency by optimizing the initial current density, flow rate, electrolysis time, and exponential decay constant. Compared with galvanostatic conditions, over 70% of the energy is saved in the present study, thus demonstrating the great potential of electrochemical oxidation for practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  18. Characterization and implementation of OSL dosimeters for use in evaluating the efficacy of organ-based tube current modulation for CT scans of the face and orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R. M.; Silosky, M., E-mail: michael.silosky@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to characterize commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters for general clinical applications and apply the results to the development of a method to evaluate the efficacy of a vendor-specific organ-based tube current modulation application for both phantom and clinical computed tomography (CT) scans of the face and orbits. Methods: This study consisted of three components: (1) thorough characterization of the dosimeters for CT scans in phantom, including evaluations of depletion, fading, angular dependence, and conversion from counts to absorbed dose; (2) evaluation of the efficacy of using plastic glasses to position the dosimeters over the eyes in both phantom and clinical studies; and (3) preliminary dosimetry measurements made using organ-based tube current modulation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and anthropomorphic phantom studies. Results: (1) Depletion effects were found to have a linear relationship with the output of the OSL dosimeters (R{sup 2} = 0.96). Fading was found to affect dosimeter readings during the first two hours following exposure but had no effect during the remaining 60-h period observed. No significant angular dependence was observed for the exposure conditions used in this study (with p-values ranging from 0.9 to 0.26 for all t-tests). Dosimeter counts varied linearly with absorbed dose when measured in the center and 12 o’clock positions of the CTDI phantoms. These linear models of counts versus absorbed dose had overlapping 95% confidence intervals for the intercepts but not for the slopes. (2) When dosimeters were positioned using safety glasses, there was no adverse effect on image quality, and there was no statistically significant difference between this placement and placement of the dosimeters directly on the eyes of the phantom (p = 0.24). (3) When using organ-based tube current modulation, the dose to the lens of the eye was reduced between 19% and

  19. Characterization and implementation of OSL dosimeters for use in evaluating the efficacy of organ-based tube current modulation for CT scans of the face and orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, R. M.; Silosky, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to characterize commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters for general clinical applications and apply the results to the development of a method to evaluate the efficacy of a vendor-specific organ-based tube current modulation application for both phantom and clinical computed tomography (CT) scans of the face and orbits. Methods: This study consisted of three components: (1) thorough characterization of the dosimeters for CT scans in phantom, including evaluations of depletion, fading, angular dependence, and conversion from counts to absorbed dose; (2) evaluation of the efficacy of using plastic glasses to position the dosimeters over the eyes in both phantom and clinical studies; and (3) preliminary dosimetry measurements made using organ-based tube current modulation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and anthropomorphic phantom studies. Results: (1) Depletion effects were found to have a linear relationship with the output of the OSL dosimeters (R 2 = 0.96). Fading was found to affect dosimeter readings during the first two hours following exposure but had no effect during the remaining 60-h period observed. No significant angular dependence was observed for the exposure conditions used in this study (with p-values ranging from 0.9 to 0.26 for all t-tests). Dosimeter counts varied linearly with absorbed dose when measured in the center and 12 o’clock positions of the CTDI phantoms. These linear models of counts versus absorbed dose had overlapping 95% confidence intervals for the intercepts but not for the slopes. (2) When dosimeters were positioned using safety glasses, there was no adverse effect on image quality, and there was no statistically significant difference between this placement and placement of the dosimeters directly on the eyes of the phantom (p = 0.24). (3) When using organ-based tube current modulation, the dose to the lens of the eye was reduced between 19% and 43

  20. Current approach to the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease - Combination of comprehensive diagnostic and organ-specific criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Hisanori; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Takuji; Satoh-Nakamura, Tomomi; Nakajima, Akio; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2017-05-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fascinating clinical entity proposed by Japanese investigators, and includes a wide variety of diseases, formerly diagnosed as Mikulicz's disease (MD), autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), interstitial nephritis, prostatitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, etc. Although all clinicians in every field of medicine may encounter this new disease, a unifying diagnostic criterion has not been established. In 2011, the Japanese IgG4 team, organized by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan, published comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. Several problems with these criteria have arisen in clinical practice, however, including the difficulty obtaining biopsy samples from some patients, and the sensitivity and the specificity of techniques used to measure serum IgG4 concentrations. Although serum IgG4 concentration is an important clinical marker for IgG4-RD, its diagnostic utility in differentiating IgG4-RD from other diseases, called IgG4-RD mimickers, remains unclear. This review describes the current optimal approach for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, based on both comprehensive and organ-specific diagnostic criteria, in patients with diseases such as IgG4-related pancreatitis (AIP), sclerosing cholangitis, and renal, lung and orbital diseases.

  1. ExpertFOAF recommends experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iofcu, Tereza; Diederich, Joerg; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    FOAF files are often used for publishing simple information about persons and about their community. Our proposal is to extend the user's FOAF files with automatically generated user profiles, which are based on a histogram of the user's interest and which are also semantically enriched using...... recommender systems for finding users with similar interests and, hence, expertise in different domains. We consider a well-defined user profile to express best the user's current interests in a domain, where the domain (such as the research environment with students and professors) is defined by a collection...

  2. Summary (and) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report looks at the Health and Safety record at the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston. The last outside report was by Pochin in 1978 which recommended that staffing for health physicists and maintenance staff should be increased and that some buildings where solid and liquid radioactive wastes were processed should be replaced. A new facility to process contaminated heavy equipment was also recommended. This report finds that none of the recommendations have been fully implemented. It also lists accidents, fires and worker contamination. It is concluded that some of the problems are that nuclear weapons production is inherently unsafe and cannot be made safe, that the secrecy surrounding the establishments' safety record is not good for improving it and finally the report calls for production at Aldermaston to be halted. (UK)

  3. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...

  4. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...... the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations...

  5. A comprehensive study of charge trapping in organic field-effect devices with promising semiconductors and different contact metals by displacement current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisoyi, Sibani; Tiwari, Shree Prakash; Rödel, Reinhold; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Kang, Myeong Jin; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study on the charge-carrier injection and trapping behavior was performed using displacement current measurements in long-channel capacitors based on four promising small-molecule organic semiconductors (pentacene, DNTT, C 10 -DNTT and DPh-DNTT). In thin-film transistors, these semiconductors showed charge-carrier mobilities ranging from 1.0 to 7.8 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The number of charges injected into and extracted from the semiconductor and the density of charges trapped in the device during each measurement were calculated from the displacement current characteristics and it was found that the density of trapped charges is very similar in all devices and of the order 10 12 cm −2 , despite the fact that the four semiconductors show significantly different charge-carrier mobilities. The choice of the contact metal (Au, Ag, Cu, Pd) was also found to have no significant effect on the trapping behavior. (paper)

  6. Leakage Current Induced by Energetic Disorder in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Comprehending the Ultrahigh Loss of Open-Circuit Voltage at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Luo, Yongsong; Guo, Pengfei; Sun, Haibin; Yao, Yao

    2017-04-01

    The open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of organic solar cells generally approaches its maximum obtainable values as the temperature decreases. However, recent experiments have revealed that the Voc may suffer from an ultrahigh loss at low temperatures. In order to verify this explanation and investigate the impacts of energetic disorder on the temperature-dependent behaviors of the Voc in general, we calculate the Voc-T plots with the drift-diffusion method under various device working parameters. With the disorder being incorporated into the device model by considering the disorder-suppressed (temperature-dependent) charge-carrier mobilities, it is found that the ultrahigh Voc losses cannot be reproduced under the Onsager-Braun-type charge generation rate. With the charge generation rate being constant or weakly dependent on temperature, for nonselective contacts, the Voc reduces drastically at low temperatures, while for selective contacts, the Voc increases monotonically with decreasing temperature. With higher carrier mobilities or smaller device thicknesses, the ultrahigh loss occurs at lower temperatures. The mechanism is that, since the disorder-suppressed charge mobilities give rise to both low charge-extraction efficiency and small bimolecular recombination rate, plenty of charge carriers can be extracted from the wrong electrode and can form a large leakage current, which counteracts the majority-carrier current and reduces the Voc at low temperatures. Our results thus highlight the essential role of charge-carrier kinetics, except for the charge-filling effect, on dominating the disorder-induced Voc losses.

  7. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  8. Review of ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Events in both the scientific world and in the public domain have added pressure to review the recommendations of the ICRP on which radiation protection legislation in most countries is founded. A brief editorial pleads for clarity in ICRP recommendations, suggests the use solely of cumulative with age individual occupational dose limits, suggests that collective doses including both occupational and to the public should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, judged on quantitative economic grounds, and suggests the setting of a probability for serious accidents which may be disregarded in planning. (UK)

  9. Efficient Tensor Strategy for Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboagye Emelia Opoku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The era of big data has witnessed the explosion of tensor datasets, and large scale Probabilistic Tensor Factorization (PTF analysis is important to accommodate such increasing trend of data. Sparsity, and Cold-Start are some of the inherent problems of recommender systems in the era of big data. This paper proposes a novel Sentiment-Based Probabilistic Tensor Analysis technique senti-PTF to address the problems. The propose framework first applies a Natural Language Processing technique to perform sentiment analysis taking advantage of the huge sums of textual data generated available from the social media which are predominantly left untouched. Although some current studies do employ review texts, many of them do not consider how sentiments in reviews influence recommendation algorithm for prediction. There is therefore this big data text analytics gap whose modeling is computationally expensive. From our experiments, our novel machine learning sentiment-based tensor analysis is computationally less expensive, and addresses the cold-start problem, for optimal recommendation prediction.

  10. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  11. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-01-26 to 1994-06-13 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  12. Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1981-02-12 to 1982-01-05 (NODC Accession 8200064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  13. Chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Gulf of Mexico North Continental Slope Study (MNCSS) project, 11 November 1983 - 13 November 1984 (NODC Accession 8400119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from November 11, 1983 to...

  14. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1979-08-30 to 1981-09-21 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  15. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  16. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  17. Search and Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2014-01-01

    In just a little over half a century, the field of information retrieval has experienced spectacular growth and success, with IR applications such as search engines becoming a billion-dollar industry in the past decades. Recommender systems have seen an even more meteoric rise to success with wide...

  18. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  19. Privacy in Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan; Beye, Michael; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Ramzan, Naeem; van Zwol, Roelof; Lee, Jong-Seok; Clüver, Kai; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    In many online applications, the range of content that is offered to users is so wide that a need for automated recommender systems arises. Such systems can provide a personalized selection of relevant items to users. In practice, this can help people find entertaining movies, boost sales through

  20. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2007-01-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  1. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, C. [Chairman of ICRP Committee 2, Institute of Science and Ethics, University Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  2. Optimization of recommendations for abdomen computerized tomography based on reconstruction filters, voltage and tube current; Otimizacao de protocolos de tomografia computadorizada de abdome com base nos filtros de reconstrucao, tensao e corrente do tubo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Vinicius da Costa

    2015-07-01

    The use of computed tomography has increased significantly over the past decades. In Brazil the use increased more than twofold from 2008 to 2014, in the meantime the abdomen procedures have tripled. The high frequency of this procedure combined by the increasing collective radiation dose in medical exposures, has resulted development tools to maximize the benefit in CT images. This work aimed to establish protocols optimized in abdominal CT through acquisitions parameters and reconstructions techniques based on filters kernels. A sample of patients undergoing abdominal CT in a diagnostic center of Rio de Janeiro was assessed. Had been collected patients information and acquisitions parameters. The phantoms CT image acquisitions were performed by using different voltage values by adjusting the tube current (mAs) to obtain the same value from CTDI{sub vol} patients with normal BMI. Afterwards, the CTDIvol values were reduced by 30%, 50% and 60%. All images were reconstructed with low-contrast filters (A) and standard filters (B). The CTDIvol values for patients with normal BMI were 7% higher than in patients with underweight BMI and 30%, 50% and 60% lower than the overweight, obese I and III patients, respectively. The evaluations of image quality showed that variation of the current (mA) and the reconstruction filters did not affect the Hounsfield values. When the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was normalized to CTDIvol, the protocols acquired with 60% reduction of CTDIvol with 140 kV and 80 kV showed CNR 6% lower than the routine. Modifications of the acquisition parameters did not affect spatial resolution, but the post-processing with B filters reduced the spatial frequency by 16%. With reduced the dose of 30%, lesions in the spleen had the CNR higher than 10% routine protocols with 140 kV acquired and post-processed to filter A. The image post-processing with a filter A with a 80kV voltage provided CNR values equal to the routine for the liver lesions with a 30

  3. Analytical Performance Requirements for Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose With Focus on System Accuracy: Relevant Differences Among ISO 15197:2003, ISO 15197:2013, and Current FDA Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Rutschmann, Malte; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz

    2015-07-01

    In the European Union (EU), the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197 standard is applicable for the evaluation of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) before the market approval. In 2013, a revised version of this standard was published. Relevant revisions in the analytical performance requirements are the inclusion of the evaluation of influence quantities, for example, hematocrit, and some changes in the testing procedures for measurement precision and system accuracy evaluation, for example, number of test strip lots. Regarding system accuracy evaluation, the most important change is the inclusion of more stringent accuracy criteria. In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States published their own guidance document for the premarket evaluation of SMBG systems with even more stringent system accuracy criteria than stipulated by ISO 15197:2013. The establishment of strict accuracy criteria applicable for the premarket evaluation is a possible approach to further improve the measurement quality of SMBG systems. However, the system accuracy testing procedure is quite complex, and some critical aspects, for example, systematic measurement difference between the reference measurement procedure and a higher-order procedure, may potentially limit the apparent accuracy of a given system. Therefore, the implementation of a harmonized reference measurement procedure for which traceability to standards of higher order is verified through an unbroken, documented chain of calibrations is desirable. In addition, the establishment of regular and standardized post-marketing evaluations of distributed test strip lots should be considered as an approach toward an improved measurement quality of available SMBG systems. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance and management: recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Darcy A; Northrup, Hope

    2013-10-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder affecting every organ system, but disease manifestations vary significantly among affected individuals. The diverse and varied presentations and progression can be life-threatening with significant impact on cost and quality of life. Current surveillance and management practices are highly variable among region and country, reflective of the fact that last consensus recommendations occurred in 1998 and an updated, comprehensive standard is lacking that incorporates the latest scientific evidence and current best clinical practices. The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group, comprising 79 specialists from 14 countries, was organized into 12 separate subcommittees, each led by a clinician with advanced expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex and the relevant medical subspecialty. Each subcommittee focused on a specific disease area with important clinical management implications and was charged with formulating key clinical questions to address within its focus area, reviewing relevant literature, evaluating the strength of data, and providing a recommendation accordingly. The updated consensus recommendations for clinical surveillance and management in tuberous sclerosis complex are summarized here. The recommendations are relevant to the entire lifespan of the patient, from infancy to adulthood, including both individuals where the diagnosis is newly made as well as individuals where the diagnosis already is established. The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Recommendations provide an evidence-based, standardized approach for optimal clinical care provided for individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. International and national radiation protection standards and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and their basis are discussed with particular emphasis on the extensive review of its earlier recommendations undertaken by the ICRP during the 1970s. The new recommendations issued in 1977 after this review are described. The dose limits for various organs and tissues before and after 1977 are compared. The optimization principle contained in the 1977 recommendations is assessed. The implementation of the 1977 recommendations, the subsequent changes to them and the ICRP's 1987 statement on cancer risk assessments are discussed. The National Radiological Protection Board's October 1987 radiation protection recommendations are outlined. 8 refs., 1 fig

  6. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. International short-term medical missions: a systematic review of recommended practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Stephanie D; Ketheeswaran, Pavinarmatha; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2017-01-01

    To identify practices for conducting international short-term medical missions (STMMs) recommended in the literature and examine how these link STMMs to recipient countries' existing health systems. Systematic review of PubMed-indexed articles on STMMs and their bibliographies using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Recommendations were organized using the World Health Organization Health Systems Framework. In 92 publications, 67 % offered at least one recommendation that would link STMMs to the recipient country's health system. Among these recommendations, most focused on service delivery and few on health financing and governance. There is a lack of consensus around a proper standard of care, patient selection, and trip duration. Comprehensive global standards are needed for STMM work to ensure that services are beneficial both to patients and to the broader healthcare systems of recipient countries. By providing an overview of the current recommendations and important gaps where practice recommendations are needed, this study can provide relevant input into the development of global standards for STMMs.

  8. Current Evaluation Procedures for Fertilizers and Soil Conditioners Used in Organic Agriculture. Proceedings of a workshop held April 29–30, 2004 at Emerson College, Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Canali, Stefano; Stopes, Christopher; Schmid, Otto; Speiser, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Table of Contents Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in Austria Alexandra Hozzank and Wilfried Hartl Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in the Czech Republic Anamarija Slabe Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in Denmark Rasmus Ørnberg Eriksen and Erik Steen Kristensen Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in France Marie-Christine Monnier Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic fa...

  9. Summary of Technical Sessions - Summary and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Technical Session 1 - Development achievements of BEPU methods and State of the Art: The objective of this session was to present the different approaches dealing with Best Estimate codes and uncertainties evaluations. Existing methods were summarized and different papers were focused on specific methods stressing their bases, peculiarities, advantages and limitations. As a result of the session a picture of the current State of the Art was obtained. The session comprised six papers. Technical Session 2 - International comparative activities: This session had as a main objective to review the activities launched in the past and present from the NEA in connection with BEPU methods, with focus on the applicability of conclusions derived from former benchmarks like UMS, the main outcomes of the recently finished BEMUSE project, and the objectives and relevance of UAM and PREMIUM projects. The session comprised four papers. Technical Session 3 - Applications: Licensing, safety analysis support, regulatory body views and industry activities: This session focused on the application of current methods in safety analyses. Contributions from industry, technical safety organizations and regulatory bodies were provided. As a result, a view of the penetration of BEPU methods in current safety analyses was obtained, as well as an indication of the evolution in the near future. Elements such as licensing practices, assessment process, etc. were considered. The session comprised nine papers. Technical Session 4. BEPU methods extension to new fields The session addressed the extension of BEPU methods beyond their current use. By now such methods are mainly applied to classic deterministic environment but it is believed that their benefits could be extended to other fields. Seven papers were presented in the session dealing with subjects that fit in the objectives established in the workshop programme. The papers cover areas like: extension to CFD, quantification of global safety

  10. ICRS Recommendation Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella; Ranstam, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic......Abstract Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend patient-reported outcome instruments for use in patients with articular cartilage lesions undergoing cartilage repair interventions. Methods: Nonsystematic literature search identifying measures addressing pain...... constructs at all levels according to the International Classification of Functioning. Conclusions: Because there is no obvious superiority of either instrument at this time, both outcome measures are recommended for use in cartilage repair. Rescaling of the Lysholm Scoring Scale has been suggested...

  11. Prevalencia de síndrome metabólico según las nuevas recomendaciones de la OMS: Estudio HERMEX Prevalence of metabolic syndrome estimated with the new World Health Organization recommendations: The HERMEX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernández-Bergés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La unificación de criterios para el diagnóstico del síndrome metabólico, junto con la propuesta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud de eliminar de ellos a los pacientes con diabetes o con enfermedades cardiovasculares, cambiará la estimación de su prevalencia. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico en un área de salud extremeña siguiendo ambas recomendaciones. Métodos: Estudio transversal, poblacional, con selección aleatoria de individuos entre 25 y 79 años de edad, en un Área de Salud de Badajoz. Se recogieron los antecedentes de factores de riesgo cardiovascular, la presión arterial y el perímetro abdominal, y una muestra de sangre en ayunas. Se comparó la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico siguiendo los recientes criterios, por sexo y edad. Resultados: Se reclutaron 2.833 personas, el 46,5% eran hombres, y la edad media 51,2 años. La prevalencia del síndrome metabólico fue del 33,6%, significativamente mayor en los hombres (36,7% frente a 30,9%; pObjectives: The unification of criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, together with the subsequent World Health Organization (WHO proposal to eliminate diabetes and cardiovascular diseases from the diagnostic criteria, will change estimates of the known prevalence of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a health area of Badajoz (Spain using the latest consensus criteria and eliminating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional population-wide study of randomly selected individuals aged between 25 and 79 years old in a health area of Badajoz. In all patients, data on their history of cardiovascular risk factors were gathered, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured and a fasting blood sample was collected. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, following recent criteria, was compared by age and gender. Results: We

  12. Badali recommends simplified bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices

  13. Badali recommends simplified bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-04-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices.

  14. 16 CFR 1.43 - Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendations. 1.43 Section 1.43 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... investigation. If, after investigation, it concludes that the law has been violated, it may make to such...

  15. Minnehaha Creek Watershed SWMM5 Model Data Analysis and Future Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Water Bodies Organization 1 SWMM5 LMCW EPA 1 HEC - RAS Minnehaha Creek and Lake Minnetonka system HEC 2 CE-QUAL-W2 Lake Minnetonka system ERDC...and adjusted as needed to adequately address project goals and priorities. SWMM5 and HEC - RAS are the recommended Tier 1 models. The current SWMM5...model is an appropriate modeling platform for modeling subbasins in the LMCW. HEC - RAS should be used to model Minnehaha Creek and the Lake Minnetonka

  16. Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper, July 2016 - recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization

    2017-03-01

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of dengue vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on dengue vaccine published in the Weekly epidemiological Record in July 2016 (Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper, 2016) [1]. The current document is the first WHO position paper on dengue vaccination and focuses primarily on the available evidence concerning the only dengue vaccine to have been registered by National Regulatory Authorities. The position paper gives consideration to the epidemiological features of the disease and assesses the potential use of the vaccine for public health benefits. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. Recommendations on the use of this dengue vaccine were discussed by SAGE in April 2016; evidence presented at that SAGE meeting can be accessed at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. State Emergency Department Opioid Guidelines: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, Robert I; Gronowski, Tanner; Kalnow, Andrew F; Little, Andrew G; Lloyd, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and categorize current state-sponsored opioid guidelines for the practice of emergency medicine (EM). We conducted a comprehensive search of EM-specific opioid prescribing guidelines and/or policies in each state to determine current state involvement in EM opioid prescribing, as well as to evaluate some of the specifics of each guideline or policy. The search was conducted using an online query and a follow-up email request to each state chapter of ACEP. We found that 17 states had emergency department-specific guidelines. We further organized the guidelines into four categories: limiting prescriptions for opioids with 67 total recommendations; preventing/diverting abuse with 56 total recommendations; addiction-related guidelines with 29 total recommendations; and a community resources section with 24 total recommendations. Our results showed that current state guidelines focus on providers limiting opioid pain prescriptions and vetting patients for possible abuse/diversion. This study highlights the 17 states that have addressed opioid prescribing guidelines and categorizes their efforts to date. It is hoped that this study will provide the basis for similar efforts in other states.

  18. A manual of recommended practices for hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, W.; Leach, S. [W. Hoagland and Associates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Technologies for the production, distribution, and use of hydrogen are rapidly maturing and the number and size of demonstration programs designed to showcase emerging hydrogen energy systems is expanding. The success of these programs is key to hydrogen commercialization. Currently there is no comprehensive set of widely-accepted codes or standards covering the installation and operation of hydrogen energy systems. This lack of codes or standards is a major obstacle to future hydrogen demonstrations in obtaining the requisite licenses, permits, insurance, and public acceptance. In a project begun in late 1996 to address this problem, W. Hoagland and Associates has been developing a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Systems intended to serve as an interim document for the design and operation of hydrogen demonstration projects. It will also serve as a starting point for some of the needed standard-setting processes. The Manual will include design guidelines for hydrogen procedures, case studies of experience at existing hydrogen demonstration projects, a bibliography of information sources, and a compilation of suppliers of hydrogen equipment and hardware. Following extensive professional review, final publication will occur later in 1997. The primary goal is to develop a draft document in the shortest possible time frame. To accomplish this, the input and guidance of technology developers, industrial organizations, government R and D and regulatory organizations and others will be sought to define the organization and content of the draft Manual, gather and evaluate available information, develop a draft document, coordinate reviews and revisions, and develop recommendations for publication, distribution, and update of the final document. The workshop, Development of a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Energy Systems, conducted on March 11, 1997 in Alexandria, Virginia, was a first step.

  19. Implementing a Commercial-Strength Parallel Hybrid Movie Recommendation Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amolochitis, Emmanouil; Christou, Ioannis T.; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AMORE is a hybrid recommendation system that provides movie recommendations for a major triple-play services provider in Greece. Combined with our own implementations of several user-, item-, and content-based recommendation algorithms, AMORE significantly outperforms other state......-of-the-art implementations both in solution quality and response time. AMORE currently serves daily recommendation requests for all active subscribers of the provider's video-on-demand services and has contributed to an increase of rental profits and customer retention....

  20. Mobile Application Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    With the amount of mobile applications available increasing rapidly, users have to put a lot of effort into finding applications of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how to aid users in the process of discovering new mobile applications by providing them with recommendations. A prototype system is then built as a proof-of-concept. The work of the thesis is divided into three phases where the aim of the first phase is to study related work and related systems to identify p...

  1. Clinical Recommendation: Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Andrea; Romano, Mary

    2016-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is a commonly encountered condition among prepubertal and adolescent females. The objective of this report is to provide the latest evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and adolescent females. In this systematic review we used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation evidence system. Vulvovaginal complaints are common in the pediatric and adolescent age group. The patient's age in conjunction with history and associated complaints will guide evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. Treatment should include counseling on hygiene and voiding techniques as well as therapy for any specific pathogens identified. Copyright © 2016.

  2. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  3. Recommender Systems in Commercial Use

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial recommender systems are deployed by marketing teams to increase revenue and/or personalize user experience. Marketers evaluate recommender systems not on its algorithms but on how well the vendor‘s expertise and interfaces will support achieving business goals. Driven by a business model that pays based on recommendation success, vendors guide clients through continuous optimization of recommendations. While recommender technology is mature, the solutions and market are still young...

  4. Microstructural and superconducting properties of high current metal-organic chemical vapor deposition YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holesinger, T G; Maiorov, B; Ugurlu, O; Civale, L; Chen, Y; Xiong, X; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2009-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on flexible, ion beam assisted deposition MgO templates has been used to produce high critical current density (J c ) (Y,Sm) 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O y (REBCO) films suitable for use in producing practical high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wires. Thick films on tape were produced with sequential additions of 0.7 μm of REBCO via a reel-to-reel progression through a custom-designed MOCVD reactor. Multi-pass processing for thick film deposition is critically dependent upon minimizing surface secondary phase formation. Critical currents (I c s) of up to 600 A/cm width (t = 2.8 μm, J c = 2.6 MA cm -2 , 77 K, self-field) were obtained in short lengths of HTS wires. These high performance MOCVD films are characterized by closely spaced (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 nanoparticle layers that may be tilted relative to the film normal and REBCO orientation. Small shifts in the angular dependence of J c in low and intermediate applied magnetic fields can be associated with the tilted nanoparticle layers. Also present in these films were YCuO 2 nanoplates aligned with the YBCO matrix (short dimension perpendicular to the film normal), threading dislocations, and oriented composite defects (OCDs). The latter structures consist of single or multiple a-axis oriented grains coated on each side with insulating (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 or CuO. The OCDs formed a connected network of insulating phases by the end of the fourth pass. Subsequent attempts at adding additional layers did not increase I c . There is an inconsistency between the measured J c and the observed microstructural degradation that occurs with each additional layer, suggesting that previously deposited layers are improving with each repeated reactor pass. These dynamic changes suggest a role for post-processing to optimize superconducting properties of as-deposited films, addressing issues associated with reproducibility and manufacturing yield.

  5. A Policy Language for Modelling Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El Kalam, Anas; Balbiani, Philippe

    While current and emergent applications become more and more complex, most of existing security policies and models only consider a yes/no response to the access requests. Consequently, modelling, formalizing and implementing permissions, obligations and prohibitions do not cover the richness of all the possible scenarios. In fact, several applications have access rules with the recommendation access modality. In this paper we focus on the problem of formalizing security policies with recommendation needs. The aim is to provide a generic domain-independent formal system for modelling not only permissions, prohibitions and obligations, but also recommendations. In this respect, we present our logic-based language, the semantics, the truth conditions, our axiomatic as well as inference rules. We also give a representative use case with our specification of recommendation requirements. Finally, we explain how our logical framework could be used to query the security policy and to check its consistency.

  6. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents conclusions and recommendations at the closing session of the NEA/OECD Workshop held at Fontenay-aux-Roses on 12-14 June 1995. The conclusions refer to issues like: public reaction to foodstuffs containing radioisotope concentrations under the danger standards, possible non-adherence of manufacturers, processors, distributors, et al, to the instructions and guidance from radiation protection specialists, integration of all the food chain factors in the elaboration of the emergency intervention programs, etc. Among the most significant recommendations the following may be mentioned: 1. Differences between different intervention levels and the maximum admissible levels agreed upon by national, regional or international nutrition authorities should be further studied; 2. Problems created by the Chernobyl accident (as for instance, the methods of treatment of food chain products containing unacceptable radioactivity concentrations) are still present and must be solved; 3. Further studies should be done on the socio-cultural aspects of the communication, particularly on the information in rural environment; 4. The preventive measures in agriculture should be implemented as rapidly as possible; 5. In elaborating programmes of agriculture countermeasures, the management of contaminated media, particularly, of forests and their effect on agriculture

  7. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  8. Improving treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders: recommendations based on preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R; Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Nguyen, Michael; Poudel, Manoj K; Echevarria, David J; Collier, Adam D; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Klimenko, Viktor M; Norton, William; Pittman, Julian; Nakamura, Shun; Koshiba, Mamiko; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Apryatin, Sergey A; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Diamond, David M; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Parker, Matthew O; Brown, Richard E; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are common and severely debilitating. Their chronic nature and reliance on both genetic and environmental factors makes studying NDDs and their treatment a challenging task. Herein, the authors discuss the neurobiological mechanisms of NDDs, and present recommendations on their translational research and therapy, outlined by the International Stress and Behavior Society. Various drugs currently prescribed to treat NDDs also represent a highly diverse group. Acting on various neurotransmitter and physiological systems, these drugs often lack specificity of action, and are commonly used to treat multiple other psychiatric conditions. There has also been relatively little progress in the development of novel medications to treat NDDs. Based on clinical, preclinical and translational models of NDDs, our recommendations cover a wide range of methodological approaches and conceptual strategies. To improve pharmacotherapy and drug discovery for NDDs, we need a stronger emphasis on targeting multiple endophenotypes, a better dissection of genetic/epigenetic factors or "hidden heritability," and a careful consideration of potential developmental/trophic roles of brain neurotransmitters. The validity of animal NDD models can be improved through discovery of novel (behavioral, physiological and neuroimaging) biomarkers, applying proper environmental enrichment, widening the spectrum of model organisms, targeting developmental trajectories of NDD-related behaviors and comorbid conditions beyond traditional NDDs. While these recommendations cannot be addressed all in once, our increased understanding of NDD pathobiology may trigger innovative cross-disciplinary research expanding beyond traditional methods and concepts.

  9. [Harm reduction interventions in drug users: current situation and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the negative consequences of the consumption of both legal and illegal drugs on the individual and public health. Harm reduction looks to mitigate the harm suffered by drug users through drug use monitoring and prevention, and promotes initiatives that respect and protect the human rights of this population. The harm reduction policies that have proven effective and efficient are: opioid substitution maintenance therapy (methadone); needle and syringe exchange programmes; supervised drug consumption rooms; and overdose prevention through peer-based naloxone distribution. In order to be effective, these policies must have comprehensive coverage and be implemented in areas where the target population is prevalent. Resident-based opposition to the implementation of these policies is known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon, which is characterised by being against the implementation of new measures in a particular place, but does not question their usefulness. Given that any NIMBY phenomenon is a complex social, cultural and political phenomenon, it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the situati