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Sample records for organism sulfolobus acidocaldarius

  1. Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    OpenAIRE

    Skórko, R; Osipiuk, J; Stetter, K O

    1989-01-01

    Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase has been isolated from a crude extract of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. Divalent cations (Mn2+ greater than Mg2+) stimulated the reaction. The enzyme does not require the presence of histones for its activity; it is inhibited strongly by phosphate and slightly by fluoride. The protein from the glycogen complex migrated in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a 57-kilodalton protein band; after isoelectric focusing ...

  2. Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórko, R; Osipiuk, J; Stetter, K O

    1989-09-01

    Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase has been isolated from a crude extract of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. Divalent cations (Mn2+ greater than Mg2+) stimulated the reaction. The enzyme does not require the presence of histones for its activity; it is inhibited strongly by phosphate and slightly by fluoride. The protein from the glycogen complex migrated in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a 57-kilodalton protein band; after isoelectric focusing it separated into several spots in the pH range of 5.6 to 6.7.

  3. Isolation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Biofilms of the Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachlewski, Silke; Jachlewski, Witold D; Linne, Uwe; Bräsen, Christopher; Wingender, Jost; Siebers, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the major structural and functional components of microbial biofilms. The aim of this study was to establish a method for EPS isolation from biofilms of the thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as a basis for EPS analysis. Biofilms of S. acidocaldarius were cultivated on the surface of gellan gum-solidified Brock medium at 78°C for 4 days. Five EPS extraction methods were compared, including shaking of biofilm suspensions in phosphate buffer, cation-exchange resin (CER) extraction, and stirring with addition of EDTA, crown ether, or NaOH. With respect to EPS yield, impact on cell viability, and compatibility with subsequent biochemical analysis, the CER extraction method was found to be the best suited isolation procedure resulting in the detection of carbohydrates and proteins as the major constituents and DNA as a minor component of the EPS. Culturability of CER-treated cells was not impaired. Analysis of the extracellular proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resulted in the detection of several hundreds of protein spots, mainly with molecular masses of 25-116 kDa and pI values of 5-8. Identification of proteins suggested a cytoplasmic origin for many of these proteins, possibly released via membrane vesicles or biofilm-inherent cell lysis during biofilm maturation. Functional analysis of EPS proteins, using fluorogenic substrates as well as zymography, demonstrated the activity of diverse enzyme classes, such as proteases, lipases, esterases, phosphatases, and glucosidases. In conclusion, the CER extraction method, as previously applied to bacterial biofilms, also represents a suitable method for isolation of water soluble EPS from the archaeal biofilms of S. acidocaldarius, allowing the investigation of composition and function of EPS components in these types of biofilms.

  4. Isolation of extracellular polymeric substances from biofilms of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eJachlewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS are the major structural and functional components of microbial biofilms. The aim of this study was to establish a method for EPS isolation from biofilms of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius as a basis for EPS analysis. Biofilms of S. acidocaldarius were cultivated on the surface of gellan gum-solidified Brock medium at 78 °C for 4 days. Five EPS extraction methods were compared, including shaking of biofilm suspensions in phosphate buffer, cation-exchange resin (CER extraction and stirring with addition of EDTA, crown ether or NaOH. With respect to EPS yield, impact on cell viability and compatibility with subsequent biochemical analysis, the CER extraction method was found to be the best suited isolation procedure resulting in the detection of carbohydrates and proteins as the major constituents and DNA as a minor component of the EPS. Culturability of CER-treated cells was not impaired. Analysis of the extracellular proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resulted in the detection of several hundredshundred of protein spots, mainly with molecular masses of 25 kDa to 116 kDa and pI values of 5 to 8. Identification of proteins suggested a cytoplasmic origin for many of these proteins, possibly released via membrane vesicles or biofilm-inherent cell lysis during biofilm maturation. Functional analysis of EPS proteins, using fluorogenic substrates as well as zymography, demonstrated the activity of diverse groups of enzymes such as proteases, lipases, esterases, phosphatases and glucosidases. In conclusion, the CER extraction method, as previously applied to bacterial biofilms, also represents a suitable method for isolation of water soluble EPS from the archaeal biofilms of S. acidocaldarius, allowing the investigation of composition and function of EPS components in these types of biofilms.

  5. Alterations of the transcriptome of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by exoribonuclease aCPSF2.

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    Birgit Märtens

    Full Text Available Recent studies identified a 5´ to 3´ exoribonuclease termed Sso-RNase J in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso, which has been reclassified to the aCPSF2 (archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 2 group of β-CASP proteins. In this study, the Sso-aCPSF2 orthologue of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Saci-aCPSF2 was functionally characterized. Like Sso-aCPSF2, Saci-aCPSF2 degrades RNA with 5´ to 3´ directionality in vitro. To address the biological significance of Saci-aCPSF2, a deletion mutant was constructed, and the influence of Saci-aCPSF2 on the transcriptome profile was assessed employing high throughput RNA sequencing. This analysis revealed 560 genes with differential transcript abundance, suggesting a considerable role of this enzyme in RNA metabolism. In addition, bioinformatic analyses revealed several transcripts that are preferentially degraded at the 5´ end. This was exemplarily verified for two transcripts by Northern-blot analyses, showing for the first time that aCPSF2 proteins play a role in 5' to 3' directional mRNA decay in the crenarchaeal clade of Archaea.

  6. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant short-chain NAD(H)-dependent dehydrogenase/reductase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Giordano, Assunta; Pucci, Biagio; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2010-03-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) superfamily was identified in the aerobic thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius strain DSM 639. The saadh gene was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein (SaADH) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. SaADH is a tetrameric enzyme consisting of identical 28,978-Da subunits, each composed of 264 amino acids. The enzyme has remarkable thermophilicity and thermal stability, displaying activity at temperatures up to 75 degrees C and a 30-min half-inactivation temperature of ~90 degrees C, and shows good tolerance to common organic solvents. SaADH has a strict requirement for NAD(H) as the coenzyme, and displays a preference for the reduction of alicyclic, bicyclic and aromatic ketones and alpha-keto esters, but is poorly active on aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic alcohols, and shows no activity on aldehydes. The enzyme catalyses the reduction of alpha-methyl and alpha-ethyl benzoylformate, and methyl o-chlorobenzoylformate with 100% conversion to methyl (S)-mandelate [17% enantiomeric excess (ee)], ethyl (R)-mandelate (50% ee), and methyl (R)-o-chloromandelate (72% ee), respectively, with an efficient in situ NADH-recycling system which involves glucose and a thermophilic glucose dehydrogenase. This study provides further evidence supporting the critical role of the D37 residue in discriminating NAD(H) from NAD(P)H in members of the SDR superfamily.

  7. Development of the Multiple Gene Knockout System with One-Step PCR in Thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

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    Shoji Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple gene knockout systems developed in the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are powerful genetic tools. However, plasmid construction typically requires several steps. Alternatively, PCR tailing for high-throughput gene disruption was also developed in S. acidocaldarius, but repeated gene knockout based on PCR tailing has been limited due to lack of a genetic marker system. In this study, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination frequency (2.8 × 104 ± 6.9 × 103 colonies/μg DNA by optimizing the transformation conditions. This optimized protocol allowed to develop reliable gene knockout via double crossover using short homologous arms and to establish the multiple gene knockout system with one-step PCR (MONSTER. In the MONSTER, a multiple gene knockout cassette was simply and rapidly constructed by one-step PCR without plasmid construction, and the PCR product can be immediately used for target gene deletion. As an example of the applications of this strategy, we successfully made a DNA photolyase- (phr- and arginine decarboxylase- (argD- deficient strain of S. acidocaldarius. In addition, an agmatine selection system consisting of an agmatine-auxotrophic strain and argD marker was also established. The MONSTER provides an alternative strategy that enables the very simple construction of multiple gene knockout cassettes for genetic studies in S. acidocaldarius.

  8. Molecular analysis of the UV-inducible pili operon from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolferen, Marleen van; Ajon, Małgorzata; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2013-01-01

    Upon ultraviolet (UV) stress, hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus species show a highly induced transcription of a gene cluster responsible for pili biogenesis: the UV-inducible pili operon (ups operon). This operon is involved in UV-induced pili assembly, cellular aggregation, and subsequent DNA exchange

  9. ESCRT-III mediated cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius –A reconstitution perspective

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    Tobias eHärtel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Synthetic Biology, it has become an intriguing question what would be the minimal representation of cell division machinery. Thus, it seems appropriate to compare how cell division is realized in different microorganisms. In particular, the cell division system of Crenarchaeota lacks certain proteins found in most bacteria and Euryarchaeota, such as FtsZ, MreB or the Min system. The Sulfolobaceae family encodes functional homologs of the eukaryotic proteins Vps4 and ESCRT-III. ESCRT-III is essential for several eukaryotic pathways, e.g. budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs, or cytokinesis, whereas Vps4 dissociates the ESCRT-III complex from the membrane. CdvA (Cell Division A is required for the recruitment of crenarchaeal ESCRT-III proteins to the membrane at mid-cell. The proteins polymerize and form a smaller structure during constriction. Thus, ESCRT-III mediated cell division in S. acidocaldarius shows functional analogies to the Z ring observed in prokaryotes like E. coli, which has recently begun to be reconstituted in vitro. In this short perspective, we discuss the possibility of building such an in vitro cell division system on basis of archaeal ESCRT-III.

  10. The S-Layer Glycoprotein of the Crenarchaeote Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Is Glycosylated at Multiple Sites with Chitobiose-Linked N-Glycans

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    Elham Peyfoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of the S-layer of the crenarchaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been investigated using glycoproteomic methodologies. The mature protein is predicted to contain 31 N-glycosylation consensus sites with approximately one third being found in the C-terminal domain spanning residues L1004-Q1395. Since this domain is rich in Lys and Arg and therefore relatively tractable to glycoproteomic analysis, this study has focused on mapping its N-glycosylation. Our analysis identified nine of the 11 consensus sequence sites, and all were found to be glycosylated. This constitutes a remarkably high glycosylation density in the C-terminal domain averaging one site for each stretch of 30–40 residues. Each of the glycosylation sites observed was shown to be modified with a heterogeneous family of glycans, with the largest having a composition Glc1Man2GlcNAc2 plus 6-sulfoquinovose (QuiS, consistent with the tribranched hexasaccharide previously reported in the cytochrome b558/566 of S. acidocaldarius. S. acidocaldarius is the only archaeal species whose N-glycans are known to be linked via the chitobiose core disaccharide that characterises the N-linked glycans of Eukarya.

  11. Thermophilic acetylxylan esterase genes and enzymes from alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Thompson, David N.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Apel, William A.

    2018-01-09

    A genetically modified organism comprising at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharide, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, chitin, heteroxylan, and/or xylan-decorating group; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  12. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic metabolism genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Apel, William A.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Brady D.; Reed, David William; Roberto, Francisco F.; Thompson, David N.

    2018-01-30

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering metabolism in a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  13. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer-degrading genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Henriksen, Emily D.

    2018-02-20

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  14. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer-degrading genes and enzymes from alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Henriksen, Emily D.

    2010-12-28

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  15. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer degrading genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Reed, David W; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Henriksen, Emily D.

    2016-08-02

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  16. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic glycosylation genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-12

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for glycosylating and/or post-translationally modifying proteins using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  17. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic metabolism genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vicki S; Apel, William A; Reed, David W; Lee, Brady D; Thompson, David N; Roberto, Francisco F; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-20

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering metabolism in a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  18. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-29

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  19. "Hot standards" for the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaparty, M.; Esser, D.; Gertig, S.; Haferkamp, P.; Kouril, T.; Sierocinski, P.; Pham, T.K.; Manica, A.; Reimann, J.; Schreiber, K.; Teichmann, D.; Wolferen, van M.E.; Jan, von M.; Wieloch, P.; Albers, S.V.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Klenk, H.P.; Schleper, C.; Schomburg, D.; Oost, van der J.; Wright, P.C.; Siebers, B.

    2010-01-01

    Within the archaea, the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus has become an important model organism for physiology and biochemistry, comparative and functional genomics, as well as, more recently also for systems biology approaches. Within the Sulfolobus Systems Biology

  20. "Hot standards" for the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaparty, Melanie; Esser, Dominik; Gertig, Susanne; Haferkamp, Patrick; Kouril, Theresa; Manica, Andrea; Pham, Trong K.; Reimann, Julia; Schreiber, Kerstin; Sierocinski, Pawel; Teichmann, Daniela; van Wolferen, Marleen; von Jan, Mathias; Wieloch, Patricia; Albers, Sonja V.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Schleper, Christa; Schomburg, Dietmar; van der Oost, John; Wright, Phillip C.; Siebers, Bettina

    Within the archaea, the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus has become an important model organism for physiology and biochemistry, comparative and functional genomics, as well as, more recently also for systems biology approaches. Within the Sulfolobus Systems Biology

  1. CRISPR families of the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus: bidirectional transcription and dynamic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillestøl, Reidun K; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Brügger, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Summary CRISPRs of Sulfolobus fall into three main families based on their repeats, leader regions, associated cas genes, and putative recognition sequences on viruses and plasmids. Spacer sequence matches to different viruses and plasmids of the Sulfolobales revealed some bias particularly...... for family III CRISPRs. Transcription occurs on both strands of the five repeat-clusters of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and a repeat-cluster of the conjugative plasmid pKEF9. Leader strand transcripts cover whole repeat-clusters and are processed mainly from the 3'-end, within repeats, yielding heterogeneous...

  2. Saccharolobus caldissimus gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic iron-reducing hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from an acidic terrestrial hot spring, and reclassification of Sulfolobus solfataricus as Saccharolobus solfataricus comb. nov. and Sulfolobus shibatae as Saccharolobus shibatae comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroyuki D; Kurosawa, Norio

    2018-04-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic archaeon of strain HS-3 T , belonging to the family Sulfolobaceae, was isolated from an acidic terrestrial hot spring in Hakone Ohwaku-dani, Japan. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic relatives of strain HS-3 T were, first, Sulfolobus solfataricus (96.4 %) and, second, Sulfolobus shibatae (96.2 %), indicating that the strain belongs to the genus Sulfolobus. However, the sequence similarity to the type species of the genus Sulfolobus (Sulfolobus acidocaldarius) was remarkably low (91.8 %). In order to determine whether strain HS-3 T belongs to the genus Sulfolobus, its morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics were examined in parallel with those of S. solfataricus and S. shibatae. Although there were some differences in chemolithotrophic growth between strain HS-3 T , S. solfataricus and S. shibatae, their temperature, pH and facultatively anaerobic characteristics of growth, and their utilization of various sugars were almost identical. In contrast, the utilization of various sugars by S. acidocaldarius was quite different from that of HS-3 T , S. solfataricus and S. shibatae. Phylogenetic evidence based on the 16S and the 23S rRNA gene sequences also clearly distinguished the monophyletic clade composed of strain HS-3 T , S. solfataricus, and S. shibatae from S. acidocaldarius. Based on these results, we propose a new genus and species, Saccharolobus caldissimus gen. nov., sp. nov., for strain HS-3 T , as well as two reclassifications, Saccharolobus solfataricus comb. nov. and Saccharolobus shibatae comb. nov. The type strain of Saccharolobus caldissimus is HS-3 T (=JCM 32116 T and InaCC Ar80 T ). The type species of the genus is Saccharolobus solfataricus.

  3. Genome Analyses of Icelandic Strains of Sulfolobus islandicus, Model Organisms for Genetic and Virus-Host Interaction Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Li; Brügger, Kim; Liu, Chao

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of two Sulfolobus islandicus strains obtained from Icelandic solfataras were sequenced and analyzed. Strain REY15A is a host for a versatile genetic toolbox. It exhibits a genome of minimal size, is stable genetically, and is easy to grow and manipulate. Strain HVE10/4 shows a broad h...

  4. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Valenzuela, L; Guardiola-Avila, I; Burgara-Estrella, A; Ibarra-Zavala, M; Mata-Haro, V

    2015-10-01

    The fruit juice industry recognizes Alicyclobacillus as a major quality control target micro-organism. In this study, we analysed 19 bacterial isolates to identify Alicyclobacillus species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses. Phenotypic and genomic diversity among isolates were investigated by API 50CHB system and ERIC-PCR (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR) respectively. All bacterial isolates were identified as Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, and almost all showed identical DNA sequences according to their 16S rRNA (rDNA) gene partial sequences. Only few carbohydrates were fermented by A. acidocaldarius isolates, and there was little variability in the biochemical profile. Genotypic fingerprinting of the A. acidocaldarius isolates showed high diversity, and clusters by ERIC-PCR were distinct to those obtained from the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree. There was no correlation between phenotypic and genotypic variability in the A. acidocaldarius isolates analysed in this study. Detection of Alicyclobacillus strains is imperative in fruit concentrates and juices due to the production of guaiacol. Identification of the genera originates rejection of the product by processing industry. However, not all the Alicyclobacillus species are deteriorative and hence the importance to differentiate among them. In this study, partial 16S ribosomal RNA sequence alignment allowed the differentiation of species. In addition, ERIC-PCR was introduced for the genotypic characterization of Alicyclobacillus, as an alternative for differentiation among isolates from the same species. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Conditions for gene disruption by homologous recombination of exogenous DNA into the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome

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    Sonja-Verena Albers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of directed gene deletion mutants is an essential tool in molecular biology that allows functional studies on the role of genes in their natural environment. For hyperthermophilic archaea, it has been difficult to obtain a reliable system to construct such mutants. However, during the past years, systems have been developed for Thermococcus kodakarensis and two Sulfolobus species, S. acidocaldarius and derivatives of S. solfataricus 98/2. Here we describe an optimization of the method for integration of exogenous DNA into S. solfataricus PBL 2025, an S. solfataricus 98/2 derivative, based on lactose auxotrophy that now allows for routine gene inactivation.

  6. Conditions for gene disruption by homologous recombination of exogenous DNA into the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2008-12-01

    The construction of directed gene deletion mutants is an essential tool in molecular biology that allows functional studies on the role of genes in their natural environment. For hyperthermophilic archaea, it has been difficult to obtain a reliable system to construct such mutants. However, during the past years, systems have been developed for Thermococcus kodakarensis and two Sulfolobus species, S. acidocaldarius and derivatives of S. solfataricus 98/2. Here we describe an optimization of the method for integration of exogenous DNA into S. solfataricus PBL 2025, an S. solfataricus 98/2 derivative, based on lactose auxotrophy that now allows for routine gene inactivation.

  7. Gene content and organization of a 281-kbp contig from the genome of the extremely thermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlebois, R.; Confalonieri, F.; Curtis, B.; Doolittle, W.F.; Duguet, M.; Erauso, G.; Faguy, D.; Gaasterland, T.; Garrett, R.A.; Gordon, P.; Kozera, C.; Medina, N.; Oost, van der J.; Peng, X.; Ragan, M.; She, Q.; Singh, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The sequence of a 281-kbp contig from the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was determined and analysed. Notable features in this region include 29 ribosomal protein genes, 12 tRNA genes (four of which contain archaeal-type introns), operons encoding enzymes of histidine biosynthesis,

  8. The Effects of Temperature and Growth Phase on the Lipidomes of Sulfolobus islandicus and Sulfolobus tokodaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sara Munk; Neesgaard, Vinnie Lund; Skjoldbjerg, Sandra Landbo Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    at three different temperatures, with samples withdrawn during lag, exponential, and stationary phases. Three abundant tetraether lipid classes and one diether lipid class were monitored. Beside the expected increase in the number of cyclopentane moieties with higher temperature in both archaea, we......The functionality of the plasma membrane is essential for all organisms. Adaption to high growth temperatures imposes challenges and Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea have developed several mechanisms to cope with these. Hyperthermophilic archaea have earlier been shown to synthesize tetraether...... membrane lipids with an increased number of cyclopentane moieties at higher growth temperatures. Here we used shotgun lipidomics to study this effect as well as the influence of growth phase on the lipidomes of Sulfolobus islandicus and Sulfolobus tokodaii for the first time. Both species were cultivated...

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.K.; Sierocinski, P.; Oost, van der J.; Wright, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative proteomic analysis of the membrane of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 using iTRAQ was successfully demonstrated in this technical note. The estimated number of membrane proteins of this organism is 883 (predicted based on Gravy score), corresponding to 30 % of the total

  10. Type II restriction modification system methylation subunit of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Brady D.; Newby, Deborah T.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, David N.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Apel, William A.; Roberto, Francisco F.; Reed, David W.

    2018-02-13

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering recombination inside or outside of a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and/or nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  11. Functional characterization of the origin of replication of pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke J Joshua

    Full Text Available Plasmid pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1 is believed to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism but its origin and mechanism of replication are not well understood. We sought to create minimal expression vectors based on pRN1 that would be useful for heterologous gene expression in S. acidocaldarius, and in the process improve our understanding of the mechanism of replication. We constructed and transformed shuttle vectors that harbored different contiguous stretches of DNA from pRN1 into S. acidocaldarius E4-39, a uracil auxotroph. A 232-bp region 3' of orf904 was found to be critical for pRN1 replication and is therefore proposed to be the putative origin of replication. This 232-bp region contains a 100-bp stem-loop structure believed to be the double-strand origin of replication. The loop of the 100-bp structure contains a GTG tri-nucleotide motif, a feature that was previously reported to be important for the primase activity of Orf904. This putative origin and the associated orf56 and orf904 were identified as the minimal replicon of pRN1 because transformants of plasmids lacking any of these three features were not recovered. Plasmids lacking orf904 and orf56 but harboring the putative origin were transformable when orf904 and orf56 were provided in-trans; a 75-bp region 5' of the orf904 start codon was found to be essential for this complementation. Detailed knowledge of the pRN1 origin of replication will broaden the application of the plasmid as a genetic tool for Sulfolobus species.

  12. Genetic technologies for extremely thermophilic microorganisms of Sulfolobus, the only genetically tractable genus of crenarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nan; Han, Wenyuan; Li, Yingjun; Liang, Yunxiang; She, Qunxin

    2017-04-01

    Archaea represents the third domain of life, with the information-processing machineries more closely resembling those of eukaryotes than the machineries of the bacterial counterparts but sharing metabolic pathways with organisms of Bacteria, the sister prokaryotic phylum. Archaeal organisms also possess unique features as revealed by genomics and genome comparisons and by biochemical characterization of prominent enzymes. Nevertheless, diverse genetic tools are required for in vivo experiments to verify these interesting discoveries. Considerable efforts have been devoted to the development of genetic tools for archaea ever since their discovery, and great progress has been made in the creation of archaeal genetic tools in the past decade. Versatile genetic toolboxes are now available for several archaeal models, among which Sulfolobus microorganisms are the only genus representing Crenarchaeota because all the remaining genera are from Euryarchaeota. Nevertheless, genetic tools developed for Sulfolobus are probably the most versatile among all archaeal models, and these include viral and plasmid shuttle vectors, conventional and novel genetic manipulation methods, CRISPR-based gene deletion and mutagenesis, and gene silencing, among which CRISPR tools have been reported only for Sulfolobus thus far. In this review, we summarize recent developments in all these useful genetic tools and discuss their possible application to research into archaeal biology by means of Sulfolobus models.

  13. Transcriptional control in Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and associated genes, proteins, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brady Deneys; Thompson, David N; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki Slavchev; Reed, David W; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of modulating transcription or transcription or transcriptional control using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  14. Transcriptional control in alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and associated genes, proteins, and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Brady D; Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Reed, David W; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2016-11-22

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of modulating transcription or transcription or transcriptional control using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  15. Two novel conjugative plasmids from a single strain of Sulfolobus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erauso, G.; Stedman, K.M.; Werken, van de H.J.G.; Zillig, W.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    Two conjugative plasmids (CPs) were isolated and characterized from the same 'Sulfolobus islandicus' strain, SOG2/4, The plasmids were separated from each other and transferred into Sulfolobus soltataricus. One has a high copy number and is not stable (pSOG1) whereas the other has a low copy number

  16. Structure of the Sulfolobus solfataricus alpha-glucosidase: Implications for domain conservation and substrate recognition in GH31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Heidi Asschenfeldt; Lo Leggio, Leila; Willemoes, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of a-glucosidase MalA from Sulfolobus solfataricus has been determined at 2.5 Å resolution. It provides a structural model for enzymes representing the major specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31), including a-glucosidases from higher organisms, involved...

  17. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Sulfolobus solfataricus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sulfolobus solfataricus 名詞 一般 * * * * Sulfolobus solfataricus ... MeSH D048229 200906045592943760 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Sulfolobus solfataricus

  18. Concurrent metabolism of pentose and hexose sugars by the polyextremophile Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Brady D.; Apel, William A.; DeVeaux, Linda C.; Sheridan, Peter P.

    2017-08-03

    Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on sugars from plant biomass. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) allows bacteria to focus cellular resources on a sugar that provides efficient growth, but also allows sequential, rather than simultaneous use when more than one sugar is present. The A. acidocaldarius genome encodes all components of CCR, but transporters encoded are multifacilitator superfamily and ATP-binding cassette type transporters, uncommon for CCR. Therefore, global transcriptome analysis of A. acidocaldarius grown on xylose or fructose was performed in chemostats, followed by attempted induction of CCR with glucose or arabinose. A. acidocaldarius grew while simultaneously metabolizing xylose and glucose, xylose and arabinose, and fructose and glucose, indicating CCR did not control carbon metabolism. Microarrays showed down-regulation of genes during growth on one sugar compared to two. Regulation occurred primarily in genes: 1) encoding regulators, 2) encoding enzymes for cell synthesis, and 3) encoding sugar transporters.

  19. Sugar transport in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2001-01-01

    Summary and concluding remarks Introduction The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a thermoacidophile preferring growth at around 80oC and a pH of 2.5 to 3.5. As a thermoacidophile S. solfataricus faces two major problems: firstly, the proton permeability of membranes increases with temperature

  20. SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology): towards a silicon cell model for the central carbohydrate metabolism of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus under temperature variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, S.V.; Birkeland, N.K.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Gertig, S.; Haferkamp, P.; Klenk, H.P.; Kouril, T.; Manica, A.; Pham, T.K.; Ruoff, P.; Schleper, C.; Schomburg, D.; Sharkey, K.; Siebers, B.; Sierocinski, P.; Steur, R.; Oost, van der J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wieloch, P.; Wright, P.C.; Zaparty, M.

    2009-01-01

    SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) focuses on the study of the CCM (central carbohydrate metabolism) of Sulfolobus solfataricus and its regulation under temperature variation at the systems level. In Archaea, carbohydrates are metabolized by modifications of the classical pathways known from

  1. Sulfosys (Sulfolobus Systems Biology): towards a silicon cell model for the central carbohydrate metabolism of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus under temperature variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, S.V.; Birkeland, N.K.; Driessen, A.J.; Gertig, S.; Haferkamp, P.; Klenk, H.P.; Kouril, T.; Manica, A.; Pham, T.K.; Ruoff, P.; Schleper, C.; Schomburg, D.; Sharkey, K.J.; Siebers, B.; Sierocinski, P.; Steuer, R.; van der Oost, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wieloch, P.; Wright, P.C.; Zaparty, M.

    2009-01-01

    SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) focuses on the study of the CCM (central carbohydrate metabolism) of Sulfolobus solfataricus and its regulation under temperature variation at the systems level. In Archaea, carbohydrates are metabolized by modifications of the classical pathways known from

  2. SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) : towards a silicon cell model for the central carbohydrate metabolism of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus under temperature variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Birkeland, Nils-Kare; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Gertig, Susanne; Haferkamp, Patrick; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kouril, Theresa; Manica, Andrea; Pham, Trong K.; Ruoff, Peter; Schleper, Christa; Schomburg, Dietmar; Sharkey, Kieran J.; Siebers, Bettina; Sierocinski, Pawel; Steuer, Ralf; van der Oost, John; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Wieloch, Patricia; Wright, Phillip C.; Zaparty, Melanie; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) focuses on the study of the CCM (central carbohydrate metabolism) of Sulfolobus solfataricus and its regulation under temperature variation at the systems level. in Archaea, carbohydrates are metabolized by modifications of the classical pathways known from

  3. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius Thermophilic Esterase EST2's Activity in Milk and Cheese Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandrich, L.; Manco, M.; Rossie, M.; Floris, E.; Jansen-van den Bosch, T.; Smit, G.; Wouters, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the behavior of thermophilic esterase EST2 from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius in milk and cheese models. The pure enzyme was used to compare the EST2 hydrolytic activity to the activity of endogenous esterase EstA from Lactococcus lactis. The results

  4. (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N backbone resonance assignments of the full-length 40 kDa S. acidocaldarius Y-family DNA polymerase, dinB homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Sean L; Cocco, Melanie J

    2015-10-01

    The dinB homolog (Dbh) is a member of the Y-family of translesion DNA polymerases, which are specialized to accurately replicate DNA across from a wide variety of lesions in living cells. Lesioned bases block the progression of high-fidelity polymerases and cause detrimental replication fork stalling; Y-family polymerases can bypass these lesions. The active site of the translesion synthesis polymerase is more open than that of a replicative polymerase; consequently Dbh polymerizes with low fidelity. Bypass polymerases also have low processivity. Short extension past the lesion allows the high-fidelity polymerase to switch back onto the site of replication. Dbh and the other Y-family polymerases have been used as structural models to investigate the mechanisms of DNA polymerization and lesion bypass. Many high-resolution crystal structures of Y-family polymerases have been reported. NMR dynamics studies can complement these structures by providing a measure of protein motions. Here we report the (15)N, (1)H, and (13)C backbone resonance assignments at two temperatures (35 and 50 °C) for Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Dbh polymerase. Backbone resonance assignments have been obtained for 86 % of the residues. The polymerase active site is assigned as well as the majority of residues in each of the four domains.

  5. CrRNA-Protospacer Recognition during CRISPR- Directed DNA Interference Sulfolobus islandicus REY 15A and Structural Studies of CRISPR Binding Proteins (CBP) of Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousaei, Marzieh

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated proteins) is one of the important known immune mechanisms in archaea and bacteria. This adaptive immune system degrades invading genetic elements and protects the cell. Amongst 3 main types I, II and III...... of CRISPR system, two types (I and III) are found in archaea. However, in Sulfolobus species, subtypes IA, I-D, and III-B, III-D and rarely III-A are found. The model organism used for interference and structural studies is S. islandicus REY15A which carries subtypes I-A and III-B (α and β). Besides CRISPR...... ribonucleoprotein complex which is involved directly in defense, there are some less- known parts of the system including CPBs (CRISPR repeat-binding proteins) which are suggested to play a role in transcription. In the first part of my thesis, I provide a brief introduction to archaea and viruses that infect...

  6. Augmenting the Genetic Toolbox for Sulfolobus islandicus with a Stringent Positive Selectable Marker for Agmatine Prototrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Tara E.; Krause, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfolobus species have become the model organisms for studying the unique biology of the crenarchaeal division of the archaeal domain. In particular, Sulfolobus islandicus provides a powerful opportunity to explore natural variation via experimental functional genomics. To support these efforts, we further expanded genetic tools for S. islandicus by developing a stringent positive selection for agmatine prototrophs in strains in which the argD gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, has been deleted. Strains with deletions in argD were shown to be auxotrophic for agmatine even in nutrient-rich medium, but growth could be restored by either supplementation of exogenous agmatine or reintroduction of a functional copy of the argD gene from S. solfataricus P2 into the ΔargD host. Using this stringent selection, a robust targeted gene knockout system was established via an improved next generation of the MID (marker insertion and unmarked target gene deletion) method. Application of this novel system was validated by targeted knockout of the upsEF genes involved in UV-inducible cell aggregation formation. PMID:23835176

  7. Glycoside hydrolase gene transcription by Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius during growth on wheat arabinoxylan and monosaccharides: a proposed xylan hydrolysis mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Brady D.; Apel, William A.; Sheridan, Peter P.; DeVeaux, Linda C.

    2018-04-16

    Background Metabolism of carbon bound in wheat arabinoxylan (WAX) polysaccharides by bacteria requires a number of glycoside hydrolases active toward different bonds between sugars and other molecules. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a Gram-positive thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on a variety of mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Nineteen proposed glycoside hydrolases have been annotated in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain ATCC27009/DSM 446 genome. Results Molecular analysis using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays was performed on A. acidocaldarius strain ATCC27009 when growing on WAX. When a culture growing exponentially at the expense of arabinoxylan saccharides was challenged with glucose or xylose, most glycoside hydrolases were down-regulated. Interestingly, regulation was more intense when xylose was added to the culture than when glucose was added, a clear departure from classical carbon catabolite repression demonstrated by many Gram-positive bacteria. In silico analyses of the regulated glycoside hydrolases, along with the results from the microarray analyses, yielded a potential mechanism for arabinoxylan metabolism by A. acidocaldarius. Glycoside hydrolases expressed by this strain may have broad substrate specificity, and initial hydrolysis is catalyzed by an extracellular xylanase, while subsequent steps are likely performed inside the growing cell. Conclusions Glycoside hydrolases, for the most part, appear to be found in clusters, throughout the A. acidocaldarius genome. Not all of the glycoside hydrolase genes found at loci within these clusters were regulated during the experiment, indicating that a specific subset of the 19 glycoside hydrolase genes found in A. acidocaldarius were used during metabolism of WAX. While specific functions of the glycoside hydrolases was not tested as part of the research discussed, many of the glycoside hydrolases found in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain appear to have a broader

  8. Factor requirements for transcription in the Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S A; Bell, S D; Jackson, S P

    1997-05-15

    Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute a domain of life that is distinct from Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes). Although archaeal cells share many morphological features with eubacteria, their transcriptional apparatus is more akin to eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II and III than it is to eubacterial transcription systems. Thus, in addition to possessing a 10 subunit RNA polymerase and a homologue of the TATA-binding protein (TBP), Archaea possess a polypeptide termed TFB that is homologous to eukaryotic TFIIB. Here, we investigate the factor requirements for transcription of several promoters of the archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae and its associated virus SSV. Through in vitro transcription and immunodepletion, we demonstrate that S. shibatae TBP, TFB and RNA polymerase are not complexed tightly with one another and that each is required for efficient transcription of all promoters tested. Furthermore, full transcription is restored by supplementing respective depleted extracts with recombinant TBP or TFB, indicating that TBP-associated factors or TFB-associated factors are not required. Indeed, gel-filtration suggests that Sulfolobus TBP and TFB are not associated stably with other proteins. Finally, all promoters analysed are transcribed accurately and efficiently in an in vitro system comprising recombinant TBP and TFB, together with essentially homogeneous preparation of RNA polymerase. Transcription in Archaea is therefore fundamentally homologous to that in eukaryotes, although factor requirements appear to be much less complex.

  9. Characterization of the Sulfolobus host-SSV2 virus interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, P.; Jensen, S.; Aucelli, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Sulfolobus spindle virus, SSV2, encodes a tyrosine integrase which furthers provirus formation in host chromosomes. Consistently with the prediction made during sequence analysis, integration was found to occur in the downstream half of the tRNAGly (CCC) gene. In this paper we report the find......The Sulfolobus spindle virus, SSV2, encodes a tyrosine integrase which furthers provirus formation in host chromosomes. Consistently with the prediction made during sequence analysis, integration was found to occur in the downstream half of the tRNAGly (CCC) gene. In this paper we report...... during the growth of the natural host REY15/4, the cellular content of SSV2 DNA remains fairly low throughout the incubation of the foreign host. The accumulation of episomal DNA in the former case cannot be traced to decreased packaging activity because of a simultaneous increase in the virus titre...... in the medium. In addition, the interaction between SSV2 and its natural host is characterized by the concurrence of host growth inhibition and the induction of viral DNA replication. When this virus-host interaction was investigated using S. islandicus REY15A, a strain which is closely related to the natural...

  10. Comparative sequence analyses on the 16S rRNA (rDNA) of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus and proposal for creation of a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.; Deinhard, G.; Poralla, K.

    1992-01-01

    Comparative 16S rRNA (rDNA) sequence analyses performed on the thermophilic Bacillus species Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus revealed that these organisms are sufficiently different from the traditional Bacillus species to warrant reclassification in a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov. An analysis of 16S rRNA sequences established that these three thermoacidophiles cluster in a group that differs markedly from both the obligately thermophilic organisms Bacillus stearothermophilus and the facultatively thermophilic organism Bacillus coagulans, as well as many other common mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species. The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species B. acidocaldarius, B. acidoterrestris, and B. cycloheptanicus also are unique in that they possess omega-alicylic fatty acid as the major natural membranous lipid component, which is a rare phenotype that has not been found in any other Bacillus species characterized to date. This phenotype, along with the 16S rRNA sequence data, suggests that these thermoacidophiles are biochemically and genetically unique and supports the proposal that they should be reclassified in the new genus Alicyclobacillus.

  11. Redox stress proteins are involved in adaptation response of the hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus to nickel challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaloni Andrea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to nickel (Ni and its chemical derivatives has been associated with severe health effects in human. On the contrary, poor knowledge has been acquired on target physiological processes or molecular mechanisms of this metal in model organisms, including Bacteria and Archaea. In this study, we describe an analysis focused at identifying proteins involved in the recovery of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus strain MT4 from Ni-induced stress. Results To this purpose, Sulfolobus solfataricus was grown in the presence of the highest nickel sulphate concentration still allowing cells to survive; crude extracts from treated and untreated cells were compared at the proteome level by using a bi-dimensional chromatography approach. We identified several proteins specifically repressed or induced as result of Ni treatment. Observed up-regulated proteins were largely endowed with the ability to trigger recovery from oxidative and osmotic stress in other biological systems. It is noteworthy that most of the proteins induced following Ni treatment perform similar functions and a few have eukaryal homologue counterparts. Conclusion These findings suggest a series of preferential gene expression pathways activated in adaptation response to metal challenge.

  12. Two DNA polymerase sliding clamps from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, M; Sensen, C W; Charlebois, R L; Rossi, M; Pisani, F M

    1999-08-06

    Herein, we report the identification and characterization of two DNA polymerase processivity factors from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. They, referred to as 039p (244 amino acid residues, 27 kDa) and 048p (249 amino acid residues, 27 kDa), present significant primary structure similarity to eukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We demonstrate that both 039p and 048p form oligomers in solution and are able to substantially activate the synthetic activity of the single-subunit family B DNA polymerase from S. solfataricus (Sso DNA pol B1) on poly(dA)-oligo(dT) as a primer-template. This stimulatory effect is the result of enhanced DNA polymerase processivity, as indicated by the analysis of the elongation products on polyacrylamide gels. Activation of Sso DNA pol B1 synthetic activity was also observed on linear primed single-stranded M13 mp18 DNA as a template. By immunoblot analysis using specific rabbit antisera, 039p and 048p were both detected in the logarithmic and stationary phases of S. solfataricus growth curve. This is the first report of the identification and biochemical characterization of two distinct DNA polymerase processivity factors from the same organism. The significance of these findings for the understanding of the DNA replication process in Archaea is discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  14. Structure of the heterotrimeric PCNA from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Johnson, Kenneth; Rudolf, Jana; McMahon, Stephen A.; Carter, Lester; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Naismith, James H.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the heterotrimeric PCNA complex from S. sulfataricus is reported to 2.3 Å. PCNA is a ring-shaped protein that encircles DNA, providing a platform for the association of a wide variety of DNA-processing enzymes that utilize the PCNA sliding clamp to maintain proximity to their DNA substrates. PCNA is a homotrimer in eukaryotes, but a heterotrimer in crenarchaea such as Sulfolobus solfataricus. The three proteins are SsoPCNA1 (249 residues), SsoPCNA2 (245 residues) and SsoPCNA3 (259 residues). The heterotrimeric protein crystallizes in space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 44.8, b = 78.8, c = 125.6 Å, β = 100.5°. The crystal structure of this heterotrimeric PCNA molecule has been solved using molecular replacement. The resulting structure to 2.3 Å sheds light on the differential stabilities of the interactions observed between the three subunits and the specificity of individual subunits for partner proteins.

  15. CRISPR associated diversity within a population of Sulfolobus islandicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Held

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Predator-prey models for virus-host interactions predict that viruses will cause oscillations of microbial host densities due to an arms race between resistance and virulence. A new form of microbial resistance, CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats are a rapidly evolving, sequence-specific immunity mechanism in which a short piece of invading viral DNA is inserted into the host's chromosome, thereby rendering the host resistant to further infection. Few studies have linked this form of resistance to population dynamics in natural microbial populations.We examined sequence diversity in 39 strains of the archeaon Sulfolobus islandicus from a single, isolated hot spring from Kamchatka, Russia to determine the effects of CRISPR immunity on microbial population dynamics. First, multiple housekeeping genetic markers identify a large clonal group of identical genotypes coexisting with a diverse set of rare genotypes. Second, the sequence-specific CRISPR spacer arrays split the large group of isolates into two very different groups and reveal extensive diversity and no evidence for dominance of a single clone within the population.The evenness of resistance genotypes found within this population of S. islandicus is indicative of a lack of strain dominance, in contrast to the prediction for a resistant strain in a simple predator-prey interaction. Based on evidence for the independent acquisition of resistant sequences, we hypothesize that CRISPR mediated clonal interference between resistant strains promotes and maintains diversity in this natural population.

  16. Sulfolobus Replication Factor C stimulates the activity of DNA Polymerase B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Likui; Guo, Li

    2014-01-01

    the hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Sulfolobus physically interacts with DNA polymerase B1 (PolB1) and enhances both the polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities of PolB1 in an ATP-independent manner. Stimulation of the PolB1 activity by RFC is independent of the ability of RFC to bind DNA but is consistent...... with the ability of RFC to facilitate DNA binding by PolB1 through protein-protein interaction. These results suggest that Sulfolobus RFC may play a role in recruiting DNA polymerase for efficient primer extension, in addition to clamp loading, during DNA replication....

  17. A New Pepstatin-Insensitive Thermopsin-Like Protease Overproduced in Peptide-Rich Cultures of Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gogliettino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we gain insight into the extracellular proteolytic system of Sulfolobus solfataricus grown on proteinaceous substrates, providing further evidence that acidic proteases were specifically produced in response to peptide-rich media. The main proteolytic component was the previously isolated SsMTP (Sulfolobus solfataricus multi-domain thermopsin-like protease, while the less abundant (named SsMTP-1 one was purified, characterized and identified as the sso1175 gene-product. The protein revealed a multi-domain organization shared with the cognate SsMTP with a catalytic domain followed by several tandemly-repeated motifs. Moreover, both enzymes were found spread across the Crenarchaeota phylum and belonging to the thermopsin family, although segregated into diverse phylogenetic clusters. SsMTP-1 showed a 75-kDa molecular mass and was stable in the temperature range 50–90 °C, with optimal activity at 70 °C and pH 2.0. Serine, metallo and aspartic protease inhibitors did not affect the enzyme activity, designating SsMTP-1 as a new member of the pepstatin-insensitive aspartic protease family. The peptide-bond-specificity of SsMTP-1 in the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B chain was uncommon amongst thermopsins, suggesting that it could play a distinct, but cooperative role in the protein degradation machinery. Interestingly, predictions of the transmembrane protein topology of SsMTP and SsMTP-1 strongly suggest a possible contribution in signal-transduction pathways.

  18. Genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus and functional analysis of DNA repair genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Changyi; Tian, Bin; Li, Suming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a novel gene-deletion method was developed for the crenarchaeal model Sulfolobus islandicus, which is a suitable tool for addressing gene essentiality in depth. Using this technique, we have investigated functions of putative DNA repair genes by constructing deletion mutants and studying...

  19. Conditions for gene disruption by homologous recombination of exogenous DNA into the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The construction of directed gene deletion mutants is an essential tool in molecular biology that allows functional studies on the role of genes in their natural environment. For hyperthermophilic archaea, it has been difficult to obtain a reliable system to construct such mutants. However, during the past years, systems have been developed for Thermococcus kodakarensis and two Sulfolobus species, S. ac...

  20. Characterization of different crystal forms of the alpha-glucosidase MalA from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Heidi Asschenfeldt; Willemoës, Martin; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2005-01-01

    MalA is an alpha-glucosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. It belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 31, which includes several medically interesting alpha-glucosidases. MalA and its selenomethionine derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli...

  1. Structure of dimeric, recombinant Sulfolobus solfataricus phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune W.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme 5-phosphoribosyl-1-α-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase (EC 2.7.6.1) catalyses the Mg2+-dependent transfer of a diphosphoryl group from ATP to the C1 hydroxyl group of ribose 5-phosphate resulting in the production of PRPP and AMP. A nucleotide sequence specifying Sulfolobus solfataricus PRPP...

  2. pTC Plasmids from Sulfolobus Species in the Geothermal Area of Tengchong, China: Genomic Conservation and Naturally-Occurring Variations as a Result of Transposition by Mobile Genetic Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Xiaoxing; Wang, Haina; Huang, Li

    2015-02-12

    Plasmids occur frequently in Archaea. A novel plasmid (denoted pTC1) containing typical conjugation functions has been isolated from Sulfolobus tengchongensis RT8-4, a strain obtained from a hot spring in Tengchong, China, and characterized. The plasmid is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 20,417 bp. Among a total of 26 predicted pTC1 ORFs, 23 have homologues in other known Sulfolobus conjugative plasmids (CPs). pTC1 resembles other Sulfolobus CPs in genome architecture, and is most highly conserved in the genomic region encoding conjugation functions. However, attempts to demonstrate experimentally the capacity of the plasmid for conjugational transfer were unsuccessful. A survey revealed that pTC1 and its closely related plasmid variants were widespread in the geothermal area of Tengchong. Variations of the plasmids at the target sites for transposition by an insertion sequence (IS) and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) were readily detected. The IS was efficiently inserted into the pTC1 genome, and the inserted sequence was inactivated and degraded more frequently in an imprecise manner than in a precise manner. These results suggest that the host organism has evolved a strategy to maintain a balance between the insertion and elimination of mobile genetic elements to permit genomic plasticity while inhibiting their fast spreading.

  3. pTC Plasmids from Sulfolobus Species in the Geothermal Area of Tengchong, China: Genomic Conservation and Naturally-Occurring Variations as a Result of Transposition by Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids occur frequently in Archaea. A novel plasmid (denoted pTC1 containing typical conjugation functions has been isolated from Sulfolobus tengchongensis RT8-4, a strain obtained from a hot spring in Tengchong, China, and characterized. The plasmid is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 20,417 bp. Among a total of 26 predicted pTC1 ORFs, 23 have homologues in other known Sulfolobus conjugative plasmids (CPs. pTC1 resembles other Sulfolobus CPs in genome architecture, and is most highly conserved in the genomic region encoding conjugation functions. However, attempts to demonstrate experimentally the capacity of the plasmid for conjugational transfer were unsuccessful. A survey revealed that pTC1 and its closely related plasmid variants were widespread in the geothermal area of Tengchong. Variations of the plasmids at the target sites for transposition by an insertion sequence (IS and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE were readily detected. The IS was efficiently inserted into the pTC1 genome, and the inserted sequence was inactivated and degraded more frequently in an imprecise manner than in a precise manner. These results suggest that the host organism has evolved a strategy to maintain a balance between the insertion and elimination of mobile genetic elements to permit genomic plasticity while inhibiting their fast spreading.

  4. Extraction, isolation and NMR data of the tetraether lipid calditoglycerocaldarchaeol (GDNT) from Sulfolobus metallicus harvested from a bioleaching reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bode, ML

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful extraction and isolation of the hydrolysed tetraether lipid calditoglycerocaldarchaeol (GDNT) from Sulfolobus etallicus, a key thermophilic bioleaching archaeon, is described. The archaeal biomasswas recovered directly from a...

  5. Dynamic fluorescence studies of beta-glycosidase mutants from Sulfolobus solfataricus: effects of single mutations on protein thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuto, Ettore; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Limongelli, Simona; Briante, Raffaella; Nucci, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    Multiple sequence alignment on 73 proteins belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 1 reveals the occurrence of a segment (83-124) in the enzyme sequences from hyperthermophilic archaea bacteria, which is absent in all the mesophilic members of the family. The alignment of the known three-dimensional structures of hyperthermophilic glycosidases with the known ones from mesophilic organisms shows a similar spatial organizations of beta-glycosidases except for this sequence segment whose structure is located on the external surface of each of four identical subunits, where it overlaps two alpha-helices. Site-directed mutagenesis substituting N97 or S101 with a cysteine residue in the sequence of beta-glycosidase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus caused some changes in the structural and dynamic properties as observed by circular dichroism in far- and near-UV light, as well as by frequency domain fluorometry, with a simultaneous loss of thermostability. The results led us to hypothesize an important role of the sequence segment present only in hyperthermophilic beta-glycosidases, in the thermal adaptation of archaea beta-glycosidases. The thermostabilization mechanism could occur as a consequence of numerous favorable ionic interactions of the 83-124 sequence with the other part of protein matrix that becomes more rigid and less accessible to the insult of thermal-activated solvent molecules. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Replication termination and chromosome dimer resolution in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggin, Iain G; Dubarry, Nelly; Bell, Stephen D

    2011-01-05

    Archaea of the genus Sulfolobus have a single-circular chromosome with three replication origins. All three origins fire in every cell in every cell cycle. Thus, three pairs of replication forks converge and terminate in each replication cycle. Here, we report 2D gel analyses of the replication fork fusion zones located between origins. These indicate that replication termination involves stochastic fork collision. In bacteria, replication termination is linked to chromosome dimer resolution, a process that requires the XerC and D recombinases, FtsK and the chromosomal dif site. Sulfolobus encodes a single-Xer homologue and its deletion gave rise to cells with aberrant DNA contents and increased volumes. Identification of the chromosomal dif site that binds Xer in vivo, and biochemical characterization of Xer/dif recombination revealed that, in contrast to bacteria, dif is located outside the fork fusion zones. Therefore, it appears that replication termination and dimer resolution are temporally and spatially distinct processes in Sulfolobus.

  7. The Identification of Sulfolobus Species from a Biocorrosion of Wastewater Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakila Motamedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the species which has a prominent role in the biocorrosion of wastewater pipes is Sulfolobus bacterium. This bacterium is among the iron oxidizing bacteria. Sulfolobus is from the archae bacteria genus, which provides its needed energy by oxidation of sulfur in warm and acidic environments. In this research, the water sample exist in the water supply pipelines at Sarcheshmeh copper mine was studied, sulfur corrosive bacteria were separated and identified and their biochemical activity was researched and studied and it was found that the target species are in fact Sulfolobus archae bacteria which have different enzymatic activities. Due to these enzymatic activities, a considerable amount of sulfur is accumulated on the cell surface. Based on various incubation environments, as a result of sulfur accumulation, Sulfolubos archae bacteria were identified, and after doing isolation and purification methods, number of colonies have been decrease from 10-1 dilution to 10-10 dilution and in sample with 10-1 dilution sample 200 colonies has been reported and in plate with 10-10 dilution no colonies has been observed.

  8. Novel RepA-MCM proteins encoded in plasmids pTAU4, pORA1 and pTIK4 from Sulfolobus neozealandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, B.; Jensen, S.; Phan, H.

    2005-01-01

    Three plasmids isolated from the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus neozealandicus were characterized. Plasmids pTAU4 (7,192 bp), pORA1 (9,689 bp) and pTIK4 (13,638 bp) show unusual properties that distinguish them from previously characterized cryptic plasmids of the genus Sulfolobus. Plas...

  9. Doubling Power Output of Starch Biobattery Treated by the Most Thermostable Isoamylase from an Archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Fangfang; Chen, Hongge; Percival Zhang, Y-H

    2015-08-20

    Biobattery, a kind of enzymatic fuel cells, can convert organic compounds (e.g., glucose, starch) to electricity in a closed system without moving parts. Inspired by natural starch metabolism catalyzed by starch phosphorylase, isoamylase is essential to debranch alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds of starch, yielding linear amylodextrin - the best fuel for sugar-powered biobattery. However, there is no thermostable isoamylase stable enough for simultaneous starch gelatinization and enzymatic hydrolysis, different from the case of thermostable alpha-amylase. A putative isoamylase gene was mined from megagenomic database. The open reading frame ST0928 from a hyperthermophilic archaeron Sulfolobus tokodaii was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein was easily purified by heat precipitation at 80 (o)C for 30 min. This enzyme was characterized and required Mg(2+) as an activator. This enzyme was the most stable isoamylase reported with a half lifetime of 200 min at 90 (o)C in the presence of 0.5 mM MgCl2, suitable for simultaneous starch gelatinization and isoamylase hydrolysis. The cuvett-based air-breathing biobattery powered by isoamylase-treated starch exhibited nearly doubled power outputs than that powered by the same concentration starch solution, suggesting more glucose 1-phosphate generated.

  10. SMV1 virus-induced CRISPR spacer acquisition from the conjugative plasmid pMGB1 in Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2013-01-01

    Organisms of the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales carry complex CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) adaptive immune systems. These systems are modular and show extensive structural and functional diversity, especially in their interference complexes. The primary...... targets are an exceptional range of diverse viruses, many of which propagate stably within cells and follow lytic life cycles without producing cell lysis. These properties are consistent with the difficulty of activating CRISPR spacer uptake in the laboratory, but appear to conflict with the high...... complexity and diversity of the CRISPR immune systems that are found among the Sulfolobales. In the present article, we re-examine the first successful induction of archaeal spacer acquisition in our laboratory that occurred exclusively for the conjugative plasmid pMGB1 in Sulfolobus solfataricus P2...

  11. Acquired thermotolerance and heat shock in the extremely thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus sp. strain B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Trent, J D; Osipiuk, J; Pinkau, T

    1990-01-01

    The extreme thermophile Sulfolobus sp. strain B12 exhibits an acquired thermotolerance response. Thus, survival of cells from a 70 degrees C culture at the lethal temperature of 92 degrees C was enhanced by as much as 6 orders of magnitude over a 2-h period if the culture was preheated to 88 degrees C for 60 min or longer before being exposed to the lethal temperature. In eubacteria and eucaryotes, acquired thermotolerance correlates with the induced synthesis of a dozen or so proteins known ...

  12. A novel interference mechanism by a type IIIB CRISPR-Cmr module in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Garrett, Roger Antony; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on CRISPR-based adaptive immune systems have revealed extensive structural and functional diversity of the interference complexes which often coexist intracellularly. The archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A encodes three interference modules, one of type IA and two of type IIIB...... targeting. A rationale is provided for the intracellular coexistence of the different interference systems in S.¿islandicus REY15A which cooperate functionally by sharing a single Cas6 protein for crRNA processing and utilize crRNA products from identical CRISPR spacers....

  13. Structure of the dimeric form of CTP synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Iben; Willemoës, Martin; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2011-01-01

    CTP synthase catalyzes the last committed step in de novo pyrimidine-nucleotide biosynthesis. Active CTP synthase is a tetrameric enzyme composed of a dimer of dimers. The tetramer is favoured in the presence of the substrate nucleotides ATP and UTP; when saturated with nucleotide, the tetramer...... completely dominates the oligomeric state of the enzyme. Furthermore, phosphorylation has been shown to regulate the oligomeric states of the enzymes from yeast and human. The crystal structure of a dimeric form of CTP synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus has been determined at 2.5 Å resolution...

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PAT, an acetyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ching-Chang; Luo, Ching-Wei; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2008-01-01

    PAT, an acetyltransferase from the archaeon S. solfataricus that specifically acetylates the chromatin protein Alba, was expressed, purified and crystallized. PAT is an acetyltransferase from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus that specifically acetylates the chromatin protein Alba. The enzyme was expressed, purified and subsequently crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. Native diffraction data were collected to 1.70 Å resolution on the BL13C1 beamline of NSRRC from a flash-frozen crystal at 100 K. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 44.30, b = 46.59, c = 68.39 Å

  15. Posttranscriptional modifications in the A-loop of 23S rRNAs from selected archaea and eubacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, M A; Kirpekar, F; Ritterbusch, W; Vester, B

    2002-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications were mapped in helices 90-92 of 23S rRNA from the following phylogenetically diverse organisms: Haloarcula marismortui, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Helix 92 is a component of the ribosomal A-site, which contacts the aminoacyl-tRNA during protein synthesis, implying that posttranscriptional modifications in helices 90-92 may be important for ribosome function. RNA fragments were isolated from 23S rRNA by site-...

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu Hao,; Sun, L.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Fu, S.; Akerboom, A.P.; Li, X.; Oost, van der J.

    2007-01-01

    A predicted GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, termed SsGBP, has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in the presence of 0.05 M cadmium sulfate and 0.8

  17. Determination of hydride transfer stereospecificity of NADH-dependent alcohol-aldehyde/ketone oxidoreductase from Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, A; Lama, L; Rella, R; D'Auria, S; Raia, C A; Nicolaus, B

    1990-10-18

    This paper describes the determination of stereospecificity of hydride transfer reaction of an alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus. The 1H-NMR and EI-MS data indicate that the enzyme transfers the pro-R hydrogen from coenzyme to substrate and is therefore an A-specific dehydrogenase.

  18. Acquired thermotolerance and heat shock in the extremely thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus sp. strain B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J D; Osipiuk, J; Pinkau, T

    1990-03-01

    The extreme thermophile Sulfolobus sp. strain B12 exhibits an acquired thermotolerance response. Thus, survival of cells from a 70 degrees C culture at the lethal temperature of 92 degrees C was enhanced by as much as 6 orders of magnitude over a 2-h period if the culture was preheated to 88 degrees C for 60 min or longer before being exposed to the lethal temperature. In eubacteria and eucaryotes, acquired thermotolerance correlates with the induced synthesis of a dozen or so proteins known as heat shock proteins. In this Sulfolobus species, it correlates with the preferential synthesis of primarily one major protein (55 kilodaltons) and, to a much lesser extent, two minor proteins (28 and 35 kilodaltons). Since the synthesis of all other proteins was radically reduced and these proteins were apparently not degraded or exported, their relative abundance within the cell increased during the time the cells were becoming thermotolerant. They could not yet be related to known heat shock proteins. In immunoassays, they were not cross-reactive with antibodies against heat shock proteins from Escherichia coli (DnaK and GroE), which are highly conserved between eubacteria and eucaryotes. However, it appears that if acquired thermotolerance depends on the synthesis of protective proteins, then in this extremely thermophilic archaebacterium it depends primarily on one protein.

  19. The Dichotomy of the Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase-Like Thermozyme from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Faraone Mennella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first evidence of an ADP-ribosylating activity in Archaea was obtained in Sulfolobus solfataricus(strain MT-4 where a poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-like thermoprotein, defined with the acronymous PARPSso, was found. Similarly to the eukaryotic counterparts PARPSso cleaves beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to synthesize oligomers of ADP-ribose; cross-reacts with polyclonal anti-PARP-1 catalytic site antibodies; binds DNA. The main differences rely on the molecular mass (46.5 kDa and the thermophily of PARPSso which works at 80 °C. Despite the biochemical properties that allow correlating it to PARP enzymes, the N-terminal and partial amino acid sequences available suggest that PARPSso belongs to a different group of enzymes, the DING proteins, an item discussed in detail in this review.This finding makes PARPSso the first example of a DING protein in Archaea and extends the existence of DING proteins into all the biological kingdoms. PARPSsohas a cell peripheral localization, along with the edge of the cell membrane. The ADP-ribosylation reaction is reverted by a poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase-like activity, able to use the eukaryotic poly(ADP-ribose as a substrate too. Here we overview the research of (ADP-ribosylation in Sulfolobus solfataricus in the past thirty years and discuss the features of PARPSso common with the canonical poly(ADP-ribose polymerases, and the structure fitting with that of DING proteins.

  20. Transcription termination in the plasmid/virus hybrid pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; Cannio, Raffaele; She, Qunxin

    2010-01-01

    The pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus, strain REY15/4, is a hybrid between a plasmid and a fusellovirus. A systematic study previously performed revealed the presence of nine major transcripts, the expression of which was differentially and temporally regulated over the growth cycle of S. islandicus....... In this study, two new transcripts were identified. Then, 3' termini of all the RNAs were mapped using adaptor RT-PCR and RNase protection assays, and termination/arrest positions were identified for each transcript. The majority of the identified ending positions were located in the close vicinity of a T...... and counter-transcripts might be responsible for the transcription termination at these T-track-minus loci in the closely spaced pSSVx genes....

  1. Transcriptome changes in STSV2-infected Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A undergoing continuous CRISPR spacer acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Sobrino, Carlos; Kot, Witold P; Garrett, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    A transcriptome study was performed on Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A actively undergoing CRISPR spacer acquisition from the crenarchaeal monocaudavirus STSV2 in rich and basal media over a 6 day period. Spacer acquisition preceded strong host growth retardation, altered transcriptional activity...... of four different CRISPR-Cas modules and changes in viral copy numbers, and with significant differences in the two media. Transcript levels of proteins involved in the cell cycle were reduced, while those of DNA replication, DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and some antitoxin-toxin pairs...... and transposases were unchanged or enhanced. Antisense RNAs were implicated in the transcriptional regulation of adaptation and interference modules of the type I-A CRISPR-Cas system and evidence was found for the occurrence of functional coordination between the single CRISPR-Cas adaptation module...

  2. Modulation of CRISPR locus transcription by the repeat-binding protein Cbp1 in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Peng, Xu

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR loci are essential components of the adaptive immune system of archaea and bacteria. They consist of long arrays of repeats separated by DNA spacers encoding guide RNAs (crRNA), which target foreign genetic elements. Cbp1 (CRISPR DNA repeat binding protein) binds specifically to the multiple...... direct repeats of CRISPR loci of members of the acidothermophilic, crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales. cbp1 gene deletion from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A produced a strong reduction in pre-crRNA yields from CRISPR loci but did not inhibit the foreign DNA targeting capacity of the CRISPR/Cas system....... Conversely, overexpression of Cbp1 in S. islandicus generated an increase in pre-crRNA yields while the level of reverse strand transcripts from CRISPR loci remained unchanged. It is proposed that Cbp1 modulates production of longer pre-crRNA transcripts from CRISPR loci. A possible mechanism...

  3. Genetic Studies on CRISPR-Cas Functions in Invader Defense in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang

    Archaea and bacteria contain CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated) systems that protect themselves against invasion by viruses and plasmids. There are three major types of CRISPR-Cas systems, type I, II and III, that are further divided...... into at least 11 subtypes. I employed Sulfolobus islandicus Rey15A as the model to study CRISPR mechanisms. The model archaeon encodes one subtype I-A (Cascade) and two subtype III-B (Cmr-α and Cmr-β) interference systems with no apparent redundancy in cas genes or in CRISPR systems, which is ideal for genetic...... analysis of cas gene function. Furthermore, a range of genetic tools have been developed for S. islandicus Rey15A in our laboratory and a plasmid interference assay has been successfully developed for testing CRISPR-directed DNA targeting activity, which have provided a solid basis for studying...

  4. Mutations and Rearrangements in the Genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redder, P.; Garrett, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 carries a larger number of transposable elements than any other sequenced genome from an archaeon or bacterium and, as a consequence, may be particularly susceptible to rearrangement and change. In order to gain more insight into the natures and frequencies...... of different types of mutation and possible rearrangements that can occur in the genome, the pyrEF locus was examined for mutations that were isolated after selection with 5-fluoroorotic acid. About two-thirds of the 130 mutations resulted from insertions of mobile elements, including insertion sequence (IS...... deletions, insertions, and a duplication, were observed, and about one-fifth of the mutations occurred elsewhere in the genome, possibly in an orotate transporter gene. One mutant exhibited a 5-kb genomic rearrangement at the pyrEF locus involving a two-step IS element-dependent reaction, and its boundaries...

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a PaaX-like protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yi; Lou, Zhiyong; Sun, Yuna; Xue, Fei; Feng, Changzeng; Gong, Xiaocui; Yang, Dongmei; Bartlam, Mark; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Keqin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the PaaX-like protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. PaaX is a global regulator of the phenylacetyl-coenzyme A catabolon that adjusts the expression of different operons to that of the paa-encoded central pathway. In this study, the PaaX-like protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. Diffraction data were obtained to a resolution of 3.0 Å using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory. The crystal belonged to space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.4, b = 86.4, c = 105.5 Å

  6. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus c92 protein responsible for the formation of pyramid-like cellular lysis structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Young, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.

  7. Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus c92 Protein Responsible for the Formation of Pyramid-Like Cellular Lysis Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system desc...... disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.......Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system...... described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene...

  8. Dynamic properties of the Sulfolobus CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems when challenged with vector-borne viral and plasmid genes and protospacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Deng, Ling; Chen, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching...... individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different...... protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers...

  9. Role of tryptophan 95 in substrate specificity and structural stability of Sulfolobus solfataricus alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Esposito, Luciana; Zagari, Adriana; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2009-09-01

    A mutant of the thermostable NAD(+)-dependent (S)-stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsADH) which has a single substitution, Trp95Leu, located at the substrate binding pocket, was fully characterized to ascertain the role of Trp95 in discriminating between chiral secondary alcohols suggested by the wild-type SsADH crystallographic structure. The Trp95Leu mutant displays no apparent activity with short-chain primary and secondary alcohols and poor activity with aromatic substrates and coenzyme. Moreover, the Trp --> Leu substitution affects the structural stability of the archaeal ADH, decreasing its thermal stability without relevant changes in secondary structure. The double mutant Trp95Leu/Asn249Tyr was also purified to assist in crystallographic analysis. This mutant exhibits higher activity but decreased affinity toward aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes as well as NAD(+) and NADH compared to the wild-type enzyme. The crystal structure of the Trp95Leu/Asn249Tyr mutant apo form, determined at 2.0 A resolution, reveals a large local rearrangement of the substrate site with dramatic consequences. The Leu95 side-chain conformation points away from the catalytic metal center and the widening of the substrate site is partially counteracted by a concomitant change of Trp117 side chain conformation. Structural changes at the active site are consistent with the reduced activity on substrates and decreased coenzyme binding.

  10. The Sso7d protein of Sulfolobus solfataricus: in vitro relationship among different activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Guagliardi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological role of the nonspecific DNA-binding protein Sso7d from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is unknown. In vitro studies have shown that Sso7d promotes annealing of complementary DNA strands (Guagliardi et al. 1997, induces negative supercoiling (Lopez-Garcia et al. 1998, and chaperones the disassembly and renaturation of protein aggregates in an ATP hydrolysis-dependent manner (Guagliardi et al. 2000. In this study, we examined the relationships among the binding of Sso7d to double-stranded DNA, its interaction with protein aggregates, and its ATPase activity. Experiments with 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid as probe demonstrated that exposed hydrophobic surfaces in Sso7d are responsible for interactions with protein aggregates and double-stranded DNA, whereas the site of ATPase activity has a non-hydrophobic character. The interactions of Sso7d with double-stranded DNA and with protein aggregates are mutually exclusive events, suggesting that the disassembly activity and the DNA-related activities of Sso7d may be competitive in vivo. In contrast, the hydrolysis of ATP by Sso7d is independent of the binding of Sso7d to double-stranded DNA or protein aggregates.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Copper and Cadmium Resistance Determinants in the Biomining Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Orell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfolobus metallicus is a thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon used in high-temperature bioleaching processes that is able to grow under stressing conditions such as high concentrations of heavy metals. Nevertheless, the genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for heavy metal resistance in S. metallicus remain uncharacterized. Proteomic analysis of S. metallicus cells exposed to 100 mM Cu revealed that 18 out of 30 upregulated proteins are related to the production and conversion of energy, amino acids biosynthesis, and stress responses. Ten of these last proteins were also up-regulated in S. metallicus treated in the presence of 1 mM Cd suggesting that at least in part, a common general response to these two heavy metals. The S. metallicus genome contained two complete cop gene clusters, each encoding a metallochaperone (CopM, a Cu-exporting ATPase (CopA, and a transcriptional regulator (CopT. Transcriptional expression analysis revealed that copM and copA from each cop gene cluster were cotranscribed and their transcript levels increased when S. metallicus was grown either in the presence of Cu or using chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 as oxidizable substrate. This study shows for the first time the presence of a duplicated version of the cop gene cluster in Archaea and characterizes some of the Cu and Cd resistance determinants in a thermophilic archaeon employed for industrial biomining.

  12. Crystal Structures of Two Isozymes of Citrate Synthase from Sulfolobus tokodaii Strain 7

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    Midori Murakami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 has two citrate synthase genes (ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS in the genome with 45% sequence identity. Because they exhibit similar optimal temperatures of catalytic activity and thermal inactivation profiles, we performed structural comparisons between these isozymes to elucidate adaptation mechanisms to high temperatures in thermophilic CSs. The crystal structures of ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS were determined at 2.0 Å and 2.7 Å resolutions, respectively. Structural comparison reveals that both of them are dimeric enzymes composed of two identical subunits, and these dimeric structures are quite similar to those of citrate synthases from archaea and eubacteria. ST0587-CS has, however, 55 ion pairs within whole dimer structure, while having only 36 in ST1805-CS. Although the number and distributions of ion pairs are distinct from each other, intersubunit ion pairs between two domains of each isozyme are identical especially in interterminal region. Because the location and number of ion pairs are in a trend with other CSs from thermophilic microorganisms, the factors responsible for thermal adaptation of ST-CS isozymes are characterized by ion pairs in interterminal region.

  13. Identification of novel non-coding RNAs as potential antisense regulators in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tang, T. H.; Polacek, N.; Zywicki, M.

    2005-01-01

    By generating a specialized cDNA library from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we have identified 57 novel small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) candidates and confirmed their expression by Northern blot analysis. The majority was found to belong to one of two classes, either antisense or antisense...... elements by inhibiting expression of the transposase mRNA. Surprisingly, the class of antisense RNAs also contained RNAs complementary to tRNAs or sRNAs (small-nucleolar-like RNAs). For the antisense-box ncRNAs, the majority could be assigned to the class of C/D sRNAs, which specify 2'-O-methylation sites...... on rRNAs or tRNAs. Five C/D sRNAs of this group are predicted to target methylation at six sites in 13 different tRNAs, thus pointing to the widespread role of these sRNA species in tRNA modification in Archaea. Another group of antisense-box RNAs, lacking typical C/D sRNA motifs, was predicted...

  14. Identification and characterisation of a novel acylpeptide hydrolase from Sulfolobus solfataricus: structural and functional insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gogliettino

    Full Text Available A novel acylpeptide hydrolase, named APEH-3(Ss, was isolated from the hypertermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. APEH is a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family which catalyzes the removal of acetylated amino acid residues from the N terminus of oligopeptides. The purified enzyme shows a homotrimeric structure, unique among the associate partners of the APEH cluster and, in contrast to the archaeal APEHs which show both exo/endo peptidase activities, it appears to be a "true" aminopeptidase as exemplified by its mammalian counterparts, with which it shares a similar substrate specificity. Furthermore, a comparative study on the regulation of apeh gene expression, revealed a significant but divergent alteration in the expression pattern of apeh-3(Ss and apeh(Ss (the gene encoding the previously identified APEH(Ss from S. solfataricus, which is induced in response to various stressful growth conditions. Hence, both APEH enzymes can be defined as stress-regulated proteins which play a complementary role in enabling the survival of S. solfataricus cells under different conditions. These results provide new structural and functional insights into S. solfataricus APEH, offering a possible explanation for the multiplicity of this enzyme in Archaea.

  15. Major and minor crRNA annealing sites facilitate low stringency DNA protospacer binding prior to Type I-A CRISPR-Cas interference in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousaei, Marzieh; Deng, Ling; She, Qunxin

    2016-01-01

    The stringency of crRNA-protospacer DNA base pair matching required for effective CRISPR-Cas interference is relatively low in crenarchaeal Sulfolobus species in contrast to that required in some bacteria. To understand its biological significance we studied crRNA-protospacer interactions...... in Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A which carries multiple, and functionally diverse, interference complexes. A range of mismatches were introduced into a vector-borne protospacer that was identical to spacer 1 of CRISPR locus 2, with a cognate CCN PAM sequence. Two important crRNA annealing regions were identified...

  16. C68 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmid-virus pSSVx is a novel member of the AbrB-like transcription factor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; D'Ambrosio, Katia; Pirone, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The genetic element pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus, strain REY15/4, is a hybrid between a plasmid and a fusellovirus. This plasmid-virus hybrid infects several species of the hyperthermophilic acidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus. The open reading frame orfc68 of pSSVx encodes a 7.7 kDa protein...... factors, such as AbrB from Bacillus subtilis. Nevertheless, C68 constitutes a novel representative of this family because it shows several peculiar structural and functional features....

  17. Adsorption of β-galactosidase of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius on wild type and mutants spores of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirec Teja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus subtilis spore has long been used as a surface display system with potential applications in a variety of fields ranging from mucosal vaccine delivery, bioremediation and biocatalyst development. More recently, a non-recombinant approach of spore display has been proposed and heterologous proteins adsorbed on the spore surface. We used the well-characterized β-galactosidase from the thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius as a model to study enzyme adsorption, to analyze whether and how spore-adsorption affects the properties of the enzyme and to improve the efficiency of the process. Results We report that purified β-galactosidase molecules were adsorbed to purified spores of a wild type strain of B. subtilis retaining ca. 50% of their enzymatic activity. Optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were not altered by the presence of the spore, that protected the adsorbed β-galactosidase from exposure to acidic pH conditions. A collection of mutant strains of B. subtilis lacking a single or several spore coat proteins was compared to the isogenic parental strain for the adsorption efficiency. Mutants with an altered outermost spore layer (crust were able to adsorb 60-80% of the enzyme, while mutants with a severely altered or totally lacking outer coat adsorbed 100% of the β-galactosidase molecules present in the adsorption reaction. Conclusion Our results indicate that the spore surface structures, the crust and the outer coat layer, have an negative effect on the adhesion of the β-galactosidase. Electrostatic forces, previously suggested as main determinants of spore adsorption, do not seem to play an essential role in the spore-β-galactosidase interaction. The analysis of mutants with altered spore surface has shown that the process of spore adsorption can be improved and has suggested that such improvement has to be based on a better understanding of the spore surface structure

  18. Mutational analysis of divalent metal ion binding in the active site of class II α-mannosidase from sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dennis K.; Webb, Helen; Nielsen, Jonas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Mutational analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus class II α-mannosidase was focused on side chains that interact with the hydroxyls of the-1 mannosyl of the substrate (Asp-534) or form ligands to the active site divalent metal ion (His-228 and His-533) judged from crystal structures of homologous e......, although less dramatically with some activating metal ions. No major differences in the pH dependence between wild-type and mutant enzymes were found in the presence of different metal ions. The pH optimum was 5, but enzyme instability was observed at pH...

  19. A Bac Library and Paired-PCR Approach to Mapping and Completing the Genome Sequence of Sulfolobus Solfataricus P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    She, Qunxin; Confalonieri, F.; Zivanovic, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The original strategy used in the Sulfolobus solfatnricus genome project was to sequence non overlapping, or minimally overlapping, cosmid or lambda inserts without constructing a physical map. However, after only about two thirds of the genome sequence was completed, this approach became counter......-productive because there was a high sequence bias in the cosmid and lambda libraries. Therefore, a new approach was devised for linking the sequenced regions which may be generally applicable. BAC libraries were constructed and terminal sequences of the clones were determined and used for both end mapping and PCR...

  20. ENERGY-TRANSDUCING PROPERTIES OF PRIMARY PROTON PUMPS RECONSTITUTED INTO ARCHAEAL BIPOLAR LIPID VESICLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELFERINK, MGL; DEWIT, JG; DRIESSEN, AJM; KONINGS, WN; Elferink, Marieke G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Archaeal lipids differ considerably from eubacterial and eukaryotic lipids in their structure and physical properties. From the membranes of the extreme thermophilic archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a tetraether lipid fraction was isolated, which can form closed and stable monolayer liposomes in

  1. Influence of C-terminal tail deletion on structure and stability of hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Chu, Wen-Ting; Xue, Qiao; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-06-01

    The C-terminus tail (G144-T149) of the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii (Sto-RNase HI) plays an important role in this protein's hyperstabilization and may therefore be a good protein stability tag. Detailed understanding of the structural and dynamic effects of C-terminus tail deletion is required for gaining insights into the thermal stability mechanism of Sto-RNase HI. Focused on Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI (Sto-RNase HI) and its derivative lacking the C-terminal tail (ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI) (PDB codes: 2EHG and 3ALY), we applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at four different temperatures (300, 375, 475, and 500 K) to examine the effect of the C-terminal tail on the hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and to investigate the unfolding process of Sto-RNase HI and ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI. The simulations suggest that the C-terminal tail has significant impact in hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and the unfolding of these two proteins evolves along dissimilar pathways. Essential dynamics analysis indicates that the essential subspaces of the two proteins at different temperatures are non-overlapping within the trajectories and they exhibit different directions of motion. Our work can give important information to understand the three-state folding mechanism of Sto-RNase HI and to offer alternative strategies to improve the protein stability.

  2. The 60 kDa heat shock proteins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, H K; Osipiuk, J; Maltsev, N; Overbeek, R; Quaite-Randall, E; Joachimiak, A; Trent, J D

    1995-11-10

    One of the most abundant proteins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae is the 59 kDa heat shock protein (TF55) that is believed to form a homo-oligomeric double ring complex structurally similar to the bacterial chaperonins. We discovered a second protein subunit in the S. shibatae ring complex (referred to as alpha) that is stoichiometric with TF55 (renamed beta). The gene and flanking regions of alpha were cloned and sequenced and its inferred amino acid sequence has 54.4% identity and 74.4% similarity to beta. Transcription start sites for both alpha and beta were mapped and three potential transcription regulatory regions were identified. Northern analyses of cultures shifted from normal growth temperatures (70 to 75 degrees C) to heat shock temperatures (85 to 90 degrees C) indicated that the levels of alpha and beta mRNAs increased during heat shock, but at all temperatures their relative proportions remained constant. Monitoring protein synthesis by autoradiography of total proteins from cultures pulse labeled with L(-)[35S]methionine at normal and heat shock temperatures indicated significant increases in alpha and beta synthesis during heat shock. Under extreme heat shock conditions (> or = 90 degrees C) alpha and beta appeared to be the only two proteins synthesized. The purified alpha and beta subunits combined to form high molecular mass complexes with similar mobilities on native polyacrylamide gels to the complexes isolated directly from cells. Equal proportions of the two subunits gave the greatest yield of the complex, which we refer to as a "rosettasome". It is argued that the rosettasome consists of two homo-oligomeric rings; one of alpha and the other of beta. Polyclonal antibodies against alpha and beta from S. shibatae cross-reacted with proteins of similar molecular mass in 10 out of the 17 archaeal species tested, suggesting that the two rosettasome proteins are highly conserved among the archaea. The archaeal sequences were

  3. Identification and sequence analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus purE and purK genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben Schildt; Dandanell, Gert

    1997-01-01

    From a genomic library of Sulfolobus solfataricus DSM1617 we have isolated and identified the purEK locus. Two open reading frames are identified as homologs of the purE and purK purine biosynthetic genes in Escherichia coli. The C-terminus of purE overlaps with the N-terminus of purK. When either...... of the genes is expressed from an E. coli promoter they can complement the corresponding purE and purK mutations in E. coli. PurE seems to be more closely related to eubacteria than to other archaea and to eukaryotes. Also the purK gene, which has not yet been found in other archaea, is more closely related...

  4. Genus-specific protein binding to the large clusters of DNA repeats (short regularly spaced repeats) present in Sulfolobus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Shen, Biao

    2003-01-01

    terminally modified and corresponds to SSO454, an open reading frame of previously unassigned function. It binds specifically to DNA fragments carrying double and single repeat sequences, binding on one side of the repeat structure, and producing an opening of the opposite side of the DNA structure. It also...... recognizes both main families of repeat sequences in S. solfataricus. The recombinant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, showed the same binding properties to the SRSR repeat as the native one. The SSO454 protein exhibits a tripartite internal repeat structure which yields a good sequence match...... with a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. Although this putative motif is shared by other archaeal proteins, orthologs of SSO454 were only detected in species within the Sulfolobus genus and in the closely related Acidianus genus. We infer that the genus-specific protein induces an opening of the structure...

  5. Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from the extreme thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus shibatae is an allosteric enzyme, activated by GTP and inhibited by CTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Lise; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1996-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, which catalyses the formation of UMP and pyrophosphate from uracil and 5-phosphoribosyl a-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), was partly purified from the extreme thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus shibatae. The enzyme required divalent metal ions for activity...... and it showed the highest activity at pH 6.4. The specific activity of the enzyme was 50-times higher at 95°C than at 37°C, but the functional half-life was short at 95°C. The activity of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase was strongly activated by GTP, which increased Vmax of the reaction by approximately 20......-fold without much effect on Km for the substrates. The concentration of GTP required for half-maximal activation was about 80 µM. CTP was a strong inhibitor and acted by raising the concentration of GTP needed for half-maximal activation of the enzyme. We conclude that uracil phosphoribosyltransferase...

  6. Allosteric regulation of the GTP activated and CTP inhibited uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Arent, Susan; Larsen, Sine

    2005-01-01

    The upp gene, encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity. It behaved as a tetramer in solution and showed optimal activity at pH 5.5 when...... assayed at 60 °C. Enzyme activity was strongly stimulated by GTP and inhibited by CTP. GTP caused an approximately 20-fold increase in the turnover number kcat and raised the Km values for 5-phosphoribosyl-1-diphosphate (PRPP) and uracil by two- and >10-fold, respectively. The inhibition by CTP...... was complex as it depended on the presence of the reaction product UMP. Neither CTP nor UMP were strong inhibitors of the enzyme, but when present in combination their inhibition was extremely powerful. Ligand binding analyses showed that GTP and PRPP bind cooperatively to the enzyme and that the inhibitors...

  7. Life Cycle Characterization of Sulfolobus Monocaudavirus 1, an Extremophilic Spindle-Shaped Virus with Extracellular Tail Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldahl, Kristine B; Jensen, Signe B; Bhoobalan-Chitty, Yuvaraj; Martínez-Álvarez, Laura; Papathanasiou, Pavlos; Peng, Xu

    2016-06-15

    We provide here, for the first time, insights into the initial infection stages of a large spindle-shaped archaeal virus and explore the following life cycle events. Our observations suggest that Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) exhibits a high adsorption rate and that virions adsorb to the host cells via three distinct attachment modes: nosecone association, body association, and body/tail association. In the body/tail association mode, the entire virion, including the tail(s), aligns to the host cell surface and the main body is greatly flattened, suggesting a possible fusion entry mechanism. Upon infection, the intracellular replication cycle lasts about 8 h, at which point the virions are released as spindle-shaped tailless particles. Replication of the virus retarded host growth but did not cause lysis of the host cells. Once released from the host and at temperatures resembling that of its natural habitat, SMV1 starts developing one or two tails. This exceptional property of undergoing a major morphological development outside, and independently of, the host cell has been reported only once before for the related Acidianus two-tailed virus. Here, we show that SMV1 can develop tails of more than 900 nm in length, more than quadrupling the total virion length. Very little is known about the initial life cycle stages of viruses infecting hosts of the third domain of life, Archaea This work describes the first example of an archaeal virus employing three distinct association modes. The virus under study, Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1, is a representative of the large spindle-shaped viruses that are frequently found in acidic hot springs. The results described here will add valuable knowledge about Archaea, the least studied domain in the virology field. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Deletion of the topoisomerase III gene in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus results in slow growth and defects in cell cycle control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiyang; Guo, Li; Deng, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Topoisomerase III (topo III), a type IA topoisomerase, is widespread in hyperthermophilic archaea. In order to interrogate the in vivo role of archaeal topo III, we constructed and characterized a topo III gene deletion mutant of Sulfolobus islandicus. The mutant was viable but grew more slowly...... results suggest that the enzyme may serve roles in chromosomal segregation and control of the level of supercoiling in the cell....

  9. Biochemical, transcriptional and translational evidences of the phenol-meta-degradation pathway by the hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus 98/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Comte

    Full Text Available Phenol is a widespread pollutant and a model molecule to study the biodegradation of monoaromatic compounds. After a first oxidation step leading to catechol in mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms, two main routes have been identified depending on the cleavage of the aromatic ring: ortho involving a catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12D and meta involving a catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23D. Our work aimed at elucidating the phenol-degradation pathway in the hyperthermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus 98/2. For this purpose, the strain was cultivated in a fermentor under different substrate and oxygenation conditions. Indeed, reducing dissolved-oxygen concentration allowed slowing down phenol catabolism (specific growth and phenol-consumption rates dropped 55% and 39%, respectively and thus, evidencing intermediate accumulations in the broth. HPLC/Diode Array Detector and LC-MS analyses on culture samples at low dissolved-oxygen concentration (DOC  =  0.06 mg x L(-1 suggested, apart for catechol, the presence of 2-hydroxymuconic acid, 4-oxalocrotonate and 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate, three intermediates of the meta route. RT-PCR analysis on oxygenase-coding genes of S. solfataricus 98/2 showed that the gene coding for the C23D was expressed only on phenol. In 2D-DIGE/MALDI-TOF analysis, the C23D was found and identified only on phenol. This set of results allowed us concluding that S. solfataricus 98/2 degrade phenol through the meta route.

  10. The architects of crenarchaeal chromatin : A biophysical characterization of chromatin proteins from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Rosalie Paula Catharina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of chromatin organization and compaction in Archaea is currently limited. The genome of several megabasepairs long is folded by a set of small chromatin proteins to fit into the micron-sized cell. A first step in understanding archaeal chromatin organization is to study the action of

  11. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus is an enzyme with unusual kinetic properties and a crystal structure that suggests it evolved from a 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Hansen, Michael Riis; Jensen, Kristine Steen

    2015-01-01

    The adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRTase) encoded by the open reading frame SSO2342 of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, was subjected to crystallographic, kinetic and ligand binding analyses. The enzyme forms dimers in solution and in the crystals, and binds one molecule of the reactants 5...

  12. Production of Recombinant and Tagged Proteins in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, S.-V.; Jonuscheit, M.; Dinkelaker, S.; Urich, T.; Kletzin, A.; Tampé, R.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Schleper, C.

    Many systems are available for the production of recombinant proteins in bacterial and eukaryotic model organisms, which allow us to study proteins in their native hosts and to identify protein-protein interaction partners. In contrast, only a few transformation systems have been developed for

  13. Allosteric regulation and communication between subunits in uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arent, Susan; Harris, Pernille; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2005-01-01

    organisms. To understand the allosteric regulation, crystal structures were determined for S. solfataricus UPRTase in complex with UMP and with UMP and the allosteric inhibitor CTP. Also, a structure with UMP bound in half of the active sites was determined. All three complexes form tetramers but reveal...... to rearrangements in the quaternary structure imply that this residue plays a major role in regulation of the enzyme and in communication between subunits. The ribose ring of UMP adopts alternative conformations in the cis and trans subunits of the UPRTase-UMP tetramer with associated differences...

  14. Structural characterization of ether lipids from the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus by high-resolution shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sara Munk; Brandl, Martin; Treusch, Alexander H

    2015-01-01

    The molecular structures, biosynthetic pathways and physiological functions of membrane lipids produced by organisms in the domain Archaea are poorly characterized as compared with that of counterparts in Bacteria and Eukaryota. Here we report on the use of high-resolution shotgun lipidomics......-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry using an ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer. This analysis identified five clusters of molecular ions that matched ether lipids in the database with sub-ppm mass accuracy. To structurally characterize and validate the identities of the potential lipid species, we...... performed structural analysis using multistage activation on the ion trap-orbitrap instrument as well as tandem mass analysis using a quadrupole time-of-flight machine. Our analysis identified four ether lipid species previously reported in Archaea, and one ether lipid species that had not been described...

  15. A novel Sulfolobus non-conjugative extrachromosomal genetic element capable of integration into the host genome and spreading in the presence of a fusellovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ying; Duan, Zhenhong; Zhu, Haojun

    2007-01-01

    An integrative non-conjugative extrachromosomal genetic element, denoted as pSSVi, has been isolated from a Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 strain and was characterized. This genetic element is a double-stranded DNA of 5740 bp in size and contains eight open reading frames (ORFs). It resembles members....... Interestingly, pSSVi encodes an SSV-type integrase which probably catalyzes the integration of its genome into a specific site (a tRNA(Arg) gene) in the S. solfataricus P2 genome. Like pSSVx, pSSVi can be packaged into a spindle-like viral particle and spread with the help of SSV1 or SSV2. In addition, both SSV......1 and SSV2 appeared to replicate more efficiently in the presence of pSSVi. Given the versatile genetic abilities, pSSVi appears to be well suited for a role in horizontal gene transfer....

  16. Development of in vitro transposon assisted signal sequence trapping and its use in screening Bacillus halodurans C125 and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 gene libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, F.; Schnorr, K.; Wilting, R.

    2004-01-01

    To identify genes encoding extracytosolic proteins, a minitransposon, TnSig, containing a signal-less beta-lactamase ('bla) as reporter gene, was constructed and used for in vitro transposition of genomic libraries made in Escherichia coli. The 'bla gene was cloned into a bacteriophage MU...... minitransposon enabling translational fusions between 'bla and target genes. Fusion of TnSig in the correct reading frame to a protein carrying transmembrane domains or signal peptides resulted in ampicillin resistance of the corresponding clone. Prokaryotic gene libraries from the alkaliphilic bacterium...... Bacillus halodurans C125 and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 were tagged with TnSig. The genomic sequences, which are publicly available (EMBL BA000004 and EMBL AE006641), were used for rapid open reading frame (ORF) identification and prediction of protein localisation...

  17. Specificities and pH profiles of adenine and hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferases (nucleotide synthases) of the thermoacidophile archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Rasmussen, Mads Skytte

    2014-01-01

    Two open reading frames in the genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus (SSO2341 and SSO2424) were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein products were purified and their enzymatic activity characterized. Although SSO2341 was annotated as a gene (gpT-1) encoding a 6-oxopurine...... phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase), the protein product turned out to be a PRTase highly specific for adenine and we suggest that the reading frame should be renamed apT. The other reading frame SSO2424 (gpT-2) proved to be a true 6-oxopurine PRTase active with hypoxanthine, xanthine and guanine as substrates, and we.......5, while maximal activity with xanthine was observed at pH 7.5. We discuss likely reasons why SSO2341 in S. solfataricus and similar open reading frames in other Crenarchaeota could not be identified as genes encoding APRTase....

  18. Structure-Based Mutagenesis of Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus B204 Reveals Essential Residues in the Virion-Associated DNA-Packaging ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellas, Nikki; Snyder, Jamie C; Dills, Michael; Nicolay, Sheena J; Kerchner, Keshia M; Brumfield, Susan K; Lawrence, C Martin; Young, Mark J

    2015-12-23

    Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), an archaeal virus that infects the hyperthermoacidophile Sulfolobus solfataricus, is one of the most well-studied viruses of the domain Archaea. STIV shares structural, morphological, and sequence similarities with viruses from other domains of life, all of which are thought to belong to the same viral lineage. Several of these common features include a conserved coat protein fold, an internal lipid membrane, and a DNA-packaging ATPase. B204 is the ATPase encoded by STIV and is thought to drive packaging of viral DNA during the replication process. Here, we report the crystal structure of B204 along with the biochemical analysis of B204 mutants chosen based on structural information and sequence conservation patterns observed among members of the same viral lineage and the larger FtsK/HerA superfamily to which B204 belongs. Both in vitro ATPase activity assays and transfection assays with mutant forms of B204 confirmed the essentiality of conserved and nonconserved positions. We also have identified two distinct particle morphologies during an STIV infection that differ in the presence or absence of the B204 protein. The biochemical and structural data presented here are not only informative for the STIV replication process but also can be useful in deciphering DNA-packaging mechanisms for other viruses belonging to this lineage. STIV is a virus that infects a host from the domain Archaea that replicates in high-temperature, acidic environments. While STIV has many unique features, there exist several striking similarities between this virus and others that replicate in different environments and infect a broad range of hosts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Aside from structural features shared by viruses from this lineage, there exists a significant level of sequence similarity between the ATPase genes carried by these different viruses; this gene encodes an enzyme thought to provide energy that drives DNA packaging into

  19. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  1. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  2. Genetic technologies for extremely thermophilic microorganisms of Sulfolobus, the only genetically tractable genus of crenarchaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Han, Wenyuan; Li, Yingjun

    2017-01-01

    Archaea represents the third domain of life, with the information-processing machineries more closely resembling those of eukaryotes than the machineries of the bacterial counterparts but sharing metabolic pathways with organisms of Bacteria, the sister prokaryotic phylum. Archaeal organisms also...

  3. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus is an enzyme with unusual kinetic properties and a crystal structure that suggests it evolved from a 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Hansen, Michael Riis; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Christoffersen, Stig; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Mølgaard, Anne; Kadziola, Anders

    2015-04-14

    The adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRTase) encoded by the open reading frame SSO2342 of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was subjected to crystallographic, kinetic, and ligand binding analyses. The enzyme forms dimers in solution and in the crystals, and binds one molecule of the reactants 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and adenine or the product adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or the inhibitor adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in each active site. The individual subunit adopts an overall structure that resembles a 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase) more than known APRTases implying that APRT functionality in Crenarchaeotae has its evolutionary origin in this family of PRTases. Only the N-terminal two-thirds of the polypeptide chain folds as a traditional type I PRTase with a five-stranded β-sheet surrounded by helices. The C-terminal third adopts an unusual three-helix bundle structure that together with the nucleobase-binding loop undergoes a conformational change upon binding of adenine and phosphate resulting in a slight contraction of the active site. The inhibitor ADP binds like the product AMP with both the α- and β-phosphates occupying the 5'-phosphoribosyl binding site. The enzyme shows activity over a wide pH range, and the kinetic and ligand binding properties depend on both pH and the presence/absence of phosphate in the buffers. A slow hydrolysis of PRPP to ribose 5-phosphate and pyrophosphate, catalyzed by the enzyme, may be facilitated by elements in the C-terminal three-helix bundle part of the protein.

  4. Compound K Production from Red Ginseng Extract by β-Glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus Supplemented with α-L-Arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Chul Shin

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside compound K (C-K is attracting a lot of interest because of its biological and pharmaceutical activities, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-wrinkling, and anti-skin aging activities. C-K has been used as the principal ingredient in skin care products. For the effective application of ginseng extracts to the manufacture of cosmetics, the PPD-type ginsenosides in ginseng extracts should be converted to C-K by enzymatic conversion. For increased yield of C-K from the protopanaxadiol (PPD-type ginsenosides in red-ginseng extract (RGE, the α-L-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-abf was used along with the β-D-glucopyranoside/α-L-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-bgly because SS-bgly showed very low hydrolytic activity on the α-L-arabinofuranoside linkage in ginsenosides. The optimal reaction conditions for C-K production were as follows: pH 6.0, 80°C, 2 U/mL SS-bgly, 3 U/mL CS-abf, and 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in RGE. Under these optimized conditions, SS-bgly supplemented with CS-abf produced 4.2 g/L C-K from 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in 12 h without other ginsenosides, with a molar yield of 100% and a productivity of 348 mg/L/h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest concentration and productivity of C-K from ginseng extract ever published in literature.

  5. Genetic determinants of PAM-dependent DNA targeting and pre-crRNA processing in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Li, Huan; Hallstrøm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    -adjacent motif (PAM)-dependent DNA targeting activity and mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA) production in this organism, mutants deleting individual genes of the type IA system or removing each of other Cas modules were constructed. Characterization of these mutants revealed that Cas7, Cas5, Cas6, Cas3' and Cas3......" are essential for PAM-dependent DNA targeting activity, whereas Csa5, along with all other Cas modules, is dispensable for the targeting in the crenarchaeon. Cas6 is implicated as the only enzyme for pre-crRNA processing and the crRNA maturation is independent of the DNA targeting activity. Importantly, we show...

  6. A synthetic arabinose-inducible promoter confers high levels of recombinant protein expression in hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Deng, Ling; Mei, Yuxia

    2012-01-01

    Despite major progresses in genetic studies of hyperthermophilic archaea, recombinant protein production in these organisms always suffers from low yields and a robust expression system is still in great demand. Here we report a versatile vector that confers high levels of protein expression...... to remove the peptide tags from expressed recombinant proteins. While pEXA employed an araS promoter for protein expression, pSeSD utilized P(araS-SD), an araS derivative promoter carrying an engineered ribosome-binding site (RBS; a Shine-Dalgarno [SD] sequence). We found that P(araS-SD) directed high...... levels of target gene expression. More strikingly, N-terminal amino acid sequencing of recombinant proteins unraveled that the protein synthesized from pEXA-N-lacS lacked the designed 6×His tag and that translation initiation did not start at the ATG codon of the fusion gene. Instead, it started...

  7. Crenarchaeal biofilm formation under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koerdt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. CONCLUSION: The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

  8. Extreme Mutation Tolerance: Nearly Half of the Archaeal Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Genes Are Not Required for Virus Function, Including the Minor Capsid Protein Gene vp3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Eric A; Goodman, David A; Gorchels, Madeline E; Stedman, Kenneth M

    2017-05-15

    Viruses infecting the Archaea harbor a tremendous amount of genetic diversity. This is especially true for the spindle-shaped viruses of the family Fuselloviridae , where >90% of the viral genes do not have detectable homologs in public databases. This significantly limits our ability to elucidate the role of viral proteins in the infection cycle. To address this, we have developed genetic techniques to study the well-characterized fusellovirus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), which infects Sulfolobus solfataricus in volcanic hot springs at 80°C and pH 3. Here, we present a new comparative genome analysis and a thorough genetic analysis of SSV1 using both specific and random mutagenesis and thereby generate mutations in all open reading frames. We demonstrate that almost half of the SSV1 genes are not essential for infectivity, and the requirement for a particular gene correlates well with its degree of conservation within the Fuselloviridae The major capsid gene vp1 is essential for SSV1 infectivity. However, the universally conserved minor capsid gene vp3 could be deleted without a loss in infectivity and results in virions with abnormal morphology. IMPORTANCE Most of the putative genes in the spindle-shaped archaeal hyperthermophile fuselloviruses have no sequences that are clearly similar to characterized genes. In order to determine which of these SSV genes are important for function, we disrupted all of the putative genes in the prototypical fusellovirus, SSV1. Surprisingly, about half of the genes could be disrupted without destroying virus function. Even deletions of one of the known structural protein genes that is present in all known fuselloviruses, vp3 , allows the production of infectious viruses. However, viruses lacking vp3 have abnormal shapes, indicating that the vp3 gene is important for virus structure. Identification of essential genes will allow focused research on minimal SSV genomes and further understanding of the structure of

  9. Exceptional thermal stability and organic solvent tolerance of an esterase expressed from a thermophilic host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Yuxia; Peng, Nan; Zhao, Shumiao

    2012-01-01

    , giving SisEstA. Upon Escherichia coli expression, only the thioredoxin-tagged EstA recombinant protein was soluble. The fusion protein was then purified, and removing the protein tag yielded EcSisEstA. Both forms of the thermophilic EstA enzyme were characterized. We found that SisEstA formed dimer...... that of EcSisEstA at 90°C. This indicated that thermophilic enzymes yielded from homologous expression should be better biocatalysts than those obtained from mesophilic expression.......A protein expression system recently developed for the thermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus was employed to produce recombinant protein for EstA, a thermophilic esterase encoded in the same organism. Large amounts of protein were readily obtained by an affinity protein purification...

  10. Mapping posttranscriptional modifications in 5S ribosomal RNA by MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpekar, F; Douthwaite, S; Roepstorff, P

    2000-02-01

    We present a method to screen RNA for posttranscriptional modifications based on Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). After the RNA is digested to completion with a nucleotide-specific RNase, the fragments are analyzed by mass spectrometry. A comparison of the observed mass data with the data predicted from the gene sequence identifies fragments harboring modified nucleotides. Fragments larger than dinucleotides were valuable for the identification of posttranscriptional modifications. A more refined mapping of RNA modifications can be obtained by using two RNases in parallel combined with further fragmentation by Post Source Decay (PSD). This approach allows fast and sensitive screening of a purified RNA for posttranscriptional modification, and has been applied on 5S rRNA from two thermophilic microorganisms, the bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus and the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as the halophile archaea Halobacterium halobium and Haloarcula marismortui. One S. acidocaldarius posttranscriptional modification was identified and was further characterized by PSD as a methylation of cytidine32. The modified C is located in a region that is clearly conserved with respect to both sequence and position in B. stearothermophilus and H. halobium and to some degree also in H. marismortui. However, no analogous modification was identified in the latter three organisms. We further find that the 5' end of H. halobium 5S rRNA is dephosphorylated, in contrast to the other 5S rRNA species investigated. The method additionally gives an immediate indication of whether the expected RNA sequence is in agreement with the observed fragment masses. Discrepancies with two of the published 5S rRNA sequences were identified and are reported here.

  11. Posttranscriptional modifications in the A-loop of 23S rRNAs from selected archaea and eubacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M A; Kirpekar, F; Ritterbusch, W; Vester, B

    2002-02-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications were mapped in helices 90-92 of 23S rRNA from the following phylogenetically diverse organisms: Haloarcula marismortui, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Helix 92 is a component of the ribosomal A-site, which contacts the aminoacyl-tRNA during protein synthesis, implying that posttranscriptional modifications in helices 90-92 may be important for ribosome function. RNA fragments were isolated from 23S rRNA by site-directed RNase H digestion. A novel method of mapping modifications by analysis of short, nucleotide-specific, RNase digestion fragments with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was utilized. The MALDI-MS data were complemented by two primer extension techniques using reverse transcriptase. One technique utilizes decreasing concentrations of deoxynucleotide triphosphates to map 2'-O-ribose methylations. In the other, the rRNA is chemically modified, followed by mild alkaline hydrolysis to map pseudouridines (psis). A total of 10 posttranscriptionally methylated nucleotides and 6 psis were detected in the five organisms. Eight of the methylated nucleotides and one psi have not been reported previously. The distribution of modified nucleotides and their locations on the surface of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase cleft suggests functional importance.

  12. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  13. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...... shows that these terms should not be considered synonyms because each of the terms IO, OI, IA and KO produce a different set of high ranked authors, journals and papers. In many cases the terms are, however, used interchangeably (and thus indicating synonymity) and it is argued that the underlying...

  14. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  15. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry Students and teachers Media Organization Fermilab Organization Organization Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Line Organization LBNF Project Director LCLS-II

  16. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulaevskij, L.N.; Shchegolev, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Main achievements in creating new organic conducting materials - synthetic metals and superconductors, are considered. The processes of superconductivity occurrence in organic materials are discussed. It is shown that conjugated bonds between C and H atoms in organic molecules play an important role in this case. At present ''crystal direction'' in organic superconductor synthesis is mainly developed. Later on, organic superconductor crystals are supposed to be introduced into usual polymers, e.g. polyethylene

  17. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  18. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  19. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  20. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area....... The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  1. Organic spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naber, W J M; Faez, S; Wiel, W G van der

    2007-01-01

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of spintronics and organic electronics are addressed, and phenomena which are in particular relevant for organic spintronics are highlighted. Experiments using different organic materials, including carbon nanotubes, organic thin films, self-assembled monolayers and single molecules are then reviewed. Observed magnetoresistance points toward successful spin injection and detection, but spurious magnetoresistance effects can easily be confused with spin accumulation. A few studies report long spin relaxation times and lengths, which forms a promising basis for further research. We conclude with discussing outstanding questions and problems. (topical review)

  2. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  3. Organic optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a

  4. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, J.Y.; Fetizon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  5. Organization aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Mehandjiev, N.; Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the BOAT framework discussed in Chapter 1, this chapter describes the organization aspect of the CrossWork approach. It shows how the business requirements identified in the previous chapter can be fulfilled by dynamic organization structures and business processes in Networks of

  6. Organic hydrotrioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shereshovets, Valerii V; Khursan, Sergei L; Komissarov, Vladilen D; Tolstikov, Genrikh A

    2001-01-01

    The results of studies on the synthesis, structure, thermochemistry and oxidising capacity of organic hydrotrioxides are generalised. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of thermal and catalytic decomposition of ROOOH and on generation of free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen. Problems concerning the mechanisms of formation and decomposition of organic hydrotrioxides are also considered. The bibliography includes 154 references.

  7. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  8. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  9. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  10. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  11. Organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the International Conference and Exhibition at 16th September,2010 at the Maritim Hotel (Wuerzburg, Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) History of Organic Photovoltaics (Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci); (2) PV Activities at the ZAE Bayern (Vladimir Dyakonov); (3) Progress in Solid State DSC (Peter Erk); (4) Polymer Semiconductors for OPV (Mats Andersson); (5) Fullerene Derivative N-Types in Organic Solar Cells (David Kronholm); (6) Modelling Charge-Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Materials (Jenny Nelson); (7) Multi Junction Modules R and D Status and Outlook (Paul Blom); (8) Imaging Technologies for Organic Solar Cells (Jonas Bachmann); (9) Production of Multi-junction Organic Photovoltaic Cells and Modules (Martin Pfeiffer); (10) Upscaling of Polymer Solar Cell Fabrication Using Full Roll-to-roll Processing (Frederik Christian Krebs); (11) Industrial Aspects and Large Scale OPV Production (Jens Hauch).

  12. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  13. Organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Otis, Mark D.; Kuhn, Thomas; Kerr, George D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Cristy, Mark; Ryman, Jeffrey C.; Tang, Jabo S.; Maruyama, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the technical approach, complicating factors, and sensitivities and uncertainties of calculations of doses to the organs of the A-bomb survivors. It is the object of the effort so described to provide data that enables the dosimetry system to determine the fluence, kerma, absorbed dose, and similar quantities in 14 organs and the fetus, specified as being of radiobiological interest. This object was accomplished through the use of adjoint Monte Carlo computations, which use a number of random particle histories to determine the relationship of incident neutrons and gamma rays to those transported to a target organ. The system uses these histories to correlate externally-incident energy- and angle-differential fluences with the fluence spectrum (energy differential only) within the target organ. In order for the system to work in the most efficient manner possible, two levels of data were provided. The first level, represented by approximately 6,000 random adjoint-particle histories, enables the computation of the fluence spectrum with sufficient precision to provide statistically reliable (± 6 %) mean doses within any given organ. With this limited history inventory, the system can be run rapidly for all survivors. Mean organ dose and dose uncertainty are obtainable in this mode. The second mode of operation enables the system to produce a good approximation to fluence spectrum within any organ or to produce the dose in each of an array of organ subvolumes. To be statistically reliable, this level of detail requires far more random histories, approximately 40,000 per organ. Thus, operation of the dosimetry system in this mode (i.e., with this data set) is intended to be on an as-needed, organ-specific basis, since the system run time is eight times that in the mean dose mode. (author)

  14. Factor requirements for transcription in the Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, S A; Bell, S D; Jackson, S P

    1997-01-01

    Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute a domain of life that is distinct from Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes). Although archaeal cells share many morphological features with eubacteria, their transcriptional apparatus is more akin to eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II and III than it is to eubacterial transcription systems. Thus, in addition to possessing a 10 subunit RNA polymerase and a homologue of the TATA-binding protein (TBP), Archaea possess a polypeptide termed TFB that is h...

  15. The organization of organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, J M

    1989-01-01

    The American organ procurement system has improved and matured in the last five years. At the same time, the basic challenges facing it have remained substantially the same because the moral and legal framework of the system has not changed. Success at organ procurement continues to depend on the voluntary cooperation of medical professionals and the families of potential organ donors. The generosity of the American public is so great that the primary challenge facing organ procurement agencies is obtaining cooperation from hospitals and medical professionals. This calls for a "marketing" orientation aimed at those hospitals and professionals who are most likely to treat potential donors. The last five years have seen a more general acceptance of this appreciation of the central task of organ procurement. As a result, the overall effectiveness of the system has improved, as measured by the number of organs procured on a per capita basis and by the number of multiorgan donors obtained. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the diffusion of organizational techniques and approaches, and this diffusion has been encouraged by the involvement of national organizations and public bodies in the organ procurement community. The system remains uneven in its effectiveness and further improvement is possible. It is also possible that the next general round of improvement will result from the application of businesslike information management and marketing techniques.

  16. Organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-01-01

    's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic...... solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency...... of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating...

  17. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Error Mental Health in Children and Adolescents Nanotechnology Nature, Human Nature, and Biotechnology Neonatal Care Newborn ... 415. Sean Vincent Murphy and Anthony Atala, "Organ Engineering: Combining Stem Cells, Biomaterials, and Bioreactors to Produce ...

  18. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  19. Organic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, D; Ribault, M [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Bechgaard, K [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). H.C. Oersted Inst.

    1980-07-10

    The history of superconductivity is traced and the recent discovery of the property in organic materials is discussed. It has been shown that in those organic chemicals in which flat molecules are stacked like tiles, conditions are created in which electrons can flow unhindered. It is reasonable to believe that superconductivity at 20k is now a feasible goal though the dream of resistance-less conduction at room temperature still appears a remote dream.

  20. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.; Ribault, M.; Bechgaard, K.

    1980-01-01

    The history of superconductivity is traced and the recent discovery of the property in organic materials is discussed. It has been shown that in those organic chemicals in which flat molecules are stacked like tiles, conditions are created in which electrons can flow unhindered. It is reasonable to believe that superconductivity at 20k is now a feasible goal though the dream of resistance-less conduction at room temperature still appears a remote dream. (UK)

  1. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  2. Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Harris; Artur Raviv

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain organization structure based on optimal coordination of interactions among activities. The main idea is that each manager is capable of detecting and coordinating interactions only within his limited area of expertise. Only the CEO can coordinate company wide interactions. The optimal design of the organization trades off the costs and benefits of various configurations of managers. Our results consist of classifying the characteristics of activities and manager...

  3. Virtual Organizations: Beyond Network Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel CRETU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most used buzz-words in (e-business literature of the last decade is virtual organization. The term "virtual" can be identified in all sorts of combinations regarding the business world. From virtual products to virtual processes or virtual teams, everything that is “touched” by the computer’s processing power instantly becomes virtual. Moreover, most of the literature treats virtual and network organizations as being synonyms. This paper aims to draw a much more distinctive line between the two concepts. Providing a more coherent description of what virtual organization might be is also one of our intentions.

  4. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  5. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  6. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.

    1984-06-01

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution [fr

  7. Organizing Valuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Amalie Martinus

    With this dissertation I take up a problem currently traversing popular, political and academic arenas, namely the potential demise of values in public organizations allegedly instigated by management tools deriving from industrial sectors. Taking a pragmatic stance, inspired by John Dewey......, this dissertation sets out to develop a practical and situation-based understanding of the relationship between these management tools, values and organizations, which can contribute to pushing forward the currently detached and polarized debates over New Public Management. In this endeavor the dissertation engages...

  8. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational...... professionals’ operate in two-level professional and organizational networks to control issues. This two-level network provides the context for action in which professionals do their institutional work. The two-level network carries information about professional incentives and also norms about how issues...

  9. Organic Nanodiamonds

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Todd; Bennett, Neil; Struzhkin, Viktor; Fei, Yingwei; Jelezko, Fedor; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Reuter, Rolf; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Ghannam, Fahad Al; Hemmer, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Nano-crystalline diamond is a new carbon phase with numerous intriguing physical and chemical properties and applications. Small doped nanodiamonds for example do find increased use as novel quantum markers in biomedical applications. However, growing doped nanodiamonds below sizes of 5 nm with controlled composition has been elusive so far. Here we grow nanodiamonds under conditions where diamond-like organic seed molecules do not decompose. This is a key first step toward engineered growth ...

  10. IVS Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  11. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... atomic force microscopy and from polarized far-field optical microscopy for various prototypical molecules are reproduced by electrostatic and Monte Carlo calculations. Based on the crystal structure, predictions on the growth habit from other conjugated molecules become in reach....

  12. Organized DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takashi; Honma, Michio; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Iriki, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Norihiko; Onodera, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Arima, Sumika; Kadota, Kazuya

    2009-04-01

    The category and objective of DFM production management are shown. DFM is not limited to an activity within a particular unit process in design and process. A new framework for DFM is required. DFM should be a total solution for the common problems of all processes. Each of them must be linked to one another organically. After passing through the whole of each process on the manufacturing platform, quality of final products is guaranteed and products are shipped to the market. The information platform is layered with DFM, APC, and AEC. Advanced DFM is not DFM for partial optimization of the lithography process and the design, etc. and it should be Organized DFM. They are managed with high-level organizational IQ. The interim quality between each step of the flow should be visualized. DFM will be quality engineering if it is Organized DFM and common metrics of the quality are provided. DFM becomes quality engineering through effective implementation of common industrial metrics and standardized technology. DFM is differential technology, but can leverage standards for efficient development.

  13. Entangling Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2018-01-01

    The chapter accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (t....../ability and thereby the model opened the possibility for reworking the binary of ability/disability to the benefit of restorying the citizen’s ability in the practices of changing the disability care....

  14. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  15. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  16. Putative Enzymes of UV Photoproduct Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J. Sakofsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the biological relevance of two S. acidocaldarius proteins to the repair of UV photoproducts, the corresponding genes (Saci_1227 and Saci_1096 were disrupted, and the phenotypes of the resulting mutants were examined by various genetic assays. The disruption used integration by homologous recombination of a functional but heterologous pyrE gene, promoted by short sequences attached to both ends via PCR. The phenotypic analyses of the disruptants confirmed that ORF Saci_1227 encodes a DNA photolyase which functions in vivo, but they could not implicate ORF Saci_1096 in repair of UV- or other externally induced DNA damage despite its similarity to genes encoding UV damage endonucleases. The success of the gene-disruption strategy, which used 5′ extensions of PCR primers to target cassette integration, suggests potential advantages for routine construction of Sulfolobus strains.

  17. Early steps of biosynthesis of ether lipids in archaebacteria; Eteru shishitsu seigosei no shoki dankai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-20

    Membrane lipids in archaebacteria are different from those of eubacteria and eukaryote which are fatty acid esters of glycerol. Archaebacterial lipids are mainly ether-linked lipids composed of glycerol linked to two molecules of isoprenoid phytanyl groups or of ether-linked glycerol with phytanyl group. This structural feature is one of the origins of survival and growth of archaebacteria in extreme conditions of high temperature, strong acid or alkali. It is considered that geranylgeranyl phosphate (GGPP) is synthesized and attached to glycerol phosphate, followed by reduction of the double bond in the geranylgeranyl moieties to form the diether lipids while the head-to-heat condensation of the phytanyl groups produces the tetraether lipids. Aiming to elucidate the lipid biosynthesis mechanism in a hyperthermophilic archaebacterium, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, the gene of GGPP synthase was cloned with the aid of carotenoid synthesis in phytopathogenic Erwinia uredovora and its sequence was studied. 29 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Entangled Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    the model opened the possibility for reworking the binary. The offset of the becoming of the revised model for cooperation was taken from a quantum approach to organizational development and change coined as ‘Organizational scenography’ as part of the methodology of Material Storytelling (Strand 2012). Here...... to embrace other dis/ability care facilities and dis/ability care workers/professionals nearby as well as the neighborhood of the village of citizens surrounding these facilities. Thus reworking previously upheld cuts between areas of responsibility of the Municipality/relatives and of Municipality...... for the employees and thereby support the bringing about of a cultural transformation. A changed relationality indeed brought about though reworking the binary dis/able. From the standpoint of a diffractive methodology (Barad 2007) the paper accounts for this project by being organized in four parts that together...

  19. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...... in MNCs. The paper concludes by asking whether we can escape from a regime of competence in a world defined by a rhetoric of change and create a more promising world in which doubt and search serve as a strategy for gaining knowledge and professionalism that improve on our capability for mutualism....

  20. transplanted organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Szadujkis-Szadurski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rho-kinase and GTP-ase Rho are important regulators of vascular tone and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rho-kinase in artery reactions induced by angiotensin II (ANG II and the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the function of intra- and extracellular calcium in these reactions. Experiments were performed on mesenteric superior arteries procured from cadaveric organ donors and conserved under the same conditions as transplanted kidneys. The vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II was measured in the presence of Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632, after ischemia and reperfusion, in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. The maximal response to ANG II was reduced after ischemia, while an increase was observed after reperfusion. Vascular contraction induced by ANG II was decreased by Y-27632. Y-27632 reduced vascular contraction after reperfusion, both in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. Reperfusion augments vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 reduces the hypersensitivity to ANG II after reperfusion mediated by both intra- and extracellular calcium. These results confirm the role of Rho-kinase in receptor-independent function of ANG II and in reperfusion-induced hypersensitivity.

  1. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  2. Sequential versus Organized Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Richard M.; Crawford, Charlotte

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that organization in rehearsal is a necessary condition for organization in recall; that is, if recall is organized, then rehearsal must have been organized. (Author)

  3. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  4. Organizing education by drawing on organization studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores how scholars researching organizations and organizing processes can use and exploit their knowledge not only in terms of course contents, but also in organizing and managing students' learning activity. A design-oriented research approach is used in order to develop grounded

  5. Distinct symmetry and limited peptide refolding activity of the thermosomes from the acidothermophilic archaea Acidianus tengchongensis S5T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Hu, Zhong-jun; Luo, Yuan-ming; Huo, Yan-wu; Ma, Qing; He, Yong-zhi; Zhang, Yu-ying; Sun, Fei; Dong, Zhi-yang

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant thermosomes from the Acidianus tengchongensis strain S5 T were purified to homogeneity and assembled in vitro into homo-oligomers (rATcpnα or rATcpnβ) and hetero-oligomers (rATcpnαβ). The symmetries of these complexes were determined by electron microscopy and image analysis. The rATcpnα homo-oligomer was shown to possess 8-fold symmetry while both rATcpnβ and rATcpnαβ oligomers adopted 9-fold symmetry. rATcpnαβ oligomers were shown to contain the α and β subunits in a 1:2 ratio. All of the complexes prevented the irreversible inactivation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase at 55 o C and completely prevented the formation of aggregates during thermal inactivation of citrate synthase at 45 o C. All rATcpn complexes showed trace ATP hydrolysis activity. Furthermore, rATcpnβ sequestered fully chemically denatured substrates (GFP and thermophilic malic dehydrogenase) in vitro without refolding them in an ATP-dependent manner. This property is similar to previously reported properties of chaperonins from Sulfolobus tokodaii and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. These features are consistent with the slow growth rates of these species of archaea in their native environment.

  6. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pancoski, S.E.; Alther, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  7. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  8. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  9. Yersinia enterocolitica organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows the organism Yersinia enterocolitica . Yersinia organisms cause a wide range of disease but are most often associated with diarrhea or gastrointestinal symptoms. Yersinia infection is ...

  10. Theology and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre; Höpfl, Heather

    2012-01-01

    of religious practices in organizations. Instead, theology of organization recognizes that the way we think about and act in organizations is profoundly structured by theological concepts. In this editorial to the special issue we have three aims: to outline what theology of organization is, to show how...

  11. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  12. China's Organic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  13. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  14. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Meyer, Renate; Hollerer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized "visual mode" of discourse...... and meaning constriction, Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda, After briefly exploring the working of visuals, we...... introduce the methodological and theoretical roots of visual studies in a number of disciplines that have a long-standing tradition of incorporating the visual. We then continue by extensively reviewing work in the field of organization and management studies: More specifically, we present five distinct...

  15. MARKETING ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Župljanin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports organizations as "sui generis" organizations inevitably have to adopt the concept of marketing as a business philosophy, if you want to survive and develop its activities in the modern business environment. Supply and demand as the market, and psychological phenomena are inherent in sports organizations. Sport is a special area of human activity in which marketing has a specific place and role. Sports and sporting events are also a massive public and media events and high level of interest involving multi-million audience. Between direct and indirect participants of these events takes place appropriate communication sociological, psychological and marketing character. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of more efficient operation of sports organizations using and adopting the marketing concept as a philosophy of action.

  16. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  17. Organics in radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.K.

    1988-10-01

    Seventeen papers, each processed separately cover the types of organic materials in radioactive wastes, their effect on repository performance and destruction of organics, including incineration, peroxide and wet oxidation and acid and biological digestion. (U.K.)

  18. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... are analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  19. Organ Improvisation - An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidom, J.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas musicological attention to improvisation tended to neglect organ improvisation,new initiatives, both musically and musicologically, indicate an imminent rehabilitation. Such rehabilitation is more than justified: organ improvisation is the only unbroken western improvisation tradition,

  20. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  1. Organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Ró isí n M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.

    2018-01-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume

  2. Organic optoelectronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yongfang

    2015-01-01

    This volume reviews the latest trends in organic optoelectronic materials. Each comprehensive chapter allows graduate students and newcomers to the field to grasp the basics, whilst also ensuring that they have the most up-to-date overview of the latest research. Topics include: organic conductors and semiconductors; conducting polymers and conjugated polymer semiconductors, as well as their applications in organic field-effect-transistors; organic light-emitting diodes; and organic photovoltaics and transparent conducting electrodes. The molecular structures, synthesis methods, physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of the organic optoelectronic materials are also introduced and described in detail. The authors also elucidate the structures and working mechanisms of organic optoelectronic devices and outline fundamental scientific problems and future research directions. This volume is invaluable to all those interested in organic optoelectronic materials.

  3. Behaviour in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Klímová, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Diploma thesis "The behavior in the organization" at a practical level, integrates the knowledge of psychology, sociology and management. It explains bahavior of people in the organization, which seeks to use this knowledge for the benefit of the organizaton and its management. It focuses on individual differences among people in the organization, organizational culture, relationships between people in workplace, organizational structure, communication within the organization, motivation, dev...

  4. Organic photovoltaic films

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Organic electronic materials are of interest for future applications in solar cells. Although results for single layer organic materials have been disappointing, high photocurrent quantum efficiencies can be achieved in composite systems including both electron donating and electron accepting components. Efficiencies of over 2% have now been reported in four different types of organic solar cell. Performance is limited by the low red absorption of organic materials, poor charge transport, and...

  5. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  6. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  7. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  8. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  9. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  10. Fiction and Organization Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, P. (Paul); J.P. Cornelissen (Joep); Franck, H. (Henrika)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe topic of fiction is in itself not new to the domain of organization studies. However, prior research has often separated fiction from the reality of organizations and used fiction metaphorically or as a figurative source to describe and interpret organizations. In this article, we go

  11. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  12. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  13. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via ato...

  14. Organic 'Plastic' Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariciftci, N.S.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments on conjugated polymer based photovoltaic diodes and photoactive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs) are discussed. The photophysics of such devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting conjugated polymers onto acceptor type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C 6 0. Potentially interesting applications include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena as well as photoresponsive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs). Furthermore, organic polymeric/inorganic nanoparticle based 'hybrid' solar cells will be discussed. This talk gives an overview of materials' aspect, charge-transport, and device physics of organic diodes and field-effect transistors. Furthermore, due to the compatibility of carbon/hydrogen based organic semiconductors with organic biomolecules and living cells there can be a great opportunity to integrate such organic semiconductor devices (biOFETs) with the living organisms. In general the largely independent bio/lifesciences and information technology of today, can be thus bridged in an advanced cybernetic approach using organic semiconductor devices embedded in bio-lifesciences. This field of bio-organic electronic devices is proposed to be an important mission of organic semiconductor devices

  15. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing...

  16. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  17. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate br...... students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants.......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...

  18. Doped Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Keum, Chang-Min; Kasemann, Daniel; Naab, Ben; Bao, Zhenan; Leo, Karl

    2016-11-23

    Organic field-effect transistors hold the promise of enabling low-cost and flexible electronics. Following its success in organic optoelectronics, the organic doping technology is also used increasingly in organic field-effect transistors. Doping not only increases device performance, but it also provides a way to fine-control the transistor behavior, to develop new transistor concepts, and even improve the stability of organic transistors. This Review summarizes the latest progress made in the understanding of the doping technology and its application to organic transistors. It presents the most successful doping models and an overview of the wide variety of materials used as dopants. Further, the influence of doping on charge transport in the most relevant polycrystalline organic semiconductors is reviewed, and a concise overview on the influence of doping on transistor behavior and performance is given. In particular, recent progress in the understanding of contact doping and channel doping is summarized.

  19. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  20. Organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs

  1. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  2. Organic Farming in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In this article latest developments in Europe are presented: › Current statistics › Review of the European political and legal framework for organic agriculture › EU regulation on organic farming › Policy support › Action plans › Research › Progress of the OrganicDataNetwork project › Successful policy work of IFOAM EU › Further reading › Websites

  3. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  4. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...... and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence....

  5. Information Aggregation in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the analysis of information aggregation procedures within organizations. Facing uncertainty about the consequences of a collective decision, information has to be aggregated before making a choice. Two main questions are addressed. Firstly, how well is an organization suited for the aggregation of decision-relevant information? Secondly, how should an organization be designed in order to aggregate information efficiently? The main part deals with information a...

  6. Colour and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon

    2017-01-01

    Colour is inescapable. It fills and forms the world, shaping what can be felt and known, desired and expressed. It thus becomes social technology and organizational tool. At the same time, however, colour betrays, undermines and subverts the attempts to manage it. Based on an understanding...... of colour as aesthetic force and medium of transformation, the essay presents a montage of scenes that set up encounters with what colour does: how it affects organization, and how it is affected by organization; how it organizes what is given to perception, knowledge and organization itself, and how...

  7. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  8. Organizers in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Stern, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    An "organizer" is formally defined as a region, or group of cells in an embryo that can both induce (change the fate) and pattern (generate an organized set of structures) adjacent embryonic cells. To date, about four such regions have been demonstrated: the primary or Spemann organizer (Hensen's node in amniotes), the notochord, the zone of polarizing activity of the limb bud, and the mid-hindbrain boundary. Here we review the evidence for these and compare them with a few other regions which have been proposed to represent other organizers and we speculate on why so few such regions have been discovered. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Education within the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kastelic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What is the importance of education within the organization? Purpose: The purpose and objective of the research is to examine and present education within the organization and how to education affects on the performance and on the profits of the company. The objective of the task is to examine the education of employees for achieving business excellence and how the organization meets the needs and expectations of employees, and determine what is the process of acquiring and developing knowledge for the successful operation of the organization. Method: Quantitative - survey, qualitative – interview Results: The concrete examples or development organizations, opinion based on the profession. The results showed that the education within the organization is essential and that the future of companies largely depends on motivated and educated employees, who are able to quickly react and adapt to a changing business environment. Organization: Education is intended to all employees within the organization. Company: By education we want to influence on the entire organization, in terms of development. The originality: Research is original. Restrictions/further research: Limits of the study is that we deal with only a limited number of resources.

  10. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  11. Titan's organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  12. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization, and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate E.; Höllerer, Markus A.; Jancsary, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    and meaning construction. Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda. After briefly exploring the workings of visuals, we...... approaches to feature visuals in research designs and to include the visual dimension in scholarly inquiry. Subsequently, we outline, in some detail, promising avenues for future research, and close with a reflection on the impact of visualization on scientific practice itself....

  13. U.S. Pacific Command > Organization > Organization Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Responsibility USPACOM Previous Commanders Organization Organization Chart Media News Flickr Photos Video Directory Media Inquiries Home : Organization : Organization Chart About DoD DoD Careers Join the Military

  14. Innovative Mechanism of Rural Organization Based on Self-Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing jin; Gao, Bing

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basic situation for the formation of innovative rural organizations with the form of self-organization; revels the features of self-organization, including the four aspects of openness of rural organization, innovation of rural organization is far away from equilibrium, the non-linear response mechanism of rural organization innovation and the random rise and fall of rural organization innovation. The evolution mechanism of rural organization innovation is reveled accor...

  15. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  16. Creating spatial organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.; Tissen, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the spatial design of modern organizations in the context of a fundamental change which is currently taking place in the way companies view their organizations and the inherent performance expectations, requirements and results underlying these. This change involves a managerial

  17. Chromatin meets its organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Megan S; Spector, David L

    2013-06-06

    Chromatin organization and gene-gene interactions are critical components of carrying out developmental programs. Phillips-Cremins et al. identify a series of unexpected architectural proteins that work in a combinatorial manner to functionally organize chromatin in a cell-type-specific manner at the submegabase-length scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mintzberg on organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Sorin-George Toma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Henry Mintzberg is considered as one of the most representative writers in management.Until now,he has written more than 140 monographs and articles, and 13 books,mostly in the management field. On the basis of his research findings, Mintzberg proposed a typology of organizations. Taking into account their structure, he discovered seven major types of organizations

  19. Mintzberg on organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin-George Toma

    2008-01-01

    Henry Mintzberg is considered as one of the most representative writers in management.Until now,he has written more than 140 monographs and articles, and 13 books,mostly in the management field. On the basis of his research findings, Mintzberg proposed a typology of organizations. Taking into account their structure, he discovered seven major types of organizations

  20. LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prof. B. B. P. Gupta

    INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Bengaluru. 83rd ANNUAL MEETING. 3–5 November 2017, NEHU, Shillong. LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE. Local Organizing Committee. 1. Prof. S. K. Srivastava. Chairman. Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong. 2. Prof. B. B. P. Gupta. Organising Secretary. Department of Zoology ...

  1. Person-Organization Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirotino, P. T.; Madden, Denis

    1973-01-01

    Malfunctioning organizations do not facilitate the accomplishment of the purposes of their members in a number of ways and for a number of reasons. This paper used Maslow's hierarchy of needs model in an attempt to describe one view of that malfunction. Leadership is examined briefly as a functioning organization's facilitating arrangement.…

  2. Soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The nature, content and behaviour of the organic matter, or humus, in soil are factors of fundamental importance for soil productivity and the development of optimum conditions for growth of crops under diverse temperate, tropical and arid climatic conditions. In the recent symposium on soil organic matter studies - as in the two preceding ones in 1963 and 1969 - due consideration was given to studies involving the use of radioactive and stable isotopes. However, the latest symposium was a departure from previous efforts in that non-isotopic approaches to research on soil organic matter were included. A number of papers dealt with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and suggested improved management practices, the use of which would contribute to increasing agricultural production. Other papers discussed the turnover of plant residues, the release of plant nutrients through the biodegradation of organic compounds, the nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. In addition, consideration was given to studies on the biochemical transformation of organic matter, characterization of humic acids, carbon-14 dating and the development of modern techniques and their impact on soil organic matter research

  3. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  4. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  5. Are Learning Organizations Pragmatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the future prospects of the popular concept known as the learning organization; to trace the influence of philosophical pragmatism on the learning organization and to consider its potential impact on the future; and to emphasize how pragmatic theories have shaped the development of Deming's total…

  6. Organizing Rural Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    to organize rural health care is more regulatory and distanced in its emphasis on nudging patients and doctors towards the right decisions through economic incentives. This bureaucratic approach to organizing health individually offers a sharp contrast to the religious collectivities that form around health...

  7. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  8. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...... conventional farmers – declining prices, concentration of production and shift in bargaining power to the retailers. Logically, this situation will lead eventually to increasing conflicts between organic values and their subordination to free market forces, i.e. conventionalization. In the same time retailers...

  9. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  10. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  11. Agreements in Virtual Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    This chapter is an attempt to explain the important impact that contract theory delivers with respect to the concept of virtual organization. The author believes that not enough research has been conducted in order to transfer theoretical foundations for networking to the phenomena of virtual organizations and open autonomic computing environment to ensure the controllability and management of them. The main research problem of this chapter is to explain the significance of agreements for virtual organizations governance. The first part of this chapter comprises explanations of differences among virtual machines and virtual organizations for further descriptions of the significance of the first ones to the development of the second. Next, the virtual organization development tendencies are presented and problems of IT governance in highly distributed organizational environment are discussed. The last part of this chapter covers analysis of contracts and agreements management for governance in open computing environments.

  12. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  13. Self-organizing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to extract a grand view of self-organization through an extensive computer simulation of plasmas. The assertion is made that self-organization is governed by three key processes, i.e. the existence of an open complex system, the existence of information (energy) sources and the existence of entropy generation and expulsion processes. We find that self-organization takes place in an intermittent fashion when energy is supplied continuously from outside. In contrast, when the system state is suddenly changed into a non-equilibrium state externally, the system evolves stepwise and reaches a minimum energy state. We also find that the entropy production rate is maximized whenever a new ordered structure is created and that if the entropy generated during the self-organizing process is expelled from the system, then the self-organized structure becomes more prominent and clear. (author)

  14. Doping of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Doping of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Self-Organizing Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is man’s ongoing hope that a machine could somehow adapt to its environment by reorganizing itself. This is what the notion of self-organizing robots is based on. The theme of this book is to examine the feasibility of creating such robots within the limitations of current mechanical engineering. The topics comprise the following aspects of such a pursuit: the philosophy of design of self-organizing mechanical systems; self-organization in biological systems; the history of self-organizing mechanical systems; a case study of a self-assembling/self-repairing system as an autonomous distributed system; a self-organizing robot that can create its own shape and robotic motion; implementation and instrumentation of self-organizing robots; and the future of self-organizing robots. All topics are illustrated with many up-to-date examples, including those from the authors’ own work. The book does not require advanced knowledge of mathematics to be understood, and will be of great benefit to students in the rob...

  17. The discipline of organizing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Organizing is such a common activity that we often do it without thinking much about it. In our daily lives we organize physical things--books on shelves, cutlery in kitchen drawers--and digital things--Web pages, MP3 files, scientific datasets. Millions of people create and browse Web sites, blog, tag, tweet, and upload and download content of all media types without thinking "I'm organizing now" or "I'm retrieving now." This book offers a framework for the theory and practice of organizing that integrates information organization (IO) and information retrieval (IR), bridging the disciplinary chasms between Library and Information Science and Computer Science, each of which views and teaches IO and IR as separate topics and in substantially different ways. It introduces the unifying concept of an Organizing System--an intentionally arranged collection of resources and the interactions they support--and then explains the key concepts and challenges in the design and deployment of Organizing Systems in many do...

  18. Individual and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management and organ......Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management...

  19. Self-organizing representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohonen, T.

    1983-01-01

    A property which is commonplace in the brain but which has always been ignored in learning machines is the spatial order of the processing units. This order is clearly highly significant and in nature it develops gradually during the lifetime of the organism. It then serves as the basis for perceptual and cognitive processes, and memory, too. The spatial order in biological organisms is often believed to be genetically determined. It is therefore intriguing to learn that a meaningful and optimal spatial order is formed in an extremely simple self-organizing process whereby certain feature maps are formed automatically. 8 references.

  20. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  1. Chloric organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since many years ago, hazardous and toxic refuses which are results of human activities has been carelessly without any Biological and Engineering facts and knowledge discharged into our land and water. The effects of discharging those materials in environment are different. Some of refuse materials shows short and other has long-time adverse effects in our environment, Among hazardous organic chemical materials, chlorine, consider, to be the main element. Organic materials with chlorine is called chlorine hydrocarbon as a hazardous compound. This paper discuss the hazardous materials especially chloric organic compound and their misuse effects in environment and human being

  2. Organized organic ultrathin films fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This handy reference is the first comprehensive book covering both fundamentals and recent developments in the field with an emphasis on nanotechnology. Written by a highly regarded author in the field, the book details state-of-the-art preparation, characterization and applications of thin films of organic molecules and biomaterials fabricated by wet processes and also highlights applications in nanotechnology The categories of films covered include monomolecular films (monolayers) both on a water surface and on a solid plate, Langmuir-Blodgett films (transferred multilayer films on a solid plate from a water surface), layer-by-layer films (adsorbed multilayer films on a solid support), and spontaneously assembled films in solution.

  3. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors formed by epitaxial growth from small molecules such as the para-phenylenes or squaraines promise a vast application potential as the active ingredient in electric and optoelectronic devices. Their self-organization into organic nanowires or "nanofibers" adds a peculiar...... attribute, making them especially interesting for light generation in OLEDs and for light-harvesting devices such as solar cells. Functionalization of the molecules allows the customization of optical and electrical properties. However, aging of the wires might lead to a considerable decrease in device...... performance over time. In this study the morphological stability of organic nanoclusters and nanowires from the methoxy functionalized quaterphenylene, 4,4'''dimethoxy-1,1':4',1''4'',1'''-quaterphenylene (MOP4), is investigated in detail. Aging experiments conducted by atomic force microscopy under ambient...

  4. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.

  5. Destruction of organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowlam, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarises the processes for the treatment of organic matter in radioactive waste. Pyrolysis, incineration, and digestion, wet oxidation, immobilisation, alkaline hydrolysis and cementation are compared and evaluated. (U.K.)

  6. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  7. Biomaterials for artificial organs

    CERN Document Server

    Lysaght, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for organ transplants far exceeds available donor organs. Consequently some patients die whilst waiting for a transplant. Synthetic alternatives are therefore imperative to improve the quality of, and in some cases, save people's lives. Advances in biomaterials have generated a range of materials and devices for use either outside the body or through implantation to replace or assist functions which may have been lost through disease or injury. Biomaterials for artificial organs reviews the latest developments in biomaterials and investigates how they can be used to improve the quality and efficiency of artificial organs. Part one discusses commodity biomaterials including membranes for oxygenators and plasmafilters, titanium and cobalt chromium alloys for hips and knees, polymeric joint-bearing surfaces for total joint replacements, biomaterials for pacemakers, defibrillators and neurostimulators and mechanical and bioprosthetic heart valves. Part two goes on to investigate advanced and ...

  8. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  9. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? After obtaining a detailed medical history and completing a thorough ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  10. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  11. Technologies in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the nutrient gap by recycling sewage sludge, and in particular the criteria applied when these technologies are assessed, are analysed. This part of the analysis shows how organic consumers base their assessment of alternative strategies and technologies primarily on concerns about environmental risks...... to phase out their use of conventional manure before 2021. This, however, raises a number of questions about consumers’ acceptance of the alternative technologies that have been proposed to close the nutrient gap. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Danish organic consumers, this paper first discusses...... what, from a consumers perspective, characterizes the technologies consumers associate with organic production. This part of the analysis shows that by and large consumers regard organic technologies as the opposite of conventional farming. Second, consumers’ perceptions of solutions suggested to close...

  12. Organic electrochemical transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Róisín M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.

    2018-02-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.

  13. ORA: Organization Risk Analyzer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carley, Kathleen M; Reminga, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    .... Measures are also organized by input requirements and by output. ORA generates formatted reports viewable on screen or in log files, and reads and writes networks in multiple data formats to be interoperable...

  14. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  15. Underfunding in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jacob N.; Siegel, David A.

    A review of international terrorist activity reveals a pattern of financially strapped operatives working for organizations that seem to have plenty of money. To explain this observation, and to examine when restricting terrorists’ funds will reduce their lethality, we model a hierarchical terror organization in which leaders delegate financial and logistical tasks to middlemen, but cannot perfectly monitor them for security reasons. These middlemen do not always share their leaders’ interests: the temptation exists to skim funds from financial transactions. When middlemen are sufficiently greedy and organizations suffer from sufficiently strong budget constraints, leaders will not fund attacks because the costs of skimming are too great. Using general functional forms, we find important nonlinearities in terrorists’ responses to government counter-terrorism. Restricting terrorists’ funds may be ineffective until a critical threshold is reached, at which point cooperation within terrorist organizations begins to break down and further government actions have a disproportionately large impact.

  16. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  17. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  18. Organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2018-01-16

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.

  19. Organizations, projects and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects

  20. Vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  1. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (meteorites contain soluble organic molecules with different abundances and distributions, which may reflect the extension of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism on the meteorite parent bodies. Extensive aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body may result on 1) the decomposition of α-amino acids [5, 6]; 2) synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids [2, 6-9]; 3) higher relative abundances of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [6, 10]; and 4) higher L-enantiomer excess (Lee) value of isovaline [6, 11, 12].The soluble organic content of carbonaceous meteorites may also have a contribution from Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10] Elsila et al. (2005) GCA 5, 1349. [11] Glavin and Dworkin (2009) PNAS 106, 5487. [12] Pizzarello et al. (2003) GCA 67, 1589. [13] Chan et al. (2012) MAPS. 47, 1502

  2. Is old organic matter simple organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Lerch, Thomas; Pouteau, Valérie; Mora, Philippe; Changey, Fréderique; Kätterer, Thomas; Herrmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Bare fallow soils that have been deprived of fresh carbon inputs for prolonged periods contain mostly old, stable organic carbon. In order to shed light on the nature of this carbon, the functional diversity profiles (MicroResp™, Biolog™ and enzyme activity spectra) of the microbial communities of long-term barefallow soils were analysed and compared with those of the microbial communities from their cultivated counterparts. The study was based on the idea that microbial communities adapt to their environment and that therefore the catabolic and enzymatic profiles would reflect the type of substrates available to the microbial communities. The catabolic profiles suggested that the microbial communities in the long-term bare-fallow soil were exposed to a less diverse range of substrates and that these substrates tended to be of simpler molecular forms. Both the catabolic and enzyme activity profiles suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were less adapted to using polymers. These results do not fit with the traditional view of old, stable carbon being composed of complex, recalcitrant polymers. An energetics analysis of the substrate use of the microbial communities for the different soils suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were better adapted to using readily oxidizable,although energetically less rewarding, substrates. Microbial communities appear to adapt to the deprivation of fresh organic matter by using substrates that require little investment.

  3. Marketing of human organs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, E

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the highly controversial question whether human organs should be allowed to be the object of a contract aimed at profit. The author comes to the conclusion that--seen from a consequentialist viewpoint--the legislature is not well-advised to allow organ donations for consideration. However, it is admitted that a more deontological approach could come to quite the opposite conclusion.

  4. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... and external contingency factors and having a more detailed look at the structural dimensions chosen, beyond the well-known characteristics of centralization, formalization, participation, specialization, standardization and size. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be leveraged...

  5. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Organizing the Electronic Century

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Langlois

    2007-01-01

    This paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of technological advance in (American) electronics over the twentieth century and (B) a somewhat revisionist account of the role of organization and institution in that advance. The paper stresses the complex effects of product architecture and intellectual property regime on industrial organization ...

  7. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  8. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  10. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  11. LEADING THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Rijal

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified leadership as being one of the most important factors that influence the development of learning organization. They suggest that creating a collective vision of the future, empowering and developing employees so that they are better able to handle environmental challenges, modeling learning behavior and creating a learning environment, are crucial skills for leaders of learning organization. These roles are suitable to a transformational leader. Despite the potenti...

  12. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  13. Interstellar organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.

  14. Micro-Organ Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  15. Managing mechanistic and organic structure in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Managers at all levels in a health care organization must organize work to achieve the organization's mission and goals. This requires managers to decide the organization structure, which involves dividing the work among jobs and departments and then coordinating them all toward the common purpose. Organization structure, which is reflected in an organization chart, may range on a continuum from very mechanistic to very organic. Managers must decide how mechanistic versus how organic to make the entire organization and each of its departments. To do this, managers should carefully consider 5 factors for the organization and for each individual department: external environment, goals, work production, size, and culture. Some factors may push toward more mechanistic structure, whereas others may push in the opposite direction toward more organic structure. Practical advice can help managers at all levels design appropriate structure for their departments and organization.

  16. Thoracic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.

  17. Modularity and Economic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance to the organ......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...... markets. We also discuss an evolutionary perspective on modularity as an emergent phenomenon in firms and industries. We explain how modularity as a relatively new field of strategy and economic research may provide a new theoretical perspective on economic organizing that has significant potential...

  18. Organ Transplants in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.

  19. Organization Virtual or Networked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to present distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization”; giving their definitions.Design/methodology/approach—review of previous researches, systemic analyses of their findings and synthesis of distinctive characteristics of ”virtual organization” and “networked organization.”Findings—the main result of the research is key diverse features separating ”virtual organization” and ”networked organization.” Definitions of “virtual organization” and “networked organization” are presented.Originality/Value—distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization” creates possibilities to use all advantages of those types of organizations and gives foundation for deeper researches in this field.Research type: general review.

  20. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  1. Microtubule-Organizing Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingchao; Akhmanova, Anna

    2017-10-06

    The organization of microtubule networks is crucial for controlling chromosome segregation during cell division, for positioning and transport of different organelles, and for cell polarity and morphogenesis. The geometry of microtubule arrays strongly depends on the localization and activity of the sites where microtubules are nucleated and where their minus ends are anchored. Such sites are often clustered into structures known as microtubule-organizing centers, which include the centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies in fungi. In addition, other microtubules, as well as membrane compartments such as the cell nucleus, the Golgi apparatus, and the cell cortex, can nucleate, stabilize, and tether microtubule minus ends. These activities depend on microtubule-nucleating factors, such as γ-tubulin-containing complexes and their activators and receptors, and microtubule minus end-stabilizing proteins with their binding partners. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on how such factors work together to control microtubule organization in different systems.

  2. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  3. The Effective Ambidextrous Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    the essence of organizational ambidexterity as the means to sustain performance over time when environmental conditions change. This paper incorporates strategic management and organization theoretical rationales in a model that combines elements of integration and experimentation in the strategy making....... Results of structural equation analyses indicate that superior performance in the ambidextrous organizations is associated with efficiencies derived from adherence to centralized strategic planning and effectiveness generated by decentralized innovative behavior through participation and autonomous...... process and thereby extends the evolving literature on the ambidextrous organization. The performance relationships of the ambidextrous integrative strategy making model are investigated on the basis of a cross-sectional sample of 185 business entities operating in different manufacturing industries...

  4. Phytovolatilization of Organic Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel

    2016-07-05

    Plants can interact with a variety of organic compounds, and thereby affect the fate and transport of many environmental contaminants. Volatile organic compounds may be volatilized from stems or leaves (direct phytovolatilization) or from soil due to plant root activities (indirect phytovolatilization). Fluxes of contaminants volatilizing from plants are important across scales ranging from local contaminant spills to global fluxes of methane emanating from ecosystems biochemically reducing organic carbon. In this article past studies are reviewed to clearly differentiate between direct- and indirect-phytovolatilization and we discuss the plant physiology driving phytovolatilization in different ecosystems. Current measurement techniques are also described, including common difficulties in experimental design. We also discuss reports of phytovolatilization in the literature, finding that compounds with low octanol-air partitioning coefficients are more likely to be phytovolatilized (log KOA < 5). Reports of direct phytovolatilization at field sites compare favorably to model predictions. Finally, future research needs are presented that could better quantify phytovolatilization fluxes at field scale.

  5. Innovation in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir-Codrin Ionescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is an integrating part of the re-vitalization plan of EU economy and it is one of the seven initiatives comprised in the 2020 Europe Strategy. The European Union supports through active policies the creative-innovative processes, as illustrated by the Cohesion Policy Program for 2007-2013 and by the ”Horizon 2020” Program for Research and Innovation. The present paper presents, from an organizational perspective, relevant aspects related to the question of innovation and innovation management, while pointing out the most important internal and external factors that favour the introduction of innovation into the sphere of processes that are run by organizations, as well as into the sphere of products and services provided by organizations. At the same time, the paper briefly presents the essential attributes of organizations which obtain competitive sustainable advantages through innovation.

  6. Organic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  7. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  8. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  9. Bioethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate.

  10. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  11. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  12. EDF national emergency organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverge, J.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  13. Knowledge management based organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Gjorgji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accomplishment of the goals set by a business organization implies implementation of knowledge management. It allows coordination of the working processes with the information technologies, with a view to adapting the organization's operations to the problems encountered. Overcoming these problems involves designing and implementation of complex business systems supported by information technology. This can be achieved by management that will monitor the business processes through clear indicators, with the purpose of accomplishing the preset strategic goals. This managerial staff must be fully devoted and committed to their work, to learning and creation of expertise that will help overcome the competition challenges.

  14. Performance in Public Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Boesen, Andreas; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    of management and performance are classified. The results illustrate how a systematization of the conceptual space of performance in public organizations can help researchers select what to study and what to leave out with greater accuracy while also bringing greater clarity to public debates about performance.......Performance in public organizations is a key concept that requires clarification. Based on a conceptual review of research published in 10 public administration journals, this article proposes six distinctions to describe the systematic differences in performance criteria: From which stakeholder...

  15. Organizing for Asymmetric Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Sørensen, Henrik B.

      The vision of new organizational forms consists of less-organized networks and alliances between organizations, in which collaborative capabilities are assumed to be crucial (Miles et al., 2005). The path to such new forms may go through fragile cooperative efforts. Despite the good will of many...... complexity to already complex models, we claim that our approach has practical implications: it offers rather simple diagnostic cues to change agents that are coping with the barriers to management and collaboration among loosely coupled units....

  16. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  17. Studies on DNA Damage Response in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Wenyuan

    ) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and hydroxyurea (HU) that may not introduce DNA lesions directly. Comparison of the effects of the three drugs on S. islandicus cells showed that NQO and MMS led to DNA-less cell formation, while HU did not. In addition, the DNA-less cells were featured with increased side...

  18. Conditions for gene disruption by homologous recombination of exogenous DNA into the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The construction of directed gene deletion mutants is an essential tool in molecular biology that allows functional studies on the role of genes in their natural environment. For hyperthermophilic archaea, it has been difficult to obtain a reliable system to construct such mutants. However, during

  19. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  20. Organ trade using social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Alrogy; Dunia Jawdat; Muhannad Alsemari; Abdulrahman Alharbi; Abdullah Alasaad; Ali H Hajeer

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to Febru...

  1. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased demands in industry. For example, there is a requirement in the pharmaceutical industry for a higher number of a novel chemical entities to be produced, which requires chemists to employ a number of resources to reduce time for the production of compounds. Also, microwaves are used in the food industry, as well as in the pyrolysis of waste materials, sample preparation, the solvent extraction of natural products and the hydrolysis of proteins and peptides.

  2. Career Issues in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on career issues in organizations. "Learning During Downsizing: Stories from the Survivors" (Sharon J. Confessore) describes a study to demonstrate that survivors of corporate downsizings undertake learning activities and use many resources to accomplish the learning tasks.…

  3. Spatial organization of drumlins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Chris D.; Ely, Jeremy; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Ice-sheets flowing over soft sediments produce undulations in the bed, typically of metres in relief, of which drumlins are the most abundant and widely investigated. Consensus regarding their mechanism of formation has yet to be achieved. In this paper we examine the spatial organization of drum...

  4. Designing account management organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, van der H.W.C.; Kempeners, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Organizational structures of account management systems are one of the most interesting and controversial parts of account management systems, because of the variety of organizational options that are available. The main focus is on the organization of account management systems and particularly on

  5. Transplantation of contaminated organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vliet, J. A.; Tidow, G.; van Saene, H. F. K.; Krom, R. A. F.; Slooff, M. J. H.; Weening, J. J.; Tegzess, A. M.; Meijer, S.; van Boven, W. P. L.

    In cadaveric organ transplantation there is a risk of transfer of infectious agents from donor to recipient. The consequences can be fatal for immuosuppressed recipients. This is illustrated by a case history in which an infection with the fungus Monosporium apiospermum was transferred from a donor

  6. Astroparticle physics gets organized!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Astroparticle physics is a rapidly growing field of research at the intersection of astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. But unlike particle physics it has no permanent organizations like CERN to plan for the long-term future. But this is starting to change, and CERN may be able to help.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  8. Control in Complex Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennstam, Jens; Kärreman, Dan

    The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily for their ......The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily...... for their productivity on the knowledge and creativity of their work force. In this type of “knowledge work,” the strong focus on vertical control is insufficient as it fails to account for the important operative and horizontal interactions upon which many contemporary organizations depend. Drawing on practice theory...... and an ethnographic study of engineering work, this paper theorizes control as a form of work that does not only belong to formal management, but is dispersed among various work activities, including horizontal ones. The article introduces the idea of control work as a key practice in contemporary organizations...

  9. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  10. Lifetime of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren A.

    2015-01-01

    tests. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor lifetimes was performed by means of the o-diagram, which constitutes the initial steps towards establishing a method for predicting the lifetime of an organic photovoltaic device under real operational conditions based on a selection of accelerated indoor...

  11. Organizing for Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkulainen, Virpi; Bals, Lydia

    Outsourcing remains one of the most prevalent business practices. Still, many businesses fail to realize the benefits anticipated from their outsourcing initiative. Research reports that one major reason for these outsourcing challenges are in the design of the focal organization. In this paper, we...

  12. Organizations and Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.; Linder, Stefan

    Austrian economics focuses on markets, but has much to say about organizations. In particular, Austrian insights on the structure of production, the heterogeneity and subjectivity of resources, the nature of uncertainty, the role of monetary calculation, and the function of the entrepreneur provide...

  13. Boredom and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    able to tell and endure time in an organized manner, boredom is a perceived loss of meaning inferred by the lived experience of a discrepancy between the involvement with transient means in everyday life and their value in a larger vision of existence. But boredom also signifies a concurrent protest...

  14. Cartoons as Advance Organizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Cindy L.; Williams, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated student reaction to the use of cartoons as advance organizers for online discussions in an online course. A convenience sample of 15 students participated in the study by contributing cartoons, participating in online discussions, and completing a survey. Overall, survey results indicated student reaction to the…

  15. Learning in Youth Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This response identifies several strengths of the article, "Pushing the Boundaries: What Youth Organizers at Boston's Hyde Square Task Force Have to Teach Us about Civic Engagement" and draws connections to recent developments in sibling fields, including social and emotional learning and internet activism. These developments offer ideas…

  16. Mathematical Graphic Organizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    As part of a math-science partnership, a university mathematics educator and ten elementary school teachers developed a novel approach to mathematical problem solving derived from research on reading and writing pedagogy. Specifically, research indicates that students who use graphic organizers to arrange their ideas improve their comprehension…

  17. Information for organized work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.J.; Dignum, F.P.M.; F. Baader, M. Jeusfeld, W. Nutt (eds)

    1997-01-01

    In this position statement we claim that the organization of information in databases, knowledge bases, hypertexts and other integrated structures depends on the processes for which they are used. These processes can be highly structured, completely ad hoc or anything in between. Whether a

  18. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...

  19. Learning in Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos, Ramona; Veres Stancovici, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims at identifying the presence of the dimensions of learning capabilities and the characteristics of a learning organization within two companies in the field of services, as well as identifying the relationships between their learning capability and the organizational culture. Design/methodology/approach: This has been a…

  20. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Kurtović

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system. Parasitic diseases occur most frequently as a result of human role in parasites life cycles. The prevalence is further increased by consuming raw fish and shellfish. The main feature of bacterial infections is facultative pathogenicity of most ethiological agents. In most cases disease occures as a result of decreased immunoreactivity. Several bacteria are, however, hightly pathogenic and capable of causing high morbidity and mortality in human. To date it has not been reported the case of human infection with viruses specific for aquatic organisms. Human infections are caused with human viruses and aquatic organisms play role only as vechicles. The greatest risk in that respect present shellfish. Fish and particularly shellfish are likely to cause food poisoning in humans. In most cases the cause are toxins of phithoplancton origins accumulating in shellfish and fish.

  1. Intergenerational Learning in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropes, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of intergenerational learning as a way for organizations to deal with an ageing worker population in a positive and constructive way. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a thematic synthesis of qualitative literature and considers all types of sources including quantitative…

  2. Intergenerational learning in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Donald Ropes

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of intergenerational learning as a way for organizations to deal with an ageing worker population in a positive and constructive way. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employs a thematic synthesis of qualitative literature and

  3. Educators and Professional Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, David E.; Wright, Donald K.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of 173 public relations educators reported, among other results, that almost 90 percent felt membership in their professional organization was important and over 75 percent suggested a need for financial relief to combat cost of membership. For journal availability, see CS 705 902. (PD)

  4. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  5. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  6. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  7. Vicious Circles in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuch, Michael

    1985-01-01

    After examining some elementary notions of action theory and cybernetics, this article analyzes the dynamics, clustering, and survival chances of vicious circles. It argues that the action perspective implies that many structural suboptimalities of organizations are caused by vicious circles. Eleven figures and 105 references are provided. (DCS)

  8. Organic electronics on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschieschang, Ute; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Takimiya, Kazuo; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Masaaki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao; Klauk, Hagen

    2011-02-01

    Organic transistors and circuits are fabricated directly on the surface of banknotes. The transistors operate with voltages of 3 V and have a field-effect mobility of about 0.2 cm2 V−1s−1. For an array of 100 transistors a yield of 92% is obtained.

  9. Self organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1993-03-01

    Self organized criticality refers to the tendency of highly dissipative systems to drive themselves to a critical state. This has been proposed to explain why observed physics often displays a wide disparity of length and time scales. The phenomenon can be studied in simple cellular automaton models

  10. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  11. Excimers of organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, Nikolai N.; Sakhno, T. V.; Nurmukhametov, Ravil'N.; Khakhel', O. A.

    1993-06-01

    Studies devoted to excimers in organic systems are surveyed. Processes leading to the excitation of the excimer luminescence are examined. Examples of the excimer-like glow of dimers are described. The relation between the structure of the complexes and their fluorescence properties is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 218 references.

  12. Multimodality in organization studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This afterword reviews the chapters in this volume and reflects on the synergies between organization and management studies and multimodality studies that emerge from the volume. These include the combination of strong sociological theorizing and detailed multimodal analysis, a focus on material...

  13. Self-organizing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.; Johansson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a general overview of Self-Organizing Networks (SON), and the rationale and state-of-the-art of wireless SON are first presented. The technical and business requirements are then briefly treated, and the research challenges within the field of SON are highlighted. Thereafter, the r...

  14. Building a Healthy Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the author's firm has been helping organizations become healthier and maximize their human potential by using the model outlined in his latest book, "The Advantage," which is the culmination of his previous books and models. Schools and school districts have embraced the model and enjoyed the competitive advantage…

  15. Social Capital in Organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Oteman

    2008-01-01

    In my belief the effectiveness of organizations has more to do with managing people in a more ethical, sustainable and effective way than what is common these days. For example employees values like trust, respect and commitment are rarely considered as values that can contribute to social capital

  16. Organizing for Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    Research on Purchasing Organization is dominated by studies on centralization versus decentralization. While global sourcing relates to the integrated activities of purchasing and other functions in line with the company’s strategic objectives and while it has been put forward that hybrid...

  17. Independent safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Weinstock, E.V.; Carew, J.F.; Cerbone, R.J.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Taylor, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three parts: the need for an independent organization to investigate significant safety events, alternative organizations to conduct investigations, and legislative requirements. The determination of need was investigated by reviewing current NRC investigation practices, comparing aviation and nuclear industry practices, and interviewing a spectrum of representatives from the nuclear industry, the regulatory agency, and the public sector. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative independent organizations were studied, namely, an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) of NRC; an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the NRC Commissioners; a multi-member NTSB-type Nuclear Safety Board independent of the NRC. The costs associated with operating a Nuclear Safety Board were also included in the study. The legislative requirements, both new authority and changes to the existing NRC legislative authority, were studied. 134 references

  18. Organization patterns responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuerle, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    To guarantee safety and safe operation of a nuclear power station the technical facilities must be supplemented by suitable administrative measures. Thus, the organization pattern of the nuclear power station or of the nuclear power station undertaking will also exert a corresponding influence. (orig./TK) [de

  19. Host organisms: Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohman, Hans-Peter; van Dijl, Jan; Krishnappa, Laxmi; Pragai, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis and its close Bacillus relatives are important bacterial platforms for industrial production of enzymes and fine chemicals such as vitamin B2 and nucleotides. B. subtilis is an attractive bacterial organism for industrial use mainly because of its straightforward genetic

  20. TP Organics - maheuuringute tehnoloogiaplatvorm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    TP Organics on 2008. a loodud Euroopa mahepõllumajanduse ja mahetoidu ning vähese sisendiga põllumajanduse tehnoloogiaplatvorm. Platvormi eesmärk on selgitada välja teadustöö ja uuenduste vajadused ning edastada see info poliitikutele

  1. Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs). R Sarvanakumar S Sankararaman. Feature Article Volume 12 Issue 11 November 2007 pp 77-86. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. The Perfect Organism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2017-01-01

    in his film Quest for Fire (1981), as well as the fictional biology of the intruder in Ridley Scott’s Alien (1979) and some of its sequels, it introduces the notion of bio-fictional constructs as a term used to denote fictive and quasi-fictive organisms whose life cycle is either fully or partially...

  3. Organics In Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1996-01-01

    The variety of classes of organic compounds that occur in carbonaceous meteorites suggests a rich pre-planetary chemistry with possible connections to interstellar, solar nebular and parent body processes. Structural diversity prevails within all classes examined in detail. Among amino acids for instance, all possible isomers are found up to species containing 4-6 carbon atoms, with abundances decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Such diversity seems limited to those carbonaceous meteorites which show evidence of having been exposed to liquid water; meteorites lacking such evidence also show much lower abundances and less structural diversity in their organic contents. This apparent dependency on water suggests a role for cometary ices in the chemical evolution of organic compounds on parent bodies. Measurements of the stable isotope compositions of C, H, N and S in classes of compounds and at the individual compound level show strong deviations from average chondritic values. These deviations are difficult to explain by solar system or parent body processes, and precedents for some of these isotopic anomalies exist in interstellar (e.g., high D/H ratios) and circumstellar chemistry. Therefore, presolar origins for much if not all of the meteoritic organic compounds (or their precursors) is a distinct possibility. In contrast, evidence of solar nebular origins is either lacking or suspect. Results from molecular and isotopic analyses of meteoritic organics, from laboratory simulations and from a model of interstellar grain reactions will be used to flesh out the hypothesis that this material originated with interstellar chemistry, was distributed within the early solar system as cometary ices, and was subsequently altered on meteorite parent bodies to yield the observed compounds.

  4. STRESS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena, GHEORDUNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the changes that are currently taking place in our country, it is clear that these changes, which occur in almost all companies, lead to new stress factors for both employees and the organization. Occupational stress is a major problem for employees and managers, but also for the whole society. The issue of stress in organizations has given birth to many debates and studies. It is a common theme that is addressed by managers, employees and consultants from different perspectives. According to a study by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, in the European Union, work-related stress is the second work-related health issue after dorsal disorders. It affects 28% of EU employees. The European Parliament is fully involved in addressing issues related to the psychological support of the staff. Preventing work-related stress is one of the objectives set out in the Communique of the European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs regarding their new health and safety at work strategy. Manifestations of stress in organizations are easily observable, being manifested by behaviors such as: difficulties in adapting to the changes required to work or the dramatic drop in labor productivity. Also a double action is met: both the person who passes through the stressful situation and at the organization level on which it is reflected the existence of a stressful environment. This paper aims to address the implications of workplace stress, symptoms of stress in the workplace and strategies to eliminate and prevent stress at work This paper represents an exploratory research based on qualitative methods, being consulted various sources of information: the literature, case studies, media articles, reports of relevant organizations, etc.

  5. The impact of quality department on organizing quality in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Brcar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: The existence of organizations in competitive markets depends on their ability to stay competitive. Quality departments play a key role in organizing and ensuring quality. Purpose: The survey tries to determine the correlation between the existence of quality departments and organization of quality in organizations; our hypothesis is that the correlation is very strong. Method: A survey was performed in 484 large and medium-sized organizations in Slovenia to examine the situation in this area. Pearson's χ2-test was used for data processing and results presented in a contingency table. Results: Organizations with quality departments more frequently also have certificate ISO 9001 in comparison with organizations without quality departments. Also these organizations more frequently have supplier-relations teams, monitoring system of suppliers' progress and excellence centers. In short, the quality in these organizations is organized on a higher level than in organizations without quality departments. Organization: The role of quality department is important for organizations. The findings of the research are important for decision making in organizations. Society: Each organization contributes to efficiency and effectiveness of a nation. The organizational level of the nation can be measured by number of certificates per capita. Originality: The research is unique because of the research model and method applied. Limitations/Future Research: The research is limited to large and medium-sized organizations in Slovenia.

  6. Exploring network organization in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    Constructing a network organization for global R&D is presented as a common sense practice in existing literature. However, there are still queries about the network organization, such as the persistence of hierarchies which make a network organization merely a “bureaucracy-lite” organization....... Furthermore, in practice, we rarely see radical organizational change towards a network organization that adopts an internal market. The co-existence of market, hierarchy and network triggered research interest. A multiple case study of three transnational corporations’ global R&D organization shows...... that there are different logical considerations when designing a network organization to facilitate innovation. I identify three types of network organizations: market-led, directed and culture-led network organizations. Different types of network organizations show that organizations are dual and even ternary systems...

  7. Using matrix organization to manage health care delivery organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcorn, S

    1990-01-01

    Matrix organization can provide health care organization managers enhanced information processing, faster response times, and more flexibility to cope with greater organization complexity and rapidly changing operating environments. A review of the literature informed by work experience reveals that the use of matrix organization creates hard-to-manage ambiguity and balances of power in addition to providing positive benefits for health care organization managers. Solutions to matrix operating problems generally rely on the use of superior information and decision support systems and extensive staff training to develop attitudes and behavior consistent with the more collegial matrix organization culture. Further improvement in understanding the suitability of matrix organization for managing health care delivery organizations will involve appreciating the impact of partial implementation of matrix organization, temporary versus permanent uses of matrix organization, and the impact of the ambiguity created by dual lines of authority upon the exercise of power and authority.

  8. Survey of U.S. Organ Procurement Organizations Regarding Pediatric Organ Donor Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Robert S; Armbrecht, Eric S

    2016-10-01

    To describe the current practice of pediatric organ donor management in the United States for donors declared dead based upon neurologic criteria. The study directs particular attention to how pediatric donors are defined, the use of donor management guidelines, the use of donor management goals, and the involvement of pediatric critical care or transplantation expertise. Cross-sectional observational study using a web-based survey and follow-up telephone interview with respondents from U.S. organ procurement organizations. The study also incorporated organ procurement organization-specific data on organ yield for the 4-year period (2010-2013) preceding the study. The 58 U.S. organ procurement organizations. Respondents chosen by each organ procurement organization. None. All 58 U.S. organ procurement organizations participated in the study. Fifty-two respondents (90%) indicated that their organ procurement organization distinguished pediatric from adult donors resulting in 28 unique pediatric definitions. Thirty-nine organ procurement organizations utilized some form of written pediatric management guidelines, and 27 (47%) maintained pediatric donor management goals; compliance was infrequently monitored for both guidelines (28%) and goals (33%). A pediatric intensivist was always or usually involved in pediatric donor management at 47 organ procurement organizations (81%); transplant/organ recovery surgeons were always or usually involved at 12 organ procurement organizations (21%). There was an increase in the number of organs transplanted per donor among donors 11-17 years old for organ procurement organizations that used donor management goals for the duration of the period studied (p procurement organizations that always or usually consulted a transplant/organ recovery surgeon (p = 0.02) although this did not reach our threshold for statistical significance.. There is little consensus among organ procurement organizations regarding the definition of

  9. Narratives and Memory in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlinson, Michael; Casey, Andrea; Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations remember through narratives and storytelling. The articles in this Special Issue explore the interface between organization studies, memory studies, and historiography. They focus on the practices for organizational remembering. Taken together, the articles explore the similarities...... and differences between ethnographic and historical methods for studying memory in organizations, which represents a contribution to the historic turn in organization studies....

  10. Lesbian organizing: Documenting vital work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currans, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This introduction explores three key themes that emerge in the contributions to this issue about Lesbian Organizations and Organizing: the difficulty of defining who is included and excluded in lesbian organizing, the role of community-building and maintenance, and the importance of history in understanding current organizing.

  11. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  12. New micro-organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Masayoshi; Hashimoto, Gotaro

    1987-09-12

    Invention relates with a new organism for the coal liquefying desulfurization. This micro-organism conducts a good sporulation on a culture medium which contains a coal as an only carbon source. It belongs to Penicillium and named Penicillium MT-6001 registered at Fermentation Research Institute No. 8463. Coal powder is thrown into a reaction vessel which accommodated a culture solution of this bacteria, and the surface of the solution is covered with liquid paraffin; coal powder is treated of liquefaction for about 5 hours while maintaining the anaerobic condition and slowly agitating to form a transparent solution layer on the surface of the reactor together with liquid paraffin. Liquefied product shows an analysis pattern similar to naphthenic petroleum containing a lipid with polar radical. (2 figs)

  13. An Organic Vortex Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellinga, Daan; Pietrzyk, Monika E; Glackin, James M E; Wang, Yue; Bansal, Ashu K; Turnbull, Graham A; Dholakia, Kishan; Samuel, Ifor D W; Krauss, Thomas F

    2018-03-27

    Optical vortex beams are at the heart of a number of novel research directions, both as carriers of information and for the investigation of optical activity and chiral molecules. Optical vortex beams are beams of light with a helical wavefront and associated orbital angular momentum. They are typically generated using bulk optics methods or by a passive element such as a forked grating or a metasurface to imprint the required phase distribution onto an incident beam. Since many applications benefit from further miniaturization, a more integrated yet scalable method is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate the generation of an azimuthally polarized vortex beam directly by an organic semiconductor laser that meets these requirements. The organic vortex laser uses a spiral grating as a feedback element that gives control over phase, handedness, and degree of helicity of the emitted beam. We demonstrate vortex beams up to an azimuthal index l = 3 that can be readily multiplexed into an array configuration.

  14. Autotranscendence and Creative Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of social and cultural ‘autotran- scendence’ – self-production, creativity – in the debates on self-organization. The point of departure is Cornelius Castoriadis’s idea of ‘self-creation’. First, a schismabetween mechanical and ontological modeling is indicated...... and used to introduce the idea of a ‘creative organization’. This is further discussed in relation to Jean-Pierre Dupuy’s concept of social ‘autotranscendence’ by ‘complex methodological individualism’, with particular respect to the incom- prehensionof the social. Following Johann P. Arnason’s treatment......, Alberto-László Barabási and Bernardo Huberman’s sketch of a network sociology. KEYWORDS autotrancendence • constraints • magma • network sociology • self-creation • self-organization...

  15. APPLIED ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievskiy Leonid Vladimirovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applied disciplines in the sphere of construction which are engaged in the solution of vital macroeconomical problems (the general trend of development of these disciplines is the expansion of problematics and mutual integration are considered. Construction organization characteristic at the present stage as a systems engineering discipline covering the investment process of creation of real estate items, is given. The main source of current research trends for applied sciences (socio-economic development forecasts, regional and local programs is determined. Interpenetration and integration of various fields of knowledge exemplified by the current interindustry problem of blocks renovation organization of existing development, is demonstrated. Mathematical model of wave construction (for the period of deployment is proposed. Nature of dependence of the total duration of renovation on the limit of annual input and coefficient of renovation, is established. Overall structure of the Moscow region housing market is presented, and approaches to definition of effective demand are proposed.

  16. Organic ice resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Le, Hoa Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Electron-beam lithography (EBL) is the backbone technology for patterning nanostructures and manufacturing nanodevices. It involves processing and handling synthetic resins in several steps, each requiring optimization and dedicated instrumentation in cleanroom environments. Here, we show...... that simple organic molecules, e.g. alcohols, condensed to form thin-films at low temperature demonstrate resist-like capabilities for EBL applications and beyond. The entire lithographic process takes place in a single instrument, and avoids exposing chemicals to the user and the need of cleanrooms. Unlike...... EBL that requires large samples with optically flat surfaces, we patterned on fragile membranes only 5-nm-thin, and 2 x 2 mm2 diamond samples. We created patterns on the nm to sub-mm scale, as well as three-dimensional structures by stacking layers of frozen organic molecules. Finally, using plasma...

  17. Deuterium in organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straaten, C.M. van der.

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain an insight in the processes governing the macroclimate on earth, a knowledge is required of the behaviour of climates in the past. It is well known that D/H ratio of rain varies with temperature determined by latitude as well as by season. Because land plants use this water during the assimilation process, it is expected that the D/H variations are propagated in the organic plant matter. The D/H palaeoclimatic method has therefore been applied to peat to distinguish between the chemical constituents and trace the stable hydrogen fraction in the organic matter. The relation between the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation and climatic factors such as the temperature have also been studied. (Auth.)

  18. Ethics in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    recognized that organizational theory also presumes and express ethical and normative perspectives on organizations. This is also the case in the new branch of organizational theory that has been developed with an inspiration from theories of practice (e.g. Schatzki 2005, 2006; Nicolini 2013; Gherardi 2015......). Although practice theoretical approaches have made an effort to critically reflect on the ontological and epistemological assumptions of organizational theory the literature only contains very few attempts to understand the role played by normativity and ethics in organizations (Erden et al. 2014......). In this paper I will attempt to discuss how the practice theoretical approach to organizational theory can become more explicit about the role of normativity and ethics in order to better understand organizational practices. I will do this by discussing two prominent early practice theoretical theories...

  19. Porous organic cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Tomokazu; Jones, James T. A.; Swamy, Shashikala I.; Jiang, Shan; Adams, Dave J.; Shakespeare, Stephen; Clowes, Rob; Bradshaw, Darren; Hasell, Tom; Chong, Samantha Y.; Tang, Chiu; Thompson, Stephen; Parker, Julia; Trewin, Abbie; Bacsa, John; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Steiner, Alexander; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2009-12-01

    Porous materials are important in a wide range of applications including molecular separations and catalysis. We demonstrate that covalently bonded organic cages can assemble into crystalline microporous materials. The porosity is prefabricated and intrinsic to the molecular cage structure, as opposed to being formed by non-covalent self-assembly of non-porous sub-units. The three-dimensional connectivity between the cage windows is controlled by varying the chemical functionality such that either non-porous or permanently porous assemblies can be produced. Surface areas and gas uptakes for the latter exceed comparable molecular solids. One of the cages can be converted by recrystallization to produce either porous or non-porous polymorphs with apparent Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of 550 and 23m2g-1, respectively. These results suggest design principles for responsive porous organic solids and for the modular construction of extended materials from prefabricated molecular pores.

  20. Organizing homeless people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    People who are homeless belong to some of the most vulnerable, dispersed and disorganized groups in welfare societies. Yet in 2001, a national interest organization of homeless people was formed for the first time in Denmark. This article identifies the processes that facilitated the formation...... of the organization. It focuses on the importance of ideological and institutional conditions and changes, and it stresses the importance of alliances between progressive actors in the field and in the political-administrative system, in addition to the presence of dedicated activists among people who are or have...... been homeless. The analysis may thus serve as a case of inspiration for activists and professionals who want to improve homeless people's opportunities for participation in other national settings....

  1. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  2. Organizing for Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Chakkol, Mehmet; Johnson, Mark

    2018-01-01

    -specific, qualitative case study conducted within a large original equipment manufacturer, yet the findings are analytically generalized. Originality/value: In identifying the relevance of different design decisions in terms of customer contact, decoupling of activities and grouping of employees, the findings challenge....... The purpose of this paper is to explore the design decisions taken by organizations in support of servitization. Design/methodology/approach: A large-scale exploratory case study was conducted, consisting of embedded cases in three divisions of a UK-based, global manufacturing firm. Findings: Each division...... provided different combinations of offerings (i.e. product-, use- and result-oriented). The findings suggest that front-end/back-end configurations differ according to the offering and can exist concurrently within the same organization, challenging the assumption that different configurations within...

  3. Learning Organization [reviewed article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonoaie, N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “The essence of LOs is effective organizational learning, but relevant academic disciplines, such as economics, anthropology, and social psychology, all entail different assumptions about what this might actually mean. Assorted analytical approaches such as population ecology and sociotechnical systems theory offer distinctly different vocabularies for describing what the LO might be or what it might do.” [Snell, 2007] The learning organization (LO is an idealized vision of an organization where the structures, routines, and working practices are open to continuous adaptation and improvement, where the individuals and teams engage in continuous learning, where the norms and values are supportive of continuous learning, and where strategic decision making is informed by and responsive to relevant data analysis and feedback.

  4. Organic radiopharmaceuticals: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Organic radiopharmaceuticals are considered in light of accelerator and nuclide production requirements, special problems relating to the carrier-free state, including terminology, of the special technology required to prepare and manipulate these compounds and new trends in compound design and synthesis. The emphasis is on medical cyclotrons and the positron-emitting radionuclides, carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15, and fluorine-18. New routes to synthetic precursors and organic compounds of high specific activity labeled with carbon-11, fluorine-18, and iodine-123 including monosaccharides, aromatic amines, neuroleptics, fatty acids, steroids, and other classes of compounds are discussed. Some compounds are considered in terms of the development and evaluation of structure-activity relationships and including some newer concepts such as metabolic trapping. 67 references

  5. Marketing in nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of chapter 3 is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding marketing. Although it is often considered to be, marketing is not really a new activity for nursing organizations. What is perhaps new to most nursing organizations is the conduct of marketing activities as a series of interrelated events that are part of a strategic marketing process. The increasingly volatile nursing environment requires a comprehensive approach to marketing. This chapter presents definitions of marketing, the marketing mix, the characteristics of nonprofit marketing, the relationship of strategic planning and strategic marketing, portfolio analysis, and a detailed description of the strategic marketing process. While this chapter focuses on marketing concepts, essential components, and presentation of the strategic marketing process, chapter 4 presents specific methods and techniques for implementing the strategic marketing process.

  6. Industrial organization and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    GNUTZMANN, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Examining Board: Professor Thomas Gehrig, University of Vienna Professor Piero Gottardi, Supervisor, European University Institute Professor Andrea Mattozzi, European University Institute Professor Domenico Menicucci, University of Florence. Defence date: 10 September 2013 First made available online on 3 February 2014. This thesis collects three papers in industrial organization and behaviour, unified in their focus on the digital economy. The first two papers study markets for s...

  7. Cloud services in organization

    OpenAIRE

    FUXA, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with the definition of the word cloud computing, cloud computing models, types, advantages, disadvantages, and comparing SaaS solutions such as: Google Apps and Office 365 in the area of electronic communications. The work deals with the use of cloud computing in the corporate practice, both good and bad practice. The following section describes the methodology for choosing the appropriate cloud service organization. Another part deals with analyzing the possibilities of SaaS i...

  8. World Presidents Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour speaks to members of the World Presidents' Organization during the group's visit to NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 26. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site. Barbour visited with group members during a morning session in StenniSphere, the center's visitors center and museum.

  9. Communication in organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Communication is one of the most discussed themes of today and its significance is ever growing. Most often, communication is divided in verbal and nonverbal. It depends if the content of the communicated message is put across in words or not. Every person uses his or her communication style in the contact with others which is different in each situation. The art of communication is the ground not only in everyday life but also in employment. Every organization is a place where communication ...

  10. The Responsive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Fredens, Kjeld

    Modern cognitive science identifies a dynamic system of interacting fast and slow processes as essential to human thinking. The fast system observes and reacts to environmental stimuli and the slow system interprets events and reasons about future actions. When the fast and slow processes interact...... considerations that take place around the top-management echelons. This identifies the responsive organization that is able to observe and react to frequent and often abrupt environmental changes and thereby adapt organizational activities to the changing reality....

  11. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  12. Studying Organizations on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Russmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of social media platforms based on the sharing of pictures and videos, the question of how such platforms should be studied arises. Previous research on social media (content has mainly focused on text (written words and the rather text-based social media platforms Twitter and Facebook. Drawing on research in the fields of visual, political, and business communication, we introduce a methodological framework to study the fast-growing image-sharing service Instagram. This methodological framework was developed to study political parties’ Instagram accounts and tested by means of a study of Swedish political parties during the 2014 election campaign. In this article, we adapt the framework to also study other types of organizations active on Instagram by focusing on the following main questions: Do organizations only use Instagram to share one-way information, focusing on disseminating information and self-presentation? Or is Instagram used for two-way communication to establish and cultivate organization-public relationships? We introduce and discuss the coding of variables with respect to four clusters: the perception of the posting, image management, integration, and interactivity.

  13. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  14. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBU MĂDĂLINA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural institution management is to direct the organization to a specific cultural profile purpose, namely production values esthetic sense, artistic, moral, spiritual, distribution, promotion of these values, protection and circulation of cultural heritage. In this regard, an analysis in the diagnosis cultural organizations aims to determine the main strengths and weaknesses, assess the potential and making recommendations focused on the root causes of failures and positive aspects. This paper presents considerations diligence activity Culture House "IL Caragiale "in Ploiesti. The mission of this organization is to contribute to the cultural development of the community by initiating projects and cultural programs, offer development programs and services to meet cultural needs, increase public access to diverse cultural life, providing a constant presence institution circuit local, national, European and international level. Conclusions drawn from the analysis shows that in a world of economic globalization, information and culture in a company in constant change, in a competitive market where there is information readily available means and leisure, but not cultural consistency in a social environment where interest in culture of people is declining, the situation of the population is impaired, the remuneration of staff working in the field of cultural education is demotivating, the funds allocated to culture have grown lately effectively lead a cultural institution is a challenge.

  15. Accounting organizing development tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Lyakhovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of accounting takes place under the influence of many factors. The study pays special attention to the impact of technological determinants on the process of organizing accountin. The carried-out analysis of scientists’ works allowed to determine the principal tendencies in the development of accounting organizing; these tendencies were expanded taking into account the development of technologies and innovations. It was found out the particular element, which undergo changes in the organization of accounting and the factors that prevent their further development for every tendency (the use of cloud technologies; a wide use of expert systems; a social media strategy in accounting; mobility among accounting personnel; outsourcing of accounting services, Internet things. The paper substantiates the shifts in functional duties of an accountant (the exclusion of data recording and intensification of analytical functions as a result of application of modern information and computer technologies. It was established that the amounts of accountants’ work with primary instruments will be reduced taking into account the possibilities of automatic preparation of such documents. The author substantiates the importance of the good knowledge in the field of information technologies while training accountants.

  16. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  17. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  18. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed

  19. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  20. Innovative Mechanism of Rural Organization Based on Self-Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basic situation of the formation of innovative rural organizations with the form of self-organization;reveals the features of self-organization,including the four aspects of openness of rural organization,innovation of rural organization far away from equilibrium,the non-linear response mechanism of rural organization innovation and the random rise and fall of rural organization innovation.The evolution mechanism of rural organization innovation is revealed according to the growth stage,the ideal stage,the decline and the fall stage.The paper probes into the basic restriction mechanism of the self-organization evaluation of rural organization from three aspects,including target recognition,path dependence and knowledge sharing.The basic measures on cultivating the innovative mechanism of rural organization are put forward.Firstly,constructing the dissipative structure of rural organization innovation;secondly,cultivating the dynamic study capability of rural organization innovation system;thirdly,selecting the step-by-step evolution strategy of rural organization innovation system.

  1. Sequential improvements in organ procurement increase the organ donation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Adrian T; Sklare, Seth; Franklin, Glen A; Wright, Jerry; Morgan, Gary; O'Flynn, Paul E; Polk, Hiram C

    2012-11-01

    Organ demand exceeds availability of transplantable organs. Organ procurement continues to suffer from failures to identify potential donors, inability to obtain consent for donation, as well as failures to retrieve certain organs as donor demographics change. The purpose of this article is to propose how sequentially introduced measures can increase organ donation rates as well as improve organ procurement. We analysed the effect of stepwise improvements in the organ procurement process patients in a university-based surgical intensive care unit over a 20-year period. We related newly introduced measures in the organ retrieval process with changes in donation rates. We specifically targeted these three main steps in the donation process: donor identification, conversion of potential donors to actual donors, and organ protection during the procurement process. Finally, we assessed the effect of the same measures on organ procurement after introduction in other hospitals of the same organ procurement region. Introduction of quality improvement steps increased all of the observed parameters. The number of organ donors was stabilised due to a better identification of potential donors, a major increase in conversion from potential to actual donors, and an increase in extended criteria donor. Improvements in organ protection led to higher rates of organs transplanted per donor and increased recovery of lungs and hearts despite increasing donor age. The same measures were introduced successfully in other hospitals in our organ procurement region. Sequential improvements in organ procurement can increase the yield of retrieved organs. The same measures can be applied to other hospitals and lead to comparable improvements in organ donation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Spiers memorial lecture. Organic electronics: an organic materials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudl, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This Introductory Lecture is intended to provide a background to Faraday Discussion 174: "Organic Photonics and Electronics" and will consist of a chronological, subjective review of organic electronics. Starting with "ancient history" (1888) and history (1950-present), the article will take us to the present. The principal developments involved the processes of charge carrier generation and charge transport in molecular solids, starting with insulators (photoconductors) and moving to metals, to semiconductors and ending with the most popular semiconductor devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The presentation will be from an organic chemistry/materials point of view.

  3. International and national organizations within nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, S.

    1975-03-01

    A survey is given of the organization, objective and action of international and national organizations working with nuclear energy. Five types of organizations are treated: international governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, international organizations dealing with ionizing radiation, nordic organizations, and Swedish organizations. Special attention is payed to the Swedish participation in the different organizations. (K.K)

  4. Superconductors go organic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, John; Mielke, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Superconductors made from organic molecules are revealing fascinating new physics and could offer huge technological potential as well. Solid-state physicists are simple people. They believe that basic research is best carried out on chemically simple materials. Traditionally they have focused on inorganic elements, alloys, and other straightforward compounds. This approach has provided some notable successes. For example, any physicist over 35 will remember the huge fuss surrounding the discovery of high-temperature cuprate superconductors in 1986, which led to the infamous 'Woodstock of physics' meeting the following year. Just before the cuprates were discovered, however, an alternative view had begun to emerge. Physical chemists such as Klaus Bechgaard, Peter Day, Gunzi Saito, Viktor Schegolev and Jack Williams were suggesting that the 'simple-materials-are-best' assumption was misplaced. They argued that some of the most exciting studies in solid-state physics can - and should - be attempted on crystalline organic materials. Although chemically complex, such materials are beautifully simple in other ways, and they can, for example, provide much more information about basic phenomena like superconductivity and magnetism than supposedly simple materials. Physicists eventually embraced these materials with enthusiasm, and the number of papers on crystalline organic metals overtook those on the high-temperature cuprate superconductors three years ago. The gap has widened ever since, and the fact that God and a billion years of evolution have produced a processor based on three-dimensional arrays of molecules, rather than silicon or gallium-arsenide chips, is taken as a good omen by those working in the field. (U.K.)

  5. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  6. CW organic dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuccio, S.A.; Peterson, O.G.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing continuous emission from a lasing medium comprising organic dye molecules in solution are described. Continuous emission is accomplished by flowing the medium through a focused optical cavity while simultaneously producing a population inversion in that portion of the medium flowing in close proximity to the focal point of the cavity. The population inversion is produced by pumping the medium longitudinally, along the optical axis of the cavity, preferably by the focused output of a continuous-wave argon laser. Sufficient thermal energy is continuously dissipated from the medium to maintain the optical homogeneity thereof at or above the quality required for continuous emission

  7. ERP inside Large Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many large companies in Romania are still functioning without an ERP system. Instead they are using traditional application systems built around the strong boundaries of specific functions: finance, selling, HR, production. An ERP will offer lots of advantages among which the integration of functionalities and support for top management decisions. Although the total cost of ownership is not small and there are some risks when implementing an ERP inside large and very large organizations, having such a system is mandatory. Choosing the right product and vendor and using a correct risk management strategy, will ensure a successful implementation.

  8. The WSPC Reference on Organic Electronics: Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide a basic theoretical perspective on charge-carrier transport in organic semiconductors, with a focus on organic molecular crystals. We introduce the microscopic parameters relevant to the intrinsic charge

  9. [Overview of organic agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hong Jun; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2016-04-22

    This paper introduced the concepts of organic agriculture as defined by different international organizations, origin and theoretical development of organic agriculture, as well as its developing trajectory in China (i.e. a late start followed by rapid growth compared to developed countries). The differences between domestic and international organic agriculture were illustrated by scale, crop types, production standards, inputs and planting techniques. Constraints limiting improvements to organic agriculture in aspects of standards, technology, marketing, certification, environmental pollution, enterprise reputation, and national policies were discussed. Future directions and strategies for developing healthy organic agriculture in China were provided.

  10. Organic carbon organic matter and bulk density relationships in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and soil organic carbon (SOC) constitute usually a small portion of soil, but they are one of the most important components of ecosystems. Bulk density (dB or BD) value is necessary to convert organic carbon (OC) content per unit area. Relationships between SOM, SOC and BD were established ...

  11. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Soils and organic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  13. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.; Barlier, Vincent S.; Chin, Stephanie W.; Whited, Matthew T.; McAnally, R. Eric; Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Acquired Thermotolerance and Heat Shock Proteins in Thermophiles from the Three Phylogenetic Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Gabrielsen, Mette; Jensen, Bo

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic organisms from each of the three phylogenetic domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya) acquired thermotolerance after heat shock. Bacillus caldolyticus grown at 60 degrees C and heat shocked at 69 degrees C for 10 min showed thermotolerance at 74 degrees C, Sulfolobus shibatae grown...

  15. Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the following nine chapters: lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: syntheses, properties, and potential applications (Stephen Fordham, Xuan Wang, Mathieu Bosch, Hong-Cai Zhou); 2. chiral lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Weisheng Liu, Xiaoliang Tang); 3. Porous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks for gas storage and separation (Bin Li, Banglin Chen); 4. Luminescent lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Xue-Zhi Song, Shu-Yan Song, Hong-Jie Zhang); 5. Metal-organic frameworks based on lanthanide clusters (Lian Chen, Feilong Jiang, Kang Zhou, Mingyan Wu, Maochun Hong); 6. metal-organic frameworks with d-f cyanide bridges: structural diversity, bonding regime, and magnetism (Marilena Ferbinteanu, Fanica Cimpoesu, Stefania Tanase); 7. transition-lanthanide heterometal-organic frameworks: synthesis, structures, and properties (Wei Shi, Ke Liu, Peng Cheng); 8: MOFs of uranium and the actinides (Juan Su, Jiesheng Chen); 9. Nanostructured and/or nanoscale lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Zhonghao Zhang, Zhiping Zheng).

  16. Organizations That Offer Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help finding support services? View more than 100 organizations nationwide that provide emotional, practical, and financial support ... Groups Treatment Review our tips to find helpful organizations and resources in your community. Print E-mail ...

  17. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans How PPO Plans Work A Medicare ... extra for these benefits. Related Resources Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  18. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan In most HMO Plans, you generally ... certain service when needed. Related Resources Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  19. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz; Lussem, Bjorn; Liu, Shiyi

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer

  20. Thiophene-Based Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Gulsen; Cinar, M Emin; Ozturk, Turan

    2017-10-24

    Thiophene-based π-conjugated organic small molecules and polymers are the research subject of significant current interest owing to their potential use as organic semiconductors in material chemistry. Despite simple and similar molecular structures, the hitherto reported properties of thiophene-based organic semiconductors are rather diverse. Design of high performance organic semiconducting materials requires a thorough understanding of inter- and intra-molecular interactions, solid-state packing, and the influence of both factors on the charge carrier transport. In this chapter, thiophene-based organic semiconductors, which are classified in terms of their chemical structures and their structure-property relationships, are addressed for the potential applications as organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  1. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  2. Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Peng (ed.) [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-03-01

    This book contains the following nine chapters: lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: syntheses, properties, and potential applications (Stephen Fordham, Xuan Wang, Mathieu Bosch, Hong-Cai Zhou); 2. chiral lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Weisheng Liu, Xiaoliang Tang); 3. Porous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks for gas storage and separation (Bin Li, Banglin Chen); 4. Luminescent lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Xue-Zhi Song, Shu-Yan Song, Hong-Jie Zhang); 5. Metal-organic frameworks based on lanthanide clusters (Lian Chen, Feilong Jiang, Kang Zhou, Mingyan Wu, Maochun Hong); 6. metal-organic frameworks with d-f cyanide bridges: structural diversity, bonding regime, and magnetism (Marilena Ferbinteanu, Fanica Cimpoesu, Stefania Tanase); 7. transition-lanthanide heterometal-organic frameworks: synthesis, structures, and properties (Wei Shi, Ke Liu, Peng Cheng); 8: MOFs of uranium and the actinides (Juan Su, Jiesheng Chen); 9. Nanostructured and/or nanoscale lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Zhonghao Zhang, Zhiping Zheng).

  3. Organic halogens in landfill leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, C.; Christensen, J. B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke

    2000-01-01

    Using a group parameter, total organic halogens (TOX), high TOX concentrations were found in leachates and leachate contaminated groundwaters at two Danish mixed sanitary and hazardous waste sites. With commonly used screening procedures for organic contaminants, the individual halogenated organi...

  4. United Network for Organ Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... donor families & recipients Organ donation facts Policy Policy development Policy brochures Membership Data Transplant trends Data resources Technology Get Involved EDUCATE Become a UNOS Ambassador Promote organ donation Share through social media VISIT Attend a UNOS event Tour the National ...

  5. Organic-organic heteroepitaxy: facts, concepts and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, M.; Borghesi, A.; Fumagalli, E.; Raimondo, L.; Sassella, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Campione, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche e Geotecnologie, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Organic-organic heteroepitaxy can represent the winning technique for growing crystalline and oriented heterostructures of organic semiconductors. However, a sound physical interpretation of mechanisms that control epitaxy is still missing for these low symmetry molecular systems, generally not obeying the usual lattice matching rules for inorganic systems. We discuss here a couple of paradigmatic examples of organic-organic heteroepitaxy suggesting a possible physical rationale for the formation of the heterostructure interfaces as it arises from experimental characterization and computer modeling with atom-atom potential simulations. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs

    OpenAIRE

    NOSENKO M.A.; DRUTSKAYA M.S.; MOISENOVICH M.M.; NEDOSPASOV S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cy...

  7. The Future of Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jay R. Galbraith

    2012-01-01

    The type of organization design that I practice is strategic organization design. It has roots in Chandler's (1962) work which states, "Structure follows strategy." It applies to organizing at the enterprise, business unit, region, or functional levels. It is a top-down design methodology. The alternative is a bottom-up design approach such as the socio-technical systems approach. Bottom-up design methodologies build and design an organization around the technology being utilized and are most...

  8. Organize Your School for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, William F.

    2017-01-01

    W. Edwards Deming has suggested 96% of organization performance is a function of the organization's structure. He contends only about 4% of an organization's performance is attributable to the people. This is a fundamental difference as most school leaders work with the basic assumption that 80% of a school's performance is related to staff and…

  9. Organic Animal Production and Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Çetinkaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic animal production; is a form of production without using any chemical inputs from production to consumption. In organic livestock production; organic breeding, feedstuff and animal nutrition conditions are stated in the Regulation on the Principles and Implementation of Organic Agriculture. Organic animal products must be prevented from recontamination. There are three different contamination hazards; biological (mold-toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms, chemical (pesticide residues, and physical (broken metal or glass, etc.. Molding and mycotoxin formation in organic feeds is one of the most important problems since they adversly affect animal health and toxines pass through the products. Since any chemical method cannot be applied to the organic feedstuffs especially in the struggle with mycotoxin in organic animal production, this should be considered in the measures to be taken and in the systems to be applied and the system should be planned to include organic agriculture. Countries that have established HACCP and ISO 22000 food safety management systems are able to avoid the problem of mycotoxin pollution in organic animal foods. The establishment of the feed safety system based on HACCP principles and its application in production have been made compulsory by Feed Hygiene Regulation issued in Turkey since 2011. In this review, the relationship between organic animal production and mycotoxin, and the precautions to be taken are discussed.

  10. College and Career Development Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High School Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National High School Center has created a college and career development organizer to synthesize and organize an increasingly complicated and crowded field of college and career readiness initiatives. The organizer, composed of three strands, can be used to map the efforts of state education agencies (SEAs) and local education agencies (LEAs)…

  11. Integrating Student Organizations into Typewriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Sandy

    1978-01-01

    The author states that typewriting activities related to student organizations may be integrated into typewriting and other classes in which typewriting skills are needed. She cites advantages of typing in student organizations and suggests selected classroom typing activities to motivate students and also benefit student organizations. (MF)

  12. Text Genres in Information Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahotko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Text genres used by so-called information organizers in the processes of information organization in information systems were explored in this research. Method: The research employed text genre socio-functional analysis. Five genre groups in information organization were distinguished. Every genre group used in information…

  13. Building people-oriented organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWithin organizations, work and the way work is organized is rapidly changing. Driven by increasing globalization, the virtualization brought on by the internet and the need for constant innovation is increasing the pace of work and our interconnectedness. Within organizations, work and

  14. Does organic crowding out influence organic food demand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Andersen, Laura Mørch

    All Previous studies of organic food demand that investigating substitution focus on specific food submarkets and have to assume separability from other food consumption. However, consumers typically associate attributes such as e.g. healthiness and environment friendliness with organic variants...... of most types of food. If such general organic attributes are important for consumer behaviour then separability may not hold because the general attribute obtained from one type of organic food may be a close or even perfect substitute for the same attribute obtained from other types of organic food....... In this paper we utilize a unique Danish micro panel where all food demand is registered on a disaggregated level with an organic/nonorganic indicator to estimate a general food demand system with organic variants. We clearly reject the usual separability assumption and find that the behaviour of Danish...

  15. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  16. Organizations in Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book brings together leading organization scholars and business historians to examine the opportunities and challenges of incorporating historical research into the study of firms and markets. It examines the reasons for the growing interest in historically grounded research in management...... departments and business schools, and considers both the intellectual and practical questions the endeavor faces. The volume is divided into three parts. The first part, History and Theory, considers the relationship between historical reasoning and key theoretical schools of organizational thought, including...... institutional theory, evolutionary theory, and critical theory. The second part, Actors and Markets, considers how historical perspective can provide researchers with insights into organizational change, entrepreneurial processes, industry emergence, and the co-evolution of states and markets. In the final...

  17. Sustainability & Organization Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Bygvraa; Obel, Børge; Kallehave, Pernille

    The global financial crisis has forced a profound rethink of the optimal form of capitalism and the relationship between business, environment and government. The current crisis has exposed systemic failures of corporate governance in administering the purpose of the firm. It has shown the failure...... of global governance to match the new dynamics and consequences of globalization. Governments are re-examining corporate accountability to society and how companies earn their license to operate. Furthermore companies are re-examining their code of conduct and leadership values. Thus, sustainability...... organization. Here we follow the Global Compact criteria. The consequences for processes, structure, and human skills and values are analyzed. In particular the analysis will investigate exploration and exploitation from a holistic perspective using the principles of requisite variety and information...

  18. Organization of radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsenko, V.N.; Mazanov, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    The main organizing principles which guarantee efficient activities of medical-sanitary teams of disaster medicine in emergency situations connected with radiation injuries are studied in this paper. The study has demonstrated the priority measures being carried out by radiological team of the Russian Center on Disaster Medicine Zashchita during the current and preparatory periods and in the course of emergency situation, as well as the equipping of the teams. When arranging radiation survey the main emphasis should be placed on the detection of the injured, ascertaining the place and time of location of the personnel and population starting from the moment of the accident, as well as to determine the dynamics of the power of photon radiation in this place in the same period. Special attention is paid to the necessity of coordination on interaction of radiological team of the Russian Center of Disaster Medicine Zashchita with other similar departmental services. 5 refs

  19. Innovating Organization and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Pedersen, Torben; Pynt, Jacob

    be strategic resources in their own right. Secondly, that organizational design and management processes can be deployed to create new strategic resources. Thirdly, that managers have begun to think of organizational design and management processes in a proactive way rather than seeing them more passively......The search for competitive advantage serves as the basis for organizational strategy. This book argues that there are four key sources of competitive advantage and financial success that have not been given the attention they deserve. Firstly, that organizational design and management processes may...... as necessary facilitators of success. Fourthly, that this new way of looking at organization and management requires a search for new ways of structuring organizational design and managerial processes. These points are driven home through case studies of the Danish firms LEGO Group, Vestas Wind Systems...

  20. Organic Semiconductor Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2005-03-01

    Recent developments on organic photovoltaic elements are reviewed. Semiconducting conjugated polymers and molecules as well as nanocrystalline inorganic semiconductors are used in composite thin films. The photophysics of such photoactive devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting molecules onto acceptor type molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C60 and/or nanoparticles. Similar to the first steps in natural photosynthesis, this photoinduced electron transfer leads to a number of potentially interesting applications which include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena. Examples of photovoltaic architectures are discussed with their potential in terrestrial solar energy conversion. Several materials are introduced and discussed for their photovoltaic activities. Furthermore, nanomorphology has been investigated with AFM, SEM and TEM. The morphology/property relationship for a given photoactive system is found to be a major effect.

  1. Emergency department referral for organ donation: more organ donors and more organs per donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisabeth D; Gardiner, Stuart K; Gubler, K Dean

    2014-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether early referral from the emergency department (ED) would increase the number of organ donors and the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). This is a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients referred to a single organ procurement organization for a period of 60 months. Patients referred for organ donation evaluation from the ED were more likely to become organ donors than patients referred from the intensive care unit (19.3% vs 5.2%, P organ donation from the ED is associated with an increased likelihood of organ recovery and with an increased number of OTPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Future of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Galbraith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The type of organization design that I practice is strategic organization design. It has roots in Chandler's (1962 work which states, "Structure follows strategy." It applies to organizing at the enterprise, business unit, region, or functional levels. It is a top-down design methodology. The alternative is a bottom-up design approach such as the socio-technical systems approach. Bottom-up design methodologies build and design an organization around the technology being utilized and are most applicable at lower levels of the organization.

  3. Revisiting Network Organization in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    of networks in a network organization, which are internal market, IT networks, informal and social networks, global R&D project networks, global R&D specialists’ network, and alliances with external partners. Though the case TNCs are network-based, hierarchies remain to be an important part...... of the organizational designs, which we refer to duality of organization. In terms of duality of organization, there are three emerging patterns of duality, i.e. market-led, value-led and directed network organization. More important, we find that an organization is not only dual but also ternary since...

  4. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  5. Excitonic processes at organic heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, ShouJie; Lu, ZhengHong

    2018-02-01

    Understanding excitonic processes at organic heterojunctions is crucial for development of organic semiconductor devices. This article reviews recent research on excitonic physics that involve intermolecular charge transfer (CT) excitons, and progress on understanding relationships between various interface energy levels and key parameters governing various competing interface excitonic processes. These interface excitonic processes include radiative exciplex emission, nonradiative recombination, Auger electron emission, and CT exciton dissociation. This article also reviews various device applications involving interface CT excitons, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaic cells, organic rectifying diodes, and ultralow-voltage Auger OLEDs.

  6. Cadaveric organ donation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijin; Elliott, Robert; Li, Linzi; Yang, Tongwei; Bai, Yusen; Ma, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered. PMID:29517702

  7. Food safety and organic meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  8. Organization as Process of Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo; Cornelissen, Joep

    Within process views on organization, one central question is how organizations (as entities) are constituted by processes (i.e. non-entities). The answer to this question depends on the ways in which organizational scholars imagine organization, e.g., through rhetorical figures like metaphors...... of a metonymy is Morgan’s image of ‘organization as flux and transformation’ – an idea that has inspired a larger body of research that is known today as “process organization studies”. In this paper we suggest to draw on the neighboring metonymic image ‘organization as communication’ which not only presents...... a novel way of thinking about the inherently intertwined nature of metaphor and metonymy, but also expands processual thinking about organizations especially with regards to the entity-process relation....

  9. Team-based global organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina; Mockaitis, Audra

    2015-01-01

    diversity in enhancing team creativity and performance, and 2) the sharing of knowledge in team-based organizations, while the other two themes address global team leadership: 3) the unprecedented significance of social capital for the success of global team leader roles; and 4) the link between shared......This chapter draws on a panel discussion of the future of global organizing as a team-based organization at EIBA 2014 in Uppsala, Sweden. We began by discussing contemporary developments of hybrid forms of hierarchy and teams-based organizing, but we venture to propose that as organizations become...... characterized by decreased importance of hierarchal structures, more fluidity across borders, even a possible dissolution of firm boundaries, we move towards team-based organizing as an alternative to more traditional forms of hierarchical-based organizing in global firms. To provide input for a discussion...

  10. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V−1 s−1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m−2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  11. Variation in Pediatric Organ Donor Management Practices Among US Organ Procurement Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Robert S; Armbrecht, Eric S

    2018-03-01

    Reports of actual pediatric organ donor management practice among US organ procurement organizations are sparse, and the use of standardized management guidelines is unknown. A recent consensus statement from the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American College of Chest Physicians, and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations offers guidelines for the management of the pediatric organ donor. To describe the use of guidelines and routine practices in the management of the pediatric organ donor with respect to hemodynamics, lung and ventilator management, fluid and electrolytes, hormonal replacement therapy, the use of blood products, thermoregulation, and prophylactic antibiotics. Cross-sectional observational study using a survey and follow-up telephone interview with respondents from all 58 US organ procurement organizations. All 58 US Organ Procurement Organizations participated. A majority employed written guidelines for the management of pediatric donor hemodynamics, thermoregulation, fluids, and electrolytes. Management of blood products, the lung, and mechanical ventilation were less commonly committed to written guidelines, but common practices were described. All used various forms of hormonal replacement therapy and the majority administered empiric antibiotic therapy. Wide variation was observed in the management of the lung, mechanical ventilation, and glycemic control. Most OPOs used forms of standardized donor management for the pediatric organ donor although variation in the content of that management exists. Barriers to an evidence-based approach to the pediatric donor need to be determined and addressed.

  12. Ethical issues in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouna, George M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical organ transplantation has been recognized as one of the most gripping medical advances of the century as it provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate

  13. The Ethics of Organ Tourism: Role Morality and Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marcus P

    2017-11-15

    Organ tourism occurs when individuals in countries with existing organ transplant procedures, such as the United States, are unable to procure an organ by using those transplant procedures in enough time to save their life. In this paper, I am concerned with the following question: When organ tourists return to the United States and need another transplant, do US transplant physicians have an obligation to place them on a transplant list? I argue that transplant physicians have a duty not to relist organ tourists. Specifically, I contend that we should locate physicians' duties in these cases within the new role of "transplant physician." This role results from transplant physicians' participation in a system that depends on organ donors' voluntary act of donation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    . Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed...... benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated pest management.......This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions...

  15. Organ printing: from bioprinter to organ biofabrication line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Markwald, Roger R

    2011-10-01

    Organ printing, or the layer by layer additive robotic biofabrication of functional three-dimensional tissue and organ constructs using self-assembling tissue spheroid building blocks, is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to transform tissue engineering into a commercially successful biomedical industry. It is increasingly obvious that similar well-established industries implement automated robotic systems on the path to commercial translation and economic success. The use of robotic bioprinters alone however is not sufficient for the development of large industrial scale organ biofabrication. The design and development of a fully integrated organ biofabrication line is imperative for the commercial translation of organ printing technology. This paper presents recent progress and challenges in the development of the essential components of an organ biofabrication line. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic Au Nanoparticles on Archaeal S-Layer Ghosts as Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Selenska-Pobell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell‐ghosts representing empty cells of the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, consisting only of their highly ordered and unusually stable outermost proteinaceous surface layer (S‐layer, were used as templates for Au nanoparticles fabrication. The properties of these archaeal Au nanoparticles differ significantly from those produced earlier by us onto bacterial S‐layer sheets. The archaeal Au nanoparticles, with a size of about 2.5 nm, consist exclusively of metallic Au(0, while those produced on the bacterial S‐layer had a size of about 4 nm and represented a mixture of Au(0 and Au(III in the ratio of 40 to 60 %. The most impressive feature of the archaeal Au nanoparticles is that they are strongly paramagnetic, in contrast to the bacterial ones and also to bulk gold. SQUID magnetometry and XMCD measurements demonstrated that the archaeal Au nanoparticles possess a rather large magnetic moment of about 0.1 µB/atom. HR‐ TEM‐EDX analysis revealed that the archaeal Au nanoparticles are linked to the sulfur atoms of the thiol groups of the amino acid cysteine, characteristic only for archaeal S‐layers. This is the first study demonstrating the formation of such unusually strong magnetic Au nanoparticles on a non‐modified archaeal S‐layer.

  17. Mono-, di- and trimethylated homologues of isoprenoid tetraether lipid cores in archaea and environmental samples: mass spectrometric identification and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappy, Chris; Barillà, Daniela; Chong, James; Hodgson, Dominic; Morgan, Hugh; Suleman, Muhammad; Tan, Christine; Yao, Peng; Keely, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    Higher homologues of widely reported C(86) isoprenoid diglycerol tetraether lipid cores, containing 0-6 cyclopentyl rings, have been identified in (hyper)thermophilic archaea, representing up to 21% of total tetraether lipids in the cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirms that the additional carbon atoms in the C(87-88) homologues are located in the etherified chains. Structures identified include dialkyl and monoalkyl ('H-shaped') tetraethers containing C(40-42) or C(81-82) hydrocarbons, respectively, many representing novel compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of hydrocarbons released from the lipid cores by ether cleavage suggests that the C(40) chains are biphytanes and the C(41) chains 13-methylbiphytanes. Multiple isomers, having different chain combinations, were recognised among the dialkyl lipids. Methylated tetraethers are produced by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in varying proportions depending on growth conditions, suggesting that methylation may be an adaptive mechanism to regulate cellular function. The detection of methylated lipids in Pyrobaculum sp. AQ1.S2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius represents the first reported occurrences in Crenarchaeota. Soils and aquatic sediments from geographically distinct mesotemperate environments that were screened for homologues contained monomethylated tetraethers, with di- and trimethylated structures being detected occasionally. The structural diversity and range of occurrences of the C(87-89) tetraethers highlight their potential as complementary biomarkers for archaea in natural environments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. XPD Helicase Structures and Activities: Insights into the Cancer and Aging Phenotypes from XPD Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainer, John; Fan, Li; Fuss, Jill O.; Cheng, Quen J.; Arvai, Andrew S.; Hammel, Michal; Roberts, Victoria A.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Tainer, John A.

    2008-06-02

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  19. XPD Helicase Structures And Activities: Insights Into the Cancer And Aging Phenotypes From XPD Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.; Fuss, J.O.; Cheng, Q.J.; Arvai, A.S.; Hammel, M.; Roberts, V.A.; Cooper, P.K.; Tainer, J.A.

    2009-05-18

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  20. Prebiotic organic microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule; Takano, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-08-01

    Micro- and sub-micrometer spheres, tubules and fiber-filament soft structures have been synthesized in our experiments conducted with 3 MeV proton irradiations of a mixture of simple inorganic constituents, CO, N(2) and H(2)O. We analysed the irradiation products, with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These laboratory organic structures produced a wide variety of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous amino acids after HCl hydrolysis. The enantiomer analysis for D,L-alanine confirmed that the amino acids were abiotically synthesized during the laboratory experiment. We discuss the presence of CO(2) and the production of H(2) during exothermic processes of serpentinization and consequently we discuss the production of hydrothermal CO in a ferromagnesian silicate mineral environment. We also discuss the low intensity of the Earth's magnetic field during the Paleoarchaean Era and consequently we conclude that excitation sources arising from cosmic radiation were much more abundant during this Era. We then show that our laboratory prebiotic microstructures might be synthesized during the Archaean Eon, as a product of the serpentinization process of the rocks and of their mineral contents.

  1. Organizations must match assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carley, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The unprofitable state of the Canadian oil industry, the adverse economic environment, the difficulty of finding capital, and the diminishing resources of conventional lighter crude oil make it necessary for Canadian oil companies to match their organizations and their financing to their assets. This is illustrated according to the experience of Saskoil, a Saskatchewan oil and gas company. An increasing production of oil and natural gas, and an increasing amount of new oil production as heavy oil, led to organizational changes such as the purchase of an asphalt plant to provide the company with downstream experience, establishing a working group to explore and develop heavy oil resources, and forming a company to manage non-core assets. The latter company, Pasqua Resources, manages assets such as small properties and ownership interests in order to increase the operating efficiency of Saskoil. Pasqua provides Saskoil with a corporate and organizational vehicle to accommodate partnerships and joint venture capital invested in property purchase opportunities, and to manage any of Saskoil's divestiture activities

  2. Physics of metabolic organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusup, Marko; Sousa, Tânia; Domingos, Tiago; Labinac, Velimir; Marn, Nina; Wang, Zhen; Klanjšček, Tin

    2017-03-01

    We review the most comprehensive metabolic theory of life existing to date. A special focus is given to the thermodynamic roots of this theory and to implications that the laws of physics-such as the conservation of mass and energy-have on all life. Both the theoretical foundations and biological applications are covered. Hitherto, the foundations were more accessible to physicists or mathematicians, and the applications to biologists, causing a dichotomy in what always should have been a single body of work. To bridge the gap between the two aspects of the same theory, we (i) adhere to the theoretical formalism, (ii) try to minimize the amount of information that a reader needs to process, but also (iii) invoke examples from biology to motivate the introduction of new concepts and to justify the assumptions made, and (iv) show how the careful formalism of the general theory enables modular, self-consistent extensions that capture important features of the species and the problem in question. Perhaps the most difficult among the introduced concepts, the utilization (or mobilization) energy flow, is given particular attention in the form of an original and considerably simplified derivation. Specific examples illustrate a range of possible applications-from energy budgets of individual organisms, to population dynamics, to ecotoxicology.

  3. Prions and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1−/− lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1−/− mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1−/− lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)—the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article. PMID:23357827

  4. Antithrombotic artificial organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, T; Fukada, E; Saegusa, M; Hasegawa, T

    1971-07-12

    A new antithrombotic material useful for making artificial organs (artificial blood vessel, artificial heart, etc.) can be prepared by graft-polymerizing an acrylic ester (methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, etc.) with a synthetic fiber (teflon, etc.). The graft-polymerization can be carried out by means of gamma radiation with cobalt 60 (dose rate 2.6x10/sup 3/ r/min., total dose 8x10/sup 4/ to 3.5x10/sup 5/ r). A graft ratio of 5 to 80% is attainable. In one example, a tubular sample made of teflon fiber having an inner diameter of 5 to 10 mm was immersed into methyl methacrylate in an ampoule in the absence of air and exposed to cobalt 60 gamma ray at the dose rate of 3.18x10/sup 3/ rad/min. After extraction with acetone, the sample was dried. The total dose was 3.5x10/sup 5/ rad and the graft ratio was ca. 25%. The sample was transplanted to vena cava of dog. No formation of thrombus was observed by autopsy (4 months after the transplantation). In control (teflon tube not graft-polymerized) thrombus was observed by autopsy 7 days after the transplantation.

  5. Organic waste incineration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P. [CEA Valrho, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and {alpha}-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  6. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  7. [Injuries of pancreatoduodenal organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P A; Grishin, A V; Korneev, D A; Ziniakov, S A

    2003-01-01

    Ten-year experience of treatment of 213 patients with trauma of the pancreas and 56 patients with trauma of the duodenum is analyzed. Combined injury of other organs was seen in 80% patients. Diagnostic policy included intraoperative revision in open abdominal trauma and dynamic observation with US, roentgenography, CT and laboratory tests in closed trauma wich doesn't require urgent surgery. The diagnosis was verified during laparoscopy and contrast duodenography. Surgical treatment results in patients with trauma of the pancreas depending on the variant of surgery are analyzed. The role of drug treatment of traumatic pancreatitis with 5-ftoruracil and octreotid is stressed. It is demonstrated that these principles allowed us to reduce complications rate to 11.7% and lethality to 6.7% from 71.7% and 37.0% respectively. It is established that suturing of duodenal wall on the decompressive nasoduodenal tube is effective within 6 hours after trauma. Later, for prophylaxis of suture insufficiency the duodenum must be switched off. Adequate drainage and depression of secretion with octreotid are very important for success of surgery. In this approach there were no cases of sutures insufficiency among 16 patients in the last 3 years.

  8. Soil organism in organic and conventional cropping systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettiol, Wagner; Ghini, Raquel; Galvão, José Abrahão Haddad; Ligo, Marcos Antônio Vieira; Mineiro, Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and corn (Zea mays) crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. C...

  9. Chromium metal organic frameworks and synthesis of metal organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Cai; Liu, Tian-Fu; Lian, Xizhen; Zou, Lanfang; Feng, Dawei

    2018-04-24

    The present invention relates to monocrystalline metal organic frameworks comprising chromium ions and carboxylate ligands and the use of the same, for example their use for storing a gas. The invention also relates to methods for preparing metal organic frameworks comprising chromium, titanium or iron ions and carboxylate ligands. The methods of the invention allow such metal organic frameworks to be prepared in monocrystalline or polycrystalline forms.

  10. Coagulation and flocculation of dissolved organic substances with organic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kvinnesland, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation of natural organic matter (NOM) in water is a well-established process, enabling or enhancing the removal of these substances by different particle separation processes. The dominating coagulating agents used are, however, inorganic salts of iron (Fe3+) and aluminium (Al3+). The primary use of organic polymers is as flocculating agents for already coagulated aggregates. However, in recent years the use of cationic organic polymers have received increasing attent...

  11. The WSPC Reference on Organic Electronics: Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2015-05-12

    In this chapter, we provide a basic theoretical perspective on charge-carrier transport in organic semiconductors, with a focus on organic molecular crystals. We introduce the microscopic parameters relevant to the intrinsic charge-transport properties of these materials and describe some of the common quantum-chemical approaches used for their evaluation. We also discuss the nature of the possible charge-transport mechanisms in organic molecular crystals.

  12. The Centrality of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Miles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available I am excited about this new journal focused on the subject of organization design. In my view, organization design is a central issue in the field of management. Designing an organization requires an understanding of strategy, as we pointed out some time ago (Miles & Snow, 1978. For example, if you want to be a prospector (a first-mover strategy, you have to design your firm to move quickly in new directions, which is likely to require that it be arranged so that various kinds of teams can interact across organizational units and levels. Designing an organization to follow a first-mover strategy also requires both an understanding of leadership and a commitment to the free flow of information throughout the organization. Leaders must understand how cross-functional teams pursue ideas and opportunities, and they must facilitate collaborative knowledge sharing to drive innovations that help the firm operate entrepreneurially. Because an organization is a complex, dynamic system, perhaps no other single topic is so deeply implanted at the core of management, organization theory, and organizational behavior as organization design. Moreover, organization design once was, and could be again, the topic of an ongoing dialogue between managers and academics focused on business organizations.

  13. Outcome of referrals for deceased organ donation to the government organ procurement organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguitan, G A; Cabanayan-Casasola, C B; Danguilan, R A; Jaro, J M A

    2014-05-01

    The Human Organ Preservation Effort is a government organ procurement organization that pioneered the Deceased Organ Donation Program in the Philippines. Deceased organ donation comprises only 20% of kidney transplantation in the Philippines in the last 3 years. Various measures were implemented to improve deceased organ donor referrals and organ retrieval. To compare outcome of deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 in the Philippines. This retrospective study reviewed the deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012. There were 437 referrals for potential deceased organ donors from 2009 to 2012, compared to 434 referrals from 2002 to 2008. Referrals were mainly trauma victims (76%) followed by those with cerebrovascular accidents (12%). In the recent cohort, 81% were approached and 60% consented for donation, but only 23% were retrieved and transplanted. Among those not retrieved, the majority (19%) were medically unsuitable and 6% retracted their consent. Although there was an increasing trend of organ donation referrals in the last 4 years, only 25% were procured. The reasons for nonprocurement should be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed. (topical review)

  15. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed.

  16. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  17. Electrical Interfaces for Organic Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    Optoelectronic applications of organic semiconductor materials is a research field, which recently came to the large scale consumer market in display technologies. Organic semiconductors are mainly applied in amorphous form offering fabrication control on a large scale. Crystalline organic...... semiconductors, where the molecular packing is more crucial, have not yet had a major impact in commercial products. This thesis describes development of new ways to electrically contact organic semiconductors. In particular, crystalline organic para-hexaphenylene (p6P) nanofibers have been used...... approaches. Creating the separator by partly oxidizing an Al cathode anodically is considered the most promising implementation, however further development would be necessary. During the project a group of collaborators managed to obtain electrically stimulated light emission in organic p6P nanofibers...

  18. Organization design the collaborative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stanford, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Organization Design looks at how you need to change the ways your organization does things in order to increase productivity, performance, and profit. Providing the knowledge and method to handle the kind of recurring organisational change that all businesses face, those which do not involve transforming the entire enterprise but which necessitate significant change at the business unit, divisional, functional, facility or local levels. The problem lies in knowing what needs to change and how to change it. Taking the organisation as a designed system, it describes four major elements of organizations: the work - the basic tasks to be done by the organisation and its parts, the people - characteristics of individuals in the organization, formal organization - structures eg the organisation hierarchy, processes, and methods that are formally created to get individuals to perform tasks, informal organization - emerging arrangements including variations to the norm, processes, and relationships, commonly describe...

  19. Organic food and health concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Christensen, Tove

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies based on stated behaviour suggest that consumption of organic food is part of a life style that involves healthy eating habits that go beyond shifting to organic varieties of the individual food products. However, so far no studies based on observed behaviour have addressed...... the relationship between organic purchases and diet composition. The aim of the present paper is to fill this gab using purchase data for a large sample of Danish households. Using a Tobit regression analysis, the diets of households with higher organic consumption were found to include more vegetables and fruits...... but less fat/confectionary and meat which is in accordance with the official Danish Dietary Recommendations. Moreover, higher organic budget shares were found among well-educated consumers in urban areas and clearly linked to a belief that organic products are healthier. No statistical relations were found...

  20. Organic fertigation for greenhouse crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor

    2017-01-01

    productivity is suboptimal nutrient management resulting from poor synchronization between crop nutrient demand and nutrient release from organic fertilizers, affecting the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the root zone environment, and thus plant growth and productivity. Compared to solid...... organic fertilizers, the application of liquid organic fertilizers potentially more accurately addresses the nutrient demand, because nutrients are readily available and different fertilizers are easily mixed. This PhD work explores the possibilities and challenges related to the application of liquid...... organic fertilizers in organic greenhouse crop production. Four greenhouse experiments were designed where different liquid organic fertilizers were prepared: acidic extraction or anaerobic digestion of red clover and white mustard silage, water extraction of composted chicken manure and flushing...

  1. 137Cs in man organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.; Barkhudarov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are the levels of 137 Cs content in the organism of adult urban population of the USSR and the main regularities of their alterations during 1962-1974. The non-uniform distribution of levels of 137 Cs buildup in adult population is shown to be connected with soil and geographic conditions. Food stuffs of local production have a noticeable effect on the levels of 137 Cs buildup in the organism of urban population. Calculation methods are used to study 137 Cs administration in a human organism. No significant difference is found between the indexes of 137 Cs content in the organism of rural and urban population. Presented are the levels of 137 Cs content in the organisms of inhabitants of such regions as Far North and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. Given are the reasons for the increased content of 137 Cs in the organism of rural population of these zones

  2. The evolution of Lean organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Serafinas, Dalius; Ruželė, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Remiantis evoliucijos tyrimų modeliais bei autorių sudarytu evoliucionuojančios organizacijos modeliu,straipsnyje analizuojama Lean vadybos metodologija ir tiriama, kaip evoliucionuoja ją įgyvendinančios Lietuvosgamybinės organizacijos. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of Lean organizations.Design/methodology/approach: a conceptual literature on the evolution of species, organisms and organizations was reviewed and an original model (framework) of the evolution of orga...

  3. The roots of organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2012-01-01

    It was concern about the replacement of traditional organic fertilizers by the then new chemical fertilizers that precipitated the early stirrings of disquiet about the prevailing direction of agriculture and which has grown into today’s organic agriculture movement. Unease about the issue of synthetic fertilizers preceded the current era of concerns about manufactured nanomaterials in food and farming, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), antibiotic-fattened farm animals, and synthetic pes...

  4. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  5. The useful micro-organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Can man survive civilization? Academician Ivan Malek, Director of the Institute of Microbiology in Prague, a member of the Agency's Scientific Advisory Committee and for many years an adviser to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization and UNESCO, believes he can, But he also considers that if man is to survive he must study and use all the resources at his disposal - including the micro-organisms of the planet earth. (author)

  6. Magnetic Characterization of Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    full doughnut. • 3D organization of these doughnuts are currently under study. • A nano doughnut formation requires 2D bending of the lamella...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0005 Magnetic Characterization of Organic Materials Dongho Kim YONSEI UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY- INDUSTRY FOUNDATION Final Report 12...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) YONSEI UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY- INDUSTRY FOUNDATION 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-g SEOUL, 120-749 KR

  7. Leader competencies in virtual organization

    OpenAIRE

    Bulinska-Stangrecka, Helena

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the competence required in the leadership of virtual organization. The specics of virtual organization presents a challenge to traditional managerial styles. In order to achieve success in virtual environment, a leader must develop specic abilities. This analysis examines the uniqueness of the virtual organization, including team work and management. The last part presents ndings and summaries regarding e€ective e-leadership requirement. A virtual leader ma...

  8. Organ procurement organizations Internet enrollment for organ donation: Abandoning informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheijde Joseph L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Requirements for organ donation after cardiac or imminent death have been introduced to address the transplantable organs shortage in the United States. Organ procurement organizations (OPOs increasingly use the Internet for organ donation consent. Methods An analysis of OPO Web sites available to the public for enrollment and consent for organ donation. The Web sites and consent forms were examined for the minimal information recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services for informed consent. Content scores were calculated as percentages of data elements in four information categories: donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, donation promotion, and informed consent. Results There were 60 Web sites for organ donation enrollment serving the 52 states. The median percent (10 percentile-90 percentile content scores of the Web sites for donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, and donation promotion were 33% (20–47, 79% (57–86, and 75% (50–100, respectively. The informed consent score was 0% (0–33. The content scores for donor knowledge and informed consent were significantly lower than donor consent reinforcement and donation promotion for all Web sites (P Conclusion The Web sites and consent forms for public enrollment in organ donation do not fulfill the necessary requirements for informed consent. The Web sites predominantly provide positive reinforcement and promotional information rather than the transparent disclosure of organ donation process. Independent regulatory oversight is essential to ensure that Internet enrollment for organ donation complies with legal and ethical standards for informed consent.

  9. Organic semiconductors in sensor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malliaras, George; Owens, Róisín

    2008-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer unique characteristics such as tunability of electronic properties via chemical synthesis, compatibility with mechanically flexible substrates, low-cost manufacturing, and facile integration with chemical and biological functionalities. These characteristics have prompted the application of organic semiconductors and their devices in physical, chemical, and biological sensors. This book covers this rapidly emerging field by discussing both optical and electrical sensor concepts. Novel transducers based on organic light-emitting diodes and organic thin-film transistors, as well as systems-on-a-chip architectures are presented. Functionalization techniques to enhance specificity are outlined, and models for the sensor response are described.

  10. Organizations as real and ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2017-01-01

    . On the other hand, another contemporary movement may be observed within organization studies, which is to defend the use of general theories of the social sciences. This latter trend is represented through the language of organizations as processes and practices, sometimes termed the ‘process-’ and ‘practice......-turn’. Although I tend to subscribe to the latter position, I aim to illustrate the value of bridging the dilemma of a canon of history and tradition and the inclusion of more general social science theories within organization studies. I also argue that it is beneficial to hold the eye both on organizations...

  11. Anesthesia Management of Organ Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Victor W; Braunfeld, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The shortage of suitable organs is the biggest obstacle for transplants. At present, most organs for transplant in the United States are from donation after neurologic determination of death (brain death). Potential organs for transplant need to maintain their viability during a series of insults, including the original disease, physiologic derangements during the dying process, ischemia, and reperfusion. Proper donor management before, during, and after procurement has potential to increase the number and quality of organs from donors. Anesthesiologists need to understand the physiologic derangements associated with brain death and the updated donor management during the periprocurement period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Spectacle and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Reinecke, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to revisit Guy Debord’s critical theory of the spectacle as formulated 50 years ago in the ‘Society of the Spectacle’ in light of the contemporary production of spectacles. Debord’s arguments about appearance, visibility and celebrity are echoed in the way organizations......-reality or performativity, this essay invites organization scholars to examine the organization of the real and the making of organizations through processes of spectacular representation including discursive practices, visual images and theatrical performances....

  13. The destruction of organic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, T T

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book

  14. Perceptual organization and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual organization--the processes structuring visual information into coherent units--and visual attention--the processes by which some visual information in a scene is selected--are crucial for the perception of our visual environment and to visuomotor behavior. Recent research points to important relations between attentional and organizational processes. Several studies demonstrated that perceptual organization constrains attentional selectivity, and other studies suggest that attention can also constrain perceptual organization. In this chapter I focus on two aspects of the relationship between perceptual organization and attention. The first addresses the question of whether or not perceptual organization can take place without attention. I present findings demonstrating that some forms of grouping and figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention, whereas others require controlled attentional processing, depending on the processes involved and the conditions prevailing for each process. These findings challenge the traditional view, which assumes that perceptual organization is a unitary entity that operates preattentively. The second issue addresses the question of whether perceptual organization can affect the automatic deployment of attention. I present findings showing that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field by Gestalt factors into a coherent perceptual unit (an "object"), with no abrupt onset or any other unique transient, can capture attention automatically in a stimulus-driven manner. Taken together, the findings discussed in this chapter demonstrate the multifaceted, interactive relations between perceptual organization and visual attention.

  15. Organ trade using social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrogy, Waleed; Jawdat, Dunia; Alsemari, Muhannad; Alharbi, Abdulrahman; Alasaad, Abdullah; Hajeer, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30%) from donors or sellers, and 392 (70%) from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85%) adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%), and on Facebook 24 (4%). Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  16. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  17. Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, Ch. D.; Jones, T.; Burden, A.; Ostle, N.; Zielinski, P.; Cooper, M.; Peacock, M.; Clark, J.; Oulehle, Filip; Cooper, D.; Freeman, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2012), s. 3317-3331 ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidity * dissolved organic carbon * organic soil * peat * podzol * soil carbon * sulphur Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  18. Diagnosing Organization-Environment "Fit": Implications for Organization Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, John J.

    1974-01-01

    This article has attempted to: (1) describe several dimensions of organization-environment fit; (2) describe some concepts which can be used in diagnosing the degree to which a school system's organization matches the demands and needs of its environment; (3) present some implications of such a diagnosis for OD [organizational development]…

  19. Correlation between Soil Organic Matter, Total Organic Matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of four sites distributed in different soils of Kelantan State, Malaysia was identified for the study. Soils were collected by depth interval of 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30cm. The correlation of soil organic matter (SOM) content, total organic carbon (TOC) content, water content and soils texture for industrial area at ...

  20. MYTH AND REALITY:ORGANIC VS NON-ORGANIC

    OpenAIRE

    Azeez, Ms G

    2001-01-01

    This report examines some of the key issues around organic food and its production. It takes up the challenge of answering the critics - critics who range from companies defending agri-business, through to the heads of national food authorities and some academics. It exposes the misleading and erroneous statements made against organic food, and provides the facts that proves them wrong.