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Sample records for organic-inorganic hybrid compounds

  1. Enhancing Optically Pumped Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Amplified Spontaneous Emission via Compound Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite has attracted intensive attention from researchers as the gain medium in lasing devices. However, achieving electrically driven lasing remains a significant challenge. Modifying the devices’ structure to enhance the optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE is the key issue. In this work, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are first doped into PEDOT: PSS buffer layer in a slab waveguide device structure: Quartz/PEDOT: PSS (with or w/o Au NPs/CH3NH3PbBr3. As a result, the facile device shows a significantly enhanced ASE intensity and a narrowed full width at half maximum. Based on experiments and theoretical simulation data, the improvement is mainly a result of the compound surface plasmon resonance, including simultaneous near- and far-field effects, both of which could increase the density of excitons excited state and accelerate the radiative decay process. This method is highly significant for the design and development and fabrication of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite lasing diodes.

  2. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions

  3. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  4. Synthesis of boronate-functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column for the separation of cis-diol containing compounds at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heqing; Lyu, Haixia; Qin, Wenfei; Xie, Zenghong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared via "one-pot" process using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid as organic monomer and divinylbenzene as cross-linker. The effects of reaction temperature, solvents and composition of organic monomers on the column properties (e.g. morphology, permeability, and mechanical stability) were investigated. A series of test compounds including small neutral molecules, aromatic amines, and cis-diol compounds were used to evaluate the retention behaviors of the prepared hybrid monolithic column. The results demonstrated that the prepared hybrid monolith exhibited mixed-interactions including hydrophilicity, cation exchange, and boronate affinity interaction. The run-to-run, day-to-day and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of the prepared hybrid monolith for thiourea's retention time were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 0.09, 1.45 and 4.05% (n = 3), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  7. Crystal structure, thermochromic and magnetic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid compound: (C7H7N2S)2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Ashok K.; Kumari, Reema; Ghalsasi, Prasanna S.; Arulsamy, Navamoney

    2017-08-01

    The synthesis, thermal analysis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4, organic-inorganic hybrid compound, have been described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two formula units in a unit cell of dimensions a = 6.9522(4) Å, b = 9.6979(4) Å, c = 13.9633(6) Å, β = 97.849(3)° and volume 930.83(8) Å3 at 150(2) K. The structure consists of isolated nearly square planer [CuC14]2- units, with somewhat longer than normal Cusbnd Cl bond lengths [Cusbnd Cl (average) = 2.2711 Å]. The magnetic measurements of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4 using SQUID magnetometer show paramagnetic nature of the compound. Thermal measurements (TG-DTA and DSC) on this compound showed reversible phase transition at 83 °C. This transition is accompanied by the reversible change in colour of the prismatic crystal from green to dark brown, thermochromic behaviour. Temperature dependent EPR measurements on powdered sample ascertain change in coordination sphere around Cu(II) with shift in g|| = 2.150 and g⊥ = 2.071 at room temperature, typical of square planar, to g|| = 2.201 and g⊥ = 2.182 at 170 °C, typical of distorted tetrahedral geometry.

  8. Ring opening of azetidine cycle: First examples of 1-azetidinepropanamine molecules as a template in hybrid organic-inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Tyumentseva, Olga S.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Tananaev, Ivan G.

    2018-01-01

    Three novel uranyl selenate and sulfate oxysalts templated by protonated azetidine molecules, [AzH]+, and its ring-opened counterpart 1-azetidinepropanamine, [AzH(CH2)3NH3]2+, have been prepared and studied by X-ray structural analysis. Conformations of azetidinium cations were analysed by means of infrared vibrational assignments supported by the DFT calculations. Crystallization of [AzH]2 [(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)] (I) from highly acidic solutions suggests that low pH does not necessarily result in the opening of azetidine ring. [AzH(CH2)3NH3][(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)](H2O) (II) and [AzH(CH2)3NH3](H5O2)[(UO2)2(SO4)3(HSO4)] (III) are the first structurally characterized crystalline compounds bearing isolated ring-opened azetidine moiety.

  9. Preparation and characterization of a layered perovskite-type organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C8NH6-CH2CH2NH3)2CuCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yingying; Wu Gang; Deng Meng; Chen Hongzheng; Wang Mang; Tang, B.-Z.

    2006-01-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C 8 NH 6 -CH 2 CH 2 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 (AEI-CuCl 4 ) was synthesized from ethanol solution containing copper chloride and 3-2-(aminoethyl) indole hydrochloride (AEI-HCl). High order diffraction peaks corresponding to (0 0 l; l = 2, 4, 6, ...) observed in the X-ray diffraction profile of AEI-CuCl 4 indicated the formation of hybrid crystal with layered perovskite structure. The organic-inorganic hybrid crystal thin film can be easily prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite and it showed characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 288 and 388 nm, as well as the photoluminescence peak at around 420 nm. The unaided-eye-detectable blue fluorescence emission comes from the cooperation of AEI-HCl and AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite, in which protonized aminoethyl indole dominates the shape of the spectrum and the enhancement of emission intensity is due to the formation of the perovskite structure. The thermal analysis presented that the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite started to melt at 182 deg. C, together with the beginning of the decomposition of the hybrids. Compared with the organic-inorganic perovskite hybrids reported previously, the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite shows a novel stepwise decomposition behavior

  10. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  11. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schreck, Kathleen M.; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins ...

  12. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmüller, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) have been realized and investigated. A photo-induced charge transfer could be demonstrated in composites made of silicon nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) via light-induced electron spin resonance measurements. With bulk heterojunction solar cells made of P3HT/Si-nc composites in a sandwich structure, open-circuit voltages of up to 0....

  13. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  14. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B.; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G.; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

  15. Organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Hongwen; Li, Jiayu; Tang, Yuying; Cao, Yu; Jiang, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) had been synthesized directly by one-step ultrasonic treatment under mild conditions. During the functionalization process, Octa-aminopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane hydrochloride salt (OA-POSS) was used as stabilizing and passivation agent, which lead to self-assembling of CDs in aqueous medium solution. OA-POSS was obtained via hydrolytic condensation of γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The average size of CDs prepared was approximately 3.3 nm with distribution between 2.5 nm and 4.5 nm. The prepared organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots have several characteristics such as photoluminescence emission wavelength, efficient cellular uptake, and good biocompatibility. The results indicate that OA-POSS can maintain the fluorescence properties of the carbon dots effectively, and reduced cytotoxicity provides the possibility for biomedical applications. More than 89% of the Hela cells were viable when incubated with 2 mg ml‑1 or lesser organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots. Thus, it provides a potential for multicolor imaging with HeLa cells.

  16. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  17. Organic-inorganic hybrid material SUNCONNECT® for photonic integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Hideyuki; Oshima, Juro; Kashino, Tsubasa

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report the feature and properties about organic-inorganic hybrid material, "SUNCONNECT®" for photonic integrated circuit. "SUNCONNECT®" materials have low propagation loss at 1310nm (0.29dB/cm) and 1550nm (0.45dB/cm) respectively. In addition, the material has high thermal resistance both high temperature annealing test at 300°C and also 260°C solder heat resistance test. For actual device application, high reliability is required. 85°C /85% test was examined by using multi-mode waveguide. As a result, it indicated that variation of insertion loss property was not changed significantly after high temperature / high humidity test. For the application to photonic integrated circuit, it was demonstrated to fabricate polymer optical waveguide by using three different methods. Single-micron core pattern can be fabricated on cladding layer by using UV lithography with proximity gap exposure. Also, single-mode waveguide can be also fabricated with over cladding. On the other hands, "Mosquito method" and imprint method can be applied to fabricate polymer optical waveguide. Remarkably, these two methods can fabricate gradedindex type optical waveguide without using photo mask. In order to evaluate the optical performance, NFP's observation, measurement of insertion loss and propagation loss by cut-back methods were carried out by using each waveguide sample.

  18. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Kathleen M; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-09-15

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (T(g)) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins incorporating silsesquioxane (SSQ) species into the photopolymerized networks were investigated as a route to improve these properties. Thiol- and ene-functionalized SSQs (SH-SSQ and allyl-SSQ, respectively) were synthesized via alkoxysilane hydrolysis/condensation chemistry, using a photopolymerizable monomer [either pentaerythriol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) or 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TATATO)] as the reaction solvent. The resulting SSQ-containing solutions (SSQ-PETMP and SSQ-TATATO) were characterized, and their incorporation into photopolymerized networks was evaluated.

  19. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivovichev, S.V.; Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)](H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.85 (H 2 O) 2 (1), [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 ] (H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.50 (H 2 O) (2), and [C 8 H 20 N] 2 [(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] (H 2 O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO 7 and SeO 4 polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 NH 3 ] 2+ molecules, H 2 O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ] 2- sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups but is based upon alternating [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 ] + . The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in general, actinyl) chemistry, it requires specific additional mechanisms: (a) in long-chain-amine-templated compounds, protonated amine molecules inter-digitate; (b) in long-chain-diamine-templated compounds, incorporation of acid-water interlayers into

  20. The First Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Luminescent Multiferroic: (Pyrrolidinium)MnBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Liu, Cai-Ming; Chen, Zhong-Ning; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-07-08

    A hybrid organic-inorganic compound, (pyrrolidinium)MnBr3 , distinguished from rare earth (RE)-doped inorganic perovskites, is discovered as a new member of the ferroelectrics family, having excellent luminescent properties and relatively large spontaneous polarization of 6 μC cm(-2) , as well as a weak ferromagnetism at about 2.4 K. With a quantum yield of >28% and emission lifetime >0.1 ms, such multiferroic photoluminescence is a suitable candidate for future applications in luminescence materials, photovoltaics, and magneto-optoelectronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivovichev, S.V. [Saint Petersburg State Univ., Dept. of Crystallography, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    Single crystals of [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.85}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}] (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.50}(H{sub 2}O) (2), and [C{sub 8}H{sub 20}N]{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (H{sub 2}O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO{sub 7} and SeO{sub 4} polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}NH{sub 3}]{sup 2+} molecules, H{sub 2}O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups but is based upon alternating [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 7}CH{sub 3}]{sup +}. The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Chiku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1 at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Chiku, Masanobu; Tomita, Shoji; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1) at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  4. Photophysical Properties of Novel Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Yenchi

    For the past 200 years, novel materials have driven technological progress, and going forward these advanced materials will continue to deeply impact virtually all major industrial sectors. Therefore, it is vital to perform basic and applied research on novel materials in order to develop new technologies for the future. This dissertation describes the results of photophysical studies on three novel materials with electronic and optoelectronic applications, namely organic small molecules DTDCTB with C60 and C70, colloidal indium antimonide (InSb) nanocrystals, and an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with the composition CH3NH3PbI 3-xClx, using transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In chapter 2, we characterize the timescale and efficiency of charge separation and recombination in thin film blends comprising DTDCTB, a narrow-band gap electron donor, and either C60 or C70 as an electron acceptor. TA and time-resolved PL studies show correlated, sub-picosecond charge separation times and multiple timescales of charge recombination. Our results indicate that some donors fail to charge separate in donor-acceptor mixed films, which suggests material manipulations may improve device efficiency. Chapter 3 describes electron-hole pair dynamics in strongly quantum-confined, colloidal InSb nanocrystal quantum dots. For all samples, TA shows a bleach feature that, for several picoseconds, dramatically red-shifts prior to reaching a time-independent position. We suggest this unusual red-shift relates transient population flow through two energetically comparable conduction band states. From pump-power-dependent measurements, we also determine biexciton lifetimes. In chapter 4, we examine carrier dynamics in polycrystalline methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x) thin films as functions of temperature and photoexcitation wavelength. At room temperature, the long-lived TA signals stand in contrast to PL dynamics, where the

  5. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  6. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers as Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Solutions: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiey, Babak; Cheng, Chil-Hung; Wu, Jiangning

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers have been applied in different fields, including the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater and solid-state separations. In this review, firstly, these compounds are classified. These compounds are prepared by sol-gel method, self-assembly process (mesopores), assembling of nanobuilding blocks (e.g., layered or core-shell compounds) and as interpenetrating networks and hierarchically structures. Lastly, the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals of these materials, including different kinds of functional groups, selectivity of them for heavy metals, effect of pH and synthesis conditions on adsorption capacity, are studied. PMID:28788483

  7. Coexisting Ferromagnetic and Ferroelectric Order in a CuCl4-based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polyakov, Alexey O.; Arkenbout, Anne H.; Baas, Jacob; Blake, Graeme R.; Meetsma, Auke; Caretta, Antonio; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material CuCl4(C6H5CH2CH2NH3)(2) and demonstrate that spontaneous ferroelectric order sets in below 340 K, which coexists with ferromagnetic ordering below 13 K. We use X-ray diffraction to show that

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan; Mitzi; Dimitrakopoulos

    1999-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.

  9. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-09-08

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  10. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Marzouk, Asma; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  11. Hybrid organic-inorganic system for producing biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Singer, Steven W.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Beller, Harry R.; Mueller, Jana

    2017-10-03

    The present invention provides for a system for converting CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 to one or more biologically derived compounds. In some embodiments, the system comprises a host cell comprising one or more nucleic acids encoding genes for a recombinant surface display protein which is capable of tethering an electrocatalyst molecule, such as a cobalt(II) complex supported by tetradentate polypyridyl ligand 2-bis(2-pyridyl)(methoxy)methyl-6-pyridylpyridine (PY4), and enzymes for synthesizing a biologically derived compound, such as an alkane, alcohol, fatty acid, ester, or isoprenoid.

  12. Electronic Structure Approach to Tunable Electronic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Garnett; Huhn, William; Mitzi, David B.; Kanai, Yosuke; Blum, Volker

    We present a study of the electronic structure of layered hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials using all-electron density-functional theory. Varying the nature of the organic and inorganic layers should enable systematically fine-tuning the carrier properties of each component. Using the HSE06 hybrid density functional including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), we validate the principle of tuning subsystem-specific parts of the electron band structures and densities of states in CH3NH3PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) compared to a modified organic component in layered (C6H5C2H4NH3) 2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I) and C20H22S4N2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I). We show that tunable shifts of electronic levels indeed arise by varying Cl, Br, I as the inorganic components, and CH3NH3+ , C6H5C2H4NH3+ , C20H22S4N22 + as the organic components. SOC is found to play an important role in splitting the conduction bands of the HOIP compounds investigated here. The frontier orbitals of the halide shift, increasing the gap, when Cl is substituted for Br and I.

  13. Hybrid organic/inorganic position-sensitive detectors based on PEDOT:PSS/n-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Mahdiyeh; Torbatiyan, Hadis; Abdi, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    Various configurations like p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor Schottky barriers, and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures have been widely used in position-sensitive detectors. In this report, we propose a PEDOT:PSS/n-Si heterojunction as a hybrid organic/inorganic configuration for position-sensitive detectors. The influence of the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, the wavelength of incident light, and the intensity of illumination on the device performance are investigated. The hybrid PSD exhibits very high sensitivity (>100 mV/mm), excellent nonlinearity (0.995) with a response time of heterojunction are very promising for developing a new class of position-sensitive detectors based on the hybrid organic/inorganic junctions.

  14. Pure white-light emitting ultrasmall organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Meghan B; Lawrence, Katie N; Dutta, Poulami; Siegel, Amanda P; Sardar, Rajesh

    2016-10-14

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, direct band-gap semiconductors, have shown tremendous promise for optoelectronic device fabrication. We report the first colloidal synthetic approach to prepare ultrasmall (∼1.5 nm diameter), white-light emitting, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters. The nearly pure white-light emitting ultrasmall nanoclusters were obtained by selectively manipulating the surface chemistry (passivating ligands and surface trap-states) and controlled substitution of halide ions. The nanoclusters displayed a combination of band-edge and broadband photoluminescence properties, covering a major part of the visible region of the solar spectrum with unprecedentedly large quantum yields of ∼12% and photoluminescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The intrinsic white-light emission of perovskite nanoclusters makes them ideal and low cost hybrid nanomaterials for solid-state lighting applications.

  15. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Its complete eradication requires early detection and intensive drug treatment. In many cases it might also require surgery. Unfortunately, current medicine is still more focused on cancer treatment rather than elimination of its reason. The mechanism of tumor emergence and development is quite complicated, although, we are constantly advancing in this field. Nanomedicine is envisioned as the silver bullet against cancer. Thus, nanoscale systems with therapeutic and diagnostic modalities can simultaneously perform several functions: accurate detection of tumor site, precise targeting, and controlled drug release inside abnormal cells and tissues while being nontoxic to healthy ones. Moreover, surface modification of such nanoparticles allows them to be invisible to the immune system and have longer blood circulating time. The performed research in this dissertation is completely based on hybrid organicinorganic bridged silsesquioxane (also known as organosilica) nanomaterials, therefore comprising "soft" organic/bioorganic part which can imitate certain biorelevant structures and facilitates successful escape from the immune system for more efficient accumulation in cancer cells, while "hard" inorganic part serves as a rigid and stable basis for the creation of cargo nanocarriers and imaging agents. This dissertation discusses the 5 critical points of safe biodegradable nanoplatforms, delivery of large biomolecules, and cytotoxicity regarding the shape of nanoparticles. As a result novel fluorescent biodegradable oxamide-based organosilica nanoparticles were developed, light-triggered surface charge reversal for large biomolecule delivery was applied with hollow bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials, and biocompatibility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with different morphologies was studied. Furthermore, the current achievements and future perspectives of mesoporous silica

  16. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Its complete eradication requires early detection and intensive drug treatment. In many cases it might also require surgery. Unfortunately, current medicine is still more focused on cancer treatment rather than elimination of its reason. The mechanism of tumor emergence and development is quite complicated, although, we are constantly advancing in this field. Nanomedicine is envisioned as the silver bullet against cancer. Thus, nanoscale systems with therapeutic and diagnostic modalities can simultaneously perform several functions: accurate detection of tumor site, precise targeting, and controlled drug release inside abnormal cells and tissues while being nontoxic to healthy ones. Moreover, surface modification of such nanoparticles allows them to be invisible to the immune system and have longer blood circulating time. The performed research in this dissertation is completely based on hybrid organicinorganic bridged silsesquioxane (also known as organosilica) nanomaterials, therefore comprising "soft" organic/bioorganic part which can imitate certain biorelevant structures and facilitates successful escape from the immune system for more efficient accumulation in cancer cells, while "hard" inorganic part serves as a rigid and stable basis for the creation of cargo nanocarriers and imaging agents. This dissertation discusses the 5 critical points of safe biodegradable nanoplatforms, delivery of large biomolecules, and cytotoxicity regarding the shape of nanoparticles. As a result novel fluorescent biodegradable oxamide-based organosilica nanoparticles were developed, light-triggered surface charge reversal for large biomolecule delivery was applied with hollow bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials, and biocompatibility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with different morphologies was studied. Furthermore, the current achievements and future perspectives of mesoporous silica

  17. Autonomic healable waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids based on aromatic disulfide moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Aguirresarobe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic disulfide dynamic structures were incorporated as chain extenders in waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids in order to provide autonomic healable characteristics. The synthesis was carried out following the acetone process methodology and the influence of the introduction of the healing agents in the polymer dispersion stability was analyzed. After the crosslinking process at room temperature, organic-inorganic hybrid films, which presented autonomic healing characteristics, were obtained. These features were evaluated by means of stress-strain tests and the films showed repetitive healing abilities. Thus, the optimum healing time at room temperature (25 °C as well as the influence of different parameters in the healing efficiency, such the aromatic disulfide concentration or the physical properties of the polymer matrix were analyzed.

  18. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Kwon, Yongwoo; Choi, Jaeho; Jang, Ho Won; Cha, Pil-Ryung

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH) as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  19. Self-organization of a tetrasubstituted tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in a silica based hybrid organic-inorganic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Lerouge, Frédéric; Bellec, Nathalie; Lorcy, Dominique; Nobili, Maurizio

    2004-02-21

    A hybrid organic inorganic nanostructured material containing a TTF core substituted by four arms exhibited a high level of both condensation at silicon (96%) and self-organization as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and an unprecedented birefringent behaviour.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleze Fábio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  1. Frequency Dependence of Electrical Parameters of an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Composite Based Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Akram

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the interdependence of ambient humidity levels on the electrical parameters of organic-inorganic hybrid composite based humidity sensor at varied AC frequencies of input signal. Starting from the bottom, the layer stack of the fabricated humidity sensor was 200-nm silver (Ag thin film and 4 μm spun-coated PEPC+NiPC+Cu2O active layer. Silver thin films were deposited by thermal evaporator on well cleaned microscopic glass slides, which served as a substrate. Conventional optical lithography procedure was adapted to define pairs of silver-silver surface electrodes with two sorts of configurations, i.e., interdigitated and rectangular. Humidity-sensitive layers of organic-inorganic composite were then spun-cast upon the channel between the silver electrodes. The changes in relative humidity levels induced variation in capacitance and impedance of the sensors. These variations in electrical parameters of sensors were also found to be highly dependent upon frequency of input AC signal. Our findings reveal that the organic-inorganic composite shows higher humidity sensitivity at smaller orders of frequency. This finding is in accordance with the established fact that organic semiconductors-based devices are not applicable for high frequency applications due to their lower charge carrier mobility values. Two distinct geometries of semiconducting medium between the silver electrodes were investigated to optimize the sensing parameters of the humidity sensor. Furthermore, the effect of temperature change on the resistance of organic composite has also been studied.

  2. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, G [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa-Stancioli, E F [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Piscitelli Mansur, A A [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vasconcelos, W L [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, H S [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  3. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, G [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa-Stancioli, E F [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Piscitelli Mansur, A A [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vasconcelos, W L [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, H S [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  4. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Denture Base Using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating: An SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aa, Jafari; Mh, Lotfi-Kamran; M, Ghafoorzadeh; Sm, Shaddel

    2017-06-01

    Despite the numerous positive features of acrylic denture base, there are a number of undeniable associated disadvantages. The properties of denture base have been improved through various interventions including application of different types of filler and coatings. This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness, thickness and coating quality of organic-inorganic coating on the denture base through scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the colour change was evaluated visually. The organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared. Acrylic discs of 10×10 mm were fabricated. The test discs were dipped in the hybrid coating and cured. In order to evaluate the surface roughness and coating thickness, the surface and cross-section of the samples in both coated and control groups were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The colour change and transparency were visually evaluated with naked eyes. The data were statistically analyzed by student's t test. The hybrid materials perfectly covered all the surfaces of acrylic resin and established proper thickness. The coated group seemed smoother and flatter than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant ( for all parameters p > 0.05). It was quite a thin coating and no perceptible colour change was observed. The hybrid coating maintained good binding, caused no noticeable discoloration, and thoroughly covered the acrylic resin surface with uniform delicate thickness. It also slightly improved the acrylic resin surface roughness.

  5. Controllable synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid MoOx/polyaniline nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sinong; Gao, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yahong; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui; Tang, Yi

    2011-02-01

    A novel chemical oxidative polymerization approach has been proposed for the controllable preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid MoO(x)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites based on the nanowire precursor of Mo(3)O(10)(C(6)H(8)N)(2)·2H(2)O with sub-nanometer periodic structures. The nanotubes, nanowires, and rambutan-like nanoparticles of MoO(x)/PANI were successfully obtained through simply modulating the pH values to 2.5-3.5, ≈2.0 and ≈1.0, respectively. Through systematic physicochemical characterization, such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and so forth, the composition and structure of MoO(x)/PANI hybrid nanocomposites are well confirmed. It is found that the nanowire morphology of the precursor is the key to achieve the one-dimensional (1D) structures of final products. A new polymerization-dissolution mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of such products with different morphologies, in which the match between polymerization and dissolution processes of the precursor plays the important role. This approach will find a new way to controllably prepare various organic-inorganic hybrid 1D nanomaterials especially for polymer-hybrid nanostructures. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Advances in Organic and Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymeric Supports for Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pia Salvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the most recent advances (2014–2016 on the synthesis of new polymer-supported catalysts are reported, focusing the attention on the synthetic strategies developed for their preparation. The polymer-supported catalysts examined will be organic-based polymers and organic-inorganic hybrids and will include, among others, polystyrenes, poly-ionic liquids, chiral ionic polymers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, as well as silica and halloysite-based catalysts. Selected examples will show the synthesis and application in the field of organocatalysis and metal-based catalysis both for non-asymmetric and asymmetric transformations.

  7. Efficient Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Graphene Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Hobeom; Lee, Jaeho; Park, Min-Ho; Jeong, Su-Hun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Han, Tae-Hee; Yoo, Seunghyup; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) based on graphene anode are developed for the first time. Chemically inert graphene avoids quenching of excitons by diffused metal atom species from indium tin oxide. The flexible PeLEDs with graphene anode on plastic substrate show good bending stability; they provide an alternative and reliable flexible electrode for highly efficient flexible PeLEDs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoung Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  9. Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin "nanosponges" for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkas, Michael; Allabashi, Roza; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Mattausch, Eva-Maria; Perfler, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Long-alkyl chain functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer, and beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, which are completely insoluble in water, have the property of encapsulating organic pollutants from water. Ceramic porous filters can be impregnated with these compounds resulting in hybrid organic/ inorganic filter modules. These hybrid filter modules were tested for the effective purification of water, by continuous filtration experiments, employing a variety of water pollutants. It has been established that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be removed very efficiently (more than 95%), and final concentrations of several ppb (microg/ L) are easily obtained. Representatives of the pollutant group of trihalogen methanes (THMs), monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX), and pesticides (simazine) can also be removed (>80%), although the filters are saturated considerably faster in these cases.

  10. Low-Threshold Lasing from 2D Homologous Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Chinnambedu Murugesan; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Li, Shao-Sian; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lo, Chao-Yuan; Liao, Yu-Ming; Haider, Golam; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Chun; Sankar, Raman; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2018-05-09

    Organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have recently attracted great attention in optical and optoelectronic applications due to their inherent natural quantum-well structure. We report the growth of high-quality millimeter-sized single crystals belonging to homologous two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic Ruddelsden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) of (BA) 2 (MA) n-1 Pb n I 3 n+1 ( n = 1, 2, and 3) by a slow evaporation at a constant-temperature (SECT) solution-growth strategy. The as-grown 2D hybrid perovskite single crystals exhibit excellent crystallinity, phase purity, and spectral uniformity. Low-threshold lasing behaviors with different emission wavelengths at room temperature have been observed from the homologous 2D hybrid RPP single crystals. Our result demonstrates that solution-growth homologous organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite single crystals open up a new window as a promising candidate for optical gain media.

  11. Preparation of chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdi; Pan, Panpan; Zhang, Yujue; Zhong, Shengnan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we encapsulated icariin (ICA) into chitosan (CS)/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) composite microspheres to form organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for drug delivery carrier. The composition and morphology of composite microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry- thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). Moreover, we further studied the performance of swelling properties, degradation properties and drug release behavior of the microspheres. ICA, the extract of traditional Chinese medicine-epimedium, was combined to study drug release properties of the microspheres. ICA loaded microspheres take on a sustained release behavior, which can be not only ascribed to electrostatic interaction between reactive negative hydroxyl (OH) of ICA and positive amine groups (NH₂) of CS, but also depended on the homogeneous dispersion of HAP nanoparticles inside CS organic matrix. In addition, the adhesion and morphology of osteoblasts were detected by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The biocompatibility of CS/nHAP/ICA microspheres was evaluated by the MTT cytotoxicity assay, Hoechst 33258 and PI fluorescence staining. These studies demonstrate that composite microspheres provide a suitable microenvironment for osteoblast attachment and proliferation. It can be speculated that the ICA loaded CS-based organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres might have potential applications in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z. Y.; Wang, Z.; Xing, R. B.; Han, Y. C.; Lin, J.

    2003-07-01

    Perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid layered compound (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 was synthesized. The patterning of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 thin films on silicon substrate was realized by the micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) process, a kind of soft lithography. Bright green luminescent stripes with different widths (50, 15, 0.8 μm) have been obtained. The structure and optical properties of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, respectively. It is shown that the organic-inorganic layered (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 film was c-axis oriented, paralleling to the substrate plane. Green exciton emission at 525 nm was observed in the film, and the explanations for it were given.

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid foams with diatomite addition: Effect on functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, L.; D'Auria, M.; Lavorgna, M.; Vollaro, P.; Iannace, S.; Capasso, I.; Galzerano, B.; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams were prepared by using metakaolin, diatomite as a partial (or total) replacement of metakaolin, as matrix, silicon and whipped protein as pore forming. The foamed systems were hardened at defined temperature and time and then characterized by mechanical point of view through compression tests and by functional point of view through fire reaction and acoustic tests. The experimental findings highlighted that the replacement of diatomite in the formulation affected the morphological structure of the foams and consequently their mechanical properties. In particular, the consolidation mechanism in the diatomite based-hybrid foams changed from geopolymerization to a silicate polycondensation mechanism. Therefore, mechanical performances enhanced with increasing of the diatomite content. Fire reaction tests, such as non-combustibility and cone calorimeter tests, showed positive thermal inertia of samples regardless of the content of diatomite.

  14. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  16. Embedded Metal Electrode for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Han-Don; Choi, Deokjae; Choi, Ahreum; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-06-27

    We demonstrate here an embedded metal electrode for highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells. The electrode proposed here is an effective alternative to the conventional bus and finger electrode which leads to a localized short circuit at a direct Si/metal contact and has a poor collection efficiency due to a nonoptimized electrode design. In our design, a Ag/SiO 2 electrode is embedded into a Si substrate while being positioned between Si nanowire arrays underneath poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), facilitating suppressed recombination at the Si/Ag interface and notable improvements in the fabrication reproducibility. With an optimized microgrid electrode, our 1 cm 2 hybrid solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage of 607 mV and a short circuit current density of 34.0 mA/cm 2 . This power conversion efficiency is more than twice as high as that of solar cells using a conventional electrode (8.0%). The microgrid electrode significantly minimizes the optical and electrical losses. This reproducibly yields a superior quantum efficiency of 99% at the main solar spectrum wavelength of 600 nm. In particular, our solar cells exhibit a significant increase in the fill factor of 78.3% compared to that of a conventional electrode (61.4%); this is because of the drastic reduction in the metal/contact resistance of the 1 μm-thick Ag electrode. Hence, the use of our embedded microgrid electrode in the construction of an ideal carrier collection path presents an opportunity in the development of highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  17. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto

    2017-11-30

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  18. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 + ) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  19. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto; Righetto, Marcello; de Bastiani, Michele; Carraro, Francesco; Rancan, Marzio; Armelao, Lidia; Granozzi, Gaetano; Bozio, Renato; Franco, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  20. Preparation and properties of UV curable organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shichang Lv; Wenfang Shi

    2007-01-01

    The organo-modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs), M-LDH and N-LDH, were obtained by the ionic exchange reaction of a magnesium-aluminium nitrate LDH with modifiers. The LDHs/acrylate organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites were prepared from organo-modified LDHs, and aliphatic polyurethane acrylate oligomer and an acrylate monomer, through a bulk photopolymerization process at the presence of a photoinitiator. The effects of LDHs content in the resin on the dispersion, and the properties of UV cured nanocomposites film were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis, pendulum/pencil hardness measurement. With the good solubility in acrylate resins, the organo-modified LDHs are hopefully to be used in adhesives, coating, inks as toughness modifiers, fire-retardant additives. (Author)

  1. Anomalous photovoltaic effect in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Tao; Wang, Qi; Xing, Jie; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device's open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent V OC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity. The APV effect can be explained by the formation of tunneling junctions randomly dispersed in the polycrystalline films, which allows the accumulation of photovoltage at a macroscopic level. The formation of internal tunneling junctions as a result of ion migration is visualized with Kelvin probe force microscopy scanning. This observation points out a new avenue for the formation of large and continuously tunable V OC without being limited by the materials' bandgap.

  2. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  3. Temperature Dependent Surface Structures and Electronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, M.-H.; Teague, M. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Tseng, W.-S.; Yeh, N.-C.

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, arising from research of low-cost high performance photovoltaics, have become promising materials not only for solar cells but also for various optoelectronic and spintronic applications. An interesting aspect of the hybrid perovskites is that their material properties, such as the band gap, can be easily tuned by varying the composition, temperature, and the crystalline phases. Additionally, the surface structure is critically important for their optoelectronic applications. It is speculated that different crystalline facets could show different trap densities, thus resulting in microscopically inhomogeneous performance. Here we report direct studies of the surface structures and electronic properties of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We found long-range spatially homogeneous tunneling conductance spectra with a well-defined energy gap of (1.55 +/- 0.1) eV at 300 K in the tetragonal phase, suggesting high quality of the single crystals. The energy gap increased to (1.81 +/- 0.1) eV in the orthorhombic phase, below the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature at 150 K. Detailed studies of the temperature evolution in the spatially resolved surface structures and local density of states will be discussed to elucidate how these properties may influence the optoelectronic performance of the hybrid perovskites. We thank the support from NTU in Taiwan and from NSF in the US.

  4. Photochromic dynamics of organic-inorganic hybrids supported on transparent and flexible recycled PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R. P.; Nalin, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Molina, C.

    2017-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids (OIH) synthesized by sol gel process containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) entrapped have been attracted much attention for ultraviolet sensitive materials. However, the limitations for practical photochromic application of these materials are the poor interaction with flexible polymer substrates such as Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and also photo response under ultraviolet radiation. This paper describes the use of the d-ureasil HOI, based on siliceous network grafted through linkages to both ends of polymer chain containing 2.5 poly(oxyethylene) units with PWA entrapped prepared as films on recycled PET. Films were characterized by IR-ATR, XRD, TG/DTG, UV-Vis and Contact angle. XRD patterns showed that both pristine hybrid matrix and those containing PWA are amorphous. IR showed that PWA structure is preserved in the matrix and interactions between them occur by intermolecular forces. Films are thermally stable up to 325 °C and contact angle of 25.1° showed a good wettability between substrate and hybrid matrix. Furthermore, films showed fast photochromic response after 1 min of ultraviolet exposure time. The bleaching process revealed that the relaxation process is dependent of the temperature and the activation energy of 47.2 kJ mol-1 was determined. The properties of these films make them potential candidates for applications in flexible photochromic materials.

  5. [Responses of rice-wheat rotation system in south Jiangsu to organic-inorganic compound fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Heng-Da; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Wang, Qiu-Jun; Xu, Da-Bing; Yibati, Halihashi; Xu, Jia-Le; Huang, Qi-Wei

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-2007, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of applying three kinds of organic-inorganic compound fertilizers [rapeseed cake compost plus inorganic fertilizers (RCC), pig manure compost plus inorganic fertilizers (PMC), and Chinese medicine residues plus inorganic fertilizers (CMC)] on the crop growth and nitrogen (N) use efficiency of rice-wheat rotation system in South Jiangsu. Grain yield of wheat and rice in the different fertilization treatments was significantly higher than the control (no fertilization). In treatments RCC, PMC and CMC, the wheat yield was 13.1%, 32.2% and 39.3% lower than that of the NPK compound fertilizer (CF, 6760 kg x hm(-2)), respectively, but the rice yield (8504-9449 kg x hm(-2)) was significantly higher than that (7919 kg x hm(-2)) of CF, with an increment of 7.4%-19.3%. In wheat season, the aboveground dry mass, N accumulation, and N use efficiency in treatments RCC, PMC, and CMC were lower than those of CF, but in rice season, these parameters were significantly higher than or as the same as CF. In sum, all the test three compound fertilizers had positive effects on the rice yield and its nitrogen use efficiency in the rice-wheat rotation system, being most significant for RCC.

  6. A hybrid organic-inorganic electrode for enhanced charge injection or collection in organic optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Omer F; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2006-01-01

    Here we report a novel hybrid organic-inorganic anode for organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic (PV) cells. This hybrid anode structure is realized from a composite of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. Owing to the phase separation, this anodic structure leads to a graded work function from patterned ITO to the photoactive polymer, which in turn reduces the barrier height for holes by ∼70%. The resulting devices based on this design show up to 67% reduction in turn-on voltage (for polymer LEDs) and up to 40% increase in short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency (for PV cells). Current-voltage characteristics, Fowler-Nordheim analysis, SEM imaging and energy band diagram analysis are employed to characterize the improved performance of our devices. The reported approach is expected to be immensely useful for the molecular design of next-generation efficient organic devices

  7. Rashba and Dresselhaus Effects in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: From Basics to Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Katan, Claudine; Sapori, Daniel; Pedesseau, Laurent; Even, Jacky

    2015-12-22

    We use symmetry analysis, density functional theory calculations, and k·p modeling to scrutinize Rashba and Dresselhaus effects in hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. These perovskites are at the center of a recent revolution in the field of photovoltaics but have also demonstrated potential for optoelectronic applications such as transistors and light emitters. Due to a large spin-orbit coupling of the most frequently used metals, they are also predicted to offer a promising avenue for spin-based applications. With an in-depth inspection of the electronic structures and bulk lattice symmetries of a variety of systems, we analyze the origin of the spin splitting in two- and three-dimensional hybrid perovskites. It is shown that low-dimensional nanostructures made of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) lead to spin splittings that can be controlled by an applied electric field. These findings further open the door for a perovskite-based spintronics.

  8. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings based on alkoxy-terminated macromonomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaddami, H. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Cuney, S. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]|[BSN Emballage-Centre de Recherche de Saint-Romain-en-Gier, 69700 Givors Cedex (France); Pascault, J.P. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Gerard, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-01-01

    From the use of alkoxysilane-terminated macromonomers based on hydrogenated polybutadiene and polycaprolactone oligomers and by using the polyurethane chemistry, hybrid organic{emdash}inorganic materials are prepared. These ones are two-phases systems in which the continuous phase is organic reinforced by silicon rich dispersed particles. These nanosized dispersed particles are formed {ital in} {ital situ} during the hydrolysis and condensation of the sol-gel process according to the phase separation process occurring between the organic and inorganic phases. The gelation process and the final morphologies were found to be very dependent on the acid(catalyst)-to-silicon ratio, on the molar mass of the oligomers, and on the solubility parameter of the soft segment. In fact, during the synthesis, there is a competition between the gelation and the phase separation process which could be perturbated by the vitrification of the silicon-rich clusters. The final morphologies observed by TEM and SAXS are discussed on the basis of the microstructural model proposed by Wilkes and Huang. Such hybrid organic-inorganic materials are applied as coatings on glass float plates tested in a bi-axial mode. The reinforcement is discussed as a function of the morphology of the coatings. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  10. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles controlled delivery system for anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Antonio; Guselnikova, Olga A; Trusova, Marina E; Postnikov, Pavel S; Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2017-06-30

    The use of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers for controlled release of anticancer drugs has been gained a great interest, in particular, to improve the selectivity and efficacy of the drugs. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared then surface modified via diazonium chemistry and coated with chitosan, and its derivative chitosan-grafted polylactic acid. The purpose was to increase the stability of the nanoparticles in physiological solution, heighten drug-loading capacity, prolong the release, reduce the initial burst effect and improve in vitro cytotoxicity of the model drug doxorubicin. The materials were characterized by DLS, ζ-potential, SEM, TGA, magnetization curves and release kinetics studies. Results confirmed the spherical shape, the presence of the coat and the advantages of using chitosan, particularly its amphiphilic derivative, as a coating agent, thereby surpassing the qualities of simple iron oxide nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles exhibited great stability and high encapsulation efficiency for doxorubicin, at over 500μg per mg of carrier. Moreover, the intensity of the initial burst was clearly diminished after coating, hence represents an advantage of using the hybrid system over simple iron oxide nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrate the increase in cytotoxicity of doxorubicin when loaded in nanoparticles, indirectly proving the role played by the carrier and its surface properties in cell uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A; Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Geenevasen, J.A.J. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), or bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) and MTES. Early-stage hydrolysis and condensation rates of the individual silane precursors were followed with 29Si liquid NMR and structural characteristics of more developed sols were studied with Dynamic Light Scattering. Condensation was found to proceed at more or less similar rates for the different precursors. Homogeneously mixed hybrid colloids can therefore be formed from precursor mixtures. The conditions of preparation under which clear sols with low viscosity could be formed from BTESE/MTES were determined. These sols were synthesised at moderate water/silane and acid/silane ratios and could be applied for the coating of defect-free microporous membranes for molecular separations under hydrothermal conditions.

  12. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes based on polyether diamine, alkoxysilane, and trichlorotriazine: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Cheng-Gang; Fang, Jason; Tsai, Li-Duan; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A new type of highly conductive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes has been synthesized by the reaction of poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether), 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine and alkoxysilane precursor 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, followed by doping of LiClO4. The 13C and 29Si solid-sate NMR results confirm the successful synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The solid hybrid electrolyte thus obtained exhibits a maximum ionic conductivity of 1.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, which is the highest among the organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes. The hybrid electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.2 V. The prototype electrochromic device with such a solid hybrid electrolyte demonstrates a good coloration efficiency value of 183 cm2 C-1 with a cycle life over 200 cycles. For the lithium-ion battery test, the salt free solid hybrid membrane is swelled with a LiPF6-containing electrolyte solution to reach an acceptable ionic conductivity value of 6.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 30 °C. The battery cell carries an initial discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 0.2C-rate and a coulombic efficiency of about 95% up to 30 cycles without the sign of cell failure. The present organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes hold promise for applications in electrochromic devices and lithium ion batteries.

  14. Effect of halide-mixing on the switching behaviors of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bohee; Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mixed halide perovskite materials are actively researched for solar cells with high efficiency. Their hysteresis which originates from the movement of defects make perovskite a candidate for resistive switching memory devices. We demonstrate the resistive switching device based on mixed-halide organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3). Solvent engineering is used to deposit the homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx layer on the indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The memory device based on CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx exhibits write endurance and long retention, which indicate reproducible and reliable memory properties. According to the increase in Br contents in CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx the set electric field required to make the device from low resistance state to high resistance state decreases. This result is in accord with the theoretical calculation of migration barriers, that is the barrier to ionic migration in perovskites is found to be lower for Br- (0.23 eV) than for I- (0.29-0.30 eV). The resistive switching may be the result of halide vacancy defects and formation of conductive filaments under electric field in the mixed perovskite layer. It is observed that enhancement in operating voltage can be achieved by controlling the halide contents in the film.

  15. Local coordination of Eu(III) in organic/inorganic amine functionalized hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, L.D.; Sa Ferreira, R.A.; Goncalves, M.C.; Zea Bermudez, V. de

    2004-01-01

    The sol-gel method was used to prepare two families of organic/inorganic hybrids incorporating europium triflate, classed as di-urethanesils and aminosils. A siliceous network to which short polyether chains are covalently bonded through urethane linkages, composes the di-urethanesil host. A siliceous network containing pendant amine terminated propyl chains, forms the aminosils. The xerogels were investigated by photoluminescence, particularly the local interaction between the Eu 3+ ions and the host matrix. The Eu 3+ local coordination was modelled in terms of a local-field perturbation representing the ion's nearest ligands interaction potential. While for the aminosils the Eu 3+ ions occupy one low-symmetry local site--crystal-field strength of ca. 760.5 cm -1 and 5 D 0 lifetime of 0.6-0.7 ms--two local Eu 3+ environments with distinct point symmetry group, 5 D 0 lifetimes (ca. 0.2-0.3 and 1.4-1.8 ms, respectively) and covalent nature--crystal-field strengths of ca. 540 and 740-780 cm -1 , respectively--were identified in the di-urethanesils

  16. Excitonic Properties of Chemically Synthesized 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Chu, Leiqiang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Wei; Eda, Goki

    2018-05-01

    2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) represent a unique class of materials with a natural quantum-well structure and quasi-2D electronic properties. Here, a versatile direct solution-based synthesis of mono- and few-layer OIHP nanosheets and a systematic study of their electronic structure as a function of the number of monolayers by photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy are reported. The monolayers of various OIHPs are found to exhibit high electronic quality as evidenced by high quantum yield and negligible Stokes shift. It is shown that the ground exciton peak blueshifts by ≈40 meV when the layer thickness reduces from bulk to monolayer. It is also shown that the exciton binding energy remains effectively unchanged for (C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 with the number of layers. Similar trends are observed for (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 in contrast to the previous report. Further, the photoluminescence lifetime is found to decrease with the number of monolayers, indicating the dominant role of surface trap states in nonradiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Deleporte, Emmanuelle, E-mail: Emmanuelle.Deleporte@lpqm.ens-cachan.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent [Laboratoire de Photophysique et Photochimie Supramoleculaires et Macromoleculaires de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France)

    2009-06-15

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}{sup +}) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  18. Optical studies of photoactive states in mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites stabilized in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardynal, Beata; Xi, Lifei; Salim, Teddy; Borghardt, Sven; Stoica, Toma; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2015-03-01

    Mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br,Cl) have been demonstrated as very attractive materials for absorbers of solar cells and active layers of light emitting diodes and optically driven lasers. The bandgap of the perovskites can be tuned by mixing halogen atoms in different ratios. In this presentation we study mixed MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br, Cl) particles synthesized directly in protective polymer matrices as light emitters. Both, time integrated and time resolved photoluminescence have been used to study the materials. So synthesized MAX-PbX2 are very stable when measured at room temperature and in air with radiative recombination of photogenerated carriers as the main decay path. In contrast, MAX-PbY2 with mixed halogen atoms display luminescence from sub-bandgap states which saturate at higher excitation levels. The density of these states depends on the used polymer matrix and increases upon illumination. We further compare the MAX-PbY2 synthesized in polymers and as films and show that these states are inherent to the material rather than its microstructure. This works has been supported by EU NWs4LIGHT grant.

  19. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  20. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  1. Visible Photodetectors Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Using Electrostatic Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an organic-inorganic hybrid white photodetector with the structure of ITO /AZO/ZnO NWs:P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT: PSS/Al produced with an electrostatic spraying method. The method of production was as follows: First, different spraying methods (continuous spraying, discontinuous spraying and different spraying times were tested before the final electrostatic spraying. Then, different annealing times (10 min and 20 min were tested to anneal the coated film. Lastly, we investigated the photoelectric properties, including transparency analysis of the film surface topography through XRD, OM, FE-SEM, AFM and UV-VIS. The results showed that the detector with discontinuous spraying and 20 mins annealing had a photocurrent of approx. 22.1×10-4A, dark current (drain current of approx. 1.94×10-7A, and a ratio of photocurrent to dark current of approximately 1.14×104, which produced optimal photoelectric characteristics.

  2. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  3. Hybrid heterojunction solar cell based on organic-inorganic silicon nanowire array architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Dong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-07

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) on a planar silicon wafer can be fabricated by a simple metal-assisted wet chemical etching method. They can offer an excellent light harvesting capability through light scattering and trapping. In this work, we demonstrated that the organic-inorganic solar cell based on hybrid composites of conjugated molecules and SiNWs on a planar substrate yielded an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.70%. The high efficiency was ascribed to two aspects: one was the improvement of the light absorption by SiNWs structure on the planar components; the other was the enhancement of charge extraction efficiency, resulting from the novel top contact by forming a thin organic layer shell around the individual silicon nanowire. On the contrary, the sole planar junction solar cell only exhibited a PCE of 6.01%, due to the lower light trapping capability and the less hole extraction efficiency. It indicated that both the SiNWs structure and the thin organic layer top contact were critical to achieve a high performance organic/silicon solar cell. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid thin film solar cells using conducting polymer and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwan Jung, Hyung; Ho Kim, Dong; Su Kim, Chang; Bae, Tae-Sung; Bum Chung, Kwun; Yoon Ryu, Seung

    2013-05-01

    We employed poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) as a p-layer on textured fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass in pin-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H SCs). An amorphous tungsten oxide (WO3) layer and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) 10 nm in size were included to prevent the degradation and to increase short-circuit current by the Plasmon effect, respectively, between the PEDOT:PSS and intrinsic-Si layer. The energy band between PEDOT:PSS and WO3 was meaningfully adjusted by Au-NPs. The p-type PEDOT:PSS layer in these organic-inorganic hybrid a-Si:H SCs results in an increased conversion efficiency from ˜2.42% to ˜5.49% and an increased open-circuit voltage from ˜0.29 V to ˜0.56 V. PEDOT:PSS on textured FTO glass is sufficiently showing that it can replace the p-type Si layer in pin-type a-Si:H SCs.

  5. Cu-containing Keggin-type polyoxometalates-based organic-inorganic hybrids with double electro-catalytic behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanli; Zheng, Yanping; Peng, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Four new organic-inorganic hybrids consisting of Keggin-type polyoxometalates: [Cu5(bimpy)5(α-BW12O40)]·4H2O (1), [Cu4(bimpy)4(α-SiW12O40)]·2H2O (2), [Cu4(bimpy)4(α-HPMo12O40)2]·2H2O (3), [Cu2(bimpy)4(H2O)2(α-HPW12O40)2]·8H2O (4) (bimpy = 2,5-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)pyridine), have been hydrothermally synthesized. Compounds 1-4 are constructed from Cu/bimpy segments modified different types of Keggin POMs. The 1D double chains of compound 1 are featured by {-Cu/bimpy-POM-Cu/bimpy-}n chains and {-Cu-bimpy-Cu-}n metal-organic chains; compound 2 with 1D "ladder-like" structure stemmed from {-Cu-bimpy-Cu-}n wave-like chains and α-SiW12 clusters; In compound 3, [Cu4(bimpy)4]4+ motifs are linked by α-PMo12 clusters to give rise to a (3,4)-connected two-dimensional architecture with the (83)(86) topology, while compound 4 has a (3,4,5)-connected 3D framework with the (42,6)(42,6,83)(42,65,83) topology. Cyclic voltammetries of compounds 1-4 show discrepant double electro-catalytic properties for reduction of nitrite and oxidation of ascorbic acid owing to variant Keggin-type POMs and Cu/bimpy complexes.

  6. Structure and optical properties of several organic-inorganic hybrids containing corner-sharing chains of bismuth iodide octahedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B; Brock, P

    2001-04-23

    Two organic-inorganic bismuth iodides of the form (H3N-R-NH3)BiI5 are reported, each containing long and relatively flexible organic groups, R. The norganic framework in each case consists of distorted BiI6 octahedra sharing cis vertexes to form zigzag chains. Crystals of (H3NC18H24S2NH3)BiI5 were grown from a slowly cooled ethylene glycol/2-butanol solution containing bismuth(III) iodide and AETH.2HI, where AETH = 1,6-bis[5'-(2' '-aminoethyl)-2'-thienyl]hexane. The new compound, (H2AETH)BiI5, adopts an orthorhombic (Aba2) cell with the lattice parameters a = 20.427(3) A, b = 35.078(5) A, c = 8.559(1) A, and Z = 8. The structure consists of corrugated layers of BiI5(2-) chains, with Bi-I bond lengths ranging from 2.942(3) to 3.233(3) A, separated by layers of the organic (H2AETH)(2+) cations. Crystals of the analogous (H3NC12H24NH3)BiI5 compound were also prepared from a concentrated aqueous hydriodic acid solution containing bismuth(III) iodide and the 1,12-dodecanediamine (DDDA) salt, DDDA.2HI. (H2DDDA)BiI5 crystallizes in an orthorhombic (Ibam) cell with a = 17.226(2) A, b = 34.277(4) A, c = 8.654(1) A, and Z = 8. The Bi-I bonds range in length from 2.929(1) to 3.271(1) A. While the inorganic chain structure is nearly identical for the two title compounds, as well as for the previously reported (H3NC6H12NH3)BiI5 [i.e., (H2DAH)BiI5] structure, the packing of the chains is strongly influenced by the choice of organic cation. Optical absorption spectra for thermally ablated thin films of the three organic-inorganic hybrids containing BiI5(2-) chains are reported as a function of temperature (25-290 K). The dominant long-wavelength feature in each case is attributed to an exciton band, which is apparent at room temperature and, despite the similar inorganic chain structure, varies in position from 491 to 541 nm (at 25 K).

  7. Scratch, wear and corrosion resistant organic inorganic hybrid materials for metals protection and barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Puopolo, M.; Vesco, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polysiloxane coatings as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion of Fe 430 B metal substrates. • Methyl groups feature a very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone. • Phenyl groups feature a larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. • Remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance. • Innovative ways to design of long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and aggressive chemicals. - Abstract: Polysiloxanes are widely used as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion and increase chemical inertness of metal substrates. In the present work, a high molecular weight methyl phenyl polysiloxane resin was designed to manufacture a protective coating for Fe 430 B structural steel. Methyl groups feature very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone of the organic inorganic hybrid resin, thus allowing the achievement of high thickness. Phenyl groups feature larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. Visual appearance and morphology of the coatings were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and contact gauge surface profilometry. Micro-mechanical response of the coatings was analyzed by instrumented progressive load scratch, while wear resistance by dry sliding linear reciprocating tribological tests. Lastly, chemical inertness and corrosion endurance of the coatings were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry in aggressive acid environment. The resulting resins yielded protective materials, which feature remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance, thus laying the foundations to manufacture long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and, more in general, against aggressive chemicals

  8. Self-assembled organic-inorganic magnetic hybrid adsorbent ferrite based on cyclodextrin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Angelo M L; De Sousa, Frederico B; Passos, Joel J; Guatimosim, Fernando C; Barbosa, Kirla D; Burgos, Ana E; de Oliveira, Fernando Castro; da Silva, Jeann C; Neves, Bernardo R A; Mohallem, Nelcy D S; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2012-01-01

    Organic-inorganic magnetic hybrid materials (MHMs) combine a nonmagnetic and a magnetic component by means of electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds, and notable features can be achieved. Herein, we describe an application of a self-assembled material based on ferrite associated with β-cyclodextrin (Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD) at the nanoscale level. This MHM and pure ferrite (Fe-Ni/Zn) were used as an adsorbent system for Cr(3+) and Cr(2)O(7) (2-) ions in aqueous solutions. Prior to the adsorption studies, both ferrites were characterized in order to determine the particle size distribution, morphology and available binding sites on the surface of the materials. Microscopy analysis demonstrated that both ferrites present two different size domains, at the micro- and nanoscale level, with the latter being able to self-assemble into larger particles. Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD presented smaller particles and a more homogeneous particle size distribution. Higher porosity for this MHM compared to Fe-Ni/Zn was observed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherms and positron-annihilation-lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the pKa values, potentiometric titrations demonstrated the presence of βCD in the inorganic matrix, indicating that the lamellar structures verified by transmission electronic microscopy can be associated with βCD assembled structures. Colloidal stability was inferred as a function of time at different pH values, indicating the sedimentation rate as a function of pH. Zeta potential measurements identified an amphoteric behavior for the Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD, suggesting its better capability to remove ions (cations and anions) from aqueous solutions compared to that of Fe-Ni/Zn.

  9. Characterization, phase change and conductivity crossover of new luminescent ferroelectric Mn (II) organic-inorganic hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Mohga F., E-mail: Mohga40@yahoo.com; El Dean, Thana Sh., E-mail: th_sh2000@yahoo.com; Tammam, Ahmed K., E-mail: physicsoman@yahoo.com

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis and characterization of new luminescent ferroelectric [(CH{sub 3})(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 3}P]{sub 2}MnBr{sub 4} organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) are reported. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the following phases: {sup P2/m} {sup (280 K)} Phase (IV) {sup P21} {sup (298 K)} Phase (III) {sup Pna21} {sup (350 K)} Phase (II) {sup Pnma} {sup (370 K)} Phase (I). Room temperature lattice parameters are a = 9.6233 (Å), b = 12.5653 (Å) c = 16.4503 (Å) and β = 105.6° (T = 298 K). UV-VIS and Ac magnetic susceptibility confirm tetrahedral symmetry of [MnBr{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. DSC and dielectric measurements showed four phase transitions at T{sub 4peak} = 279.1 ± 1 K (ΔS = 1.03 J/mol K), T{sub 3peak} = 300.1 ± 2 K (ΔS = 2.33 J/mol K), T{sub 2peakt} = 353.2 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.68 J/mol K) and T{sub 1peak} = 379.1 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.43 J/mol K). Calculated lattice potential energy values vary from 827 (kJ/mol) at 280 K to (797 kJ/mol) at 370 K. Ac conductivity measurements (220 < T(K) < 400) and (0.081 < f (kHz) < 30) are presented. It is ferroelectric with Curie temperature T{sub c} = 309 K. Hybrid is semiconductor in the temperature range 309 ± 14 K, where conductivity follows Jonscher’s universal dielectric response otherwise it is an insulator where crossover to super-linear power law prevails. Comparison to the corresponding chloride is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Plot of real part of permittivity [ln(ε′)] versus temperature (K). - Highlights: • Conductivity crossover from SlPL to UDR is confirmed. • Change from semiconductor to insulator. • Structural phase transformation.

  10. Improved efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires with small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sehoon; Park, Hyesung; Cheng, Jayce J; Rekemeyer, Paul H; Gradečak, Silvija

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate improved photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanowire/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofiber hybrid devices using an interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires. Formation of cascade energy levels between the ZnO nanowire and P3HT nanofiber was achieved by interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires using small molecules tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI). The successful demonstration of improved device performance owing to the cascade energy levels by small molecule modification is a promising approach toward highly efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. (paper)

  11. Bi-hybrid coatings: polyaniline-montmorillonite filler in organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Kotek, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1020-1027 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * montmorillonite * organic-inorganic composite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  12. Understanding the Slow Transient Optoelectronic Response of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Daniel Louis

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites, particularly methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3), have emerged within the past decade as an exciting class of photovoltaic materials. In less than ten years, MAPbI3-based photovoltaic devices have seen unprecedented performance growth, with photoconversion efficiency increasing from 3% to over 22%, making it competitive with traditional high-efficiency solar cells. Furthermore, the fabrication of MAPbI3 devices utilize low-temperature solution processing, which could facilitate ultra low cost manufacturing. However, MAPbI3 suffers from significant instabilities under working conditions that have limited their applications outside of the laboratory. The instability of the MAPbI3 material can be generalized as a complex, slow transient optoelectronic response (STOR). The mechanism of the generalized STOR is dependent on the native defects of MAPbI3, but detailed understanding of the material defect properties is complicated by the complex ionic bonding of MAPbI3. Furthermore, characterization of the intrinsic material's response is complicated by the diverse approach to material processing and device architecture across laboratories around the world. In order to understand and mitigate the significant problems of MAPbI3 devices, a new approach focused on the material response, rather than the full device response, must be pursued. This dissertation highlights the work to analyze and mitigate the STOR intrinsic to MAPbI3. An experimental platform was developed based on lateral interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays capable of monitoring the current and photoluminescence response simultaneously. By correlating the dynamics of the current and photoluminescence (PL) responses, both charge trapping and ion migration mechanisms were identified to contribute to the STOR. Next, a novel fabrication technique is introduced that is capable of reliably depositing MAPbI3 thin films with grain sizes at least an order of magnitude

  13. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  14. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Open a New Era for Low-Cost, High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ramping solar energy to electricity conversion efficiencies of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells during the last five years have opened new doors to low-cost solar energy. The record power conversion efficiency has climbed to 19.3% in August 2014 and then jumped to 20.1% in November. In this review, the main achievements for perovskite solar cells categorized from a viewpoint of device structure are overviewed. The challenges and prospects for future development of this field are also briefly presented.

  15. Density Functional Theory Simulations of Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications: Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites and III/V Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Even

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentialities of density functional theory (DFT based methodologies are explored for photovoltaic materials through the modeling of the structural and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites and GaAs/GaP heterostructures. They show how the properties of these bulk materials, as well as atomistic relaxations, interfaces, and electronic band-lineups in small heterostructures, can be thoroughly investigated. Some limitations of available standard DFT codes are discussed. Recent improvements able to treat many-body effects or based on density-functional perturbation theory are also reviewed in the context of issues relevant to photovoltaic technologies.

  16. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  17. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  18. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Han, Z.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.

    2014-02-01

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  19. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Han, Z.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature

  20. Quasiparticle band gap of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites: Crystal structure, spin-orbit coupling, and self-energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    2016-02-01

    The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.

  1. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Selected Parameters of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Membranes Based on Various Polymers and Nd-Fe-B Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybak A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on EC, PPO polymer matrices and various magnetic powder microparticles were synthesized and studied. Constant pressure permeation technique and the Time Lag method were used to obtain the gas transport coefficients. The mechanical, rheological and magnetic parameters of magnetic hybrid membranes were examined. It was found that their separation and gas transport properties (D, P, S and α were improved with the decrease in powder particle size and the increase of membrane’s remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The increase of the magnetic powder addition and a decrease of its granulation improved also mechanical and rheological parameters of the tested membranes. This improvement also had a positive effect on their gas separation properties and their potential usage in the future.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes based on polymolybdates with intrinsic photosensitive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-03-14

    A series of organic–inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes {[RE2(PO)2(H2O)10][H2Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4]}·5PO·2(CH3CN)·nH2O [n = 23–42, RE(III) = Nd(III), 1; Sm(III), 2; Eu(III), 3; Gd(III), 4; Dy(III), 5; Er(III), 6; Tm(III), 7; Yb(III), 8; Lu(III), 9; Y(III), 10; PO = piperidin-2-one] have been synthesized and fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis spectra. Structural analysis reveals that compounds 1-10 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. Each compound contains a centrosymmetric anionic cluster [Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4](8-), which could be described as the derivative of [Mo36O112(OH2)16](8-) with four water molecules substituted by organic PO molecules. Each {Mo18} subunit connects with one RE(III) ion via its two terminal O atoms from two independent {MoO6} octahedra. The eight coordinated RE(III) ion with a distorted tetragonal antiprism coordination geometry is also surrounded by another six oxygen atoms, five of them from five water molecules and the final one from one PO molecule. Compounds 1-10 show considerable photosensitive behavior under visible light excitation. In addition, compound 3 exhibits three emission bands at 580, 595 and 617 nm in the solid state, which could be assigned to (5)D0→(7)F0, (5)D0→(7)F1 and (5)D0→(7)F2 transitions of Eu(III) ions, respectively.

  4. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  5. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  6. Syntheses, structures and properties of four organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging rare-earth-containing phosphotungstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Pang, Jingjing; Zhai, Cuiping; Zhao, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Four novel organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging dimeric rare-earth (RE)-containing phosphotungstates [H2N(CH3)2]8[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2·24H2O (RE = HoIII for 1, ErIII for 2, TbIII for 3, DyIII for 4; HNA = nicotinic acid) have been synthesized from the reaction of trivacant Keggin precursor Na9[α-PW9O34]•16H2O, RE(NO3)3·6H2O, HNA by employing dimethylamine hydrochloride as organic solubilizing agent in the conventional aqueous solution system, which have been further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis indicates that the hybrid dimeric {[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2}8- polyoxoanion in 1-4 can be considered as two head-to-head mono-RE-containing Keggin [RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]4- subunits bridged by two (η2,μ-1,1)-nicotinate linkers, which stands for the first organic-inorganic hybrid RE-containing phosphotungstates functionalized by nicotinate ligands. What's more, the solid-state photoluminescence properties and lifetime decay behaviors of 1-4 have been measured at room temperature and their photoluminescence spectra display the characteristic emission bands of corresponding trivalent RE cations.

  7. Organic-inorganic hybrid polyionic liquid based polyoxometalate as nano porous material for selective oxidation of sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Shahebrahimi, Shabnam

    2017-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nano porous materials based on poly(ionic liquid)-polyoxometalate (PIL-POM) were reported. These hybrid materials were synthesized by the reaction of 4-vinyl pyridine with 1,3-propanesultone, followed by the polymerization and also sulfonate-functionalized cross-linked poly(4-vinylpyridine) and combining these polymers with H5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2). Activity of prepared PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids were investigated as catalysts for oxidation of sulfides with H2O2 as oxidant. For understanding catalytic activities of the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids in oxidation of sulfides, effect of catalyst composition, substrate, and reaction conditions were studied. The results show that the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids are active as selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of sulfides and can be recovered and reused. The catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, TGA-DSC, XRD, SEM/EDX, BET, CV and zeta potential measurement. Also, average molecular weight of prepared catalysts were measured.

  8. Degradation and Its Control of Ultraviolet Avalanche Photodiodes Using PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomoki; Uchida, Shigeto; Tanaka, Keita; Fujisawa, Takanobu; Kasada, Hirofumi; Ando, Koshi; Akaiwa, Kazuaki; Ichino, Kunio

    2018-05-01

    We investigated device degradation in PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe organic-inorganic hybrid ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes (UV-APDs). ZnSSe/n-GaAs wafers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and PEDOT:PSS window layers were formed by inkjet technique. We observed rapid degradation with APD-mode stress (˜ 30 V) in the N2 (4 N) atmosphere, while we observed no marked change in forward bias current stress and photocurrent stress. In the case of a vacuum condition, we observed no detectable degradation in the dark avalanche current with APD-mode stress. Therefore, the degradation in the PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe interface under the APD-mode stress was caused by the residual water vapor or oxygen in the N2 atmosphere and could be controlled by vacuum packaging.

  9. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets with Bright, Tunable Photoluminescence and High Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, An-Liang; Fan, Zhanxi; Chen, Bo; Tan, Chaoliang; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanosheets (NSs) are attracting increasing research interest due to their unique properties and promising applications. Here, for the first time, we report the facile synthesis of single- and few-layer free-standing phenylethylammonium lead halide perovskite NSs, that is, (PEA) 2 PbX 4 (PEA=C 8 H 9 NH 3 , X=Cl, Br, I). Importantly, their lateral size can be tuned by changing solvents. Moreover, these ultrathin 2D perovskite NSs exhibit highly efficient and tunable photoluminescence, as well as superior stability. Our study provides a simple and general method for the controlled synthesis of 2D perovskite NSs, which may offer a new avenue for their fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Full color stop bands in hybrid organic/inorganic block copolymer photonic gels by swelling-freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changjoon; Kim, Eunjoo; Baek, Heeyoel; Hwang, Kyosung; Kwak, Dongwoo; Kang, Youngjong; Thomas, Edwin L

    2009-06-10

    We report a facile way of fabricating hybrid organic/inorganic photonic gels by selective swelling and subsequent infiltration of SiO(2) into one type of lamellar microdomain previously self-assembled from modest-molecular-weight block copolymers. Transparent, in-plane lamellar films were first prepared by assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and subsequently the P2VP domains were swollen with a selective solvent, methanol. The swollen structures were then fixated by synthesizing SiO(2) nanoparticles within P2VP domains. The resulting frozen photonic gels (f-photonic gels) exhibited strong reflective colors with stop bands across the visible region of wavelengths.

  11. Methylammonium Bismuth Iodide as a Lead-Free, Stable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Solar Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Brandt, Riley E; Osherov, Anna; Stevanović, Vladan; Stranks, Samuel D; Wilson, Mark W B; Kim, Hyunho; Akey, Austin J; Perkins, John D; Kurchin, Rachel C; Poindexter, Jeremy R; Wang, Evelyn N; Bawendi, Moungi G; Bulović, Vladimir; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-02-18

    Methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX3 ) perovskites exhibit exceptional carrier transport properties. But their commercial deployment as solar absorbers is currently limited by their intrinsic instability in the presence of humidity and their lead content. Guided by our theoretical predictions, we explored the potential of methylammonium bismuth iodide (MBI) as a solar absorber through detailed materials characterization. We synthesized phase-pure MBI by solution and vapor processing. In contrast to MAPbX3, MBI is air stable, forming a surface layer that does not increase the recombination rate. We found that MBI luminesces at room temperature, with the vapor-processed films exhibiting superior photoluminescence (PL) decay times that are promising for photovoltaic applications. The thermodynamic, electronic, and structural features of MBI that are amenable to these properties are also present in other hybrid ternary bismuth halide compounds. Through MBI, we demonstrate a lead-free and stable alternative to MAPbX3 that has a similar electronic structure and nanosecond lifetimes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Diversity and Opportunities for Semiconductor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices based on three-dimensional perovskites, (Cs, MA, FA)Pb(I, Br)3 (MA =methylammonium, FA =formamidinium), have attracted substantial recent interest, because of the unprecedented rise in power conversion efficiency to values above 20%, which in turn is made possible by the near ideal band gap, strong optical absorption, high carrier mobilities, long minority carrier lifetimes, and relatively benign defects and grain boundaries for the absorbers. Some of the same properties that render these materials near-ideal for PV, also make them attractive for LED and other optoelectronic applications. Despite the high levels of device performance, the incorporation of the heavy metal lead, coupled with issues of device stability and electrical hysteresis pose challenges for commercializing these exciting technologies. This talk will provide a perspective on and discuss recent advances related to the broader perovskite family, focusing on the extraordinary structural/chemical diversity, including ability to control structural/electronic dimensionality, substitute on the organic cation, metal or halogen sites, and prospects of multi-functionality arising from separately engineered organic/inorganic structural components (e.g., see). Further exploration within this perovskite structural and chemical space offers exciting opportunities for future energy and electronic materials design. This work has been financially supported by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Dept. of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006712.

  13. Flexible organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on conjugated polymer and ZnO nanorod array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Fei; Kim, Kyusang; Martinez, Daniel; Thapa, Resham; Ahyi, Ayayi; Williams, John; Park, Minseo; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Sungkoo; Lim, Eunhee; Lee, Kyeong K

    2012-01-01

    We report on the photovoltaic characteristics of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ‘flexible’ transparent substrates. The solar cell device is composed of ZnO nanorod array and the bulk heterojunction structured organic layer which is the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The ZnO nanorod array was grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates via a low-temperature (85 °C) aqueous solution process. The blend solution consisting of conjugated polymer P3HT and fullerene PCBM was spin coated at a low spinning rate of 400 rpm on top of the ZnO nanorod array structure and then the photoactive layer was slow dried at room temperature in air to promote its infiltration into the nanorod network. As a top electrode, silver was sputtered on top of the photoactive layer. The flexible solar cell with the structure of PET/ITO/ZnO thin film/ZnO nanorods/P3HT:PCBM/Ag exhibited a photovoltaic performance with an open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.52 V, a short circuit current density (J SC ) of 9.82 mA cm −2 , a fill factor (FF) of 35% and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.78%. All the measurements were performed under 100 mW cm −2 of illumination with an air mass 1.5 G filter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of investigation into the fabrication and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on bulk heterojunction structured conjugated polymer/fullerene photoactive layer and ZnO nanorod array constructed on flexible transparent substrates. (paper)

  14. Multiple-Stage Structure Transformation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3 ) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2 ) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  15. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  16. Oxide Semiconductor-Based Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Won; Choi, Jeong-Seon; Park, Jung Ho; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Seok; Chu, Hye Yong

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate flexible organic/inorganic hybrid thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a polydimethysilox- ane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. The active channel and gate insulator of the hybrid TFT are composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF- TrFE)] with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively. It has been confirmed that the fabri- cated TFT display excellent characteristics: the recorded field-effect mobility, sub-threshold voltage swing, and I(on)/I(off) ratio were approximately 0.35 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 1.5 V/decade, and 10(4), respectively. These characteristics did not experience any degradation at a bending radius of 15 mm. These results correspond to the first demonstration of a hybrid-type TFT using an organic gate insulator/oxide semiconducting active channel structure fabricated on PDMS elastomer, and demonstrate the feasibility of a promising device in a flexible electronic system.

  17. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu

    2017-02-13

    Flexible 2D inorganic MoS and organic g-CN hybrid thin film photodetectors with tunable composition and photodetection properties are developed using simple solution processing. The hybrid films fabricated on paper substrate show broadband photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed at a bending radius of ≈2 mm for hundreds of cycles. The detailed charge transfer and separation processes at the interface between the 2D materials in the hybrid films are confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability.

  18. Near infrared photodetector based on polymer and indium nitride nanorod organic/inorganic hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Wei-Jung; Li, Shao-Sian; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2010-01-01

    We propose a nanostructured near infrared photodetector based on indium nitride (InN) nanorod/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrids. The current-voltage characteristic of the hybrid device demonstrates the typical p-n heterojunction diode behavior, consisting of p-type polymer and n-type InN nanorods. The device shows a photoresponse range of 900-1260 nm under various reverse biases. An external quantum efficiency of 3.4% at 900 nm operated at -10 V reverse bias was obtained, which is comparable with devices based on lead sulfide and lead selenide hybrid systems.

  19. Synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid gel with acid activated clay after γ-ray radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hoik; Sohn, Daewon

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid gel was prepared from acid activated clay (AA clay) and acrylic acid by gamma ray irradiation. Irradiated inorganic particles which have peroxide groups act as initiator because it generates oxide radicals by increasing temperature. Inorganic nanoparticles which are rigid part in hybrid gel also contribute to increase the mechanical property as a crosslinker. We prepared two hybrid gels to compare the effect of acid activated treatment of clay; one is synthesized with raw clay particles and another is synthesized with AA clay particles. The composition and structure of AA clay particles and raw clay particles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence instrument and surface area analyzer. And chemical and physical property of hybrid gel with different ratios of acrylic acid and clay particle was tested by Raman spectroscope and universal testing machine (UTM). The synthesized hydrogel with 76% gel contents can elongated approximately 1000% of its original size.

  20. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, J. N.; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires

  1. Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Honghua; Raissa, Raissa; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Adjokatse, Sampson; Blake, Graeme R.; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the

  2. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, J. N., E-mail: heyman@macalester.edu; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D. [Physics Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J. [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  3. Biofilm formed from organic-inorganic hybrid tri-ureasil PPO for transdermal drug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Eduardo F.; Jesus, Natana Aparecida; Oliveira, Pollyana Francielli; Furtado, Ricardo A.; Tavares, Denise Crispim, E-mail: eduardo.molina@unifran.edu.br [Universidade de Franca (UNIFRAN), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we evaluated the viability of the tri-ureasil PPO hybrid as biofilm forming for release of active substances such as lignans. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). The swelling degree and the influence of the catalyst on time of formation of a hybrid biofilm were evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the materials were evaluated using the XTT colorimetric assay where GM07492A strain was treated with different concentrations of the hybrid. The time of film formation depends on the quantity of the catalyst used in the synthesis. By varying the catalyst quantity during the synthesis, a good flexible film can be obtained, which is easy to be coated on the skin surface and in situ formed a very thin and comfortable film with an aesthetical appearance. Moreover, the hybrid films were colorless and transparent. The toxicity/viability of all samples has also been studied using normal human cells for future applications. The hybrid matrices did not significantly reduce cell viability, demonstrating that siloxane-polyether materials were biocompatible. All the materials presenting a amorphous structure (XRD) and the characteristic bands of vibrations (FTIR) of the polymer chain do not change after incorporation of lignans. (author)

  4. Biofilm formed from organic-inorganic hybrid tri-ureasil PPO for transdermal drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Eduardo F.; Jesus, Natana Aparecida; Oliveira, Pollyana Francielli; Furtado, Ricardo A.; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In this work we evaluated the viability of the tri-ureasil PPO hybrid as biofilm forming for release of active substances such as lignans. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). The swelling degree and the influence of the catalyst on time of formation of a hybrid biofilm were evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the materials were evaluated using the XTT colorimetric assay where GM07492A strain was treated with different concentrations of the hybrid. The time of film formation depends on the quantity of the catalyst used in the synthesis. By varying the catalyst quantity during the synthesis, a good flexible film can be obtained, which is easy to be coated on the skin surface and in situ formed a very thin and comfortable film with an aesthetical appearance. Moreover, the hybrid films were colorless and transparent. The toxicity/viability of all samples has also been studied using normal human cells for future applications. The hybrid matrices did not significantly reduce cell viability, demonstrating that siloxane-polyether materials were biocompatible. All the materials presenting a amorphous structure (XRD) and the characteristic bands of vibrations (FTIR) of the polymer chain do not change after incorporation of lignans. (author)

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  6. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Integrated Optical Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids for Photonics-on-a-Chip Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana R; Vicente, Carlos M S; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Silva, Nuno J O; Tacão, Marta; Costa, João P da; Lima, Mário; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2018-03-12

    The development of portable low-cost integrated optics-based biosensors for photonics-on-a-chip devices for real-time diagnosis are of great interest, offering significant advantages over current analytical methods. We report the fabrication and characterization of an optical sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to monitor the growing concentration of bacteria in a liquid medium. The device pattern was imprinted on transparent self-patternable organic-inorganic di-ureasil hybrid films by direct UV-laser, reducing the complexity and cost production compared with lithographic techniques or three-dimensional (3D) patterning using femtosecond lasers. The sensor performance was evaluated using, as an illustrative example, E. coli cell growth in an aqueous medium. The measured sensitivity (2 × 10 -4 RIU) and limit of detection (LOD = 2 × 10 -4 ) are among the best values known for low-refractive index contrast sensors. Furthermore, the di-ureasil hybrid used to produce this biosensor has additional advantages, such as mechanical flexibility, thermal stability, and low insertion losses due to fiber-device refractive index mismatch (~1.49). Therefore, the proposed sensor constitutes a direct, compact, fast, and cost-effective solution for monitoring the concentration of lived-cells.

  8. The Formation of Exciplex and Improved Turn-on Voltage in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan-Fei; Zhao Su-Ling; Xu Zheng; Kong Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to take advantage of organic and inorganic materials, we chose the polymer MEH-PPV as the luminous layer and ZnS as the electron transporting layer to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes (HOILEDs): ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/ZnS(20 nm)/Al by thermal evaporation and spin coating. Compared with the single-layer device ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/Al, spectral broadening and a slightly red shift are observed. Compared with the pure organic device ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/BCP (20 nm)/Al and combined with the energy level structure diagram, it is concluded that the spectral broadening and red shift are due to the exciplex luminescence at the interface between MEH-PPV and ZnS or BCP. In addition, the hybrid inorganic-organic device shows a lower turn-on voltage, but the current efficiency is lower than that of the pure organic device with the same structure

  9. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  10. Advances in organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants in different types of food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Strontium-doped organic-inorganic hybrids towards three-dimensional scaffolds for osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Łukasz, E-mail: lukasz.john@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland); Podgórska, Marta [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland); Nedelec, Jean-Marie [Université Clermont Auvergne, SIGMA Clermont, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63178 Aubiere (France); Cwynar-Zając, Łucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wrocław Medical University, 6a Chałubińskiego, 50-368 Wrocław (Poland); Dzięgiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wrocław Medical University, 6a Chałubińskiego, 50-368 Wrocław (Poland); Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy in Conservative and Interventional Medicine, 35 Paderewskiego, 51-612 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic organic–inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds are developed to complement or replace damaged fragments in bone tissue surgery. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast method to prepare composite material for bone engineering, avoiding time consuming and complex methodologies. The resulting materials (also called in this work as hybrid composites or hybrid scaffolds) have a three-dimensional macroporous polymer-like network derived from triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) monomers, with incorporated calcium, strontium, and phosphate ions. The materials were fully characterized using FT-IR, biomineralization studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scratch tests, Young's modulus and compressive strength tests, and gas physisorption. We report a comprehensive study on the in vitro effect of novel strontium doped materials on human bone cells. In vitro investigations were conducted using a normal human osteoblast cell line that mimics the cellular events of the in vivo intramembranous bone formation process. The materials do not have a negative impact on the survival of the normal human osteoblasts; moreover, materials doped with strontium show that not only are cells able to survive, but they also attach to and grow on a bioscaffolds surface. For this reason, they may be used in future in vivo experiments. - Highlights: • New hybrid scaffolds derived from TEVS and HEMA doped with Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions have been developed. • A comprehensive characterization of the scaffolds for regenerative medicine was performed. • The incorporation of Sr{sup 2+} ions into the scaffolds was non-cytotoxic to the osteoblasts.

  12. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings and films containing conducting polyaniline nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Prokeš, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 1 (2004), s. 343-348 ISSN 1022-1360. [Electrical and Related Properties of Polymers and Other Organic Solids /9./. Prague, 14.07.2002-18.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111; GA ČR GA203/01/0735 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * films * hybrid networks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2004

  13. Organic inorganic hybrid coating (poly(methyl methacrylate)/monodisperse silica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, E.; Almaral, J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castaño, V.; Rodríguez, V.

    2005-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-silica hybrid coatings were prepared from methyl methacrylate and monodisperse colloidal silica prepared by the Stöber method. The surfaces of the spheres were successfully modified by chemical reaction with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) to compatibilise the organic and inorganic components of the precursor solution mixture. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on glass substrates. They result with good properties of homogeneity, optical transparence, hardness and adhesion.

  14. Cation-Dependent Light-Induced Halide Demixing in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter-Fella, CM; Ngo, QP; Cefarin, N; Gardener, K; Tamura, N; Stan, CV; Drisdell, WS; Javey, A; Toma, FM; Sharp, ID

    2018-01-01

    © 2018 American Chemical Society. Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photo-induced halide demixing using in-situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of comp...

  15. Piezoelectric scattering limited mobility of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Kong, Xianghua; Chen, Xiaobin; Cooke, David G.; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters for semiconducting materials and their use in optoelectronic devices. Here we report a systematic first principles analysis of the acoustic phonon scattering mechanism that limits the mobility of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskites. Due to the unique hybrid organic-inorganic structure, the mechanical, electronic and transport properties are dominated by the same factor, i.e. the weak interatomic bond and the easy rotation of methylammonium (MA) molecules under strain. Both factors make MAPbI3 soft. Rotation of MA molecule induces a transverse shift between Pb and I atoms, resulting in a very low deformation potential and a strong piezoelectricity in MAPbI3. Hence the carrier mobility of pristine MAPbI3 is limited by the piezoelectric scattering, which is consistent to the form of its temperature dependence. Our calculations suggest that in the pristine limit, a high mobility of about several thousand cm2 V−1 S−1 is expected for MAPbI3. PMID:28150743

  16. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hollow Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles for Efficient Ultrasound-Based Imaging and Controlled Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel anticancer drug delivery system with contrast-enhanced ultrasound-imaging performance was synthesized by a typical hard-templating method using monodispersed silica nanoparticles as the templates, which was based on unique molecularly organic/inorganic hybrid hollow periodic mesoporous organosilicas (HPMOs. The highly dispersed HPMOs show the uniform spherical morphology, large hollow interior, and well-defined mesoporous structures, which are very beneficial for ultrasound-based theranostics. The obtained HPMOs exhibit excellent performances in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography both in vitro and in vivo and can be used for the real-time determination of the progress of lesion tissues during the chemotherapeutic process. Importantly, hydrophobic paclitaxel- (PTX- loaded HPMOs combined with ultrasound irradiation show fast ultrasound responsiveness for controlled drug release and higher in vitro and in vivo tumor inhibition rates compared with free PTX and PTX-loaded HPMOs, which is due to the enhanced ultrasound-triggered drug release and ultrasound-induced cavitation effect. Therefore, the achieved novel HPMOs-based nanoparticle systems will find broad application potentials in clinically ultrasound-based imaging and auxiliary tumor chemotherapy.

  17. Broadband-Emitting 2 D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Based on Cyclohexane-bis(methylamonium) Cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Ishita; Bruno, Annalisa; Bahulayan, Damodaran; Goh, Teck Wee; Ghosh, Biplab; Ganguly, Rakesh; Cortecchia, Daniele; Sum, Tze Chien; Soci, Cesare; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh Gautam

    2017-10-09

    A new broadband-emitting 2 D hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (CyBMA)PbBr 4 based on highly flexible cis-1,3-bis(methylaminohydrobromide)cyclohexane (CyBMABr) core has been designed, synthesized, and investigated, highlighting the effects of stereoisomerism of the templating cation on the formation and properties of the resulting perovskite. The new 2 D material has high exciton binding energy of 340 meV and a broad emission spanning from 380 to 750 nm, incorporating a prominent excitonic band and a less intense broad peak at room temperature. Significant changes in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum were observed at lower temperatures, showing remarkable enhancement in the intensity of the broadband at the cost of excitonic emission. Temperature-dependent PL mapping indicates the effective role of only a narrow band of excitonic absorption in the generation of the active channel for emission. Based on the evidences obtained from the photophysical investigations, we attributed the evolution of the broad B-band of (CyBMA)PbBr 4 to excitonic self-trapped states. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  19. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  20. Chemical sensors of benzene and toluene based on inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers elaborated by a sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo Munoz, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    As mono-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH) are a matter of concern in terms of pollution, and are to be monitored due to new regulations regarding air quality control, this research thesis first aims at explaining why these compounds are to be monitored, at recalling their sources, at outlining what we know about their negative impact on health and how this impact is determined, which are the means implemented to monitor these compounds and which are their drawbacks, and at recalling which requirements are defined by European directives. The author then reports a literature survey of the current technology regarding chemical sensors, and identifies the required characteristics of an ideal sensor. The author proposes a review of studied performed on sol-gel process and of inorganic polymer synthesis methods based on sol-gel process. He reports the synthesis and characterization of inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic host matrices, monolithic or in thin layers, used to produce MAH sensors. A matrix pore local polarity study is reported. Benzene and toluene trapping is studied with respect to the polarity and thickness of the host matrix. Pollutant trapping is directly monitored by their absorption in the near-UV and visible range. The author finally reports the study of interactions between fluorescent probe molecules and pollutants, as well as the effect of an interfering gas (oxygen) on the fluorescence of probe molecules [fr

  1. The effect of dimensionality of nanostructured carbon on the architecture of organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R D K; Depan, D; Shah, J

    2013-08-21

    The natural tendency of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to agglomerate is an underlying reason that prevents the realization of their full potential. On the other hand, covalent functionalization of CNTs to control dispersion leads to disruption of π-conjugation in CNTs and the non-covalent functionalization leads to a weak CNT-polymer interface. To overcome these challenges, we describe the characteristics of fostering of direct nucleation of polymers on nanostructured carbon (CNTs of diameters (~2-200 nm), carbon nanofibers (~200-300 nm), and graphene), which culminates in interfacial adhesion, resulting from electrostatic and van der Waals interaction in the hybrid nanostructured carbon-polymer architecture. Furthermore, the structure is tunable through a change in undercooling. High density polyethylene and polypropylene were selected as two model polymers and two sets of experiments were carried out. The first set of experiments was carried out using CNTs of diameter ~2-5 nm to explore the effect of undercooling and polymer concentration. The second set of experiments was focused on studying the effect of dimensionality on geometrical confinements. The periodic crystallization of polyethylene on small diameter CNTs is demonstrated to be a consequence of the geometrical confinement effect, rather than epitaxy, such that petal-like disks nucleate on large diameter CNTs, carbon nanofibers, and graphene. The application of the process is illustrated in terms of fabricating a system for cellular uptake and bioimaging.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  4. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Based on MCM-41 and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana M. Alahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the covalent attachment of three different calix[4]arenes (calix[4]arene (C4, p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (C4S, and p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene (PC4 to MCM-41, using a three-step modification process. 3-Chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (ClPTS was first attached to the mesoporous silica surface and subsequently converted to amides via the reaction with toluene diisocyanate (TDI. Finally, calix[4]arene derivatives attached to the isocyanate ending remained available on toluene di-iso-cyanate. Changes in the surface properties of the mesoporous silica caused by the chemical modification were monitored using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA, and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verify that the calix[4]arene derivatives are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by the X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis. These materials were then used to evaluate the sorption properties of some organotins compounds (Tributyltin (TBT, Triphenyltin (TPT, and Dibutyltin (DBT.

  5. Structural versus electrical properties of an organic-inorganic hybrid material based on sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rached, Asma; Guionneau, Philippe; Lebraud, Eric; Mhiri, Tahar; Elaoud, Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    A new organo-sulfate compound is obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and is characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) at variable temperatures. The benzylammonium monohydrogenosulfate of formula C6H5CH2NH3+. HSO4-, denoted (BAS), crystallizes in the monoclinic system P21/c space group with the following parameters at room temperature: a=5.623(5)Å, b=20.239(5) Å, c=8.188(5)Å, β=94.104(5)°. The crystal structure consists of infinite parallel two-dimensional planes built by HSO4- anions and C6H5CH2NH3+ cations interconnected by strong O-H….. O and N-H….. O hydrogen bonds. A phase transition is detected at 350 K by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and confirmed by powder XRD. Conductivity measurements using the impedance spectroscopy technique allow to determine the conductivity relaxation parameters associated with the H+ conduction from an analysis of the M"/M"max spectrum measured in a wide temperature range. Transport properties of this material appear to be due to an H+ ion hopping mechanism.

  6. Cation-Dependent Light-Induced Halide Demixing in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Ngo, Quynh P; Cefarin, Nicola; Gardner, Kira L; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V; Drisdell, Walter S; Javey, Ali; Toma, Francesca M; Sharp, Ian D

    2018-06-13

    Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long-term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photoinduced halide demixing using in situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of composition and phase changes in CH(NH 2 ) 2 CsPb-halide (FACsPb-) and CH 3 NH 3 Pb-halide (MAPb-) perovskites upon illumination, thereby providing insights into why FACs-perovskites are less prone to halide demixing than MA-perovskites. We find that halide demixing occurs in both materials. However, the I-rich domains formed during demixing accumulate strain in FACsPb-perovskites but readily relax in MA-perovskites. The accumulated strain energy is expected to act as a stabilizing force against halide demixing and may explain the higher Br composition threshold for demixing to occur in FACsPb-halides. In addition, we find that while halide demixing leads to a quenching of the high-energy photoluminescence emission from MA-perovskites, the emission is enhanced from FACs-perovskites. This behavior points to a reduction of nonradiative recombination centers in FACs-perovskites arising from the demixing process and buildup of strain. FACsPb-halide perovskites exhibit excellent intrinsic material properties with photoluminescence quantum yields that are comparable to MA-perovskites. Because improved stability is achieved without sacrificing electronic properties, these compositions are better candidates for photovoltaic applications, especially as wide bandgap absorbers in tandem cells.

  7. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-01

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed.Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled

  8. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao, E-mail: yaoyao@fudan.edu.cn; Wu, Chang-Qin, E-mail: cqw@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  9. Preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C4H9NH3)2CuCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zelong; Chen Hongzheng; Shi Minmin; Wu Gang; Zhou Renjia; Yang Zhisheng; Wang Mang; Tang Benzhong

    2005-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 was prepared via the reaction between copper chloride and butylammonium chloride. Its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and elemental analysis. Its thin film was obtained by spin-coating, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated the formation of two-dimensional layered perovskites structure, with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The electronic structure, thermal properties and electrical properties of the hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 were also studied by UV-vis, photoluminescience (PL), TGA, DSC, and Hall measurement

  10. Characteristics of oxidative homolytic alkylation of imidazoles and organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks from large aromatic building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunhao

    The discovery of the dramatic in vitro antimalarial activity of 2-iodo-L-histidine and 2-fluoro-L-histidine, as well as their in vivo limitations, has prompted a systematic search for novel 2-substituted imidazoles and bioimidazoles as agents against human malaria. Previous research has shown that the regioselective alkyl free radical substitution on imidazoles and bioimidazoles could serve as a simple and efficient route to a wide variety of 2-alkylimidazoles. In this research, this methodology was successfully extended to include alkyl radicals substituted with various functional groups such as amide or ester. While this novel methodology should be of some synthetic utility when tertiary radicals are used, poorer yields are usually encountered in the cases of primary radicals. In the second part of this dissertation, a series of novel ligands containing multiple ortho-bis(organothio) groups were synthesized and their coordination and network forming properties were studied in the context of crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks. For the syntheses of HRTTs [2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(alkylthio)triphenylenes], a simpler, safer and higher yielding one-pot process was developed. Quenching the hexa-anions (formed when sodium methylthiolate was refluxed with hexabromotriphenylene) with alkyl halides or acid chlorides afforded HRTTs. This newly developed process was also successfully expanded to the pyrene system. In the syntheses of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes, it was shown for the first time that the oxidative cyclization process is applicable to thioether containing systems, pointing to a novel strategy for the preparation of this type of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes. Treating these novel ligands with various metal salts [i.e. bismuth(III) chloride and bismuth(III) bromide] under carefully controlled conditions resulted in a series of air-stable semiconductive coordination networks. Their single crystal structures were

  11. Nearly Perfect Triplet-Triplet Energy Transfer from Wannier Excitons to Naphthalene in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Quantum-Well Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, K.; Inomata, M.; Kato, Y.; Kunugita, H.; Era, M.

    2008-06-01

    We report the observation of extremely efficient energy transfer (greater than 99%) in an organic-inorganic hybrid quantum-well structure consisting of perovskite-type lead bromide well layers and naphthalene-linked ammonium barrier layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements confirm that the transfer is triplet-triplet Dexter-type energy transfer from Wannier excitons in the inorganic well to the triplet state of naphthalene molecules in the organic barrier. Using measurements in the 10 300 K temperature range, we also investigated the temperature dependence of the energy transfer.

  12. Sb(III)-Imprinted Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Sorbent Prepared by Hydrothermal-Assisted Surface Imprinting Technique for Selective Adsorption of Sb(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Hong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Sb(III)-imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent was prepared by hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Hydrothermal-assisted process can improve the selectivity of the Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent for Sb(III) due to stable control of temperature and pressure. The Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent IIS indicated higher selectivity for Sb(III), had high static adsorption capacity of 37.3 mg g-1 for Sb(III), displayed stable adsorption capacity in pH range from 4 to 8, reached an rapid adsorption equilibrium within 30 min. According to the correlation coefficient ( r 2 > 0.99), the experimental data fitted better the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarchi, A.A.; Pezzin, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  14. Hexatungstate subunit as building block in the hydrothermal synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials: synthesis, structure and optical properties of Co2(bpy)6 (W6O19)2 (bpy=4,4'-bipyridine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lijuan; Wei Yongge; Wang Chongchen; Guo Hongyou; Wang Ping

    2004-01-01

    A hydrothermal reaction of WO 3 , CoCl 2 and 4,4'-bipyridine, yields a novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, Co 2 (bpy) 6 (W 6 O 19 ) 2 , at 170 deg. C. X-ray single crystal structure determination reveals a two-dimensional covalent structure belonging to monoclinic crystal system, space group C2/c, with cell parameters a=19.971(4) A, b=11.523(2) A, c=16.138(3) A, β=96.49(3) deg., V=3690.0 A 3 and Z=2. The hexatungstate, [W 6 O 19 ] 2- , acts as a building block in bidentate fashion to bridge the Co(II) centers in the crystal structure. The title compound is found to have an optical energy gap of 2.2 eV from UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra

  15. Revealing the properties of defects formed by CH3NH2 molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite MAPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ao; Yan, Jun; Li, Dan; Chen, Yunlin

    2017-03-01

    The properties of defects in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite are widely studied from the first-principles calculation. However, the defects of methylamine (methylamine = CH3NH2), which would be easily formed during the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, are rarely investigated. Thermodynamic properties as well as defect states of methylamine embedded MAPbX3 (MA = methyl-ammonium = CH3NH3, X = Br, I) are studied based on first-principles calculations of density functional theory. It was found that there is a shallow defect level near the highest occupied molecular orbital, which induced by the interstitial methylamine defect in MAPbBr3, will lead to an increase of photoluminescence. The calculation results showed that interstitial defect states of methylamine may move deeper due to the interaction between methylamine molecules and methyl-ammonium cations. It was also showed that the interstitial methylamine defect is stable at room temperature, and the defect can be removed easily by annealing.

  16. Luminescence mechanisms of organic/inorganic hybrid organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing a Zn2SiO4:Mn color-conversion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, D.C.; Ahn, S.D.; Jung, H.S.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kwon, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layers used in this study were synthesized by using the sol-gel method and printed on the glass substrates by using a vehicle solution and a heating process. Organic/inorganic hybrid organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn color-conversion layer were fabricated. X-ray diffraction data for the synthesized Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor films showed that the Zn ions in the phosphor were substituted into Mn ions. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the deep blue OLEDs showed that a dominant peak at 461 nm appeared. The photoluminescence spectrum for the Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layer by using a 470 nm excitation source showed that a dominant peak at 527 nm appeared, which originated from the 4 T 1 - 6 A 1 transitions of Mn ions. The appearance of the peak around 527 nm of the EL spectra for the OLEDs fabricated utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layer demonstrated that the emitted blue color from the deep blue OLEDs was converted into a green color due to the existence of the color-conversion layer. The luminescence mechanisms of organic/inorganic hybrid OLEDs fabricated utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn color-conversion layer are described on the basis of the EL and PL spectra.

  17. Stability and carrier mobility of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 in two-dimensional limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Lai, Kang; Yan, Chang-Lin; Zhang, Wei-Bing

    2017-10-01

    Recently, atomically thin organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been synthesized experimentally, which opens up new opportunities for exploring their novel properties in the 2D limit. Based on the comparative density functional theory calculation with and without spin-orbit coupling effects, the stability, electronic structure, and carrier mobility of the two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) have been investigated systemically. Two single-unit-cell-thick 2D MAPbI3 terminated by PbI2 and CH3NH3I are constructed, and their thermodynamic stabilities are also evaluated using the first-principles constrained thermodynamics method. Our results indicate that both 2D MAPbI3 with different terminations can be stable under certain conditions and have a suitable direct bandgap. Moreover, they are also found to have termination-dependent band edge and carrier mobility. The acoustic-phonon-limited carrier mobilities estimated using the deformation theory and effective mass approximation are on the order of thousands of square centimeters per volt per second and also highly anisotropic. These results indicate that 2D MAPbI3 are competitive candidates for low-dimensional photovoltaic applications.

  18. Hybrid Silicon-Based Organic/Inorganic Block Copolymers with Sol-Gel Active Moieties: Synthetic Advances, Self-Assembly and Applications in Biomedicine and Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sebastian; Bertin, Annabelle

    2018-03-07

    Hybrid silicon-based organic/inorganic (multi)block copolymers are promising polymeric precursors to create robust nano-objects and nanomaterials due to their sol-gel active moieties via self-assembly in solution or in bulk. Such nano-objects and nanomaterials have great potential in biomedicine as nanocarriers or scaffolds for bone regeneration as well as in materials science as Pickering emulsifiers, photonic crystals or coatings/films with antibiofouling, antibacterial or water- and oil-repellent properties. Thus, this Review outlines recent synthetic efforts in the preparation of these hybrid inorganic/organic block copolymers, gives an overview of their self-assembled structures and finally presents recent examples of their use in the biomedical field and material science. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the T g and T m are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO 4 /15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  20. Pressure effects on the magnetic behaviour of copper (II) compounds: magnetic ordering of layered organic/inorganic magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, G; Varyukhin, V N; Berezhnaya, L V; Rusakov, V F

    2012-01-01

    The high hydrostatic pressure effect on the magnetic properties of the layered hybrid compounds Cu 2 (OH) 3 (C n H 2n+1 CO 2 )⋅mH 2 O with distance between magnetic layers of up to 40 Å is studied. It is shown that the temperature of the ferromagnetic ordering decreases linearly with pressure increase. From measurements of susceptibility in the paramagnetic region, using both quantum Heisenberg and Ising exchange coupling models in layers and dipole interaction between layers, the in- and interlayer interactions are deduced. The dipole interactions are calculated and are shown to coincide with the model of Ising interactions in the layers. The value and decrease of T c under pressure are mainly driven by the value and decrease of the in-plane interactions. The formation of the long range ordering in the layered sample with dipolar interaction between layers is analysed. As a conclusion it is suggested that for designing high temperature ferromagnetism in layer compounds it is enough to have large in-plane interactions of ions with specific symmetry in layers and weak dipole interactions between layers. (paper)

  1. Synthesis and characterizations of anion exchange organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaoling; Wu Cuiming; Xu Tongwen; Gong Ming; Xu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    A series of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for anion exchange were prepared through sol-gel process of polymer precursors PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 . PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 were obtained from the reaction of bromomethylated PPO with 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (A1110). These polymer precursors then underwent hydrolysis and condensation with additional A1110 to generate hybrid materials. The reaction to produce polymer precursors was identified by FTIR; while FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, as well as conventional ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements were conducted for the structures and properties of the prepared hybrids. TGA results show that this series of hybrid materials possess high thermal stability; XRD and SEM indicate that the prepared hybrid materials are amorphous and the inorganic and organic contents show good compatibility if the ratio between them is proper. The IEC values of the hybrid materials due to the amine groups range from 1.13 mmol/gBPPO (material i) to 4.80 mmol/gBPPO (material iv)

  2. Growth and optical, magnetic and transport properties of (C4H9NH3)2MCl4 organic-inorganic hybrid films (M = Cu, Sn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruta, C.; Licci, F.; Zappettini, A.; Bolzoni, F.; Rastelli, F.; Ferro, P.; Besagni, T.

    2005-10-01

    Films of (C4H9NH3)2MCl4 (M=Cu and Sn) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been deposited in-situ by a single-source thermal ablation technique on glassy, crystalline and polymeric substrates. Independently of the substrate, the films were well crystallized, c-axis oriented and with a narrow rocking curve of the (0010) reflection (full width at half maximum photoluminescence spectra of typical (C4H9NH3)2SnCl4 films at 12 K had a broad yellow band, which did not correspond to any significant peak in the absorption spectrum. The films were semiconducting down to 250 K or, in the case of the best samples, down to 200 K and became insulating at lower temperature. The resistivity of the best films was (5±1) 104 Ω cm at 300 K, and the energy gap was 1.11 eV.

  3. Sol-gel approach to the novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary europium complex covalently bonded with silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Dewen; Yang Yongsheng; Jiang Bingzheng

    2006-01-01

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary lanthanide complex covalently bonded with silica matrix were prepared in situ via co-ordination of N-(3-propyltriethoxysilane)-4-carboxyphthalimide (TAT) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with europium ion (Eu 3+ ) during a sol-gel approach and characterized by the means of spectrofluorimeter, phosphorimeter and infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The resulting transparent films showed improved photophysical properties, i.e. increased luminescence intensity and longer luminescence lifetime, compared with the corresponding binary composite films without Phen. All the results revealed that the intense luminescence of the composite film was attributed to the efficient energy transfer from ligands, especially Phen, to chelated Eu 3+ and the reduced non-radiation through the rigid silica matrix and 'site isolation'

  4. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  5. Flame retardant and hydrophobic properties of novel sol-gel derived phytic acid/silica hybrid organic-inorganic coatings for silk fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xian-Wei; Liang, Cheng-Xi; Guan, Jin-Ping; Yang, Xu-Hong; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a novel phosphorus-rich hybrid organic-inorganic silica coating for improving the flame retardancy of silk fabric was prepared using naturally occurring phytic acid as phosphorus precursor and catalyst for the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. In addition, three silane coupling agents, namely 3-aminopropyldimethoxymethylsilane, 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, were added in the hybrid sol as cross-linkers with the aim of developing hydrophobic coatings and improving the washing durability of the treated silk fabric. The condensation degree of the hybrid sol was characterized by solid-state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The flammability and thermal degradation properties of the treated silk fabrics were determined in terms of limiting oxygen index, vertical burning, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the treated silk fabrics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle tests. The flammability tests revealed that the silicon sol could endow silk fabric with excellent flame retardancy when doped with phytic acid, and the treated silk fabrics self-extinguished immediately when the ignition source was removed. The silk fabrics treated with the modified hybrid sols exhibited hydrophobic surface and also better durability to washing.

  6. PLASMA SPRAYED Al₂O₃-13 WT.%TiO₂ COATING SEALED WITH ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID AGENT AND ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material of γ-methacryloxypropyltrime-thoxysilane (KH570 -SiO₂ was fabricated by Sol-Gel method. The hybrid material was used as the sealing agent for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating. Infrared spectrum and grafted mechanism of the hybrid agent (HA were studied. Moreover, morphology and porosity, as well as characteristics of immersion plus electrochemical corrosion in acid environment of the coating with and without sealing treatment were evaluated, compared with those of the coating sealed with the conventional silicone resin agent (SRA. The results reveal that KH570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO₂. The HA film sealed on the surface of the coating presents a little better quality than the SRA film. The porosities of the coatings after the sealing treatment decreased. Furthermore, the sealing treatment can improve efficiently the corrosion resistance of the coating in 5 vol.% HCl solution. The hybrid sealing agent can become a candidate for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating used in acid environment to overcome some disadvantages of organic agents such as severely environmental pollution.

  7. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope by novel organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on quaternized chitosan and tetraethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragami, Tadashi; Katayama, Takuya; Miyata, Takashi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Shiraiwa, Tadashi; Higuchi, Akon

    2004-01-01

    To control swelling of quaternized chitosan (q-Chito) membranes, mixtures of q-Chito as an organic component and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as an inorganic component were prepared using the sol-gel reaction, and novel q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes were formed. In the separation of an ethanol/water azeotrope by pervaporation, the effect of TEOS content on the water/ethanol selectivity of q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes was investigated. Hybrid membranes containing up to 45 mol % TEOS exhibited higher water/ethanol selectivity than the q-Chito membrane. This resulted from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, introduction of excess TEOS led to greater swelling of the hybrid membranes. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of the hybrid membranes containing more than 45 mol % TEOS was lower than that of the q-Chito membrane. The relationship between the structure of q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotrope is discussed in detail.

  8. Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitzi, David B

    2016-04-13

    Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.

  9. Novel kaolin/polysiloxane based organic-inorganic hybrid materials: Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Glaydson Simões; Lima, Eder Cláudio; Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Dotto, Guillherme Luiz; Hidalgo, Gelsa Edith Navarro

    2018-04-01

    New hybrid materials using kaolin and the organosilicas methyl-polysiloxane (MK), methyl-phenyl-polysiloxane (H44), tetraethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) and 3-amino-propyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) were obtained by sol-gel process. These materials presented specific surfaces areas (SBET) in the range of 20-530 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed remarkable differences between the kaolin and hybrid structures. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the hybrid materials presented higher thermal stability when compared with their precursors. The electronic properties of the materials were also studied by Ultraviolet-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (DRUV) and Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DR), where a new absorption band was observed located around 400-660 nm. In addition, these materials exhibit a decrease in DR from 30% to 70% in the blue-cyan green region and are significantly more transparent in the UV region than the kaolin, which could be useful for photocatalysis applications. These results show that the electronic structure of the final material was changed, indicating a significant interaction between the kaolin and the respective silica derivative. These findings support the main idea of the hybridization afforded by pyrolysis between kaolin and organosilica precursors. In addition, as a proof of concept, these hybrid materials were successfully employed as photocatalyst in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).

  10. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yige; Wang Li; Li Huanrong; Liu Peng; Qin Dashan; Liu Binyuan; Zhang Wenjun; Deng Ruiping; Zhang Hongjie

    2008-01-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data. - Graphical abstract: Novel stable luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid titania thin film with high transparency activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes have been obtained at room temperature via a simple one-pot synthesis approach by using TTFA-modified titanium precursor with amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123. The obtained hybrid thin film displays bright red (or green), near-monochromatic luminescence due to the in-situ formed lanthanide complex

  11. BaZrO3 perovskite nanoparticles as emissive material for organic/inorganic hybrid light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, S.; Ivaniuk, K.; Cherpak, V.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we have demonstrated double-channel emission from organic exciplexes coupled to inorganic nanoparticles. The process is demonstrated by yellow-green emission in light-emitting diodes based on organic exciplexes hybridized with perovskite-type dispersed BaZrO3 nanoparticles...

  12. Optimization of hybrid organic/inorganic poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Martin; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/silicon solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their potential to become a low-cost alternative for the conventionally used silicon pn-junction solar cells. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), which was deposited on n-doped crystalline silicon via spin-coating under ambient conditions. By employing an anisotropic etching step with potassium hydroxide (KOH), the reflection losses at the silicon surface were reduced. Hereby, the short-circuit current density of the hybrid devices was increased by 31%, leading to a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.1% compared to a PCE of 10.7% for the devices without KOH etching. In addition, the contacts were improved by replacing gold with the more conductive silver as top grid material to reduce the contact resistance and by introducing a thin (˜0.5 nm) lithium fluoride layer between the silicon and the aluminum backside contact to improve electron collection and hole blocking. Hereby, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the hybrid solar cells were further improved and devices with very high PCE up to 14.2% have been realized.

  13. Direct Observation of Electron-Phonon Coupling and Slow Vibrational Relaxation in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado Parra, Sebastian; Straus, Daniel; Iotov, Natasha; Fichera, Bryan; Gebhardt, Julian; Rappe, Andrew; Subotnik, Joseph; Kikkawa, James; Kagan, Cherie

    Quantum and dielectric confinement effects in Ruddlesden-Popper 2D hybrid perovskites create excitons with a binding energy exceeding 150 meV. We exploit the large exciton binding energy to study exciton and carrier dynamics as well as electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in hybrid perovskites using absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. At temperatures 75 K, excitonic absorption and PL exhibit homogeneous broadening. While absorption remains homogeneous, PL becomes inhomogeneous at temperatures <75K, which we speculate is caused by the formation and subsequent dynamics of a polaronic exciton. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-SC0002158 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Grant DGE-1321851.

  14. Crystal structure and electrical conduction of the new organic-inorganic compound (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuqi; Wang, Jilin; Han, Feifei; Mo, Shuyi; Long, Fei; Gao, Yihua

    2018-03-01

    The new organic-inorganic compound (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 was prepared by slow evaporation method using a mixture solution of CdI2 and ethylenediamine iodide (EDAI) in the γ-butyrolactone (GBL). The synthesized compound was further characterized by single crystal diffraction, Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis. The relaxation behavior and conductivity mechanism of (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 was studied by the electrical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicated that (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 had a monoclinic structure with space group P21/c at room temperature. The complex impedance plotted as semicircle arcs and the proposed electrical equivalent circuit was to interpret the impedance behavior at different temperatures. The electrical equivalent circuit was made of a parallel combination of resistance (R) and fractal capacitance (CPE). Furthermore, the alternating current conductivity of the sample obeyed the Jonscher's law: σf =σdc + Afs and the conduction could be attributed to the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model.

  15. Highly reliable photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid passivation layers for a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Haruka; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2015-07-01

    We report the fabrication of a photosensitive hybrid passivation material on amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that greatly enhance its stability and improve its electrical characteristics. The hybrid passivation based on polysilsesquioxane is transparent and fabricated using a simple solution process. Because the passivation is photosensitive, dry etching was never performed during TFT fabrication. TFTs passivated with this material had a small threshold voltage shift of 0.5 V during positive bias stress, 0.5 V during negative bias stress, and -2.5 V during negative bias illumination stress. Furthermore, TFTs passivated by this layer were stable after being subjected to high relative humidity stress — confirming the superb barrier ability of the passivation. Analysis of secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that a large amount of hydrogen, carbon, and fluorine can be found in the channel region. We show that both hydrogen and fluorine reduced oxygen vacancies and that fluorine stabilized weak oxygen and hydroxide bonds. These results demonstrate the large potential of photosensitive hybrid passivation layers as effective passivation materials.

  16. Solution processeable organic-inorganic hybrids based on pyrene functionalized mixed cubic silsesquioxanes as emitters in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are primarily based on small molecules and polymers, with much fewer examples of intermediate molecular weight materials. Our interest lies in this intermediate molecular weight range, specifically in hybrids based on 3-dimensional silsesquioxane (SSQ) cores that represents a new class of versatile materials for application in solution processable OLEDs. We report here various SSQ based hybrids that are easily prepared in one high-yield step from the Heck coupling of commercially available 1-bromopyrene, and 1-bromo-4-heptylbenzene with octavinyl-T8-SSQ, and a mixture of octavinyl-T8-, decavinyl-T10- and dodecavinyl-T12-SSQ. The resulting materials offer numerous advantages for OLEDs including amorphous properties, high-glass-transition temperatures (T g), low polydispersity, solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. Solution processed OLEDs prepared from the SSQ hybrids provide sky-blue emission with external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of 3.64% and 9.56 cd A -1 respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Lead-free/rare earth-free Green-light-emitting crystal based on organic-inorganic hybrid [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] with high emissive quantum yields and large crystal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xing-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Yuan; Li, Hong; Huang, Cui-Ping; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-06-01

    With the flourishing development of emitting materials, tremendous technological progress has been accomplished. However, they still face great challenges in convenient economical environmental-friendly large-scale commercial production. Herein we designed this organic-inorganic hybrid lead-free compound, an emerging class of high-efficiency emitting materials, [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] (1), which emits intense greenish photoluminescence with a high emissive quantum yields of 72.26%, was prepared through the convenient economical solution method. What's more, compared with rare earth fluorescent materials (especially green-emitting Tb), Mn material is rich in natural resources and low commercial cost, which would possess an increasingly predominant advantage in the preparation of luminescent materials. Additionally, the exceptional thermal stability as well as the low-cost/convenient preparation process makes crystal 1 with the large size of more than 1 cm to be an ideal technologically important green-emitting material and it would open up a new route towards the commercialization process of lead-free/rare earth-free hybrid emitting materials in display and sensing.

  18. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO 2 -PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl 4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO 2 -PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural, vibrational, and gasochromic properties of porous WO sub 3 films templated with a sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Opara-Krasovec, U; Orel, B; Grdadolnik, J; Drazic, G

    2002-01-01

    The structure and the gasochromic properties of sol-gel-derived WO sub 3 films with a monoclinic structure (m-WO sub 3) were studied by focusing attention on the size of the monoclinic grains. The size of the m-WO sub 3 grains is modified by the addition of an organic-inorganic hybrid to the initial peroxopolytungstic acid (W-PTA) sols which are based on chemically bonded poly-(propylene glycol) to triethoxysilane end-capping groups (ICS-PPG). The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the heat treatment (500 sup o C) of WO sub 3 /ICS- IPG (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mol%) composite films results in a change of their morphology, and nanodimensional pores are formed between the grains. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analysis revealed the presence of an amorphous phase on the outside of the m-WO sub 3 grains, whereas energy-dispersive x-ray spectra (EDXS) showed that this amorphous phase contained W and Si. Impregnation of the WO sub 3 /ICS-PPG film ...

  20. Chemical, electrical and electrochemical characterization of hybrid organic/inorganic polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} coating deposited on polyester fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J.; Fernandez, J.; Rio, A.I. del; Bonastre, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Cases, F., E-mail: fjcases@txp.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A study of the stability of conducting fabrics of polyester (PES) coated with polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} (organic/inorganic hybrid material) in different pH solutions (1, 7, 13) has been done. Washing tests were also done in views of its possible application in electronic textiles such as antistatic clothing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been done to quantify the amount of counter ion that remains in the polymer matrix and determine the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N) after the different tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe morphological differences after the different tests. Surface resistivity changes were measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was employed to measure changes in electroactivity after the different tests. Higher pHs caused a decrease of the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N), the loss of part of the counter ions and the decrease of its conducting and electrocatalytic properties. The stability in acid media and neutral media and after the washing test was good. Only at pH 13 the loss of the counter ion was widespread and there was a decrease of its conducting and catalytic properties; although the fabrics continued acting mainly as a conducting material.

  1. Bacterial self-defense antibiotics release from organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer films for long-term anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingwen; Li, Xi; Jin, Yingying; Sun, Lin; Ding, Xiaoxu; Liang, Lin; Wang, Lei; Nan, Kaihui; Ji, Jian; Chen, Hao; Wang, Bailiang

    2017-12-14

    Implant-associated bacterial infections pose serious medical and financial issues due to the colonization and proliferation of pathogens on the surface of the implant. The as-prepared traditional antibacterial surfaces can neither resist bacterial adhesion nor inhibit the development of biofilm over the long term. Herein, novel (montmorillonite/poly-l-lysine-gentamicin sulfate) 8 ((MMT/PLL-GS) 8 ) organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer films were developed to combine enzymatic degradation PLL for on-demand self-defense antibiotics release. Small molecule GS was loaded into the multilayer films during self-assembly and the multilayer films showed pH-dependent and linear growth behavior. The chymotrypsin- (CMS) and bacterial infections-responsive film degradation led to the peeling of the films and GS release. Enzyme-responsive GS release exhibited CMS concentration dependence as measured by the size of the inhibition zone and SEM images. Notably, the obtained antibacterial films showed highly efficient bactericidal activity which killed more than 99.9% of S. aureus in 12 h. Even after 3 d of incubation in S. aureus, E. coli or S. epidermidis solutions, the multilayer films exhibited inhibition zones of more than 1.5 mm in size. Both in vitro and in vivo antibacterial tests indicated good cell compatibility, and anti-inflammatory, and long-term bacterial anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition properties.

  2. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  3. First determination of the valence band dispersion of CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-I.; Barragán, Ana; Nair, Maya N.; Jacques, Vincent L. R.; Le Bolloc'h, David; Fertey, Pierre; Jemli, Khaoula; Lédée, Ferdinand; Trippé-Allard, Gaëlle; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The family of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites is in the limelight because of their recently discovered high photovoltaic efficiency. These materials combine photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies exceeding 22% and low-temperature and low-cost processing in solution; a breakthrough in the panorama of renewable energy. Solar cell operation relies on the excitation of the valence band electrons to the conduction band by solar photons. One factor strongly impacting the absorption efficiency is the band dispersion. The band dispersion has been extensively studied theoretically, but no experimental information was available. Herein, we present the first experimental determination of the valence band dispersion of methylammonium lead halide in the tetragonal phase. Our results pave the way for contrasting the electronic hopping or the electron effective masses in different theories by comparing to our experimental bands. We also show a significant broadening of the electronic states, promoting relaxed conditions for photon absorption, and demonstrate that the tetragonal structure associated to the octahedra network distortion below 50 °C induces only a minor modification of the electronic bands, with respect to the cubic phase at high temperature, thus minimizing the impact of the cubic-tetragonal transition on solar cell efficiencies.

  4. Enhanced emission from Eu(III) beta-diketone complex combined with ether-type oxygen atoms of di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, C; Messaddeq, Y; Ribeiro, S J L; Silva, M A P; Zea-Bermudez, V D; Carlos, L D

    2003-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids, named di-ureasils and described by polyether-based chains grafted to both ends to a siliceous backbone through urea cross linkages, were used as hosts for incorporation of the well-known coordination complex of trivalent europium (Eu sup 3 sup +) ions described by the formula [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] (where TTA stands for thenoyltrifluoroacetone). By comparing with Eu sup 3 sup + -doped di-ureasil without complex form the new materials prepared here enhanced the quantum efficiency for photoemission of Eu sup 3 sup + ions. The enhancement can be explained by the coordination ability of the organic counterpart of the host structure which is strong enough to displace water molecules in [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] from the rare earth neighbourhood after the incorporation process. High intensity of Eu sup 3 sup + emission was observed with a low non-radiative decay rate under ultraviolet excitation. The quantum efficiency calculated from the decay of sup 5 D sub 0 emission...

  5. Determination of Carrier Lifetimes in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Sb2S3 by Using the Time-Resolved Photocurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang-Ju; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kim, Dae-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells (SCs) based on ZnO/Sb2S3/P3HT heterojunctions. The ZnO and the Sb2S3 layers were grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Although four cells were fabricated on one substrate by using the same process, their open-circuit voltages ( V OC ) and short-circuit current densities ( J SC ) were different. The SC with a high V OC has a low J SC . The causes of the changes in the V OC and the JSC were investigated by using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and optically-biased time-resolved photocurrent (TRPC) measurements. The PL results at 300 K showed that the emission positions of the Sb2S3 layers in all cells were similar at approximately 1.71 eV. The carrier lifetime of the SCs was calculated from the TRPC results. The lifetime of cell 4 with the highest J SC decreased drastically with increasing intensity of the continuous-wave optical bias beam. Therefore, the defect states in the ZnO layer contribute to the J SC , but degrade the V OC .

  6. Enhanced luminescence properties of hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO (organic/inorganic) composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuba, M.; Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muraligru@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Pristine tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum(Alq{sub 3}) and (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO hybrid) composites containing different weight percentages (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt%) of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using the dip coating method. The optimum concentration of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} films to get the best luminescence yield has been identified. XRD pattern reveals the amorphous nature of pure Alq{sub 3} film. The Alq{sub 3} films containing different weight percentages of ZnO show the presence of crystalline ZnO in Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films. The FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 600−800 cm{sup −1}. The hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films indicate the presence of Zn−O vibration band along with the corresponding Alq{sub 3} band. The band gap (HOMO–LUMO) of Alq{sub 3} film was calculated using absorption spectra and it is 2.87 eV for pristine films while it is 3.26 eV, 3.21 eV, 3.14 eV, 3.10 eV, 3.13 eV and 3.20 eV for the composite films containing 5–50 wt% of ZnO. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Alq{sub 3} films show a maximum PL intensity at 514 nm when excited at 390 nm. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO) exhibit an emission in 485 nm and 514 nm. The composite films containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibit maximum luminescence yield. - Highlights: • The pure Alq{sub 3} and Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using dip coating method. • Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite film containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibits two fold increases in luminescence intensity. • The shielding effect of ZnO on the Alq{sub 3} material suppresses the interactions among the host molecules in the excited state. • This leads to enhance the luminescence intensity in composite films.

  7. Structural characterization, vibrational spectroscopy accomplished with DFT calculation, thermal and dielectric behaviors in a new organic-inorganic tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajlaoui, Sondes, E-mail: hajlaouisondes@yahoo.fr [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Chaabane, Iskandar [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Lhoste, Jérôme; Bulou, Alain [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Guidara, Kamel [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    In this work a novel compound tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate was synthesized and characterized by; single crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. The crystal structure refinement at room temperature reveled that this later belongs to the monoclinic compound with P121/c1 space group with the following unit cell parameters a = 8.2699(3) Å, b = 12.4665(4) Å, c = 22.3341(7) Å and β = 92.94(0)°. The crystal arrangement can be described by stacked organic-inorganic layers in the c direction with two independent water molecules placed between each two layers. The detailed interpretations of the vibrational properties of the studied compound were performed using density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set, and has enabled us to make the detailed assignments by comparative study of the experimental and calculated Raman and IR spectra. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement disclosed two anomalies in the temperature range 356–376 (T{sub 1}) K and at 393 K (T{sub 2}) characterized by the dehydration of the sample and probably a reconstruction of a new structure after T{sub 2} transition. The temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity show a relaxation process around T{sub 2} anomaly indicating the occurrence of the disorder at high temperature. The dependence of the exponent m(T) on temperature, extracted from the straight lines of log(ε″) with log (ω), suggests that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism. - Highlights: • The single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been performed. • The assignments of the vibration modes based on DFT were reported and discussed. • Differential scanning calorimetric reveals the presence of two endothermic peaks. • The electric permittivity was studied using the impedance measurements. • The CBH is the appropriate model for the conduction

  8. Pressure-induced phase transitions and templating effect in three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongjae; Mitzi, David; Barnes, Paris; Vogt, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    Pressure-induced structural changes of conducting halide perovskites (CH3NH3)SnI3, (CH3NH3)0.5(NH2CH=NH2)0.5SnI3, and (NH2CH=NH2)SnI3, have been investigated using synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. In contrast to low-temperature structural changes, no evidence of an increased ordering of the organic cations was observed under pressure. Instead, increase in pressure results first in a ReO3-type doubling of the primitive cubic unit cell, followed by a symmetry distortion, and a subsequent amorphization above 4 GPa. This process is reversible and points towards a pressure-induced templating role of the organic cation. Bulk compressions are continuous across the phase boundaries. The compressibilities identify these hybrids as the most compressible perovskite system ever reported. However, the Sn-I bond compressibility in (CH3NH3)SnI3 shows a discontinuity within the supercell phase. This is possibly due to an electronic localization.

  9. Preparation and characterization of an organic/inorganic hybrid sorbent (PLE) to enhance selectivity for As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byungryul; Kim, Hakchan; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2015-05-30

    For the selective removal of arsenate (As(V)) a hybrid sorbent was prepared using a non-toxic natural organic material, chitosan, by loading a transition metal, nickel. The immobilization of nickel was achieved by coordination with a deprotonated amino group (NH2) in the chitosan polymer chain. The amount of nickel was directly correlated to the presence of the amino group and was calculated to be 62 mg/g. FTIR spectra showed a peak shift from 1656 to 1637 cm(-1) after Ni(2+) loading, indicating the complexation between the amino group and nickel, and a peak of As(V) was observed at 834 cm(-1). An increase of sulfate concentration from 100 mg/L to 200 mg/L did not significantly affect As(V) sorption, and an increase in the concentration of bicarbonate reduced the As(V) uptake by 33%. The optimal pH of the solution was determined at pH 10, which is in accordance with the fraction of HAsO4(2-) and AsO4(-3). According to a fixed column test, a break through behavior of As(V) revealed that selectivity for As(V) was over sulfate. Regeneration using 5% NaCl extended the use of sorbent to up to uses without big loss of sorption capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  11. An organic-inorganic hybrid coagulant containing Al, Zn and Fe (HOAZF: preparation, efficiency and mechanism of removing organic phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric-Al-Zn-Fe (PAZF coagulant showing high removal of pollutants has been successfully developed using a galvanized slag in earlier works, but it gave less elimination of phosphorus. To improve phosphorus removal, a hybrid organic-Al-Zn-Fe (HOAZF coagulant was prepared using PAZF and polyacrylamide (PAM as an organic additive, and then was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Zeta potential, respectively. Removing efficiency and mechanism of organophosphorus by HOAZF was probed using jar tests in treating a simulated pesticide wastewater containing dichlorvos (DDVP, compared to that by PAZF and polyaluminum chloride. The results displayed that HOAZF having relative lower Zeta potential (compared to PAZF exhibited complex surface morphology composited by Al, Zn and Fe and PAM, forming some new crystalline and amorphous substances different from that in PAZF. HOAZF gave higher removal of organophosphorus and far lower dosage than PAZF, and also posed a suitable wider pH range (pH = 7–12 for HOAZF and 10–11 for PAZF, respectively and suitable wider organophosphorus level range than PAZF. Removing organophosphorus by HOAZF was a simultaneous complex process involving a non-phase transfer of adsorption/bridging/sweeping and a phase transfer of chemical precipitation.

  12. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  13. Characterization of the surface organization of nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic materials by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau; Corriu; Dabosi; Fischmeister-Lepeytre; Combarieu

    1999-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to analyse the surface composition of organic-inorganic hybrid solids obtained by a sol-gel process. Gels of type O(1.5)Si-R-SiO(1. 5), obtained from bis-silylated precursors (R'O)(3)-R-Si(OR')(3) (R' = Me, Et and R = (-CH(2))(n)-, n = 1, 2, 6, 10, 12;--CH=CH-; (-CH(2))(3)NH(CH(2))(3)-; 1, 1'-ferrocenyl; (CH(2))(n)-Ph-(CH(2))(n)- with Ph = 1,4-phenylene and n = 0, 1, 2; Ph = 1,3,5-phenyl and n = 0) were analysed. The results were highly dependent on the nature of the organic group. When the organic group was small or 'rigid', the main peaks detected corresponded to SiOH and SiOR' residual groups. Fragment ions from the organic group were poorly detected in this case. When the organic group was larger and more 'flexible', characteristic mass fragment ions were detected at higher relative intensities, indicative of a different organization of the organic units in the solid. TOF-SIMS clearly showed the differences between the xerogels derived from mono- and bis-silylated organic precursors : the organic group is present at the surface of mono-silylated xerogels, whereas for bis-silylated ones, the organization is dependent on the length and the flexibility of the organic units. These TOF-SIMS results are in agreement with other features already reported. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Crystal structures, Hirshfeld surface analysis, thermal behavior and dielectric properties of a new organic-inorganic hybrid [C6H10(NH3)2]Cu2Cl8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Najet; Hamdi, Besma; Bouzidia, Nabaa; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben

    2017-12-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid sample [C6H10(NH3)2]Cu2Cl8 has been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Hirshfeld surface analysis, FT-IR,NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. It is crystallized in the monoclinic system with P21/c space group. The cohesion and stabilization of the structure are provided by the hydrogen bond interactions, (Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Csbnd H⋯Cl), between [C6H10(NH3)2]2+ cation and [Cu2Cl8]2- anion. The Hirschfeld surface analysis has been performed to explore the behavior of these weak interactions. The presence of different functional groups and the nature of their vibrations were identified by FT-IR and Solid state NMR. The thermal study revealed that this compound undergoes two structural phase transitions around 353 and 376 K. Electrical measurements of our compounds have been investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) in the frequency and temperature range 331-399 K and 200 Hz-5 MHz, respectively. The AC conductivity is explained using the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH) conduction mechanism. The nature of DC conductivity variation suggests Arrhenius type of electrical conductivity. A relationship between crystal structure and ionic conductivity was established and discussed. Finally, the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity constant are analyzed with the Cole-Cole formalism and the optical spectra indicate that the compound has a direct band gap (3.14 eV) due to direct transition. The wide band gap is due to low defect concentration in the grown crystal, which is more useful for the laser/optical applications.

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, optical properties and theoretical studies of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material: [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y

    2014-12-10

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The studied compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1¯ with the following parameters: a=8.4749(6)(Å), b=17.1392(12)(Å), c=17.1392(12)(Å), α=117.339(0)°, β=99.487(0)°, γ=99.487(0)° and Z=2. The crystal lattice is composed of a two discrete (BiBr6)(3-) anions surrounded by six ((CH3)2NH2)(+) cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between (BiBr6)(3-) and organic cations from a three-dimensional network. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the molecular structure, vibrational spectra and optical properties of the investigated molecule in the ground state. The full geometry optimization of designed system is performed using DFT method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory using the Gaussian03. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from FT-IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental UV-Visible spectrum. The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-01

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material 4-(ammonium methyl) pipyridinium hexachloro stanate (II) trihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Ammar, Salah; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago

    2018-03-01

    The present paper undertakes the study of (C6H16N2) SnCl6·3H2O which is a new hybrid compound. It was prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder, Hirshfeld surface, Spectroscopy measurement, thermal study and photoluminescence properties. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic Cc space group with cell parameters a = 8.3309(9) Å, b = 22.956(2) Å, c = 9.8381(9) Å, β = 101.334(9) ° and Z = 4. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic entities. The cohesion between these entities is performed via Nsbnd H⋯Cl, Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯Cl and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding to form a three-dimensional network. Hirshfeld surface analysis was used to investigate intermolecular interactions, as well 2D finger plots were conducted to reveal the contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. The X-ray powder is in agreement with the X-ray structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was carried out. Furthermore, the room temperature infrared (IR) spectrum of the title compound was recorded and analyzed on the basis of data found in the literature. Solid state 13C NMR spectrum shows four signals, confirming the solid state structure determined by X-ray diffraction. Besides, the thermal analysis studies were performed, but no phase transition was found in the temperature range between 30 and 450 °C. The optical and PL properties of the compound were investigated in the solid state at room temperature and exhibited three bands at 348 and 401 cm-1 and a strong fluorescence at 480 nm.

  18. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic features, and investigation of bioactive nature of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material 1H-1,2,4-triazole-4-ium trioxonitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatfaoui, Sofian; Issaoui, Noureddine; Mezni, Ali; Bardak, Fehmi; Roisnel, Thierry; Atac, Ahmet; Marouani, Houda

    2017-12-01

    The novel inorganic-organic hybrid material 1H-1,2,4-triazole-4-ium trioxonitrate (TAN) have been elaborated and crystallized to the monoclinic system with space group P21/c and the lattice parameters obtained are a = 8.8517(15) Å, b = 8.3791(15) Å, c = 7.1060(11) Å, β = 103.776(7)°, V = 511.89(15) Å3 and Z = 4. In order to enhance (TAN) on the applied plan, biophysicochemical characterization of the title compound have been obtained with experimentally and theoretically. The crystal structure exposed substantial hydrogen bonding stuck between the protonated 1,2,4-triazole ring and the nitrate forming thus sheets parallel to the plans (-1 0 1). The three-dimensional supramolecular network is formed through the π … π interactions involving heterocyclic rings in these sheets. Assessment of intermolecular contacts in the crystal arrangement was quantified by Hirshfeld surface analysis and interactions were analyzed by orbital NBO and topological AIM approaches. This compound was also investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, thermal analysis TG-DTA, and DSC. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of TAN were determined via the DPPH radical scavenging, the ABTS radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP). Obtained results confirm the functionality of antioxidant potency of TAN. The molecular structure and vibrational spectral analysis of TAN have been reported by using density functional theory calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular docking behaviors of TAN along with well-known triazole antifungal agents (fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) with saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51 (Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase) were investigated. The potent of TAN as an inhibitor was discussed on the basis of noncovalent interaction profile. Furthermore, protonic conduction of this compound has been intentional in the temperature range of 295-373 K.

  19. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite quantum dots with high PLQY and enhanced carrier mobility through crystallinity control by solvent engineering and solid-state ligand exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Choi, Jin; Woo, Hee Chul; Huang, Xiaoguang; Jung, Wan-Gil; Kim, Bong-Joong; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Yim, Sang-Youp; Lee, Jae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Lyoul

    2018-05-22

    The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and charge carrier mobility of organic-inorganic perovskite QDs were enhanced by the optimization of crystallinity and surface passivation as well as solid-state ligand exchange. The crystallinity of perovskite QDs was determined by the Effective solvent field (Esol) of various solvents for precipitation. The solvent with high Esol could more quickly countervail the localized field generated by the polar solvent, and it causes fast crystallization of the dissolved precursor, which results in poor crystallinity. The post-ligand adding process (PLAP) and post-ligand exchange process (PLEP) increase the PLQY of perovskite QDs by reducing non-radiative recombination and the density of surface defect states through surface passivation. Particularly, the post ligand exchange process (PLEP) in the solid-state improved the charge carrier mobility of perovskite QDs in addition to the PLQY enhancement. The ligand exchange with short alkyl chain length ligands could improve the packing density of perovskite QDs in films by reducing the inter-particle distance between perovskite QDs. The maximum hole mobility of 6.2 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, one order higher than that of pristine QDs without the PLEP, is obtained at perovskite QDs with hexyl ligands. By using PLEP treatment, compared to the pristine device, a 2.5 times higher current efficiency in perovskite QD-LEDs was achieved due to the improved charge carrier mobility and PLQY.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of a new chiral porous hybrid organic-inorganic material based on γ-zirconium phosphates and L-(+)-phosphoserine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendawi, Hussein M. H.

    2013-05-01

    In the present work, a chiral layered derivative of γ-zirconium phosphate (γ-ZrP) containing L-(+)-phosphoserine (γ-ZrP-PS*) covalently attached to inorganic layers has been prepared by means of topotactic exchange reaction. This organic-inorganic derivative is characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Solid 13C-NMR and FT-IR spectrophotometries and thermal analyses. A maximum level of topotactic replacement of 20% is achieved. Under both the acidic environment of the interlayer region of γ-ZrP and the acidic synthesis conditions, the hydrolysis of the ester bond of PS* is expected to take place to some extent. For this reason, it was impossible to exceed the recent percentage, which in turn reflects the relative moderate stability of the above mentioned bond under these conditions. In order to be more certain with regard to an expected further hydrolysis for this bond after separation, a sample of γ-ZrP-PS* was stored in a desiccator over a saturated solution of BaCl2 (90% relative humidity) for three months, and then the sample re-analyzed once again. Surprisingly, the results show that the sample still keeps almost the same level of exchange (i.e., 20%). Second, it is revealed that the sample almost gives the same spectroscopic and thermal behavior. This could be attributed to the less acidic character of the partially exchanged inorganic layers of the sample in comparison with that of the precursor γ-ZrP. Therefore, the PS* molecules persist and stay there into the interlayer gallery without further hydrolysis.

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal analysis, and DFT calculation of a novel zinc (II)-trifluoro-β-diketonate 3D supramolecular nano organic-inorganic compound with 1,3,5-triazine derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirtamizdoust, Babak, E-mail: babakm.tamizdoust@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, PO Box 37185-359, Qom, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaedi, Mehrorang [Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes, E-mail: y_hanifehpour@yu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, WCU Nano Research Center, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mague, Joel T. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans (United States); Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo1@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, WCU Nano Research Center, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    A sonochemical method was used to synthesize a novel nano-structure of a zinc(II) organic-inorganic compound [Zn(dapt){sub 2}(ttfa){sub 2}] (1) [dapt = 2,4-diamino-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine and ttfa = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate]. The new nanostructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, and thermal analysis. The single-crystal X-ray structure shows that 1 is a discrete coordination compound. Strong intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds are observed in the structure with the latter forming chains of molecules running parallel to (110). The chains are further extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure by intermolecular C−F⋯π interactions between trifluoromethyl and triazine moieties. The coordination number of the zinc(II) ion is six (ZnN{sub 2}O{sub 4}), and the coordination sphere is tetragonally elongated octahedral. The structure of the title complex was optimized by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • A new zinc(II) 3D coordination supramolecular compound was synthesized. • Ultrasound synthesis of nano coordination compound have been reported. • The X-ray crystal structure of the compound is reported.

  2. Surface Modifier-Free Organic-Inorganic Hybridization To Produce Optically Transparent and Highly Refractive Bulk Materials Composed of Epoxy Resins and ZrO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Moriya; Narumi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou

    2018-04-25

    Surface modifier-free hybridization of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) with epoxy-based polymers is demonstrated for the first time to afford highly transparent and refractive bulk materials. This is achieved by a unique and versatile hybridization via the one-pot direct phase transfer of ZrO 2 NPs from water to epoxy monomers without any aggregation followed by curing with anhydride. Three types of representative epoxy monomers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (CEL), and 1,3,5-tris(3-(oxiran-2-yl)propyl)-1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione (TEPIC), are used to produce transparent viscous dispersions. The resulting ZrO 2 NPs are thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. The results from DLS and TEM analyses indicate nanodispersion of ZrO 2 into epoxy monomers as a continuous medium. A surface modification mechanism and the binding fashion during phase transfer are proposed based on the FT-IR and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. Epoxy-based hybrid materials with high transparency and refractive index are successfully fabricated by heat curing or polymerizing a mixture of monomers containing epoxy-functionalized ZrO 2 NPs and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride in the presence of a phosphoric catalyst. The TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the hybrids show a nanodispersion of ZrO 2 in the epoxy networks. The refractive index at 594 nm ( n 594 ) increases up to 1.765 for BADGE-based hybrids, 1.667 for CEL-based hybrids, and 1.693 for TEPIC-based hybrids. Their refractive indices and Abbe's numbers are quantitatively described by the Lorentz-Lorenz effective medium expansion theory. Their transmissivity is also reasonably explained using Fresnel refraction, Rayleigh scattering, and the Lambert-Beer theories. This surface modifier-free hybridization

  3. Investigation of the influence of liquid water films on O3 and PAN deposition on plant leaf surfaces treated with organic / inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Sörgel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water films on environmental surfaces play an important role in various fields of interest (Burkhardt and Eiden, 1994). For example, the deposition of water soluble trace gases could be increased by surface moisture. Chameides and Stelson (1992) found out that the dissolution of trace gases in airborne particulate matter increases with rising water/solid ratio of the particles. Further, Flechard et al. (1999) concluded that deliquescent salt particles represent a potential sink for trace gases, depending on their chemical property. The formation of surface water films and its influence on the gas deposition was proposed by many previous studies (Fuentes and Gillespie, 1992, Burkhardt and Eiden, 1994, van Hove et al., 1989, Burkhardt et al., 1999, Flechard et al., 1999). In this study we investigate the influence of leaf surface water films on the deposition of O3 and PAN under controlled laboratory conditions. A twin cuvette system described in Sun et al. (2015) was used to control the environmental parameters such as light, temperature, trace gas mixing ratio and humidity. Furthermore, the leaf surface was treated with various organic and inorganic solutions to investigate the influence of deposited compounds on the electrical surface conductance of the leaves and the surface deposition of O3 and PAN at various relative humidities. The result shows that RHcrit, where the electrical surface conductance (G) increases exponentially, was 40 % during the light period and 50 % during the dark period. Furthermore, we observed that the formation of the leaf surface liquid film was depended on the deposited compounds on the leaf cuticles. For the O3 deposition on plants (Quercus ilex) a clear enhancement at rising environmental air humidity under light and dark condition was found. The increase during light conditions can be related partly to increasing stomatal conductance with higher RH. From the non-stomatal deposition measured in dark experiments, we could

  4. Coordenação local do Eu(III em híbridos orgânicos/inorgânicos emissores de luz branca Eu(III local coordination in white light emitters organic-inorganic hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís D. Carlos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+ luminescence and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure results are presented for organic-inorganic hybrid gel hosts composed of a siliceous network to which small chains of oxyethylene units are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges. Coordination numbers for Eu3+ ions range from 12.8 to 9.7 with increasing Eu3+ concentration while the Eu3+-first neighbours mean distance is found to be constant at 2.48-2.49 Å in the same concentration range. Emission spectra display a broad band in the green/blue spectral region superposed to narrow lines appearing in the yellow/red region in such a way that for the eyes emission appears white. The broad band is assigned to intrinsic NH groups emission and also to electron-hole recombination in the nanosised siliceous domains. The narrow lines are assigned to intra-4f6, 5D0->7F0-4 Eu3+ transitions and from the energy position of the 7F0-4 levels a mean distance could be calculated for the Eu3+-first neighbours. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from EXAFS analysis.

  5. Evidence and detailed study of a second-order phase transition in the (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4] organic-inorganic hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Garrot, D.; Boukheddaden, K.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material (C 6 H 11 NH 3 ) 2 [PbI 4 ] are investigated using diffuse reflectivity, spectroscopic ellipsometry, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectivity, performed in heating mode, clearly evidences the presence of a singularity at 336 K. This is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra, which points out a second-order phase transition at 336 K with a critical exponent ∼0.5. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on a polycrystalline powder of (C 6 H 11 NH 3 ) 2 [PbI 4 ] show a reversible phase transition detected at T C  = 336 K without hysteresis. Raman spectroscopy data suggest that this transition arises from a change in the interactions between inorganic sheets (([PbI 4 ] 2− ) ∞ ) and organic protonated molecules ([C 6 H 11 NH 3 ] + ). The structural analysis from power X-ray diffraction reveals an incomplete order-disorder transition of the cyclohexylammonium cation, causing a subtle contraction of the inter-plane distance. The transition results from repulsive close contacts between the organic molecules in the interlayer spacing

  6. Sub-Band Gap Turn-On Near-Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Device Enabled by an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaic Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, By Hyeonggeun; Cheng, Yuanhang; Li, Menglin; Tsang, Sai-Wing; So, Franky

    2018-05-09

    Direct integration of an infrared (IR) photodetector with an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) enables low-cost, pixel-free IR imaging. However, the operation voltage of the resulting IR-to-visible up-conversion is large because of the series device architecture. Here, we report a low-voltage near-IR (NIR)-to-visible up-conversion device using formamidinium lead iodide as a NIR absorber integrated with a phosphorescent OLED. Because of the efficient photocarrier injection from the hybrid perovskite layer to the OLED, we observed a sub-band gap turn-on of the OLED under NIR illumination. The device showed a NIR-to-visible up-conversion efficiency of 3% and a luminance on/off ratio of 10 3 at only 5 V. Finally, we demonstrate pixel-free NIR imaging using the up-conversion device.

  7. Temperature dependence of the effective mass of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Yang, Haozhi; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Hong

    2017-12-01

    The material of methylammonium lead iodide, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3), has shown significant promise in solar cell applications. A way to infer the microscopic scattering mechanism(s) in MAPbI3 is through the measured temperature dependence of carrier mobility. To this end, how does the carrier effective mass depend on temperature, m* = m*(T), is a useful information since the mobility is a function of m*. By atomistic first principles, we report the calculated m*(T) due to the thermal expansion of MAPbI3 materials, in the experimentally relevant range of 130 K to room temperature. The calculated results suggest m* = m*(T) to be linear in T. The increase of m* versus temperature is predominantly due to the expansion of the longitudinal atomic spacing that weakens the s/p hybridization between the I/Pb atoms.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  9. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics.

  10. Mechanical properties of hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3BX3 (B = Sn, Pb; X = Br, I perovskites for solar cell absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures, elastic and anisotropic properties of CH3NH3BX3 (B = Sn, Pb; X = Br, I compounds as solar cell absorber layers are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The type and strength of chemical bond B-X are found to determine the elastic properties. B-X bonds and the organic cations are therefore crucial to the functionalities of such absorbers. The bulk, shear, Young's modulus ranges from 12 to 30 GPa, 3 to 12 GPa, and 15 to 37 GPa, respectively. Moreover, the interaction among organic and inorganic ions would have negligible effect for elastic properties. The B/G and Poisson's ratio show it would have a good ductile ability for extensive deformation as a flexible/stretchable layer on the polymer substrate. The main reason is attributed to the low shear modulus of such perovskites. The anisotropic indices AU, AB AG, A1, A2, and A3 show ABX3 perovskite have very strong anisotropy derived from the elastic constants, chemical bonds, and symmetry.

  11. 有机/无机杂化渗透汽化优先透醇膜研究进展%Advances in organic/inorganic hybrid alcohol perm-selective pervaporation membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 王乃鑫; 纪树兰

    2014-01-01

    渗透汽化优先透醇膜分离技术可有效解决燃料乙醇和丁醇生产中发酵产率较低的瓶颈问题,受到广泛关注。膜材料的选择与改性以及膜结构的构建是提高透醇性能的关键。有机/无机杂化膜可以实现有机和无机材料的优势互补,被认为是未来分离膜领域最重要的发展方向之一。本文扼要回顾了用于优先透醇渗透汽化分离的有机无机杂化材料,结合本文作者课题组的研究工作,重点阐述了杂化粒子的结构、粒径、界面相容性、纳微分散、负载量等因素对渗透汽化传递过程的作用机制,进一步对近年来发展的成膜新方法进行了总结。在此基础上,提出今后有机/无机杂化渗透汽化优先透醇膜研究的主要方向是发展新型纳米级、超疏水并与有机聚合物具有高度界面相容性的无机粒子,以及构建高负载量的纳微结构与超亲醇表面。%Alcohol perm-selective pervaporations membrane could resolve the product inhibition problem effectively for the use of ethanol and butanol recovery from fermentation process. The selection and modification of membrane material,and the construction of membrane structure are the key issues for better pervaporation performance. Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes combine the advantages of both organic polymers and inorganic materials,forming highly promising membranes for separation. This paper reviews the advances in organic/inorganic hybrid alcohol perm-selective pervaporation membrane materials. Several issues and research priorities which will impact the pervaporation ability of hybrid membrane for biofuel recovery are identified and discussed,including particle structure,particle size,compatibility and dispersion of inorganic particles in the polymer,and particle loading. Novel preparation methods in recent years are also presented in detail. Finally,the prospect of developing novel particles with nano size

  12. Electron-Rotor Interaction in Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide Perovskites Discovered by Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jue; Yang, Mengjin; Ma, Xiangchao; Schaller, Richard D; Liu, Gang; Kong, Lingping; Yang, Ye; Beard, Matthew C; Lesslie, Michael; Dai, Ying; Huang, Baibiao; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Tao

    2016-08-04

    We report on the carrier-rotor coupling effect in perovskite organic-inorganic hybrid lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) compounds discovered by isotope effects. Deuterated organic-inorganic perovskite compounds including CH3ND3PbI3, CD3NH3PbI3, and CD3ND3PbI3 were synthesized. Devices made from regular CH3NH3PbI3 and deuterated CH3ND3PbI3 exhibit comparable performance in band gap, current-voltage, carrier mobility, and power conversion efficiency. However, a time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) study reveals that CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits notably longer carrier lifetime than that of CH3ND3PbI3, in both thin-film and single-crystal formats. Furthermore, the comparison in carrier lifetime between CD3NH3PbI3 and CH3ND3PbI3 single crystals suggests that vibrational modes in methylammonium (MA(+)) have little impact on carrier lifetime. In contrast, the fully deuterated compound CD3ND3PbI3 reconfirmed the trend of decreasing carrier lifetime upon the increasing moment of inertia of cationic MA(+). Polaron model elucidates the electron-rotor interaction.

  13. ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID MATERIALS. I: SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Reagents were obtained from commercial sources, and used without further purification. IR ... The structure was solved by direct method MULTAN [16] and refined by a full-matrix least .... consequence of α- and β-addition to the alkene. For the ...

  14. Conducting Layered Organic-inorganic Halides Containing -Oriented Perovskite Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B; Wang, S; Feild, C A; Chess, C A; Guloy, A M

    1995-03-10

    Single crystals of the layered organic-inorganic perovskites, [NH(2)C(I=NH(2)](2)(CH(3)NH(3))m SnmI3m+2, were prepared by an aqueous solution growth technique. In contrast to the recently discovered family, (C(4)H(9)NH(3))(2)(CH(3)NH(3))n-1SnnI3n+1, which consists of (100)-terminated perovskite layers, structure determination reveals an unusual structural class with sets of m -oriented CH(3)NH(3)SnI(3) perovskite sheets separated by iodoformamidinium cations. Whereas the m = 2 compound is semiconducting with a band gap of 0.33 +/- 0.05 electron volt, increasing m leads to more metallic character. The ability to control perovskite sheet orientation through the choice of organic cation demonstrates the flexibility provided by organic-inorganic perovskites and adds an important handle for tailoring and understanding lower dimensional transport in layered perovskites.

  15. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C 12 ) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C 12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C 12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L -1 limit of detections (LOD

  16. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES); Sintese e caracterizacao de materiais hibridos organico-inorganicos de poliamida-imida e copolisilsesquioxanos de 3-aminopropiltrietoxissilano e feniltrietoxissilano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarchi, A.A., E-mail: aa_demarchi@terra.com.b [WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A., Jaragua do Sul, SC (Brazil). Dept. de P e D do Produto; Pezzin, S H [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2010-07-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  17. Wavelength-tunable waveguides based on polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jingying; Xu, Zai-Quan; Xue, Yunzhou; Jiang, Liangcong; Song, Jingchao; Huang, Fuzhi; Wang, Yusheng; Zhong, Yu Lin; Zhang, Yupeng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as new photovoltaic materials with impressively high power conversion efficiency due to their high optical absorption coefficient and long charge carrier diffusion length. In addition to high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and chemical tunability, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites also show intriguing potential for diverse photonic applications. In this work, we demonstrate that polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires can function as active optical waveguides with small propagation loss. The successful production of high quality perovskite microwires with different halogen elements enables the guiding of light with different colours. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that out-coupled light intensity from the microwire can be effectively modulated by an external electric field, which behaves as an electro-optical modulator. This finding suggests the promising applications of perovskite microwires as effective building blocks in micro/nano scale photonic circuits.

  18. Preparation of novel, nanocomposite stannoxane-based organic-inorganic epoxy polymers containing ionic bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Ribot, F.; Matějka, Libor; Whelan, P.; Starovoytova, Larisa; Pleštil, Josef; Steinhart, Miloš; Šlouf, Miroslav; Hromádková, Jiřina; Kovářová, Jana; Špírková, Milena; Strachota, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2012), s. 221-237 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701; GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : stannoxane * organic-inorganic hybrid * epoxy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  19. Holographic patterning of organic-inorganic photopolymerizable nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Oksana V.; Goldenberg, Leonid M.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Stumpe, J.

    2009-09-01

    We present here novel easily processible organic-inorganic nanocomposites suitable for holographic fabrication of diffraction optical elements (DOE). The nanocomposites are based on photocurable acrylate monomers and inorganic nanoparticles (NP). The compatibility of inorganic NP with monomers was achieved by capping the NP surface with proper organic shells. Surface modification allows to introduce up to 50wt.% of inorganic NP in organic media. Depending on the NP nature (metal oxides, phosphates, semiconductors, noble metals) and their properties, the materials for both efficient DOE and multifunctional elements can be designed. Organic-inorganic composites prepared have been successfully used for the effective inscription of periodic volume refractive index structures using the holographic photopolymerization method. The nanocomposite preparation procedure, their properties and optical performance of holographic gratings are reported. The use of functional NP makes it possible to obtain effective holographic gratings having additional physical properties such as light-emission or NLO. Some examples of such functional polymer-NP structures and their possible application fields are presented. The combination of easy photo-patterning of soft organic compounds with physical properties of inorganic materials in new nanocomposites and the flexibility of the holographic patterning method allow the fabrication of mono- and multifunctional one- and multi-dimensional passive or active optical and photonic elements.

  20. Superconducting selenides intercalated with organic molecules: synthesis, crystal structure, electric and magnetic properties, superconducting properties, and phase separation in iron based-chalcogenides and hybrid organic-inorganic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pesko, Edyta; Puzniak, Roman

    2018-06-01

    Layered iron-based superconducting chalcogenides intercalated with molecular species are the subject of intensive studies, especially in the field of solid state chemistry and condensed matter physics, because of their intriguing chemistry and tunable electric and magnetic properties. Considerable progress in the research, revealing superconducting inorganic–organic hybrid materials with transition temperatures to superconducting state, T c, up to 46 K, has been brought in recent years. These novel materials are synthesized by low-temperature intercalation of molecular species, such as solvates of alkali metals and nitrogen-containing donor compounds, into layered FeSe-type structure. Both the chemical nature as well as orientation of organic molecules between the layers of inorganic host, play an important role in structural modifications and may be used for fine tuning of superconducting properties. Furthermore, a variety of donor species compatible with alkali metals, as well as the possibility of doping also in the host structure (either on Fe or Se sites), makes this system quite flexible and gives a vast array of new materials with tunable electric and magnetic properties. In this review, the main aspects of intercalation chemistry are discussed with a particular attention paid to the influence of the unique nature of intercalating species on the crystal structure and physical properties of the hybrid inorganic–organic materials. To get a full picture of these materials, a comprehensive description of the most effective chemical and electrochemical methods, utilized for synthesis of intercalated species, with critical evaluation of their strong and weak points, related to feasibility of synthesis, phase purity, crystal size and morphology of final products, is included as well.

  1. Enantiomers Recognition of Propranolol Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Open-Tubular MIPs-CEC Column Using 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)Propyl Methacrylate as a Cross-Linking Monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Ning; Li, Ning; Luo, Tian; Dong, Yu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this study, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS), a bifunctional group compound, was used as a single cross-linking agent to prepare molecular imprinted inorganic-organic hybrid polymers by in situ polymerization for open-tubular capillary electro chromatography (CEC) column. The optimal preparation conditions were: the ratio between template molecule and functional monomer was 1:4; the volume proportion of porogen toluene and methanol was 1:1 and the volume of cross-linking agent γ-MPS was 69 μL. The optimal separation conditions were separation voltage of 15 kV; detection wavelength at 215 nm and background electrolyte composed of 70% acetonitrile/20 mmol/L boric acid salt (pH 6.9). Under the optimized conditions, the propranolol enantiomers can be separated well by CEC. The method is simple and fast, it can be a potentially useful approach for propranolol enantiomers separation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Research progress in zeolite-based organic-inorganic hybrid membranes%以分子筛为基础的有机-无机杂化膜研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    延檬羽; 王晓东; 黄伟

    2017-01-01

    This review describes the preparation method and the research progress of organic - inorganic hybird membranes, in which the membranes filled with molecular sieves are focused on. The contents included the calssification, the advantages and the preparation methods of hybird membranes. The compatibility and ultra thin separation layer are the hotspot problems.%介绍了目前有机-无机杂化膜制备的常用方法,着重针对分子筛与高聚物共混型的有机-无机杂化膜的研究进展进行论述,包括有机-无机杂化改性的优势、杂化膜的分类及其制备方法等内容.其中,有机介质与无机粒子分子筛间的相容性、杂化膜的分离皮层薄化等是热点问题.

  3. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yangang; Zhang, Xiaohang; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Takeuchi, Ichiro, E-mail: takeuchi@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Yao, Yangyi; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Dagenais, Mario [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  4. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangang Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  5. New insights into organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH₃NH₃PbI₃ nanoparticles. An experimental and theoretical study of doping in Pb²⁺ sites with Sn²⁺, Sr²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ca²⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Hernández, Norge Cruz; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; De los Santos, Desireé M; Aguilar, Teresa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-04-14

    This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb(2+) position with Sn(2+), Sr(2+), Cd(2+) and Ca(2+). The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn(2+), Sr(2+) and Cd(2+) did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca(2+), the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr(2+) Ca(2+) Cd(2+) > Sr(2+) for the tetragonal structure and Pb(2+) > Ca(2+) for the cubic phase. The electron localization function (ELF) analysis showed similar electron localizations for undoped and Sn(2+)-doped tetragonal structures, which were different from those doped with Sr(2+) and Cd(2+). Furthermore, when Cd(2+) was incorporated, the Cd-I interaction was strengthened. For Ca(2+) doping, the Ca-I interaction had a greater ionic nature than Cd-I. Finally, an analysis based on the non-covalent interaction (NCI) index is presented to determine the weak-type interactions of the CH3NH3 groups with the dopant and I atoms. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis with these hybrid systems has not been performed previously.

  6. Resistive switching characteristics of solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films for flexible memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Il-Jin; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-02-01

    We developed a hybrid organic-inorganic resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device that uses a solution-process to overcome the disadvantages of organic and inorganic materials for flexible memory applications. The drawbacks of organic and inorganic materials are a poor electrical characteristics and a lack of flexibility, respectively. We fabricated a hybrid organic-inorganic switching layer of ReRAM by blending HfOx or AlOx solution with PMMA solution and investigated the resistive switching behaviour in Ti/PMMA/Pt, Ti/PMMA-HfOx/Pt and Ti/PMMA-AlOx/Pt structures. It is found that PMMA-HfOx or PMMA-AlOx hybrid switching layer has a larger memory window, more stable durability and retention characteristics, and a better set/reset voltage distribution than PMMA layer. Further, it is confirmed that the flexibility of the PMMA-HfOx and PMMA-AlOx blended films was almost similar to that of the organic PMMA film. Thus, the solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films are considered a promising material for a non-volatile memory device on a flexible or wearable electronic system.

  7. PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE PELÍCULAS HÍBRIDAS (ORGÁNICO-INORGÁNICO SOBRE ACERO INOXIDABLE 304 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Films (Organic-Inorganic on Stainless Steel 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. Bautista-Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the creation of ceramic films of the SiO2-TiO2 Organic Polymer hybrid system from Tetraethyl-Orthosilicate (Si (OC2H54 and Titanium Tetrabutoxide (Ti(OBu4 synthesized through the sol-gel method in several volumetric concentrations of precursors. This hybrid system was deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates through the dip-coating technique. Feasibility for obtaining hybrid and homogeneous coatings on this type of substrate and evaluating the surface properties was studies. For such a purpose, the coating microhardness and adhesion were studies. Additionally, the film surface was characterized through the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The study concluded that characteristics of films change in function of the volumetric amount of precursors used for creating films.Este trabajo muestra la conformación de películas cerámicas del sistema híbrido SiO2-TiO2-Polímero Orgánico, a partir de tetraetil-ortosilicato (Si (OC2H54, y tetra-butoxido de titanio (Ti(OBu4 y sintetizado por el método sol-gel en diferentes concentraciones volumétricas de los precursores. Este sistema híbrido se depositó sobre sustratos de acero inoxidable AISI 304 mediante la técnica de inmersión (dip-coating. Se estudió la viabilidad de obtener recubrimientos híbridos homogéneos sobre este tipo de sustrato y evaluar las propiedades superficiales. Para tal efecto, se estudió microdureza y adhesión del recubrimiento. Adicionalmente, se caracterizó la superficie de las películas por microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Del estudio se concluye que las características de las películas cambian en función de la cantidad volumétrica de los precursores utilizados en la conformación de las mismas.

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid supramolecular assemblies based on isomers [H{sub x}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}]{sup (6-x)-} clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhi-Feng [College of Material Science and Engineering, Heilongjiang University of Science and Technology, Harbin (China); Su, Zhan-Hua; Cong, Bo-Wen; Zhao, Wen-Qi; Ma, Xiu-Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China)

    2017-08-16

    The arsenomolybdates [H{sub 2}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}(H{sub 2}O)].(H{sub 2}biyb){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (1) and [H{sub 3}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}].(H{sub 3}pt){sub 2} (2) [biyb = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, pt = 4'-(3{sup ''}-pyridyl)-2,3':6'3{sup ''}-terpyridine] were synthesized via hydrothermal method. The structures of the compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, and TG analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit two isomeric forms of [H{sub x}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}]{sup (6-x)-}. The structure of 1 is constructed from the B-type [H{sub 2}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 4-} polyanions and free biyb ligands via weak interactions to form 3D supramolecular framework with a {3.4.5"3.6}{3.4"3.5"2}{3.5.6}{sup 2}{3.5"2}{sup 2} topology structure. In compound 2, the A-type [H{sub 3}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}]{sup 3-} clusters are surrounded by pt ligands through hydrogen bond interactions forming 3D supramolecular framework with a {4"3.6"3}{sup 2}{4"6.6"6.8"3} topology structure. The electrochemical behaviors, electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activities of 1 and 2 are detected. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Scintillation properties of (C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 3 NH sub 3) sub 2 PbI sub 4 Exciton luminescence of an organic/inorganic multiple quantum well structure compound induced by 2.0 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Shibuya, K; Takeoka, Y; Asai, K

    2002-01-01

    We report a new type of scintillator especially suitable for pulse-radiation detection. Thin films of organic/inorganic perovskite compound (n-C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 3 NH sub 3) sub 2 PbI sub 4 , which is characterized by a multiple quantum well structure, were bombarded by 2.0 MeV protons, and their radiation-induced emission spectra were obtained. A single and sharp emission peak due to an exciton was observed at the wavelength of 524 nm. This emission was clearly detected even at room temperature, and its quantum efficiency was very high. The line shape of this emission did not change, retaining its sharpness, and no other emissions appeared throughout the irradiation. The optical response of (n-C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 3 NH sub 3) sub 2 PbI sub 4 is very fast. (n-C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 3 NH sub 3) sub 2 PbI sub 4 is a promising scintillator material, meeting requirements not satisfied by conventional scintillators.

  10. Quinoline-Based Hybrid Compounds with Antimalarial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhamla Nqoro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of quinoline-based compounds for the treatment of malaria infections is hampered by drug resistance. Drug resistance has led to the combination of quinolines with other classes of antimalarials resulting in enhanced therapeutic outcomes. However, the combination of antimalarials is limited by drug-drug interactions. In order to overcome the aforementioned factors, several researchers have reported hybrid compounds prepared by reacting quinoline-based compounds with other compounds via selected functionalities. This review will focus on the currently reported quinoline-based hybrid compounds and their preclinical studies.

  11. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  12. Preparation and application of a magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    Catalysts and Organic Synthesis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology ... disulfonate,18 nanocrystalline magnesium oxide,19 ..... arable γ-Fe2O3/N, Fe codoped TiO2 heterojunction for.

  13. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  14. Photostability of 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of a series of newly synthesized (R-NH32PbX4 perovskites and, in particular, discuss the possible reasons which cause their degradation under UV illumination. Experimental results show that the degradation process depends a lot on their molecular components: not only the inorganic part, but also the chemical structure of the organic moieties play an important role in bleaching and photo-chemical reaction processes which tend to destroy perovskites luminescent framework. In addition, we find the spatial arrangement in crystal also influences the photostability course. Following these trends, we propose a plausible mechanism for the photodegradation of the films, and also introduced options for optimized stability.

  15. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials. I: Synthesis, characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrosilylation of 2-chloroethylvinyl ether by octahydridosilsesilsesquioxane catalyzed by hexachloroplatinic acid gives a quantitative yield of 3 as white crystals. Thermogravimetric analysis of Si8O12(CH2CH2OCH2CH2Cl)83 revealed that it is thermally reasonably stable. Spectroscopic data and a crystal structure ...

  16. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  17. Hybridization and pressure effects in UTX compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alsmadi, A. M.; Sechovský, V.; Lacerda, A. H.; Prokes, K.; Kamarád, Jiří; Chang, S.; Jung, M. H.; Nakotte, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 91, - (2002), s. 8123-8125 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : UTX intermetallic compounds * pressure effects magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2002

  18. Origin of long lifetime of band-edge charge carriers in organic-inorganic lead iodide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianran; Chen, Wei-Liang; Foley, Benjamin J; Lee, Jooseop; Ruff, Jacob P C; Ko, J Y Peter; Brown, Craig M; Harriger, Leland W; Zhang, Depei; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Chang, Yu-Ming; Choi, Joshua J; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2017-07-18

    Long carrier lifetime is what makes hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites high-performance photovoltaic materials. Several microscopic mechanisms behind the unusually long carrier lifetime have been proposed, such as formation of large polarons, Rashba effect, ferroelectric domains, and photon recycling. Here, we show that the screening of band-edge charge carriers by rotation of organic cation molecules can be a major contribution to the prolonged carrier lifetime. Our results reveal that the band-edge carrier lifetime increases when the system enters from a phase with lower rotational entropy to another phase with higher entropy. These results imply that the recombination of the photoexcited electrons and holes is suppressed by the screening, leading to the formation of polarons and thereby extending the lifetime. Thus, searching for organic-inorganic perovskites with high rotational entropy over a wide range of temperature may be a key to achieve superior solar cell performance.

  19. Synthesis, vibrational and optical properties of a new three-layered organic-inorganic perovskite (C4H9NH3)4Pb3I4Br6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammak, T.; Elleuch, S.; Bougzhala, H.; Mlayah, A.; Chtourou, R.; Abid, Y.

    2009-01-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, optical transmission and photoluminescence. The title compound, abbreviated (C 4 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 , crystallises in a periodic two-dimensional multilayer structure with P2 1 /a space group. The structure is built up from alternating inorganic and organic layers. Each inorganic layer consists of three sheets of PbX 6 (X=I, Br) octahedra. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the 100-3500 and 400-4000 cm -1 frequency ranges, respectively. An assignment of the observed vibration modes is reported. Optical transmission measurements, performed on thin films of (C 4 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 , revealed two absorption bands at 474 and 508 nm. Photoluminescence measurements have shown a green emission peak at 519 nm.

  20. Elaboration, structural, vibrational and optical investigation of a two-dimensional self-assembled organic–inorganic hybrid compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammak, T.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.; Abid, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of a hybrid organic/inorganic material with the formula (C 4 N 3 H 16 )Cl[CuCl 4 ] were elaborated and studied by X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. The crystals consist of a self-assembled multilayer structure with a Pnam space group. The structure is built up from the staking of infinite two-dimensional layers of CuCl 6 corner-sharing octahedra, separated by organic (C 4 N 3 H 16 ) 3+ chains. Such a structure may be regarded as a multi quantum well system, in which CuCl 6 layers act as semiconductor wells and the organic molecules act as insulator barriers Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. For optical investigations, thin films have been prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the material. Optical absorption spectra shows characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 300 and 380 nm, whereas the photoluminescence spectra shows a bleu intense emission around 420 nm, associated to radiative recombination of confined excitons in the CuCl 6 Quantum wells.

  1. A Humidity Sensing Organic-Inorganic Composite for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the effect of varying humidity levels on the electrical parameters and the multi frequency response of the electrical parameters of an organic-inorganic composite (PEPC+NiPc+Cu2O-based humidity sensor. Silver thin films (thickness ~200 nm were primarily deposited on plasma cleaned glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique. A pair of rectangular silver electrodes was formed by patterning silver film through standard optical lithography technique. An active layer of organic-inorganic composite for humidity sensing was later spun coated to cover the separation between the silver electrodes. The electrical characterization of the sensor was performed as a function of relative humidity levels and frequency of the AC input signal. The sensor showed reversible changes in its capacitance with variations in humidity level. The maximum sensitivity ~31.6 pF/%RH at 100 Hz in capacitive mode of operation has been attained. The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of the previously reported humidity sensors using PEPC and NiPc, which has been successfully achieved.

  2. Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic-inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Samet, A.; Dammak, T.; Mlayah, A.; Hlil, E.K.; Abid, Y.

    2011-01-01

    (C 9 H 19 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Br 2 compound is a new crystal belonging to the large hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites compounds family. Optical properties are investigated by optical absorption UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Bands to band absorption peak at 2.44 eV as well as an extremely strong yellow-green photoluminescence emission at 2.17 eV is observed at room temperature. First principle calculations based on the DFT and FLAPW methods combined with LDA approximation are performed as well. Density of state close to the gap is presented and discussed in terms of optical absorption and photoluminescence experimental results. The perfect agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations is highlighted. - Highlights: → (C 9 H 19 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Br 2 compound is a new crystal with strong yellow-green PL emission at 2.17 eV. → Calculations based on DFT and FLAPW method combined with LDA approximation are performed. → Gap, optical transitions and exciton presence were predicted from density of states. → Agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations.

  3. Synthesis optimisation and characterisation of the organic-inorganic layered materials ZnS(m-xylylenediamine){sub 1/2} and ZnS(p-xylylenediamine){sub 1/2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luberda-Durnaś, K. [Institute of Geological Sciences PAS, Research Centre in Krakow, Senacka 1, Krakow 31-002 (Poland); Guillén, A. González [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Krakow 30-060 (Poland); Łasocha, W., E-mail: lasocha@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry PAS, Niezapominajek 8, Krakow 30-239 (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Krakow 30-060 (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered materials of the type ZnS(amine){sub 1/2}, where amine=m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) or p-xylylenediamine (PXDA), were synthesised using a simple solvothermal method. Since the samples crystallised in the form of very fine powder, X-ray powder diffraction techniques were used for structural characterisation. The crystal structure studies, involving direct methods, show that both compounds crystallised in the orthorhombic crystal system, but in different space groups: ZnS(MXDA){sub 1/2} in non-centrosymmetric Ccm2{sub 1}, ZnS(PXDA){sub 1/2} in centrosymmetric Pcab. The obtained materials are built according to similar orders: semiconducting monolayers with the formula ZnS, parallel to the (010) plane, are separated by diamines. The organic and inorganic fragments are connected by covalent bonds between metal atoms of the layers and nitrogen atoms of the amino groups. The optical properties of the hybrid materials differ from those of their bulk counterpart. In both compounds a blue-shift of about 0.8 or 0.9 eV was observed with reference to the bulk phase of ZnS. - Highlights: • New hybrid compounds: ZnS(MXDA){sub 1/2} and ZnS(PXDA){sub 1/2} were obtained. • Hybrids were studied using XRD, TG/DSC, XRK, SEM, UV–vis spectroscopy. • Structures of both materials were solved by powder diffraction methods.

  4. Organic-inorganic membranes for filtration of corn distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myronchuk Valeriy G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by modification of polymer microfiltration membrane with inorganic ion-exchangers, which form secondary porosity inside macroporous substrate (zirconium hydrophosphate or simultaneously in the macroporous substrate and active layer, depending of the particle size (from ≈50 nm up to several microns. Precipitation of the inorganic constituent is considered from the point of view of Ostwald-Freundlich equation. Such processes as pressing test in deionized water and filtration of corn distillery at 1-6 bar were investigated. Theoretical model allowing to establish fouling mechanism, was applied. It was found that the particles both in the substrate and active layer prevent fouling of the membrane with organics and provide rejection of colloidal particles.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of tunable coumarin- linked glasses as new class of organic/inorganic phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luridiana, Alberto; Pretta, Gianluca; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Chiriu, Daniele; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    It is well known that stilbene with a trans conformation is highly fluorescent. From the viewpoint of molecular structure, coumarins bear a carbon-carbon double bond which is fixed as trans conformation as in trans-stilbene through a lactone structure. This can help to avoid the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as observed in stilbene compounds and results in strong fluorescence and high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability in most of coumarin derivatives. Herein we report some preliminary results about the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of tunable coumarins and the development of a new linkage protocol for the obtainment of monolayer coumarin-covalently linked glasses. The resulting organic/inorganic coumarin/silica based Self-Assembled Monolayer (SMA) film is proposed as new phosphors for the substituting of critical raw materials, like rare earths, in photonics applications.

  6. Spectroscopic studies of organic-inorganic composite film cured by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathir Mohamed; Dahlan Mohd; Ibrahim Abdullah; Eda Yuhana Ariffin

    2009-01-01

    Liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) film was reinforced with silica particles formed in-situ via sol gel process. Combination of these two components produces organic-inorganic composites. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as precursor material for silica generation. Sol gel reactions was carried out at different concentrations of TEOS i.e. between 10 and 50 phr. The compounds that contain silica were crosslinked by electron beam. Structural properties studies were carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). It was found that miscibility between organic and inorganic components improved with the presence of silanol groups (Si-OH) and polar solvent i.e. THF, via hydrogen bonding formation between siloxane and LENRA. Morphology study by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed in-situ generated silica particles were homogenous and well dispersed at any concentrations of TEOS. (author)

  7. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran; Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng; Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua; Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C 8 -BTBT) and n-type MoS 2 . We find that few-layer C 8 -BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS 2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C 8 -BTBT/MoS 2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10 5 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents

  8. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daowei; Pan, Yiming; Nan, Haiyan; Gu, Shuai; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaoguang; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Ni, Zhenhua; Wang, Baigeng; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran

    2015-11-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) and n-type MoS2. We find that few-layer C8-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C8-BTBT/MoS2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 105 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.

  9. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Xinran, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia [College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chai, Yang [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-11-02

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C{sub 8}-BTBT) and n-type MoS{sub 2}. We find that few-layer C{sub 8}-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS{sub 2} by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C{sub 8}-BTBT/MoS{sub 2} vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10{sup 5} at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.

  10. Role of surfactant on thermoelectric behaviors of organic-inorganic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunmi; Roh, Jong Wook; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Chen, Renkun

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic composites have recently attracted intensive interests as a promising candidate for flexible thermoelectric (TE) devices using inherently soft polymers as well as for increasing the degree of freedom to control TE properties. Experimentally, however, enhanced TE performance in hybrid composites has not been commonly observed, primarily due to inhomogeneous mixing between the inorganic and organic components which leads to limited electrical conduction in the less conductive component and consequently a low power factor in the composites compared to their single-component counterparts. In this study, we investigated the effects of different surfactants on the uniformity of mixing and the TE behaviors of the hybrid composites consisting of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 (BST) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). We found that compared to dimethyl sulfoxide, which is the most widely used surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX-100) can lead to homogenous dispersion of BST in PEDOT:PSS. By systematically studying the effects of the surfactant concentration, we can attribute the better mixing capability of TX-100 to its non-ionic property, which results in homogenous mixing with a lower critical micelle concentration. Consequently, we observed simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the BST/PEDOT:PSS composites with the TX-100 surfactant.

  11. Organic-inorganic semiconductor devices and 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride: an early history of organic electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, S R

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration, over 20 years ago, of an organic-inorganic heterojunction (OI HJ) device along with investigations of the growth and physical properties of the archetypal crystalline molecular organic semiconductor 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride are discussed. Possible applications of OI HJ devices are introduced and the dramatic change in conductive properties of these materials when exposed to high-energy ion beams is described. The past and future prospects for hybrid organic-on-inorganic semiconductor structures for use in electronic and photonic applications are also presented

  12. Structural and optical studies of local disorder sensitivity in natural organic-inorganic self-assembled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijaya Prakash, G; Pradeesh, K [Nanophotonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India); Ratnani, R; Saraswat, K [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, MDS University, Ajmer (India); Light, M E [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Baumberg, J J, E-mail: prakash@physics.iitd.ac.i [Nanophotonic Centre, Cavendish Laboratory, University Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-21

    The structural and optical spectra of two related lead iodide (PbI) based self-assembled hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductors are compared. During the synthesis, depending on the bridging of organic moiety intercalated between the PbI two-dimensional planes, different crystal structures are produced. These entirely different networks show different structural and optical features, including excitonic bandgaps. In particular, the modified organic environment of the excitons is sensitive to the local disorder both in single crystal and thin film forms. Such information is vital for incorporating these semiconductors into photonic device architectures.

  13. Theoretical design and discovery of the most-promising, previously overlooked hybrid perovskite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunger, Alex [University of Colorado Boulder; Kazmerski, Lawrence [University of Colorado Boulder; Dalpian, Gustavo [University of Colorado Boulder

    2018-03-14

    The material class of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (AMX3) has risen rapidly from a virtually unknown material in photovoltaic applications a short 8-years ago into 20-23% efficient thin-film solar cell devices. As promising as this class of materials is, however, there are limitations associated with its poor long-term stability, non-optimal band gap, and the presence of toxic Pb atom on the metalloid site. An Edisonian laboratory exploration (i.e., growth + characterization) via trial-and-error processes of all other candidate materials, is unpractical. Our approach uses high speed computational design and discovery to screen the ‘best of class” candidates based upon optimal functionalities.

  14. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  15. Continuous-wave lasing in an organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yufei; Kerner, Ross A.; Grede, Alex J.; Rand, Barry P.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising gain media for tunable, solution-processed semiconductor lasers. However, continuous-wave operation has not been achieved so far1-3. Here, we demonstrate that optically pumped continuous-wave lasing can be sustained above threshold excitation intensities of 17 kW cm-2 for over an hour in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) distributed feedback lasers that are maintained below the MAPbI3 tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature of T ≈ 160 K. In contrast with the lasing death phenomenon that occurs for pure tetragonal-phase MAPbI3 at T > 160 K (ref. 4), we find that continuous-wave gain becomes possible at T ≈ 100 K from tetragonal-phase inclusions that are photogenerated by the pump within the normally existing, larger-bandgap orthorhombic host matrix. In this mixed-phase system, the tetragonal inclusions function as carrier recombination sinks that reduce the transparency threshold, in loose analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum wells, and may serve as a model for engineering improved perovskite gain media.

  16. Design and electrical characterization of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A., E-mail: aaaalghamdi4@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nawar, Ahmed M.; El-Tantawy, Farid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Yaghmour, S.J. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Azam, Ameer [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We have successfully fabricated a Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction. • The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. • The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. • Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior. • Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%. - Abstract: Hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction of nanocrystalline Anthracene and p-Si was fabricated by using a conventional thermal evaporation technique. The crystal and molecular structure of the Anthracene thin films were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformation-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The morphologies of the Anthracene/p-Si were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al heterojunction were investigated at room temperature (293 K). The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. The ideality factor and barrier height values of the Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al diode were obtained to be 1.1 and 0.464 eV, respectively. The dependence of capacitance-voltage (C{sup -2}-V) for the device Anthracene/p-Si was found to be almost linear. Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%.

  17. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Ngoc Minh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight. The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes.

  18. Hybrid Curcumin Compounds: A New Strategy for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Teiten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multifactorial disease that requires treatments able to target multiple intracellular components and signaling pathways. The natural compound, curcumin, was already described as a promising anticancer agent due to its multipotent properties and huge amount of molecular targets in vitro. Its translation to the clinic is, however, limited by its reduced solubility and bioavailability in patients. In order to overcome these pharmacokinetic deficits of curcumin, several strategies, such as the design of synthetic analogs, the combination with specific adjuvants or nano-formulations, have been developed. By taking into account the risk-benefit profile of drug combinations, as well as the knowledge about curcumin’s structure-activity relationship, a new concept for the combination of curcumin with scaffolds from different natural products or components has emerged. The concept of a hybrid curcumin molecule is based on the incorporation or combination of curcumin with specific antibodies, adjuvants or other natural products already used or not in conventional chemotherapy, in one single molecule. The high diversity of such conjugations enhances the selectivity and inherent biological activities and properties, as well as the efficacy of the parental compound, with particular emphasis on improving the efficacy of curcumin for future clinical treatments.

  19. Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites under Different Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao; Bao, Chunxiong; Li, Faming; Yu, Tao; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Weidong; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Fu, Gao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-05-06

    Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite compounds are very promising materials for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. But how to fabricate high-quality perovksite films under controlled humidity conditions is still an important issue due to their sensitivity to moisture. In this study, we investigated the influence of ambient humidity on crystallization and surface morphology of one-step spin-coated perovskite films, as well as the performance of solar cells based on these perovskite films. On the basis of experimental analyses and thin film growth theory, we conclude that the influence of ambient humidity on nucleation at spin-coating stage is quite different from that on crystal growth at annealing stage. At the spin-coating stage, high nucleation density induced by high supersaturation prefers to appear under anhydrous circumstances, resulting in layer growth and high coverage of perovskite films. But at the annealing stage, the modest supersaturation benefits formation of perovskite films with good crystallinity. The films spin-coated under low relative humidity (RH) followed by annealing under high RH show an increase of crystallinity and improved performance of devices. Therefore, a mechanism of fast nucleation followed by modest crystal growth (high supersaturation at spin-coating stage and modest supersaturation at annealing stage) is suggested in the formation of high-quality perovskite films.

  20. Temperature dependent electrical characteristics of an organic-inorganic heterojunction obtained from a novel organometal Mn complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Y.S.; Ebeoglu, M.A.; Topal, G.; Kilicoglu, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study includes synthesizing a Mn hexaamide (MnHA) organometal compound (C 27 H 21 N 9 O 6 MnCl 2 ).(1/2H 2 O), fabrication of MnHA/n-Si organic-inorganic heterojunction and analysis of conduction mechanism of the device over the room temperature. After synthesizing the molecule, the structure of the compound was determined using spectroscopic methods. The Sn/MnHA/n-Si structure was constructed by forming a thin MnHA layer on n-Si inorganic semiconductor and evaporating Sn metal on organic complex. The structure has shown good rectifying behavior and obeys the thermionic emission theory. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the diode have been measured at temperatures ranging from 300 to 380 K at 10 K intervals to determine the temperature dependent electrical characteristics of the device.

  1. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten W; Thygesen, Kristian S

    2016-11-03

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 MX 2 Y 2 , where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC functional are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental photoluminescence data for the already synthesized perovskites. Finally, we study the effect of different defects on the band structure. We find that the most common defects only introduce shallow or no states in the band gap, indicating that these atomically thin 2D perovskites are likely to be defect tolerant.

  2. Influence of image charge effect on exciton fine structure in an organic-inorganic quantum well material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Hidetsugu; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Sato, Mikio; Takeoka, Yuko [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have investigated experimentally excitonic properties in organic-inorganic hybrid multi quantum well crystals, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4} and (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}−C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4}, by measuring photoluminescence, reflectance, photoluminescence excitation spectra. In these materials, the excitonic binding energies are enhanced not only by quantum confinement effect (QCE) but also by image charge effect (ICE), since the dielectric constant of the barrier layers is much smaller than that of the well layers. By comparing the 1s-exciton and 2s-exciton energies, we have investigated the influence of ICE with regard to the difference of the Bohr radius.

  3. Organic-inorganic perovskites containing trivalent metal halide layers: the templating influence of the organic cation layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B

    2000-12-25

    Thin sheetlike crystals of the metal-deficient perovskites (H2AEQT)M2/3I4 [M = Bi or Sb; AEQT = 5,5"'-bis-(aminoethyl)-2,2':5',2'':5'',2'''-quaterthiophene] were formed from slowly cooled ethylene glycol/2-butanol solutions containing the bismuth(III) or antimony(III) iodide and AEQT.2HI salts. Each structure was refined in a monoclinic (C2/m) subcell, with the lattice parameters a = 39.712(13) A, b = 5.976(2) A, c = 6.043(2) A, beta = 92.238(5) degrees, and Z = 2 for M = Bi and a = 39.439(7) A, b = 5.952(1) A, c = 6.031(1) A, beta = 92.245(3) degrees, and Z = 2 for M = Sb. The trivalent metal cations locally adopt a distorted octahedral coordination, with M-I bond lengths ranging from 3.046(1) to 3.218(3) A (3.114 A average) for M = Bi and 3.012(1) to 3.153(2) A (3.073 A average) for M = Sb. The new organic-inorganic hybrids are the first members of a metal-deficient perovskite family consisting of (Mn+)2/nV(n-2)/nX4(2-) sheets, where V represents a vacancy (generally left out of the formula) and the metal cation valence, n, is greater than 2. The organic layers in the AEQT-based organic-inorganic hybrids feature edge-to-face aromatic interactions among the rigid, rodlike quaterthiophene moieties, which may help to stabilize the unusual metal-deficient layered structures.

  4. Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic-inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C{sub 9}H{sub 19}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 2}Br{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abid, H., E-mail: haithamlpa@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Samet, A.; Dammak, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Mlayah, A. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS-Universite de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Abid, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    (C{sub 9}H{sub 19}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 2}Br{sub 2} compound is a new crystal belonging to the large hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites compounds family. Optical properties are investigated by optical absorption UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Bands to band absorption peak at 2.44 eV as well as an extremely strong yellow-green photoluminescence emission at 2.17 eV is observed at room temperature. First principle calculations based on the DFT and FLAPW methods combined with LDA approximation are performed as well. Density of state close to the gap is presented and discussed in terms of optical absorption and photoluminescence experimental results. The perfect agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations is highlighted. - Highlights: > (C{sub 9}H{sub 19}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 2}Br{sub 2} compound is a new crystal with strong yellow-green PL emission at 2.17 eV. > Calculations based on DFT and FLAPW method combined with LDA approximation are performed. > Gap, optical transitions and exciton presence were predicted from density of states. > Agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations.

  5. In Situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Embedded Hybrid Soft Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Miroshnikov, Mikhail; Dutta, Debjit; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M; John, George

    2016-09-20

    The allure of integrating the tunable properties of soft nanomaterials with the unique optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. A promising method for the synthesis of such organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials is afforded by the in situ generation of metal nanoparticles within a host organic template. Due to their tunable surface morphology and porosity, soft organic materials such as gels, liquid crystals, and polymers that are derived from various synthetic or natural compounds can act as templates for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. This method provides stabilization to the metal nanoparticles by the organic soft material and advantageously precludes the use of external reducing or capping agents in many instances. In this Account, we exemplify the green chemistry approach for synthesizing these materials, both in the choice of gelators as soft material frameworks and in the reduction mechanisms that generate the metal nanoparticles. Established herein is the core design principle centered on conceiving multifaceted amphiphilic soft materials that possess the ability to self-assemble and reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Furthermore, these soft materials stabilize the in situ generated metal nanoparticles and retain their self-assembly ability to generate metal nanoparticle embedded homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid materials. We discuss a remarkable example of vegetable-based drying oils as host templates for metal ions, resulting in the synthesis of novel hybrid nanomaterials. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles via polymers and self-assembled materials fabricated via cardanol (a bioorganic monomer derived from cashew nut shell liquid) are also explored in this Account. The organic-inorganic hybrid structures were characterized by several techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and

  6. Investigation de fluides électrorhéologiques sur la base des matériaux hybrides

    OpenAIRE

    Marins , Jéssica Alves ,

    2014-01-01

    Electrorheology is an area has been exploring the application of these organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, to obtain better performance in electrorheological properties. Electro-rheological fluids consist of a colloidal dispersion, where the liquid is non-conductive and the particles dispersed in the fluid are able of polarized at presence of electric field. When the fluids ER are subjected to an external electric field the rheological properties change, and may increase or decrease the appar...

  7. Magnetic properties of Fe-doped organic-inorganic nanohybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N. J. O.; Amaral, V. S.; Carlos, L. D.; de Zea Bermudez, V.

    2003-05-01

    We present a magnetic study of Fe-doped diureasils (siloxane-based networks to which poly(ethylene oxide)-based chains are grafted by urea cross linkages doped with Fe(II) or Fe(III) ions. Structural studies show that the Fe(II) ions interact mainly with the organic chain, whereas the incorporation of Fe(III) leads to the formation of iron-based nanoclusters, with radius increasing from 20 to 40 Å. Fe(II)-doped samples behave as simple paramagnets, with μeff=5.32μB. Fe(III)-doped hybrids present antiferromagnetic interactions, with TN increasing with Fe(III) concentration up to 13.6 K for 6% doping. Thermal irreversibility was observed below ˜40 K and is stronger for higher concentrations. The coercive fields (HC) are of the order of 1000 Oe at 5 K. Hysteresis cycles are shifted to negative fields, revealing the presence of exchange anisotropy interactions with exchange fields (HE) of the order of 100 Oe. Both fields decrease rapidly with increasing temperature. We analyze this behavior in terms of the contribution of surface spin disorder to exchange anisotropy.

  8. Organic-inorganic field effect transistor with SnI-based perovskite channel layer using vapor phase deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2003-11-01

    High field-effect hole mobility of (formula available in paper)and threshold voltage is -3.2 V) in organic-inorganic layered perovskite film (formula available in paper)prepared by a vapor phase deposition technique have been demonstrated through the octadecyltrichlorosilane treatment of substrate. Previously, the (formula available in paper)films prepared on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-covered substrates using a vapor evaporation showed not only intense exciton absorption and photoluminescence in the optical spectroscopy but also excellent crystallinity and large grain structure in X-ray and atomic force microscopic studies. Especially, the (formula available in paper)structure in the region below few nm closed to the surface of octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer was drastically improved in comparison with that on the non-covered substrate. Though our initial (formula available in paper)films via a same sequence of preparation of (formula available in paper)and octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer did not show the field-effect properties because of a lack of spectral, structural, and morphological features. The unformation of favorable (formula available in paper)structure in the very thin region, that is very important for the field-effect transistors to transport electrons or holes, closed to the surface of non-covered (formula available in paper)dielectric layer was also one of the problems for no observation of them. By adding further optimization and development, such as deposition rate of perovskite, substrate heating during deposition, and tuning device architecture, with hydrophobic treatment, the vacuum-deposited (formula available in paper)have achieved above-described high performance in organic-inorganic hybrid transistors.

  9. Copper inorganic-organic hybrid coordination compound as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fascinating supramolecular architecture. Electrochemical ... hybrid materials attract great attention in the fields of crystal ... erful potential applications in various areas, such as nonlinear ... Transition metal elements of ruthenium, iron, plat- inum ...

  10. Reactivity II: A Second Foundation-Level Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; McIntee, Edward J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Johnson, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    A foundation-level course is described that integrates material related to reactivity in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry. Designed for second-year students, the course serves majors in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology, as well as prehealth-professions students. Building on an earlier course that developed concepts of nucleophiles and…

  11. Reactivity III: An Advanced Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2017-01-01

    Reactivity III is a new course that presents chemical reactions from the domains of organic, inorganic, and biochemistry that are not readily categorized by electrophile-nucleophile interactions. Many of these reactions involve the transfer of a single electron, in either an intermolecular fashion in the case of oxidation/reduction reactions or an…

  12. Control of the interphase interaction and morphology in the organic-inorganic polymer nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Libor; Murias, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2010), s. 45-50 ISSN 1934-8959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic-inorganic polymer * interphase interaction * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.davidpublishing.com

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material and investigation of its catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-03-14

    In the present work, the preparation of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material in which tetrakis(p-aminophenylporphyrin) is covalently linked to a Lindqvist structure of polyoxometalate, is reported. This new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material was characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided spectral data of the synthesis of this compound. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the porphyrin on the redox process of the polyoxometalate. The catalytic activity of this hybrid material was investigated in the alkene epoxidation with NaIO(4).

  14. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites of ZnO/CuO/chitosan with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xingfa, E-mail: xingfamazju@aliyun.com [School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Center of Advanced Functional Materials, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Zhang, Bo; Cong, Qin; He, Xiaochun; Gao, Mingjun [School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Center of Advanced Functional Materials, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005 (China); Li, Guang [National Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2016-08-01

    To extend the visible light response of ZnO, ZnO/CuO heterostructured nanocomposite was synthesized by a hydrothermal approach. At the same time, chitosan (Ch) is considered as a very promising natural polymer. It holds not only abundant resource and low cost, but also has excellent adsorption properties to a broad range of organic pollutants and some heavy metal ions. To improve the adsorption properties of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite, ZnO/CuO/chitosan organic-inorganic composites were prepared with precipitation method. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by TEM (Transmission electron microscopy), SAED pattern (Selected Area Electron Diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), UV–Vis (Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy), PL (Photoluminescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TGA (Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (FTIR) et al. To examine the surface and interface properties of nanocomposites, chemical prototype sensor arrays were constructed based on ZnO, ZnO/CuO, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O, ZnO/CuO/chitosan, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan nanocomposites and QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) arrays devices. The adsorption response behaviors of the sensor arrays to some typical volatile compounds were examined under similar conditions. The results indicated that with comparison to ZnO nanostructure, the ZnO/CuO nanocomposite exhibited enhanced adsorption properties to some typical volatile compounds greatly, and the adsorption properties of ZnO/CuO/chitosan are much better than that of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite. The adsorption of ZnO/CuO system is super to that of ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O. Therefore, ZnO/CuO/chitosan nanocomposite not only showed broadening visible light response, but also possessed of excellent adsorption properties, and has good potential applications in photocatalysts, chemical sensors, biosensors, self-cleaning coating fields et al. - Highlights: • ZnO/CuO nanocomposites exhibited good response in near whole visible

  15. Improved Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Organic-Inorganic Composite Coated Electro-galvanized Steels for Digital TV Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Du-Hwan; Noh, Sang-Geol; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Choon-Ho [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Recently, household electronic industries require environmentally-friendly and highly functional steels in order to enhance the quality of human life. Customers especially require both excellent corrosion and abrasion resistant anti-fingerprint steels for digital TV panels. Thus POSCO has developed new functional electro-galvanized steels, which have double coated layers with organic-inorganic composites on the zinc surface of the steel for usage as the bottom chassis panel of TVs. The inorganic solution for the bottom layer consists of inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and zirconium compounds with a small amount of epoxy binder, and affords both improved adhesion properties by chemical conversion reactions and corrosion resistance due to a self-healing effect. The composite solution for the top layer was prepared by fine dispersion of organic-inorganic ingredients that consist of a urethane modified polyacrylate polymer, hardener, silica sol and a titanium complex inhibitor in aqueous media. Both composite solutions were coated on the steel surface by using a roll coater and then cured through an induction furnace in the electro-galvanizing line. New anti-fingerprint steel was evaluated for quality performance through such procedures as the salt spray test for corrosion resistance, tribological test for abrasion resistance, and conductivity test for surface electric conductance regarding to both types of polymer resin and coating weight of composite solution. New composite coated anti-fingerprint steels afford both better corrosion resistance and abrasion properties compared to conventional anti-fingerprint steel that mainly consists of acrylate polymers. Detailed discussions of both composite solutions and experimental results suggest that urethane modifications of acrylate polymers of composite solutions play a key role in enhanced quality performances.

  16. Investigation of vacuum deposited hybrid coatings of protic organic UV absorbers embedded in a silica matrix used for the UV protection of Polycarbonate glazing

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, C.; Schulz, U.; Mühlig, C.; Kaiser, N.; Tünnermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for UV protection of polycarbonate is presented. UV-absorbing compounds, which are commonly used for polycarbonate, were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation under high vacuum. In addition to the optical properties of the coatings, the influence of the silica network on the organic UV absorber and the stability of the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) are discussed. A model is presented to show the interaction be...

  17. Investigating actinide compounds within a hybrid MCSCF-DFT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromager, E.; Jensen, H.J.A.; Wahlin, P.; Real, F.; Wahlgren, U.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Investigations of actinide chemistry with quantum chemical methods still remain a complicated task since it requires an accurate and efficient treatment of the environment (crystal or solvent) as well as relativistic and electron correlation effects. Concerning the latter, the current correlated methods, based on either Density-Functional Theory (DFT) or Wave-Function Theory (WFT), have their advantages and drawbacks. On the one hand, Kohn-Sham DFT (KS-DFT) calculates the dynamic correlation quite accurately and at a fairly low computational cost. However, it does not treat adequately the static correlation, which is significant in some actinide compounds because of the near-degeneracy of the 5f orbitals: a first example is the bent geometry obtained in KS-DFT(B3LYP) for the neptunyl ion NpO 2 3+ , which is found to be linear within a Multi-Configurational Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) model [1]. A second one is the stable and bent geometry obtained in KS-DFT(B3LYP) for the plutonyl ion PuO 2 4+ , which disintegrates at the MCSCF level [1]. On the other hand, WFT can describe the static correlation, using for example a MCSCF model, but then an important part of the dynamic correlation has to be neglected. This can be recovered with perturbation-theory based methods like for example CASPT2 or NEVPT2, but their computational complexity prevents large scale calculations. It is therefore of great interest to develop a hybrid MCSCF-DFT model which combines the best of both WFT and DFT approaches. The merge of WFT and DFT can be achieved by splitting the two-electron interaction into long-range and short-range parts [2]. The long-range part is then treated by WFT and the short-range part by DFT. We use the so-called 'erf' long-range interaction erf(μr 12 )/r 12 , which is based on the standard error function, and where μ is a free parameter which controls the long/short-range decomposition. The newly proposed recipe for the

  18. Magnetic instability with increasing hybridization in cerium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kioussis, N.; Cooper, B.R.; Wills, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A synthesis of a phenomenological theory of orbitally driven magnetic ordering of moderately delocalized light rare-earth systems and ab initio electronic structure calculations has been applied to investigate the change in magnetic behavior on going from CeSb to CeTe, both of which have rocksalt structure with a small decrease in lattice parameter. The hybridization-potential matrix elements and the band energies entering the Anderson-lattice Hamiltonian are obtained from linear-muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) electronic-structure calculations with the Ce 4f states treated as core states. The position of the Ce 4f energy level relative to the Fermi energy and the intra-atomic Coulomb energy U are obtained by use of a sequence of three total-energy supercell calculations with one out of four Ce sites constrained to f n occupation with n=0,1,2, successively. The calculations elucidate the origins, in the electronic structure, of the variation of the f-state resonance width and hybridization potential on going from CeSb to CeTe, and the resultant sensitivity of the hybridization dressing of the crystal-field splitting and the hybridization-induced exchange interactions to chemical environment. The effect of opening up successive angular momentum scattering channels of the ab initio calculated two-ion exchange-interaction matrix on the nature of the magnetic ordering is examined. The calculated magnitude and range dependence of the two-ion exchange interactions changes sharply from CeSb to CeTe, yielding a change in magnetic behavior in qualitative agreement with experiment. The nonlinear hybridization effects on the hybridization dressing of the crystal-field splitting have been examined

  19. Simple calculation of hybridization effects in UTX and U2T2X compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokes, K.; Brueck, E.; Nakotte, H.; De Chatel, P.F.; De Boer, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    The band widths of several UTX and U 2 T 2 X compounds (T: transition metal, X: p-metal) are evaluated by means of a tight-binding method. The magnetism in both groups of compounds is governed by the hybridization between U f-states and transition-metal d-states. Comparing the sum of all hybridization effects, we find approximately the same hybridization effects in both groups of compounds. We also observe a decrease of the band width with increasing atomic number Z within a transition-metal series. By comparing the band width with the theoretical critical energies for the f 3 and f 2 configurations, it is in some cases possible to predict whether the ground state is magnetically ordered or not. ((orig.))

  20. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona

  1. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Moganty, Surya S.; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial properties of novel 4-aminoquinoline hybrid compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gillian M; Tanpure, Rajendra P; Douchez, Antoine; Andrews, Katherine T; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacophore hybridization has recently been employed in the search for antimalarial lead compounds. This approach chemically links two pharmacophores, each with their own antimalarial activity and ideally with different modes of action, into a single hybrid molecule with the goal to improve therapeutic properties. In this paper, we report the synthesis of novel 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline/primary sulfonamide hybrid compounds. The chlorinated 4-aminoquinoline scaffold is the core structure of chloroquine, an established antimalarial drug, while the primary sulfonamide functional group has a proven track record of efficacy and safety in many clinically used drugs and was recently shown to exhibit some antimalarial activity. The activity of the hybrid compounds was determined against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum strains. While the hybrid compounds had lower antimalarial activity when compared to chloroquine, they demonstrated a number of interesting structure-activity relationship (SAR) trends including the potential to overcome the resistance profile of chloroquine. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Cell-Based Fabrication of Organic/Inorganic Composite Gel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Nakano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials containing components similar to the native biological tissue would have benefits as an implantable scaffold material. To obtain such biomimetic materials, cells may be great contributors because of their crucial roles in synthetic organics. In addition, the synthesized organics—especially those derived from osteogenic differentiated cells—become a place where mineral crystals nucleate and grow even in vitro. Therefore to fabricate an organic/inorganic composite material, which is similar to the biological osteoid tissue, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs were cultured in a 3D fibrin gel in this study. BMSCs secreted bone-related proteins that enhanced the biomineralization within the gel when the cells were cultured with an osteogenic differentiation medium. The compositions of both synthesized matrices and precipitated minerals in the obtained materials altered depending on the cell culture period. The mineral obtained in the 3D gel showed low crystalline hydroxyapatite. The composite materials also showed excellent osteoconductivity with new bone formation when implanted in mice tibiae. Thus, we demonstrated the contributions of cells for fabricating implantable organic/inorganic composite gel materials and a method for controlling the material composition in the gel. This cell-based material fabrication method would be a novel method to fabricate organic/inorganic composite biomimetic materials for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Advancement on Lead-Free Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Faruk; Shafie, Suhaidi; Lim, Hong Ngee; Musa, Abubakar Ohinoyi

    2018-06-14

    Remarkable attention has been committed to the recently discovered cost effective and solution processable lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Recent studies have reported that, within five years, the reported efficiency has reached 9.0%, which makes them an extremely promising and fast developing candidate to compete with conventional lead-based perovskite solar cells. The major challenge associated with the conventional perovskite solar cells is the toxic nature of lead (Pb) used in the active layer of perovskite material. If lead continues to be used in fabricating solar cells, negative health impacts will result in the environment due to the toxicity of lead. Alternatively, lead free perovskite solar cells could give a safe way by substituting low-cost, abundant and non toxic material. This review focuses on formability of lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite, alternative metal cations candidates to replace lead (Pb), and possible substitutions of organic cations, as well as halide anions in the lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite architecture. Furthermore, the review gives highlights on the impact of organic cations, metal cations and inorganic anions on stability and the overall performance of lead free perovskite solar cells.

  5. Design of bone-integrating organic-inorganic composite suitable for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    Several ceramics exhibit specific biological affinity, i.e. direct bone integration, when implanted in bony defects. They are called bioactive ceramics and utilized as important bone substitutes. However, there is limitation on clinical application, because of their inappropriate mechanical properties such as high Young's modulus and low fracture toughness. Novel bioactive materials exhibiting high machinability and flexibility have been desired in medical fields. Mixing bioactive ceramic powders and organic polymers have developed various organic-inorganic composites. Their mechanical property and bioactivity are mainly governed by the ceramics content. It is known that bioactive ceramics integrate with the bone through bone-like hydroxyapatite layer formed on their surfaces by chemical reaction with body fluid. This is triggered by a catalytic effect of various functional groups. On the basis of these facts, novel bioactive organic-inorganic nanocomposites have been developed. In these composites, inorganic components effective for triggering the hydroxyapatite nucleation are dispersed in polymer matrix at molecular level. Concept of the organic-inorganic composite is also applicable for providing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement with the bioactivity.

  6. [Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them.

  7. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamamoto; Sacco; Biazzotto; Ciuffi; Serra

    2000-01-01

    New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica-template are compared.

  8. ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON OCTA(AMINOPHENYL)SILSESQUIOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-bo Fan; Rong-jie Yang; Xiang-mei Li

    2013-01-01

    Octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) was used as the curing agent of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin.A study on comparison of DGEBA/OAPS with DGEBA/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) epoxy resins was achieved.Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the curing reaction and its kinetics,and the glass transition of DGEBA/OAPS.Thermogravimetric analysis was used to investigate thermal decomposition of the two kinds of epoxy resins.The reactions between amino groups and epoxy groups were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of the two epoxy resins.The results indicated that OAPS had very good compatibility with DGEBA in molecular level,and could form a transparent DGEBA/OAPS resin.The curing reaction of the DGEBA/OAPS prepolymer could occur under low temperatures compared with DGEBA/DDS.The DGEBA/OAPS resin didn't exhibit glass transition,but the DGEBA/DDS did,which meant that the large cage structure of OAPS limited the motion of chains between the cross-linking points.Measurements of the contact angle indicated that the DGEBA/OAPS showed larger angles with water than the DGEBA/DDS resin.Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the incorporation of OAPS into epoxy system resulted in low mass loss rate and high char yield,but its initial decomposition temperature seemed to be lowered.

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructured materials for photovoltaics and solar fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Lai-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen economy aiming to use hydrogen as a new potential fuel for motive power has been proposed as a promising model for this century. However, until now most of the H2 in use still comes from steam reforming which produces H2 via steam reaction at high temperature with fossil fuel. Solar

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors.

  11. PECASE: Nanostructure Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials for Active Opto-Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    per square) were cleaned via sequential ultrasonic rinses in detergent solution, deionized water, and acetone and then boiled in isopropanol for 5 min...TPD into the blue QDs due to the increased potential barrier at this junction (see band lineup in inset to Figure 4) or to the reduced tunneling rate

  12. Influence of crosslinker structure on performance of functionalised organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljević, J.; Zorko, M.; Štular, D.; Tomšič, B.; Jerman, I.; Orel, B.; Medved, J.; Simončič, B.

    2017-10-01

    This research aimed to investigate the influence of the co-condensation of the three different organofunctional trialkoxysilane precursors with two different crosslinkers, i.e. tetraethoxysilane or organocyclotetrasiloxane on the performance and the washing fastness of this multicomponent multifunctional sol-gel coating on cellulose fibres. To this aim, a three-component equimolar sol mixture (MC), which included 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (SiF), 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (SiQ) and P,P-diphenyl-N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) phosphinic amide (SiP) in combination with two different concentrations of TEOS (T and 3T) or organocyclotetrasiloxane 2,4,6,8-tetrakis(2-(diethoxy(methyl)silyl)ethyl)-2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane (T4) as crosslinkers, was applied to the cotton fibres by a pad-dry-cure process. The functional properties of the coated samples before and after repeated washing were investigated by the water θ (W) and n-hexadecane θ (C16) static contact angle as well as water sliding (roll-off) (α) angle measurements. The inclusion of both TEOS and T4 into the MC sol increased the hydrophobic affect and simultaneously decreased the oleophobic effect of the MC coating. These phenomena were more pronounced for higher concentration of TEOS and T4 crosslinker. The inclusion of T4 into the MC sol improved the coating washing fastness to a significantly higher extent than the inclusion of TEOS, with respect to the applied concentrations.

  13. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Interfacial Layer for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Cong, Shan; Lou, Yanhui; Han, Liang; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Zou, Guifu

    2017-09-20

    4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) is an efficient electron transport and hole blocking material in organic photoelectric devices. Here, we report cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) doped Bphen as cathode interfacial layer in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3-x Cl x based planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Investigation finds that introducing Cs 2 CO 3 suppresses the crystallization of Bphen and benefits a smooth interface contact between the perovskite and electrode, resulting in the decrease in carrier recombination and the perovskite degradation. In addition, the matching energy level of Bphen film in the PSCs effectively blocks the holes diffusion to cathode. The resultant power conversion efficiency (PCE) achieves as high as 17.03% in comparison with 12.67% of reference device without doping. Besides, experiments also demonstrate the stability of PSCs have large improvement because the suppressed crystallization of Bphen by doping Cs 2 CO 3 as a superior barrier layer blocks the Ag atom and surrounding moisture access to the vulnerable perovskite layer.

  14. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu; Haque, Mohammed; Parida, Manas R.; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Tao; Mohammed, Omar F.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed

  15. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASSUKO IAMAMOTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica- template are compared.

  16. Hybrid Organic - Inorganic Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Low to Medium Temperature Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova Chavez, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are currently the main resources of energy in the world. The World Energy Outlook claimed in 2007 that the major source of energy (about 84%) would still be generated from fossil fuels in 2030. By these projections, the world's fossil fuel reserves will be consumed within a

  17. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing; Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors

  18. Full-color tuning in binary polymer:perovskite nanocrystals organic-inorganic hybrid blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perulli, A.; Balena, A.; Fernandez, M.; Nedelcu, G.; Cretí, A.; Kovalenko, M. V.; Lomascolo, M.; Anni, M.

    2018-04-01

    The excellent optical and electronic properties of metal halide perovskites recently proposed these materials as interesting active materials for optoelectronic applications. In particular, the high color purity of perovskite colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) had recently motivated their exploration as active materials for light emitting diodes with tunable emission across the visible range. In this work, we investigated the emission properties of binary blends of conjugated polymers and perovskite NCs. We demonstrate that the emission color of the blends is determined by the superposition of the component photoluminescence spectra, allowing color tuning by acting on the blend relative composition. The use of two different polymers, two different perovskite NCs, and different blend compositions is exploited to tune the blend color in the blue-green, yellow-red, and blue-red ranges, including white light generation.

  19. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite FETs for Electrically Injected Laser Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Wake Forest University REPORT NUMBER Department of Physics...Action PI, Oana D. Jurchescu, Wake Forest University In collaboration with Z. Valy Vardeny ( University of Utah) -supported under N00014-15-1-2524 ONR...between mob ili ty and y can be clearly observed. The mobility increases over fi ve orders of magnitude as a result of decreasing y by about 20 times

  20. Hybrid organic-inorganic porous semiconductor transducer for multi-parameters sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Alessandro; Cassinese, Antonio; Casalino, Maurizio; Rea, Ilaria; Barra, Mario; Chiarella, Fabio; De Stefano, Luca

    2015-07-06

    Porous silicon (PSi) non-symmetric multi-layers are modified by organic molecular beam deposition of an organic semiconductor, namely the N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene-carboxydi-imide (PDIF-CN2). Joule evaporation of PDIF-CN2 into the PSi sponge-like matrix not only improves but also adds transducing skills, making this solid-state device a dual signal sensor for chemical monitoring. PDIF-CN2 modified PSi optical microcavities show an increase of about five orders of magnitude in electric current with respect to the same bare device. This feature can be used to sense volatile substances. PDIF-CN2 also improves chemical resistance of PSi against alkaline and acid corrosion. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2015-06-30

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes were applied for in-vitro imaging in cancer cells.

  2. High Excitation Intensity Opens a New Trapping Channel in Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zheng, K.; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, M.; Chen, J.S.; Chábera, P.; Zhang, W.; Al-Marri, M.J.; Pullerits, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 6 (2016), s. 1154-1161 ISSN 2380-8195 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : LEAD HALIDE PEROVSKITES * QUANTUM DOTS * NANOCRYSTALS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  3. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen; Croissant, Jonas G.; Julfakyan, Khachatur; Deng, Lin; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Gurinov, Andrei; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes

  4. Inhibiting prolyl isomerase activity by hybrid organic-inorganic molecules containing rhodium(II) fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jane M; Kundu, Rituparna; Cooper, Julian C; Ball, Zachary T

    2014-11-15

    A small molecule containing a rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate fragment is shown to be a potent inhibitor of the prolyl isomerase FKBP12. The use of small molecules conjugates of rhodium(II) is presented as a general strategy for developing new protein inhibitors based on distinct structural and sequence features of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol exhibited friction values of 0.2, compared with approx. 0.8 for the coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2 mixture (with and without methanol). Wear performance comparison between the two types of coating again indicated a significant organic component in the coatings deposited from the higher boiling point alcohols.

  6. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  7. Absorption and scattering effects by silver nanoparticles near the interface of organic/inorganic semiconductor tandem films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, Coleen T.; Vijapurapu, Divya K.; Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Cheung, Gary Z.; O’Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2013-01-01

    nanoparticles placed near an organic/inorganic interface can be employed for light management in tandem or hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film semiconductor configurations for solar energy harvesting applications or light detection applications

  8. Organic-Inorganic Graphite and Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Based Composites for 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan Gonzalez, Jorge Alfredo

    were ≈ 5.27 Siemens-m-1 and 0.250 Ohm-m, respectively. In the process of forming the composites, some pretreatment of the 2D material may also be necessary. We studied one aspect of this pretreatment by looking at particle size measured using dynamic light scattering. The fragmentation rate (FR) of 2D MoS2, WS2, and graphite in N-methyl-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was computed in chemical exfoliants, where FR is a measure of the particle size reduction as a function of ultrasonication time. For the 2D layered materials, the highest FR generally occurred for sonication times tsonic = 30 min., after which point FR varied less sensitively with tsonic. The highest FR occurred for graphite, where FRGraphite was -1176.4 microm-hr -1, while FRWS2 and FRMoS2 was measured to be -32.4 microm-hr-1 and -3.8 microm-hr-1, respectively. This pretreatment maybe an important step to further tune the properties of the hybrid organic-inorganic composites of 2D materials with polymeric systems for a number of application platforms.

  9. Organic, inorganic and total mercury determination in fish by chemical vapor generation with collection on a gold gauze and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Fabio Andrei; Bizzi, Cezar Augusto; Goldschmidt Antes, Fabiane; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    A method for organic, inorganic and total mercury determination in fish tissue has been developed using chemical vapor generation and collection of mercury vapor on a gold gauze inside a graphite tube and further atomization by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. After drying and cryogenic grinding, potassium bromide and hydrochloric acid solution (1 mol L - 1 KBr in 6 mol L - 1 HCl) was added to the samples. After centrifugation, total mercury was determined in the supernatant. Organomercury compounds were selectively extracted from KBr solution using chloroform and the resultant solution was back extracted with 1% m/v L-cysteine. This solution was used for organic Hg determination. Inorganic Hg remaining in KBr solution was directly determined by chemical vapor generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury vapor generation from extracts was performed using 1 mol L - 1 HCl and 2.5% m/v NaBH 4 solutions and a batch chemical vapor generation system. Mercury vapor was collected on the gold gauze heated resistively at 80 deg. C and the atomization temperature was set at 650 deg. C. The selectivity of extraction was evaluated using liquid chromatography coupled to chemical vapor generation and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The proposed method was applied for mercury analysis in shark, croaker and tuna fish tissues. Certified reference materials were used to check accuracy and the agreement was better than 95%. The characteristic mass was 60 pg and method limits of detection were 5, 1 and 1 ng g - 1 for organic, inorganic and total mercury, respectively. With the proposed method it was possible to analyze up to 2, 2 and 6 samples per hour for organic, inorganic and total Hg determination, respectively.

  10. Study of Coumarin-Resveratrol Hybrids as Potent Antioxidant Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Matos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we synthesized a selected series of hydroxylated 3-phenylcoumarins 5–8, with the aim of evaluating in detail their antioxidant properties. From an in depth study of the antioxidant capacity data (ORAC-FL, ESR, CV and ROS inhibition it was concluded that these derivatives are very good antioxidants, with very interesting profiles in all the performed assays. The study of the effect of the number and position of the hydroxyl groups on the antioxidant activity was the principal aim of this study. In particular, 7-hydroxy-3-(3'-hydroxyphenylcoumarin (8 proved to be the most active and effective antioxidant of the selected series in four of the performed assays (ORAC-FL = 11.8, capacity of scavenging hydroxyl radicals = 54%, Trolox index = 2.33 and AI30 index = 0.18. However, the presence of two hydroxyl groups on this molecule did not increase greatly the activity profile. Theoretical evaluation of ADME properties of all the derivatives was also carried out. All the compounds can act as potential candidates for preventing or minimizing the free radical overproduction in oxidative-stress related diseases. These preliminary findings encourage us to perform a future structural optimization of this family of compounds.

  11. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  12. Facile fabrication of organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingzhi; Li, Aoxiang; Yue, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lu-Ning; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2016-07-01

    Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi) layer were fabricated for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this arrayed architecture, a PDi layer with a tunable thickness was coated on anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays by physical vapor deposition, which is advantageous for the formation of a uniform layer and an adequate interface contact between PDi and TiO2. The obtained PDi/TiO2 junction exhibited broadened visible light absorption, and an effective interface for enhanced photogenerated electron-hole separation, which is supported by the reduced charge transfer resistance and prolonged excitation lifetime via impedance spectroscopy analysis and fluorescence emission decay investigations. Consequently, such a heterojunction photoanode was photoresponsive to a wide visible light region of 400-600 nm, and thus demonstrated a highly enhanced photocurrent density at 1.23 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode. Additionally, the durability of such a photoanode can be guaranteed after long-time illumination because of the geometrical restraint imposed by the PDi aggregates. These results pave the way to discover new organic/inorganic assemblies for high-performance photoelectric applications and device integration.Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi

  13. Novel Platinum (Pt)-Vandetanib Hybrid Compounds: Design, Synthesis and Investigation of Anti-cancer Activity and Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Rong

    Purpose: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% of lung cancers. 70% of individuals with NSCLC harboring somatic mutations in exons of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene that encode tyrosine kinase domain. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are promising molecular targeted therapy for NSCLC with sensitizing EGFR mutations. However, secondary mutation of EGFR after treatment of TKIs develops resistance. Vandetanib is introduced to overcome erlotinib resistance as a multi-targeted TKI. However, its anticancer effect is still compromised by EGFR T790M mutation. Therefore, new molecular anticancer strategies are necessarily needed. In this study, vandetanib is incorporated with Pt-based anticancer agents as hybrid compounds, aiming to circumvent TKI resistance. Furthermore, hybrid compounds are investigated in cisplatin resistant problem to expect to overcome resistance by introduction of vandetanib. Methods: Three novel Pt-vandetanib hybrid compounds were synthesized and its physicochemical properties were characterized. Anticancer activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by sulforhodamine B assay and lactate dehydrogenase release. Docking simulation was performed to investigate the interaction of compounds with EGFR harboring different mutations. Inhibition efficacy of hybrids to kinases was evaluated by kinase inhibition profiling service and cell-free kinase inhibition assay. Mechanistic studies on cytotoxicity activity of the hybrid compounds were carried out. DNA damage response of hybrid compounds was further investigated in KB cells. The cytotoxicity of hybrids was tested in cisplatin resistant KB CP20 cells. Mechanistic of anticancer activity was studied to test inhibition on oncoprotein CIP2Aand DNA damage. Results: Platinum-vandetanib hybrid compounds were synthesized and test to be stable under extracellular condition. Hybrids reacted with 5'-GMP2- and glutathione, and both

  14. Environmental Effects on the Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galisteo-López, Juan F; Anaya, M; Calvo, M E; Míguez, H

    2015-06-18

    The photophysical properties of films of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites under different ambient conditions are herein reported. We demonstrate that their luminescent properties are determined by the interplay between photoinduced activation and darkening processes, which strongly depend on the atmosphere surrounding the samples. We have isolated oxygen and moisture as the key elements in each process, activation and darkening, both of which involve the interaction with photogenerated carriers. These findings show that environmental factors play a key role in the performance of lead halide perovskites as efficient luminescent materials.

  15. Polystyrene-poly(vinylphenol) copolymers as compatibilzers for organic-inorganic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, C.J.T.; Coltrain, B.K.; Teegarden, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Random, graft, and block copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), and PVPh homopolymer are shown to act as compatibilizers for incompatible organic-inorganic composite materials. The VPh component reacts, or interacts strongly with the polymerizing inorganic (titanium or zirconium) alkoxide. The organic components studied were PS, poly(vinyl methyl ether), and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The use of such compatibilizers provides a means of combining in situ polymerized inorganic oxides and hydrophobic polymers. This is seen as a reduction in the size of the dispersed inorganic phase and results in improved optical and mechanical properties

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Salicylate-zinc Layered Hydroxide Nano hybrid for Antiinflammatory Active Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Munirah Ramli; Khatijah Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of nano technology has prompted much advancement in various areas of research that includes cellular delivery systems, particularly those dealing with delivery of compounds with therapeutic effects. This study aimed at investigating the use of a layered nano material for formation of a new organic-inorganic nano hybrid material. In this work, a compound of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) used as a host for a guest, anti-inflammatory agent salicylate (SA) was synthesized. Through simple, direct reaction of SA solution at various concentrations with commercial zinc oxide, SA was found to be intercalated between the ZLH inorganic layers. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns revealed that the basal spacing of the nano hybrid is around 16.14 Angstrom. Further characterizations also confirmed that SA was successfully intercalated into the interlayers of the nano hybrid. Results generated from this work provide information beneficial for development of a new delivery system for therapeutic compounds consisting of antiinflammatory agents. (author)

  17. Preparation and characterization of self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Dou, Sen; Liu, Wencong

    A series of silicon-containing sulfonated polystyrene/acrylate (Si-sPS/A) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized via simple emulsion polymerization method. The Si-sPS/A latexes show good film-forming capability and the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are prepared by pouring the Si-sPS/A nanoparticle latexes into glass plates and drying at 60 °C for 10 h and 120 °C for 2 h. The potential of the membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is characterized preliminarily by studying their thermal stability, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol diffusion coefficient, proton conductivity and selectivity (proton conductivity/methanol diffusion coefficient). The results indicate that these membranes possess excellent thermal stability and methanol barrier due to the existence of self-crosslinked silica network. In addition, the proton conductivity of the membranes is in the range of 10 -3-10 -2 S cm -1 and all the membranes show much higher selectivity in comparison with Nafion ® 117. These results suggest that the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are particularly promising in DMFC applications.

  18. Development of organic-inorganic double hole-transporting material for high performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jea Woong; Seo, Myung-Seok; Jung, Jae Woong; Park, Joon-Suh; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Ko, Min Jae; Son, Hae Jung

    2018-02-01

    The control of the optoelectronic properties of the interlayers of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for achieving high photovoltaic performances. Of the solution-processable interlayer candidates, NiOx is considered one of the best inorganic hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials. However, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of NiOx-based PSCs are limited by the unfavorable contact between perovskite layers and NiOx HTLs, the high density of surface trap sites, and the inefficient charge extraction from perovskite photoactive layers to anodes. Here, we introduce a new organic-inorganic double HTL consisting of a Cu:NiOx thin film passivated by a conjugated polyelectrolyte (PhNa-1T) film. This double HTL has a significantly lower pinhole density and forms better contact with perovskite films, which results in enhanced charge extraction. As a result, the PCEs of PSCs fabricated with the double HTL are impressively improved up to 17.0%, which is more than 25% higher than that of the corresponding PSC with a Cu:NiOx HTL. Moreover, PSCs with the double HTLs exhibit similar stabilities under ambient conditions to devices using inorganic Cu:NiOx. Therefore, this organic-inorganic double HTL is a promising interlayer material for high performance PSCs with high air stability.

  19. Organic-Inorganic Hydrophobic Nanocomposite Film with a Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (KH570, and wrapped by fluoride and siloxane polymers. The synthesized samples are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, contact angle meter (CA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicate that the novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite with a core-shell structure was synthesized successfully. XRD analysis reveals the nanocomposite film has an amorphous structure, and FTIR analysis indicates the nanoparticles react with a silane coupling agent (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane KH570. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticle film is influenced by the composition of the core. Further, comparing with the film synthesized by silica nanoparticles, the film formed from SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles has higher hydrophobic performance, i.e., the contact angle is greater than 101.7°. In addition, the TEM analysis reveals that the crystal structure of the particles can be changed at high temperatures.

  20. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, A. C.

    2018-01-26

    Much recent attention has been devoted towards unravelling the microscopic optoelectronic properties of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP). Here we investigate by coherent inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy and Brillouin light scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear modulus C44. Further, a tendency towards an incipient ferroelastic transition is observed in FAPbBr3. We observe a systematic lower sound group velocity in the technologically important iodide-based compounds compared to the bromide-based ones. The findings suggest that low thermal conductivity and hot phonon bottleneck phenomena are expected to be enhanced by low elastic stiffness, particularly in the case of the ultrasoft α-FAPbI3.

  3. Improving the Carprofen Solubility: Synthesis of the Zn2Al-LDH Hybrid Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Doretta; Quinzeni, Irene; Bruni, Giovanna; Friuli, Valeria; Maggi, Lauretta; Bini, Marcella

    2018-01-01

    The development of efficient strategies for drug delivery is considerably desired. Indeed, often several issues such as the drug solubility, the control of the drug release rate, the targeted delivery of drugs, the drug bioavailability, and the minimization of secondary effects still present great obstacles. Different methodologies have been proposed, but the use of nano-hybrids compounds that combine organic and inorganic substances seems particularly promising. An interesting inorganic host is the layered double hydroxide (LDH) with a sheets structure and formula [M 2+ 1-x M 3+ x (OH) 2 ](A n- ) x/n yH 2 O (M 2+  = Zn, Mg; M 3+  = Al; A n-  = nitrates, carbonates, chlorides). The possibility to exchange these counterions with drug molecules makes these systems ideal candidates for the drug delivery. In this article, we synthesize by co-precipitation method the hybrid compound Carprofen-Zn 2 Al-LDH. Carprofen, a poorly soluble anti-inflammatory drug, could also benefit of the association with a natural antacid such as LDH, to reduce the gastric irritation after its administration. Through X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we could verify the effective drug intercalation into LDH. The dissolution tests clearly demonstrate a significant improvement of the drug release rate when carprofen is in the form of hybrid compound. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field

  5. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  6. Macrolide Hybrid Compounds: Drug Discovery Opportunities in Anti- Infective and Anti-inflammatory Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paljetak, Hana Cipcic; Tomaskovic, Linda; Matijasic, Mario; Bukvic, Mirjana; Fajdetic, Andrea; Verbanac, Donatella; Peric, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Macrolides, polyketide natural products, and their 15-membered semi-synthetic derivatives are composed of substituted macrocyclic lactone ring and used primarily as potent antibiotics. Recently their usefulness was extended to antimalarial and anti-inflammatory area. Hybrid macrolides presented in this article are the next generation semi-synthetic compounds that combine pharmacophores from antibacterial, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory area with 14- and 15-membered azalide scaffolds. Antibacterial azalide hybrids with sulphonamides showed improved activity against resistant streptococci while quinolone conjugates demonstrated full coverage of respiratory pathogens including macrolide resistant strains and their efficacy was confirmed in mouse pneumonia model. Antimalarial macrolide hybrids, mainly involving (chloro)quinoline pharmacophores, showed outstanding activity against chloroquine resistant strains, favourable pharmacokinetics, promising in vivo efficacy as well as encouraging developmental potential. Anti-inflammatory hybrids were obtained by combining macrolides with corticosteroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They were found active in in vivo animal models of locally induced inflammation, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrated improved safety over parent steroid drugs. Overall, macrolide hybrids possess significant potential to be developed as potent novel medicines in therapeutic areas of utmost pharmaceutical interest. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Probing Local Heterogeneity in the Optoelectronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Quilettes, Dane W.

    rational design of materials and is leveraged to deploy chemical passivation techniques to improve the optoelectronic quality of the material, with the ultimate goal of improving photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. Reducing non-radiative recombination in semiconducting materials is a prerequisite for achieving the highest performance in a host of light-emitting and photovoltaic applications. In the first study described herein, we used confocal fluorescence microscopy correlated with scanning electron microscopy to spatially resolve the photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics from films of nonstoichiometric organic-inorganic perovskites, CH3NH 3PbI3(Cl). The PL intensities and lifetimes varied between different grains in the same film, even for films that exhibited long bulk lifetimes. The grain boundaries were dimmer and exhibited faster non-radiative decay. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a positive correlation between chlorine concentration and regions of brighter PL, while PL imaging revealed that chemical treatment with pyridine could activate previously dark grains. Next, to better elucidate the sources of these loss pathways, we performed a systematic study using confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy to deconvolve the contributions from diffusion and non-radiative recombination which lead to the observed image heterogeneity. We showed that, in addition to local variations in non-radiative loss, carriers diffuse anisotropically due to heterogeneous intergrain connectivity. In addition to non-radiative recombination impeding material performance, we also showed that the materials exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination. We used a unique combination of confocal PL microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH 3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrated that the photo-induced "brightening" of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order

  8. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng; Li, Bin; Wang, Peng; Dua, Rubal; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl

  9. Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P; Sinclair, Robert

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

  10. Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M.; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P.; Sinclair, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

  11. Study of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)/CdS nanocomposite organic/inorganic gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiari, Vlasoula; Pagonis, Konstantinos; Bokias, Georgios; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2004-09-14

    CdS nanoparticles have been synthesized and stabilized in poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) hydrogels. The properties of the composite material have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. This material can be obtained in three different states: swollen, shrunk, and freeze-dried. The swollen and the freeze-dried states correspond to a nanocomposite organic/inorganic (wet or dry) gel containing CdS nanoparticles of approximately 50 nm diameter while the shrunk state is a two-phase system containing CdS crystals, which precipitate forming interesting geometrical shapes.

  12. Influence of temperature and light intensity on Ru(II) complex based organic-inorganic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asubay, Sezai; Durap, Feyyaz; Aydemir, Murat; Baysal, Akin; Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Tombak, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic junction was fabricated by forming [Ru(Cy_2PNHCH_2-C_4H_3O)(η"6-p-cymene)Cl_2] complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. It was seen that the structure had perfect rectification property. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out in dark and under various illumination conditions (between 50-100 mW/cm"2) and with the temperature range from 303 to 380 K. The structure showed unusually forward and reverse bias temperature and light sensing behaviors. It was seen that the current both in forward and reverse bias increased with the increase in light intensity and temperature.

  13. Research progress on organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the intensive research efforts across the world since 2009, perovskite solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are now comparable or even better than several other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In this topical review article, we review recent progress in the field of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells. We associate these achievements with the fundamental knowledge gained in the perovskite research. The major recent advances in the fundamental perovskite material and solar cell research are highlighted, including the current efforts in visualizing the dynamical processes (in operando) taking place within a perovskite solar cell under operating conditions. We also discuss the existing technological challenges. Based on a survey of recently published works, we point out that to move the perovskite PV technology forward towards the next step of commercialization, what perovskite PV technology need the most in the coming next few years is not only further PCE enhancements, but also up-scaling, stability, and lead-toxicity.

  14. Preparations and Characterizations of Luminescent Two Dimensional Organic-inorganic Perovskite Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjun Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the synthesis, structural and optical characterizations of some novel luminescent two dimensional organic-inorganic perovskite (2DOIP semiconductors. These 2DOIP semiconductors show a self-assembled nano-layered structure, having the electronic structure of multi-quantum wells. 2DOIP thin layers and nanoparticles have been prepared through different methods. The structures of the 2DOIP semiconductors are characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of theb DOIP semiconductors are characterized from absorption and photoluminescence spectra measured at room and low temperatures. Influences of different components, in particular the organic parts, on the structural and optical properties of the 2DOIP semiconductors are discussed.

  15. [Development and evaluation of fertilizers cemented and coated with organic-inorganic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Chen; Zuo, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Bao-Cun; Zhao, Tong-Ke; Zou, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Qiu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of organic-inorganic cementing and coating materials were prepared by a coating method using water as the solvent, and the corresponding cemented and coated fertilizers (B2, PS, F2, and F2F) were produced by disc pelletizer. The tests on the properties of these fertilizers showed that the granulation rate, compression strength, and film-forming rate were B2 > PS > F2 > F2F. Soil column leaching experiment showed that the curve of accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was the gentlest for B2. In 48 days, the accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was in the order of B2, 54.65% fertilizers had better effects on corn yield, among which, B2 was the best, with the corn yield and fertilizer use efficiency increased by 19.72% and 20.30%, respectively. The yield-increasing effect of other test fertilizers was in the order of PS > F2 > F2F.

  16. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai; Cao, Runan; Xu, Fei; Da, Peimei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Lu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources

  17. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanxin, E-mail: xiongsx@xust.edu.cn; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  18. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  19. Hybrid Compounds Strategy in the Synthesis of Oleanolic Acid Skeleton-NSAID Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawełczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the synthesis of several hybrid individuals combining a natural oleanolic acid skeleton and synthetic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug moieties (NSAIDs. It studied structural modifications of the oleanolic acid structure by use of the direct reactivity of hydroxyl or hydroxyimino groups at position C-3 of the triterpenoid skeleton with the carboxylic function of anti-inflammatory drugs leading to new perspective compounds with high potential pharmacological activities. Novel ester- and iminoester-type derivatives of oleanolic unit with the different NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, and ketoprofen, were obtained and characterized. Moreover, preliminary research of compounds obtaining structure stability under acidic conditions was examined and the PASS method of prediction of activity spectra for substances was used to estimate the potential biological activity of these compounds.

  20. Synthesis, vibrational and optical properties of a new three-layered organic-inorganic perovskite (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammak, T., E-mail: thameurlpa@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia); Elleuch, S. [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia); Bougzhala, H. [Laboratoire de cristallochimie et des materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia); Mlayah, A. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Chtourou, R. [Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie CRTEn BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050, Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semiconducteur (Tunisia); Abid, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia)

    2009-09-15

    An organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, optical transmission and photoluminescence. The title compound, abbreviated (C{sub 4}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}, crystallises in a periodic two-dimensional multilayer structure with P2{sub 1}/a space group. The structure is built up from alternating inorganic and organic layers. Each inorganic layer consists of three sheets of PbX{sub 6} (X=I, Br) octahedra. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the 100-3500 and 400-4000 cm{sup -1} frequency ranges, respectively. An assignment of the observed vibration modes is reported. Optical transmission measurements, performed on thin films of (C{sub 4}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}, revealed two absorption bands at 474 and 508 nm. Photoluminescence measurements have shown a green emission peak at 519 nm.

  1. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-07-28

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.1% and Commission Internationale dÉnclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.05). Efficient deep-blue emission as well as high triplet state energy of Cz-2pbb enables fabrication of hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with a single emissive layer. Hybrid white emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb show the peak external quantum efficiency exceeding 10% and power efficiency of 14.8 lm/W at a luminance of 500 cd/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Reactivity I: A Foundation-Level Course for Both Majors and Nonmajors in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    A foundation level course is presented that integrates aspects of organic, inorganic and biochemistry in the context of reactivity. The course was designed to serve majors in chemistry and other sciences (biochemistry, biology, nutrition), as well as nursing and pre-health professions students. Themes of the course were designed to highlight a…

  3. Intercalated organic-inorganic perovskites stabilized by fluoroaryl-aryl interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B; Medeiros, David R; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2002-04-22

    Crystals of several new hybrid tin(II) iodide-based perovskites, involving 2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorophenethylammonium or phenethylammonium cation bilayers and intercalated aryl or perfluoroaryl molecules, were grown by slow evaporation of a methanol solution containing the hybrid perovskite and the intercalating species. The (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) structure was solved at -75 degrees C in a monoclinic C2/c subcell [a = 41.089(12) A, b = 6.134(2) A, c = 12.245(3) A, beta = 94.021(5) degrees, Z = 4] and consists of sheets of corner-sharing distorted SnI(6) octahedra separated by bilayers of pentafluorophenethylammonium cations. The intercalated benzene molecules form a single well-ordered layer interposed between adjacent fluoroaryl cation layers. The corresponding hybrid with an unfluorinated organic cation and fluorinated intercalating molecule, (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)), is isostructural [a = 40.685(4) A, b = 6.0804(6) A, c = 12.163(1) A, beta = 93.136(2) degrees, Z = 4]. For each intercalated system, close C...C contacts (3.44-3.50 A) between the aromatic cation and the intercalated molecule are indicative of a significant face-to-face interaction, similar to that found in the complex C(6)H(6).C(6)F(6). Crystal growth runs with the organic cation and prospective intercalating molecule either both fluorinated or both unfluorinated did not yield stable intercalated compounds, demonstrating the significance of fluoroaryl-aryl interactions in the current intercalated structures. Thermal analysis of (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) and (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)) crystals yields, in addition to the characteristic transitions of the parent perovskite, endothermic transitions [12.6(5) and 32.1(8) kJ/mol, respectively] with an onset at 145 degrees C and a weight loss corresponding to the complete loss of the intercalated molecule. The relatively high deintercalation temperature (well above the boiling point of

  4. Mode transition coordinated control for a compound power-split hybrid car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Tong; Li, Mengna

    2017-03-01

    With a compound power-split transmission directly connected to the engine in hybrid cars, dramatic fluctuations in engine output torque result in noticeable jerks when the car is in mode transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode. This study designed a mode transition coordinated control strategy, and verified that strategy's effectiveness with both simulations and experiments. Firstly, the mode transition process was analyzed, and ride comfort issues during the mode transition process were demonstrated. Secondly, engine ripple torque was modeled using the measured cylinder pumping pressure when the engine was not in operation. The complete dynamic plant model of the power-split hybrid car was deduced, and its effectiveness was validated by a comparison of experimental and simulation results. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy was designed to determine the desired engine torque, motor torque, and the moment of fuel injection. Active damping control with two degrees of freedom, based on reference output shaft speed estimation, was designed to mitigate driveline speed oscillations. Carrier torque estimation based on transmission kinematics and dynamics was used to suppress torque disturbance during engine cranking. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy effectively suppressed vehicle jerks and improved ride comfort during mode transition.

  5. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound contents before and after in vitro digestion of new tomato hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Speranza, Giovanna; De Prisco, Rocco; Iodice, Carmine; Crudele, Egle; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    The antioxidant properties and bioactive compound contents of fresh new tomato hybrids before and after in vitro digestion were investigated. To this aim, the antioxidant activities of lipophilic, hydrophilic and polyphenolic extracts of tomato hybrids were determined by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DMPD (N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods respectively, while the bioactive compound contents were estimated via Folin-Ciocalteu (polyphenols), pH differential (anthocyanins) and high-performance liquid chromatography (lycopene and β-carotene) methods. After the digestion process, a marked loss (ranging from 37 to 77%) of antioxidant capacity linked to the hydrophilic fraction was observed. In contrast, the lipophilic and methanolic fractions showed an increase in antioxidant activity (ranging from 9 to 40%) after gastric digestion, and a rapid decrease was observed after total digestion. Moreover, the presence of anthocyanins and carotenoids after simulated digestion was a notable result. The bioavailability of bioactive metabolites from nutraceutical food and their healthful properties in humans are strictly dependent on the digestion process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Ionic behavior of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuming; Pang, Tiqiang; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Luan, Suzhen; Jia, Renxu

    2017-05-24

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. Despite the achievements in device performance, the electrical properties of perovskites have stagnated. Ion migration is speculated to be the main contributing factor for the many unusual electrical phenomena in perovskite-based devices. Here, to understand the intrinsic electrical behavior of perovskites, we constructed metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors based on perovskite films and performed capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the capacitors. The results provide direct evidence for the mixed ionic-electronic transport behavior within perovskite films. In the dark, there is electrical hysteresis in both the C-V and I-V curves because the mobile negative ions take part in charge transport despite frequency modulation. However, under illumination, the large amount of photoexcited free carriers screens the influence of the mobile ions with a low concentration, which is responsible for the normal C-V properties. Validation of ion migration for the gate-control ability of MOS capacitors is also helpful for the investigation of perovskite MOS transistors and other gate-control photovoltaic devices.

  7. Efficient epoxidation over cyanocobalamine containing SBA-15 organic-inorganic nanohybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahjoub, A.R., E-mail: mahjouba@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    SBA-15 mesoporous silica is synthesized using triblock copolymer P123 surfactant and chemically modified by aminopropyl, thiol, ammonium and sulfonic acid functional groups. Functionalization is performed via post synthesize method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) or 3-mercatopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) precursor. The as synthesized mesoporous systems are applied for immobilization of cyanocobalamine. Functionalization effectively improves sorption properties of the supports, while different functional groups exert different effects. The organic-inorganic mesoporous materials are characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). The newly synthesized systems exhibit high catalytic activity for heterogeneous epoxidation of cyclooctene in presence of hydrogen peroxide. Reaction conditions are optimized, effect of functional groups on performance of the catalysts is taken into consideration and reusability of the designed heterogeneous systems is studied. Systems with chemically modified supports are shown to be more efficient and stable catalysts however; chemical nature of functional groups plays a crucial role.

  8. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  9. Morphological structure of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose and cellulose-based organic-inorganic composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyslov, R. Yu; Ezdakova, K. V.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Khripunov, A. K.; Bugrov, A. N.; Tkachenko, A. A.; Angelov, B.; Pipich, V.; Szekely, N. K.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Latysheva, E.; Chetverikov, Yu O.; Haramus, V.

    2017-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS), as well as low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, were used in the studies of micro- and mesostructure of polymer matrix prepared from air-dry preliminarily disintegrated cellulose nano-gel film (synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus) and the composites based on this bacterial cellulose. The composites included ZrO2 nanoparticles, Tb3+ in the form of low molecular weight salt and of metal-polymer complex with poly(vinylpyrrolydone)-poly(methacryloyl-o-aminobenzoic acid) copolymer. The combined analysis of the data obtained allowed revealing three levels of fractal organization in mesostructure of G. xylinus cellulose and its composites. It was shown that both the composition and an aggregation state of dopants have a significant impact on the structural characteristics of the organic-inorganic composites. The composites containing Tb3+ ions demonstrate efficient luminescence; its intensity is an order of magnitude higher in the case of the composites with the metal-polymer complex. It was found that there is the optimal content of ZrO2 nanoparticles in composites resulting in increased Tb3+ luminescence.

  10. Organic/inorganic composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole and nano-SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Hongting; Liu Lu; Chang Zhihong; Yuan Junjie

    2009-01-01

    Organic/inorganic composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) and nano-SiO 2 were prepared in this work. However, the preparation of PBI/SiO 2 composite membrane is not easy since PBI is insoluble in water, while nano-SiO 2 is hydrophilic due to the hydrophilicity of nano-SiO 2 and water-insolubility of PBI. Thus, a solvent-exchange method was employed to prepare the composite membrane. The morphology of the composite membranes was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was revealed that inorganic particles were dispersed homogenously in the PBI matrix. The thermal stability of the composite membrane is higher than that of pure PBI, both for doped and undoped membranes. PBI/SiO 2 composite membranes with up to 15 wt% SiO 2 exhibited improved mechanical properties compared with PBI membranes. The proton conductivity of the composite membranes containing phosphoric acid was studied. The nano-SiO 2 in the composite membranes enhanced the ability to trap phosphoric acid, which improved the proton conductivity of the composite membranes. The membrane with 15 wt% of inorganic material is oxidatively stable and has a proton conductivity of 3.9 x 10 -3 S/cm at 180 deg. C.

  11. Low-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite: Structure, Properties, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ravi K; Cohen, Bat-El; Iagher, Lior; Etgar, Lioz

    2017-10-09

    Three-dimensional (3 D) perovskite has attracted a lot of attention owing to its success in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. However, one of its major crucial issues lies in its stability, which has limited its commercialization. An important property of organic-inorganic perovskite is the possibility of forming a layered material by using long organic cations that do not fit into the octahedral cage. These long organic cations act as a "barrier" that "caps" 3 D perovskite to form the layered material. Controlling the number of perovskite layers could provide a confined structure with chemical and physical properties that are different from those of 3 D perovskite. This opens up a whole new batch of interesting materials with huge potential for optoelectronic applications. This Minireview presents the synthesis, properties, and structural orientation of low-dimensional perovskite. It also discusses the progress of low-dimensional perovskite in PV solar cells, which, to date, have performance comparable to that of 3 D perovskite but with enhanced stability. Finally, the use of low-dimensional perovskite in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors is discussed. The low-dimensional perovskites are promising candidates for LED devices, mainly because of their high radiative recombination as a result of the confined low-dimensional quantum well. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Uso do processo sol-gel na obtenção de materiais híbridos organo-inorgânicos: preparação, caracterização e aplicação em eletrólitos de estado sólido Utilization of the sol-gel process to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid materials: preparation, characterization and application as solid state electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita A Zoppi

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é descrita a preparação de materiais híbridos constituídos de um copolímero orgânico contendo segmentos óxido de etileno e de sílica. A rede inorgânica foi formada na solução polimérica a partir da hidrólise e condensação do tetraetoxisilano, TEOS. Como copolímero foi utilizado o poli(óxido de etileno-b-amida-6, PEBAX. Foram preparados também híbridos contendo perclorato de lítio, denominados aqui híbridos eletrólitos. Os materiais foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão, ensaios de tensão-deformação, análise dinâmico-mecânica e difratometria de raios-X. Os sistemas PEBAX/TEOS/LiClO foram também caracterizados por espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica e voltametria cíclica para avaliação de suas propriedades como eletrólito de estado sólido.In this work it was described the preparation of hybrid materials constituted by a organic copolymer, which contains ethylene oxide blocks, and silica. The inorganic network was formed by the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane, TEOS, into the polymeric solution. As a copolymer, it was used poly(ethylene oxide-b-amide-6, PEBAX. Hybrids containing lithium perchlorate, known as hybrid electrolytes, were also prepared. The materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, stress-strain tests, dynamic-mechanical analysis and X-ray diffractometry. The PEBAX/TEOS/LiClO4 systems were also characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate their properties as a solid state electrolyte.

  13. High-Purity Hybrid Organolead Halide Perovskite Nanoparticles Obtained by Pulsed-Laser Irradiation in Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Fortunati, Ilaria; Marega, Carla; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have attracted a great deal of attention due to their variety of optoelectronic properties, their low cost, and their easier integration into devices with complex geometry, compared

  14. Ultralong Radiative States in Hybrid Perovskite Crystals: Compositions for Submillimeter Diffusion Lengths

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki; El-Zohry, Ahmed M.; Yin, Jun; Zhumekenov, Ayan A.; Yang, Chen; Alhabshi, Esra; Gereige, Issam; AlSaggaf, Ahmed; Malko, Anton V.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently evolved into the leading candidate solution-processed semiconductor for solar cells due to their combination of desirable optical and charge transport properties. Chief among

  15. Determination of phenolic compounds in air by using cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous composite samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela R; Ponce-Català, Patricia; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina; Amorós, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method for the determination of phenolic compounds in air samples based on the use of cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous composite samplers is proposed. The method allows the determination of phenol, guaiacol, cresol isomers, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in workplaces according to the Norm UNE-EN 1076:2009 for active sampling. Therefore, the proposed method offers an alternative for the assessment of the occupational exposure to phenol and cresol isomers. The detection limits of the proposed method are lower than those for the NIOSH Method 2546. Storage time of samples almost reaches 44 days. Recovery values for phenol, guaiacol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol and 4-ethylphenol are 109%, 99%, 102%, 94%, 94%, 91%, 95% and 102%, respectively with a coefficient of variation below 6%. The method has been applied to the assessment of exposure in different areas of a farm and regarding the quantification of these compounds in the vapors generated by burning incense sticks and an essential oil marketed as air fresheners. The acquired results are comparable with those provided from a reference method for a 95% of confidence level. The possible use of these samplers for the sampling of other toxic compounds such as phthalates is evaluated by qualitative analysis of extracts from incense sticks and essential oil samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Carbon Black/Organoclay Hybrid Filler System on Tire Tread Compound Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced dispersion of organophilic layered silicates improves the mechanical properties of polymer/ silicate composites. In this work, a hybrid filler system consisting of Cloisite 15A organoclay (OC and carbon black (CB was used to improve the properties of the tire tread compounds. The physical and mechanical properties of compounds were assessed by measurement of their cure properties, tensile, crack growth resistance and abrasion tests. The dispersion of organoclay layers was investigated by XRD analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The results have indicated that increases in tensile strength, elongation-at-break and rupture resistance were obtained by replacement of 5 phr CB with OC. However, increases in modulus and abrasion resistance were obtained by replacement of 3 phr CB with OC. Therefore replacement of 3 phr CB with OC was an optimum formulation for tread compound. The results have also indicated that with changing the mixing conditions to enhance the dispersion of clay layers, the mechanical and abrasion properties have improved. The XRD patterns and transmission electron micrographs have revealed that the distances between the layers are increased from 5.5 nm to 13.5 nm.

  17. The cytotoxicity of organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom in the molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kumiko; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Fujie, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules, which are composed of an organic structure and metal(s), are indispensable for synthetic chemical reactions; however, their toxicity has been incompletely understood. In the present study, we discovered two cytotoxic organobismuth compounds whose cytotoxicity diminished upon replacement of the intramolecular bismuth atom with an antimony atom. The intracellular accumulation of the organobismuth compounds was much higher than that of the organoantimony compounds with the corresponding organic structures. We also showed that both the organic structure and bismuth atom are required for certain organobismuth compounds to exert their cytotoxic effect, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of such a compound is a result of an interaction between the organic structure and the bismuth atom. The present data suggest that organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures exhibit cytotoxicity via an interaction between the molecular structure and the bismuth atom, and this cytotoxicity can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom, resulting in lower intracellular accumulation.

  18. Dual-acting of Hybrid Compounds - A New Dawn in the Discovery of Multi-target Drugs: Lead Generation Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Azizeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2017-01-01

    Finding high quality beginning compounds is a critical job at the start of the lead generation stage for multi-target drug discovery (MTDD). Designing hybrid compounds as selective multitarget chemical entity is a challenge, opportunity, and new idea to better act against specific multiple targets. One hybrid molecule is formed by two (or more) pharmacophore group's participation. So, these new compounds often exhibit two or more activities going about as multi-target drugs (mtdrugs) and may have superior safety or efficacy. Application of integrating a range of information and sophisticated new in silico, bioinformatics, structural biology, pharmacogenomics methods may be useful to discover/design, and synthesis of the new hybrid molecules. In this regard, many rational and screening approaches have followed by medicinal chemists for the lead generation in MTDD. Here, we review some popular lead generation approaches that have been used for designing multiple ligands (DMLs). This paper focuses on dual- acting chemical entities that incorporate a part of two drugs or bioactive compounds to compose hybrid molecules. Also, it presents some of key concepts and limitations/strengths of lead generation methods by comparing combination framework method with screening approaches. Besides, a number of examples to represent applications of hybrid molecules in the drug discovery are included. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008. This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal, corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal, and further thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six

  20. Developing a novel magnesium glycerophosphate/silicate-based organic-inorganic composite cement for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengwen; Li, Hong; Wei, Jie; Li, Ruijiang; Yan, Yonggang

    2018-06-01

    Considering that the phospholipids and glycerophosphoric acid are the basic materials throughout the metabolism of the whole life period and the bone is composed of organic polymer collagen and inorganic mineral apatite, a novel self-setting composite of magnesium glycerophosphate (MG) and di-calcium silicate(C2S)/tri-calcium silicate(C3S) was developed as bio-cement for bone repair, reconstruction and regeneration. The composite was prepared by mixing the MG, C2S and C3S with the certain ratios, and using the deionized water and phosphoric acid solution as mixed liquid. The combination and formation of the composites was characterized by FTIR, XPS and XRD. The physicochemical properties were studied by setting time, compressive strength, pH value, weight loss in the PBS and surface change by SEM-EDX. The biocompatibility was evaluated by cell culture in the leaching solution of the composites. The preliminary results showed that when di- and tri-calcium silicate contact with water, there are lots of Ca(OH) 2 generated making the pH value of solution is higher than 9 which is helpful for the formation of hydroxyapatite(HA) that is the main bone material. The new organic-inorganic self-setting bio-cements showed initial setting time is ranged from 20 min to 85 min and the compressive strength reached 30 MPa on the 7th days, suitable as the bone fillers. The weight loss was 20% in the first week, and 25% in the 4th week. Meanwhile, the new HA precipitated on the composite surface during the incubation in the SBF showed bioactivity. The cell cultured in the leaching liquid of the composite showed high proliferation inferring the new bio-cement has good biocompatibility to the cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design, Structure, and Optical Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Containing an Oligothiophene Chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B.; Chondroudis, Konstantinos; Kagan, Cherie R.

    1999-12-27

    A quaterthiophene derivative, 5,5' "-bis(aminoethyl)-2,2':5',2' ':5' ',2' "-quaterthiophene (AEQT), has been selected for incorporation within the layered organic-inorganic perovskite structure. In addition to having an appropriate molecular shape and two tethering aminoethyl groups to bond to the inorganic framework, AEQT is also a dye and can influence the optical properties of lead(II) halide-based perovskites. Crystals of C(20)H(22)S(4)N(2)PbBr(4) were grown from a slowly cooled aqueous solution containing lead(II) bromide and quaterthiophene derivative (AEQT.2HBr) salts. The new layered perovskite adopts a monoclinic (C2/c) subcell with the lattice parameters a = 39.741(2) Å, b = 5.8420(3) Å, c = 11.5734(6) Å, beta = 92.360(1) degrees, and Z = 4. Broad superstructure peaks are observed in the X-ray diffraction data, indicative of a poorly ordered, doubled supercell along both the a and b axes. The quaterthiophene segment of AEQT(2+) is nearly planar, with a syn-anti-syn relationship between adjacent thiophene rings. Each quaterthiophene chromophore is ordered between nearest-neighbor lead(II) bromide sheets in a herringbone arrangement with respect to neighboring quaterthiophenes. Room temperature optical absorption spectra for thermally ablated films of the perovskites (AEQT)PbX(4) (X = Cl, Br, I) exhibit an exciton peak arising from the lead(II) halide sheets, along with absorption from the quaterthiophene moiety. No evidence of the inorganic sheet excitonic transition is observed in the photoluminescence spectra for any of the chromophore-containing perovskites. However, strong quaterthiophene photoluminescence is observed for X = Cl, with an emission peak at approximately lambda(max) = 532 nm. Similar photoluminescence is observed for the X = Br and I materials, but with substantial quenching, as the inorganic layer band gap decreases relative to the chromophore HOMO-LUMO gap.

  2. Procurement of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: After acquiring the Infrared Imaging Microscope with large area mapping capabilities for structure -function research and...Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should...of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials Report Title After acquiring the Infrared

  3. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Dendranthema grandiflorum, a hybrid ornamental plant, is a source of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassia C.V.W. Spindola

    Full Text Available Abstract In hybrid cultivated form, Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., Asteraceae, flowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. were utilized in the production of extracts, which were analyzed for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti third instar larvae. Methanol and dichloromethane extracts showed LC50 values of 5.02 and 5.93 ppm, respectively. Using GC–MS, phytochemical analyses of the dichloromethane extract showed the presence of triterpenoids and fatty acids, while flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were shown to occur in the methanol extract by ESI Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS. Triterpenoids and fatty acids are well known insecticidal compounds. From this study, it can be concluded that D. grandiflorum grown for floriculture, as an agribusiness, can have additional applications as raw material for the production of insecticidal products.

  5. Thermal Modeling of a Hybrid Thermoelectric Solar Collector with a Compound Parabolic Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this study radiant light from the sun is used by a hybrid thermoelectric (TE) solar collector and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to generate electricity and thermal energy. The hybrid TE solar collector system described in this report is composed of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate, TE modules, a heat sink to cool the water, and a storage tank. Incident solar radiation falls on the CPC, which directs and reflects the radiation to heat up the absorber plate, creating a temperature difference across the TE modules. The water, which absorbs heat from the hot TE modules, flows through the heat sink to release its heat. The results show that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depend on the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the TE modules. A maximum power output of 1.03 W and a conversion efficiency of 0.6% were obtained when the temperature difference was 12°C. The thermal efficiency increased as the water flow rate increased. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved was 43.3%, corresponding to a water flow rate of 0.24 kg/s. These experimental results verify that using a TE solar collector with a CPC to produce both electrical power and thermal energy seems to be feasible. The thermal model and calculation method can be applied for performance prediction.

  6. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, William N.; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional...

  7. Two new hydrogen bond-supported supramolecular compounds assembly from polyoxovanadate and organoamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Weijie; Cui Xiaobing; Xu Yan; Xu Jiqing; Yu Haihui; Yi Zhihui; Cui Jiwen; Wang Tiegang

    2007-01-01

    Two novel organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on organoamines and polyoxovanadates formulated as (H 2 dien) 4 [H 10 V 18 O 42 (PO 4 )](PO 4 ).2H 2 O (1) (dien=diethylenetriamine) and (Him) 8 [HV 18 O 42 (PO 4 )] (2) (im=imidazole) have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using different starting materials, and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, ESR, XPS, TGA and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Crystal data for compound 1: C 16 H 74 N 12 O 52 V 18 P 2 , Monoclinic, space group C2/c, a=23.9593(4) A, b=13.0098(2) A, c=20.1703(4) A, β=105.566(3) o , V=6056.6(19) A 3 , Z=4; for compound 2, C 24 H 41 N 16 O 46 V 18 P, Tetragonal, space group I4/mmm, a=13.5154(8) A, b=13.5154(8) A, c=19.1136 A, β=90 o , V=3491.4(3) A 3 , Z=2. Compound 1 consists of protonated diens together with polyoxovanadates [H 10 V 18 O 42 (PO 4 )] 5- . Compound 2 is composed of protonated ims and polyoxovanadates [HV 18 O 42 (PO 4 )] 8- . There are hydrogen-bonding interactions between polyoxovanadates and different organoamines in 1 and 2. Polyoxovanadates are linked through H 2 dien into a three-dimensional network via hydrogen bonds in 1, while polyoxovanadates are linked by Him into a two-dimensional layer network via hydrogen bonds in 2. The crystal packing patterns of the two compounds reveal various supramolecular frameworks. - Graphical abstract: Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on [V 18 O 42 (PO 4 )] building blocks have been hydrothermally synthesized. 1 is the first 3-D supramolecular network structure consisting of [V 18 O 42 (PO 4 )] unit, while 2 possesses 2-D layered supramolecular structure

  8. Amine-Based Passivating Materials for Enhanced Optical Properties and Performance of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites in Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjin; Park, Jong Hyun; Lee, Bo Ram; Jung, Eui Dae; Yu, Jae Choul; Di Nuzzo, Daniele; Friend, Richard H; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2017-04-20

    The use of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites in optoelectronic applications are attracting an interest because of their outstanding characteristics, which enable a remarkable enhancement of device efficiency. However, solution-processed perovskite crystals unavoidably contain defect sites that cause hysteresis in perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) and blinking in perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Here, we report significant beneficial effects using a new treatment based on amine-based passivating materials (APMs) to passivate the defect sites of methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr 3 ) through coordinate bonding between the nitrogen atoms and undercoordinated lead ions. This treatment greatly enhanced the PeLED's efficiency, with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 6.2%, enhanced photoluminescence (PL), a lower threshold for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a longer PL lifetime, and enhanced device stability. Using confocal microscopy, we observed the cessation of PL blinking in perovskite films treated with ethylenediamine (EDA) due to passivation of the defect sites in the MAPbBr 3 .

  9. Electronic, structural and chemical effects of charge-transfer at organic/inorganic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R.; Vázquez de Parga, A. L.; Gallego, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    reactivity of the adsorbates. The aim of this review is to start drawing general conclusions and developing new concepts which will help the scientific community to proceed more efficiently towards the understanding of organic/inorganic interfaces in the strong interaction limit, where charge-transfer effects must be taken into consideration.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste; Synthese et caracterisation de gels hybrides de silice a proprietes complexantes: applications a l'extraction des transuraniens des effluents aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    1999-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  11. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Multifunctional Nanocomposite Coating via Sol-Gel Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haoying; Chen Yunfa; Ruan Chengxiang; Gao Weimin; Xie Yusheng

    2001-01-01

    The inorganic-organic nanocomposite coatings are prepared on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate by the spinning technique which involves incorporating homogeneously nanosized ZnO particle into the molecular inorganic-organic hybrid matrices. The hybrid matrices are derived from tetraethoxyasilane (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxyailane (GLYMO). To avoid the destruction of the polymer structure caused by ZnO and modify the interface between nanoparticles and organic groups, ZnO was first surface-coated with SiO 2 from hydrolyzed TEOS using ammonia water as catalyst. The coatings thus obtained are dense, flexible, abrasion resistant and UV absorbent

  12. Identification and characterization of the intermediate phase in hybrid organic-inorganic MAPbI3 perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; McCleese, Christopher; Kolodziej, Charles; Samia, Anna C S; Zhao, Yixin; Burda, Clemens

    2016-03-07

    Perovskite films were prepared using single step solution deposition at different annealing temperatures and annealing times. The crystal structure, phases and grain size were investigated with XRD, XPS and SEM/EDX. The prepared films show a typical orientation of tetragonal perovskite phase and a gradual transition at room temperature from the yellow intermediate phase to the black perovskite phase. Films with high purity were obtained by sintering at 100 °C. In addition, the chemical composition and crystal structure of intermediate phase were investigated in detail. FTIR, UV-vis and NMR spectra revealed the occurance of DMF complexes. Interestingly, the intermediate phase could be transformed to the black perovskite phase upon X-ray irradiation. In addition, the recovery of the aged perovskite films from a yellow intermediate phase back to the black perovskite was shown to be viable via heating and X-ray irradiation.

  13. UV-curable hybrid organic-inorganic composite inks with a high refractive index for printing interference images and holograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremeeva, Elena A.; Yakovlev, Aleksandr V.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Vinogradov, Alexandr V.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report a new, facile and inexpensive methodology for obtaining highly refractive polymers suitable for inkjet printing using hexacoordinated titanium complexes (THC) and a UV-curable lacquer based on triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TGD) that is a cheap and non-toxic monomer that can be

  14. Tailoring of transition metal alkoxides via complexation for the synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic sols and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.; In, M.; Toledano, P.; Griesmar, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the chemical control of hydrolysis-condensation reactions of transition metal alkoxides can be performed through the modification of the transition metal coordination sphere by using strong complexing ligands (SCL). Complexing organic groups can be bonded to the transition metal oxide network in two different ways, as network modifiers or network formers. Different illustrations of the role of complexing ligands on Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) alkoxides are presented. As a network modifier, SCL act as termination agents for condensation reactions allowing a control of particle growth. The complexing ligands being located at the periphery of the oxo core open many opportunities for colloid surface protection. SCL carrying organofunctional groups which exhibit non linear optical (NLO) properties have also been used as probes to study sol-gel transformations. SCL functionalized with organic polymerizable functions act as network formers

  15. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in- situ formed lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yige; Wang, Li; Li, Huanrong; Liu, Peng; Qin, Dashan; Liu, Binyuan; Zhang, Wenjun; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie

    2008-03-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data.

  16. New highly fluorescent biolabels based on II-VI semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructures for bioimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, B.S.; Farias, P.M.A.; Menezes, F.D.; Brasil, A.G.; Fontes, A.; Romao, L.; Amaral, J.O.; Moura-Neto, V.; Tenorio, D.P.L.A.; Cesar, C.L.; Barbosa, L.C.; Ferreira, R.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots based on II-VI materials may be prepared to develop good biolabeling properties. In this study we present some well-succeeded results related to the preparation, functionalization and bioconjugation of CdY (Y = S, Se and Te) to biological systems (live cells and fixed tissues). These nanostructured materials were prepared using colloidal synthesis in aqueous media resulting nanoparticles with very good optical properties and an excellent resistance to photodegradation

  17. Organic-Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, Jonggi; Yang, Changduk

    2011-12-01

    A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs), using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  18. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in a hybrid system composed of a molecular catalyst and visible light-absorbing semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Li, Fei; Li, Xiaona; Li, Hua; Wang, Yong; Sun, Licheng

    2015-01-14

    Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds proceeded efficiently in a hybrid system with ruthenium aqua complexes as catalysts, BiVO4 as a light absorber, [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+) as a sacrificial electron acceptor and water as an oxygen source. The photogenerated holes in the semiconductor are used to oxidize molecular catalysts into the high-valent Ru(IV)=O intermediates for 2e(-) oxidation.

  19. Correlation between atomic negative muon capture and electron distribution in organic sp2-hybridization compounds CxHyClz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yoichi; Tominaga, Takeshi; Ikuta, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    The atomic negative muon capture ratios determined experimentally in organic sp 2 -hybridization compound, C x H y Cl z , were compared with the electron populations of carbon atomic orbitals obtained by an ab initio molecular orbital calculation in such systems. A clear positive correlation was found between the C 2s and C 2pz populations and the negative muon capture ratio A (C/Cl), suggesting the mesomolecular process in the initial stage of muon capture. (orig.)

  20. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two- Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Organic−inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C4H9NH3)2MX2Y2, where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC ...

  1. New magnetic organic-inorganic composites based on hydrotalcite-like anionic clays for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carja, Gabriela; Chiriac, Horia; Lupu, Nicoleta

    2007-01-01

    The structural 'memory effect' of anionic clays was used to obtain layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with tailored magnetic properties, by loading iron oxides and/or spinel structures on iron partially substituted hydrotalcite-like materials. The obtained magnetic layered structures were further used as precursors for new hybrid nanostructures, such as aspirin-hydrotalcite-like anionic clays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that small iron oxide or spinel nanoparticles coexist with the fibrous drug particles on the surface of partially aggregated typical clay-like particles. The specific saturation magnetization of the loaded LDHs can be increased up to 70 emu/g by using specific post-synthesis treatments

  2. New magnetic organic-inorganic composites based on hydrotalcite-like anionic clays for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carja, Gabriela [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Technical University of Iasi, 71 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: hchiriac@phys-iasi.ro; Lupu, Nicoleta [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2007-04-15

    The structural 'memory effect' of anionic clays was used to obtain layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with tailored magnetic properties, by loading iron oxides and/or spinel structures on iron partially substituted hydrotalcite-like materials. The obtained magnetic layered structures were further used as precursors for new hybrid nanostructures, such as aspirin-hydrotalcite-like anionic clays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that small iron oxide or spinel nanoparticles coexist with the fibrous drug particles on the surface of partially aggregated typical clay-like particles. The specific saturation magnetization of the loaded LDHs can be increased up to 70 emu/g by using specific post-synthesis treatments.

  3. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two- Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Organic−inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we...... report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C4H9NH3)2MX2Y2, where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC functional are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental photoluminescence data...... for the already synthesized perovskites. Finally, we study the effect of different defects on the band structure. We find that the most common defects only introduce shallow or no states in the band gap, indicating that these atomically thin 2D perovskites are likely to be defect tolerant....

  4. White light emission from organic-inorganic hererostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Aiwei; Teng Feng; Gao Yinhao; Li Dan; Zhao Suling; Liang Chunjun; Wang Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, white light emission was obtained from organic-inorganic heterostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer, in which CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via a colloidal chemical approach by using CdO and Se powder as precursors. Photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dots demonstrated a white emission with a full wavelength at half maximum (FWHM) of about 200 nm under ambient conditions, and the white emission could be observed in both multilayer device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/BCP/Alq 3 /Al and single-layer device: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/Al. The broad emission was attributed to the inhomogeneous broadening. The CIE coordinates of the multilayer device were x=0.35 and y=0.40. The white-light-emitting diodes with CdSe quantum dots as the emitting layer are potentially useful in lighting applications

  5. Sol-gel synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor by mixed organic-inorganic polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, I.; Sanchez, C.; Henry, M.; Livage, J.

    1989-01-01

    Sol-gel processes are quite attractive methods to produce films or fibers of high Tc superconducting materials. The gel step allows a good chemical homogeneity and generally provides a rather low processing temperature. Blue sols or monolithic gels can be easily produced using mixed organic-inorganic polymerisation of molecular precursors. An aqueous solution of copper, barium acetates and yttrium nitrate is mixed with an acrylic acid solution where a radical organic polymerisation process has been initiated. After pH adjustments, the viscosity of the resulting solution can be adjusted by heating. After drying at 150 0 C and calcination above 700 0 C, the YBaCuO network is formed and superconducting properties appears above 850 0 C. Fine particles (0.1-1 μm) are obtained which can be sintered to produce a ceramic material with a particularly narrow resistive transition [fr

  6. The Electrochemical Assembly of Semiconducting Organic-Inorganic Lamellar Domains for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, David John

    This dissertation investigates the one-step electrodeposition of alternating nanoscale domains of n-type ZnO and p-type organic molecules for photovoltaics. In such hybrid photovoltaic systems, a nanoscale lamellar periodicity of 5-10 nm between electron donor and electron acceptor materials is ideal for efficient exciton separation. In addition, achieving uniform density and substrate-wide alignment of the hybrid lamellar structures with orientation perpendicular to substrate surfaces is important in providing direct pathways for charge carriers to the electrodes. To this end, it is first reported how to control the assembly of the pyrene-based surfactant 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PyBA) with zinc hydroxide (a precursor to the semiconductor ZnO), resulting in a nanoscale lamellar structure with a periodicity of 3.2 nm. By exploring solution chemistry parameters, the surfactant concentration and solvent composition are shown to have the greatest effect on the morphology of lamellar growth. By studying the early nucleation and growth on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates with 2D grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering, it is revealed that the lamellae preferentially nucleate parallel to the hydrophilic ITO surface. It is hypothesized that the conductive and more hydrophobic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) surface increases the affinity for the pyrene functions to the surface, and therefore the oriented growth of the lamellae changes from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the substrate surface. The second part of this thesis investigates the effects of conjugated surfactant design in directing the growth of hybrid lamellar structures by incorporating either a pyrene or terthiophene moiety and varying overall molecular design. It is found that high aspect ratio and amphiphilic surfactants possessing a flexible alkyl spacer between the carboxylic acid and conjugated moiety consistently allow for the controlled and directed

  7. Preparation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane based hybrid monoliths by ring-opening polymerization for capillary LC and CEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Zhang, Zhenbin; Dong, Jing; Liu, Zhongshan; Ou, Junjie; Zou, Hanfa

    2013-09-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid monolith was prepared by the ring-opening polymerization of octaglycidyldimethylsilyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with 1,4-butanediamine (BDA) using 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and PEG 10,000 as a porogenic system. Benefiting from the moderate phase separation process, the resulting poly(POSS-co-BDA) hybrid monolith possessed a uniform microstructure and exhibited excellent performance in chromatographic applications. Neutral, acidic, and basic compounds were successfully separated on the hybrid monolith in capillary LC (cLC), and high column efficiencies were achieved in all of the separations. In addition, as the amino groups could generate a strong EOF, the hybrid monolith was also applied in CEC for the separation of neutral and polar compounds, and a satisfactory performance was obtained. These results demonstrate that the poly(POSS-co-BDA) hybrid monolith is a good separation media in chromatographic separations of various types of compounds by both cLC and CEC. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Metal-Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Thermal Interface Materials with Ultralow Thermal Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegin, Cengiz; Nagabandi, Nirup; Feng, Xuhui; King, Charles; Catalano, Massimo; Oh, Jun Kyun; Talib, Ansam J; Scholar, Ethan A; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Cagin, Tahir; Sokolov, Alexei V; Kim, Moon J; Matin, Kaiser; Narumanchi, Sreekant; Akbulut, Mustafa

    2017-03-22

    As electronic devices get smaller and more powerful, energy density of energy storage devices increases continuously, and moving components of machinery operate at higher speeds, the need for better thermal management strategies is becoming increasingly important. The removal of heat dissipated during the operation of electronic, electrochemical, and mechanical devices is facilitated by high-performance thermal interface materials (TIMs) which are utilized to couple devices to heat sinks. Herein, we report a new class of TIMs involving the chemical integration of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS), soft organic linkers, and a copper matrix-which are prepared by the chemisorption-coupled electrodeposition approach. These hybrid nanocomposites demonstrate bulk thermal conductivities ranging from 211 to 277 W/(m K), which are very high considering their relatively low elastic modulus values on the order of 21.2-28.5 GPa. The synergistic combination of these properties led to the ultralow total thermal resistivity values in the range of 0.38-0.56 mm 2 K/W for a typical bond-line thickness of 30-50 μm, advancing the current state-of-art transformatively. Moreover, its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 11 ppm/K, forming a mediation zone with a low thermally induced axial stress due to its close proximity to the CTE of most coupling surfaces needing thermal management.

  9. Formation of inorganic nanofibers by heat-treatment of poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakane K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers (precursors were formed by electrospinning employing water as a solvent for the spinning solution. The precursors were converted into oxide (ZrO2, carbide (ZrC or nitride (ZrN nanofibers by heating them in air, Ar or N2 atmospheres. Monoclinic ZrO2 nanofibers with high-specific surface area were obtained by heat-treatment of the precursors in air. ZrC and ZrN nanofibers could be obtained below theoretical temperatures calculated from thermodynamics data.

  10. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, William N; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J

    2007-05-15

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional intracellular electrodes in optical recording experiments. We use it, in combination with a voltage-sensitive dye and photodiode array, to identify neurons participating in the swim motor program of the marine mollusk Tritonia. This microscope design should be applicable to optical recording studies in many preparations.

  11. New Benzimidazole-1,2,4-Triazole Hybrid Compounds: Synthesis, Anticandidal Activity and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Karaca Gençer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the growing need for antifungal agents, we synthesized a new series 2-((5-(4-(5-substituted-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylphenyl-4-substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio-1-(substitutedphenylethan-1-one derivatives, which were tested against Candida species. The synthesized compounds were characterized and elucidated by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HR-MS spectroscopies. The synthesized compounds were screened in vitro anticandidal activity against Candida species by broth microdiluation methods. In vitro cytotoxic effects of the final compounds were determined by MTT assay. Microbiological studies revealed that compounds 5m, 5o, 5r, 5t, 5y, 5ab, and 5ad possess a good antifungal profile. Compounds 5w was the most active derivative and showed comparable antifungal activity to those of reference drugs ketoconazole and fluconazole. Cytotoxicity evaluation of compounds 5m, 5o, 5r, 5w, 5y, 5ab and 5ad showed that compounds 5w and 5ad were the least cytotoxic agents. Effects of these two compounds against ergosterol biosynthesis were observed by LC-MS-MS method, which is based on quantification of ergosterol level in C. albicans. Compounds 5w and 5d inhibited ergosterol biosynthesis concentration dependently. A fluorescence microscopy study was performed to visualize effect of compound 5w against C. albicans at cellular level. It was determined that compound 5w has a membrane damaging effect, which may be related with inhibition of biosynthesis of ergosterol.

  12. Polyfunctional inorganic-organic hybrid materials: an unusual kind of NLO active layered mixed metal oxalates with tunable magnetic properties and very large second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, Elena; Macchi, Roberto; Roberto, Dominique; Ugo, Renato; Galli, Simona; Casati, Nicola; Macchi, Piero; Sironi, Angelo; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-08-01

    Mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates, as "stripes" connected through strong hydrogen bonding by para-dimethylaminobenzaldeide (DAMBA) and water, form an organic-inorganic 2D network that enables segregation in layers of the cationic organic NLO-phore trans-4-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium, [DAMS+]. The crystalline hybrid materials obtained have the general formula [DAMS]4[M2M'(C2O4)6].2DAMBA.2H2O (M = Rh, Fe, Cr; M' = Mn, Zn), and their overall three-dimensional packing is non-centrosymmetric and polar, therefore suitable for second harmonic generation (SHG). All the compounds investigated are characterized by an exceptional SHG activity, due both to the large molecular quadratic hyperpolarizability of [DAMS+] and to the efficiency of the crystalline network which organizes [DAMS+] into head-to-tail arranged J-type aggregates. The tunability of the pairs of metal ions allows exploiting also the magnetic functionality of the materials. Examples containing antiferro-, ferro-, and ferri-magnetic interactions (mediated by oxalato bridges) are obtained by coupling proper M(III) ions (Fe, Cr, Rh) with M(II) (Mn, Zn). This shed light on the role of weak next-nearest-neighbor interactions and main nearest-neighbor couplings along "stripes" of mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates of the organic-inorganic 2D network, thus suggesting that these hybrid materials may display isotropic 1D magnetic properties along the mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates "stripes".

  13. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zheng, Shijun; Chae, HyunSik; Li, Sheng; Mochizuki, Amane; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4

  14. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zheng, Shijun; Bottger, Rebecca; Chae, HyunSik; Tanaka, Takeshi; Li, Sheng; Mochizuki, Amane; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency

  15. Self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes in mixed organic-inorganic electrolytes and their photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Yuekun [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhuang Huifang; Sun Lan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin Changjian [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-11-01

    The formation of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films by electrochemical anodizing titanium foils was investigated in a developed organic-inorganic mixed electrolyte. It was found that the structure and morphology of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube layer were greatly dependent upon the electrolyte composition, anodizing potential and time. Under the optimized electrolyte composition and electrochemical conditions, a controllable, well-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array layer could be fabricated in a short time. The diameters of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanotubes could be adjusted from 20 to 150 nm, and the thickness could be adjusted from a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The photoresponse and the photocatalytic activity of the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films were also examined. The nanotube array film with a thickness of about 2.5 {mu}m had the highest incident photon to photocurrent conversion efficiency (IPCE) (34.3%) at the 350 nm wavelength, and had better charge transfer ability under UV light illumination. The photocatalytic experimental results indicated that the 450 deg. C annealing samples have the highest photodegradation efficiency for methyl orange pollutant.

  16. Electrochemical growth of highly oriented organic-inorganic superlattices using solid-supported multilamellar membranes as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Li; Li, Da-Peng; Hu, Shu-Xin; Jing, Huai-Yu; Fu, Honglan; Mai, Zhen-Hong; Li, Ming

    2006-02-08

    Controllable depositing of relatively thick inorganic sublayers into organic templates to fabricate organic-inorganic superlattices is of great importance. We report a novel approach to fabricating phospholipid/Ni(OH)(2) superlattices by electrochemical deposition of the inorganic component into solid-supported multilamellar templates. The well-ordered and highly oriented multilamellar templates are produced by spreading small drops of lipid solution on silicon surfaces and letting the solvent evaporate slowly. The templates which are used as working electrodes preserve the lamellar structure in the electrolyte solution. The resulting superlattices are highly oriented. The thickness of the nickel hydroxide is controlled by the concentration of nickel ions in the electrolyte bath. The electron density profiles derived from the X-ray diffraction data reveal that the thickness of the nickel hydroxide sublayers increases from 15 to 27 A as the concentration of nickel nitrate increases from 0.005 mol/L to 0.08 mol/L. We expect that the new method can be extended to depositing a variety of inorganic components including metals, oxides, and semiconductors.

  17. Enhanced Performance of a Self-Powered Organic/Inorganic Photodetector by Pyro-Phototronic and Piezo-Phototronic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenbo; Wang, Xingfu; Yu, Ruomeng; Dai, Yejing; Zou, Haiyang; Wang, Aurelia C; He, Yongning; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-01

    Self-powered photodetectors (PDs) have long been realized by utilizing photovoltaic effect and their performances can be effectively enhanced by introducing the piezo-phototronic effect. Recently, a novel pyro-phototronic effect is invented as an alternative approach for performance enhancement of self-powered PDs. Here, a self-powered organic/inorganic PD is demonstrated and the influences of externally applied strain on the pyro-phototronic and the photovoltaic effects are thoroughly investigated. Under 325 nm 2.30 mW cm -2 UV illumination and at a -0.45% compressive strain, the PD's photocurrent is dramatically enhanced from ≈14.5 to ≈103 nA by combining the pyro-phototronic and piezo-phototronic effects together, showing a significant improvement of over 600%. Theoretical simulations have been carried out via the finite element method to propose the underlying working mechanism. Moreover, the pyro-phototronic effect can be introduced by applying a -0.45% compressive strain to greatly enhance the PD's response to 442 nm illumination, including photocurrent, rise time, and fall time. This work provides in-depth understandings about the pyro-phototronic and the piezo-phototronic effects on the performances of self-powered PD to light sources with different wavelengths and indicates huge potential of these two effects in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorni, Paola; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Reverberi, Massimo; Scala, Valeria; Ludovici, Matteo; Cirlini, Martina; Galaverna, Gianni; Fanelli, Corrado; Battilani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open. PMID:26378580

  19. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giorni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open.

  20. Hybrid structures based on montmorillonite/modified starch intercalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchek, P.; Špírková, Milena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 9 (2010), s. 885 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /6./. 29.09.2010-1.10.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic/inorganic hybrides * montmorillonite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  1. Advances and Promises of Layered Halide Hybrid Perovskite Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Sapori, Daniel; Traore, Boubacar; Robles, Roberto; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Neukirch, Amanda; Tretiak, Sergei; Mohite, Aditya D.; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Kepenekian, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Layered halide hybrid organic inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells

  2. Hybrid composites of monodisperse pi-conjugated rodlike organic compounds and semiconductor quantum particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hensel, V.; Godt, A.; Popovitz-Biro, R.

    2002-01-01

    Composite materials of quantum particles (Q-particles) arranged in layers within crystalline powders of pi-conjugated, rodlike dicarboxylic acids are reported. The synthesis of the composites, either as three-dimensional crystals or as thin films at the air-water interface, comprises a two...... analysis of the solids and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis of the films on water. 2) Topotactic solid/gas reaction of these salts with H2S to convert the metal ions into Q-particles of CdS or PbS embedded in the organic matrix that consists of the acids 6(H) and 8(H). These hybrid materials...

  3. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl-octadecyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (TPODAC) as a structure directing agent. The mesopores were generated by adding micelle swelling agent, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, during the synthesis and removing it afterward, which was demonstrated to greatly increase the HOC removal efficiency. In this material, TPODAC surfactant is directly anchored on the pore surface of mesoporous silica via SiOSi covalent bond after the synthesis due to its reactive Si(OCH 3) 3 head group, and thus makes the synthesized materials can be easily regenerated for reuse. The obtained materials show great potential in water treatment as pollutants sorbents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Shyntesis and cytotoxicity evaluation in vitro of new compounds with hybrid structures of 8-flavoneacetic acid and quinolones; Sintesis y evaluacion citotoxica in vitro de nuevos compuestos con estructuras hibridas del acido 8-flavonacetico quinolonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biaa, M F; Castellano, J M; Emling, F; Schlick, E [Knoll, S.a., Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Using the structural similarity between 8-flavoneacetic acid the antitumor quinolones, we have prepared some hybrid compounds on both systems and studied their cytotoxicity. None of the sinthesized compounds have shown sufficient interest for further development. 33 refs.

  5. Performance Evaluation of AOP/Biological Hybrid System for Treatment of Recalcitrant Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford S. Makgato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Process water from nuclear fuel recovery unit operations contains a variety of toxic organic compounds. The use of decontamination reagents such as CCl4 together with phenolic tar results in wastewater with a high content of chlorophenols. In this study, the extent of dehalogenation of toxic aromatic compounds was evaluated using a photolytic advanced oxidation process (AOP followed by biodegradation in the second stage. A hard-to-degrade toxic pollutant, 4-chlorophenol (4-CP, was used to represent a variety of recalcitrant aromatic pollutants in effluent from the nuclear industry. A UV-assisted AOP/bioreactor system demonstrated a great potential in treatment of nuclear process wastewater and this was indicated by high removal efficiency (>98% under various 4-CP concentrations. Adding hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a liquid catalyst further improved biodegradation rate but the effect was limited by the scavenging of OH• radicals under high concentrations of H2O2.

  6. Study of thermodynamics and electronics properties of hybrids of substituted Haucke compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crivello, J.C.

    2005-06-01

    This manuscript presents a combined experimental and theoretical contribution to the study of the substituted Haucke phase AB5. These compounds can reversibly absorb hydrogen under conditions of pressure and temperature satisfactory for many technological applications including hydrogen storage. The thermodynamic characterization of the solid-gas reaction was carried out for mono and poly-substituted compounds. In the respect of good conditions of growth (decomposition) of the hydride phase, we sought to determine the thermodynamic trajectories allowed during some various transformations. The experimental results showed that the rate of transformation and the hierarchy of the return-points memory are the only parameters allowing to draw a general law related to the irreversible character of hysteresis. These systems evolve in 'static' mode, independent of the time and whatever the nature of host materials. Moreover, the effect of substitution elements on electronic properties has been studied using ab initio band structure calculations for the ANi 5 (A=La, Y, Ca) and LaNi 5-x M x compounds, where M is an element of the type s-p (Al, Si, Ge, Sn), of type s (Cu), or a transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co). While dissociating the structural effects, the role of the chemical interaction with hydrogen was analyzed. These results made it possible to identify the factors which control the stability of the hydrides and their maximum absorption capacity. The bulk moduli of these materials were calculated and their variation was discussed in relation to the properties of hydrogen absorption. (author)

  7. Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis andImaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Researchand Education in Low Density Organic Inorganic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-02

    Report: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density...Agreement Number: W911NF-16-1-0475 Organization: University of Texas at El Paso Title: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System ...for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density Organic-Inorganic Materials Report Term: 0-Other Email: dmisra2

  8. A Novel Method for Detection of Phosphorylation in Single Cells by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) using Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs)

    OpenAIRE

    Shachaf, Catherine M.; Elchuri, Sailaja V.; Koh, Ai Leen; Zhu, Jing; Nguyen, Lienchi N.; Mitchell, Dennis J.; Zhang, Jingwu; Swartz, Kenneth B.; Sun, Lei; Chan, Selena; Sinclair, Robert; Nolan, Garry P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities. Methodology/Principal Findings To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using ?Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles? (COINs) Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhan...

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates for bone replacement applications: mechanisms and development of new bioactive materials based on polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero Arias, Luis Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the need to improve the usually encountered osteointegration of metallic implants with the surrounding body tissue in bone replacement applications, bioactive organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates were developed in this work using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as coating technology. In the present work three polysaccharides, namely alginate, chondroitin sulfate and chitosan were used as the organic part, acting as the matrix of the coating and enabling the c...

  10. High-Performance CH3NH3PbI3-Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Fill Factor Over 83% via Excess Organic/Inorganic Halide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandar, Muhammad; Khan, Nasir; Lee, Hang Ken; Lee, Sang Kyu; Shin, Won Suk; Lee, Jong-Cheol; Song, Chang Eun; Moon, Sang-Jin

    2017-10-18

    The reduction of charge carrier recombination and intrinsic defect density in organic-inorganic halide perovskite absorber materials is a prerequisite to achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells with good efficiency and stability. Here, we fabricated inverted planar perovskite solar cells by incorporation of a small amount of excess organic/inorganic halide (methylammonium iodide (CH 3 NH 3 I; MAI), formamidinium iodide (CH(NH 2 ) 2 I; FAI), and cesium iodide (CsI)) in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite film. Larger crystalline grains and enhanced crystallinity in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite films with excess organic/inorganic halide reduce the charge carrier recombination and defect density, leading to enhanced device efficiency (MAI+: 14.49 ± 0.30%, FAI+: 16.22 ± 0.38% and CsI+: 17.52 ± 0.56%) compared to the efficiency of a control MAPbI 3 device (MAI: 12.63 ± 0.64%) and device stability. Especially, the incorporation of a small amount of excess CsI in MAPbI 3 perovskite film leads to a highly reproducible fill factor of over 83%, increased open-circuit voltage (from 0.946 to 1.042 V), and short-circuit current density (from 18.43 to 20.89 mA/cm 2 ).

  11. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosbi, Norlin [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Akil, Hazizan Md, E-mail: hazizan@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Cluster for Polymer Composite (CPC), Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that, to manipulate carbon nanotubes geometry and number of walls are by controlling the precipitate catalyst size. • Number of walls and geometry effects depend on the milling time of the precipitate catalyst. • Increasing milling of time will decrease the carbon nanotubes number of walls. • Increasing milling of time will increase the carbon nanotubes thermal conductivity. - Abstract: This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5–15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time.

  12. Structure characterization, photoluminescence and dielectric properties of a new hybrid compound containing chlorate anions of zincate (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Ben Soltan, Wissem; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Ammar, Salah; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    A new hybrid compound, bis (2-aminophenylenamonium) tetrachlorozincate (II), was synthesized and formulated as (C6H9N2)2ZnCl4. Its crystal structure was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction reveling that compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c (N°: 15) with cell parameters a = 7.4957(4) Å, b = 25.6837(15) Å, c = 9.4041(5) Å, β = 94.35(0)°, V = 1805.23(45) Å3. Their atomic arrangement can be described as an alternation of inorganic and organic layers, [ZnCl4]2- tetrahedral anions and 2-aminophenylenamonium cations. The cohesion of the atomic arrangement is ensured by hydrogen bonds (strong Nsbnd H⋯N and weak Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and π-π stacking interactions between identical antiparallel organic moieties. In optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements, this material exhibit two absorption bands (253 and 316 nm) and a strong emission line (390 nm), while the thermal analysis disclosed a phase transition at 420-445 K previously to the sample decomposition at 476 K. Finally, electrical measurements were performed to discuss the phase-transition mechanism.

  13. Hybrid microwave synthesis and characterization of the compounds in the Li-Ti-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li Hong; Dong, Cheng; Guo, Juan [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-01-03

    Hybrid microwave synthesis has been applied for preparation of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and LiTiO{sub 2} for the first time. Stepwise heating was used for avoiding the instantaneous release of gas by-product and obtaining well-shaped samples. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained samples have relatively uniform particle sizes. The electrochemical performance of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} were investigated. The first discharge capacity of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was 150 mAh g{sup -1} and 141 mAh g{sup -1} after 27 cycles and a very flat discharge and charge curve of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was shown at about 1.56 V. Similarly, Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} exhibits good cycle performance. The initial discharge capacity is 118 mAh g{sup -1} and 30th cycle is still 112 mAh g{sup -1}. (author)

  14. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO42−. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization

  15. DISTANT HYBRIDS IN F4 (VITIS VINIFERA L. X MUSCADINIA ROTUNDIFOLIA MICHX. AND OF CULTIVARS OF VITIS VINIFERA L. AND OF CONCERNING THE CONTENT OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniu ALEXANDROV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of obtaining distant hybrids, as well as any crossing of cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. with representatives of species possessing the necessary qualities (resistance to diseases and pests, low temperature, etc. may change the spectrum of chemical and biochemical compounds responsible for flavour, colour and taste of grapes, obtained juice and wine. Botanical description of distant hybrids was performed during all phases of the vegetative stages; the organs of the plants were studied from spring, at bud unfolding, until early autumn, at the fall of the leaves. For the determination of diglucoside-3,5-malvidin, the fluorimetric method, for determining the methyl anthranilate, the gas chromatographic method was applied. Based on the analyzes of biochemical constituents of grapes of the distant hybrids: DRX-M4-578; -502; -571; -660; -609; -580; etc., compared to the traditional cultivars „Feteasca albă” and „Rară neagră”, it has been found that these varieties are similar. So, the distant hybrids of grapevine haven’t inherited unwanted characters for vines, some of them are strictly limited (diglucoside-3,5-malvidol. These hybrids don’t have the specific characteristics of direct production hybrids, characterised by the foxat taste of the grape berries, caused by the presence of the methyl anthranilate. The distant hybrids studied according to the classical uvologic and technological principles can be classified as follows: 5 distant hybrids are attributed to the table vine species and 2 distant hybrids have mixed properties. According to the physical and biochemical indices of the grapes of the studied distant hybrids, their characteristics are similar to European vine species.

  16. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Mitsukazu; Nii, Daisuke; Harada, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. → The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. → The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. → The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  17. Synthesis of CdTe QDs/single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes hybrid compound and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Daniela A.; Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás; Villagra, Nicolás A.; Mora, Guido C.; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro

    2012-12-01

    The use of molecular conjugates of quantum dots (nanocrystalline fluorophores) for biological purposes have received much attention due to their improved biological activity. However, relatively, little is known about the synthesis and application of aluminosilicate nanotubes decorated with quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and treatment of pathogenic bacteria. This paper describes for a first time, the use of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (SWNT) (imogolite) as a one-dimensional template for the in situ growth of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs. This new nanohybrid hydrogel was synthesized by a simple reaction pathway and their enhanced optical properties were monitored by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming that the use of these nanotubes favors the confinement effects of net CdTe QDs. In addition, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the non-covalent functionalization of SWNT. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of SWNT coated with CdTe QDs toward three opportunistic multi-resistant pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Growth inhibition tests were conducted by exposing growing bacteria to CdTe QDs/SWNT hybrid compound showing that the new nano-structured composite is a potential antimicrobial agent for heavy metal-resistant bacteria.

  18. A two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid compound, poly[(ethylenediaminetri-μ-oxido-oxidocopper(IImolybdenum(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Emirdag-Eanes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new organic–inorganic two-dimensional hybrid compound, [CuMoO4(C2H8N2], has been hydrothermally synthesized at 443 K. The unit cell contains layers composed of CuN2O4 octahedra and MoO4 tetrahedra. Corner-sharing MoO4 and CuN2O4 polyhedra form CuMoO4 bimetallic sites that are joined together through O atoms, forming an edge-sharing Cu2Mo2O4 chain along the c axis. The one-dimensional chains are further linked through bridging O atoms that join the Cu and Mo atoms into respective chains along the b axis, thus establishing layers in the bc plane. The ethylenediamine ligand is coordinated to the Cu atom through its two N atoms and is oriented perpendicularly to the two-dimensional –Cu—O—Mo– layers. The average distance between adjacent layers, as calculated by consideration of the closest and furthest distances between two layers, is 8.7 Å. The oxidation states of the Mo and Cu atoms of VI and II, respectively, were confirmed by bond-valence sum calculations.

  19. Synthesis of CdTe QDs/single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes hybrid compound and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Daniela A., E-mail: daniela.geraldo@unab.cl [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas (Chile); Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolas [CEDENNA, Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Chile); Villagra, Nicolas A. [Universidad Andres Bello, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas (Chile); Mora, Guido C. [Universidad Andres Bello, Unidad de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina (Chile); Arratia-Perez, Ramiro [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    The use of molecular conjugates of quantum dots (nanocrystalline fluorophores) for biological purposes have received much attention due to their improved biological activity. However, relatively, little is known about the synthesis and application of aluminosilicate nanotubes decorated with quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and treatment of pathogenic bacteria. This paper describes for a first time, the use of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (SWNT) (imogolite) as a one-dimensional template for the in situ growth of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs. This new nanohybrid hydrogel was synthesized by a simple reaction pathway and their enhanced optical properties were monitored by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming that the use of these nanotubes favors the confinement effects of net CdTe QDs. In addition, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the non-covalent functionalization of SWNT. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of SWNT coated with CdTe QDs toward three opportunistic multi-resistant pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Growth inhibition tests were conducted by exposing growing bacteria to CdTe QDs/SWNT hybrid compound showing that the new nano-structured composite is a potential antimicrobial agent for heavy metal-resistant bacteria.

  20. Synthesis of CdTe QDs/single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes hybrid compound and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Daniela A.; Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás; Villagra, Nicolás A.; Mora, Guido C.; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular conjugates of quantum dots (nanocrystalline fluorophores) for biological purposes have received much attention due to their improved biological activity. However, relatively, little is known about the synthesis and application of aluminosilicate nanotubes decorated with quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and treatment of pathogenic bacteria. This paper describes for a first time, the use of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (SWNT) (imogolite) as a one-dimensional template for the in situ growth of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs. This new nanohybrid hydrogel was synthesized by a simple reaction pathway and their enhanced optical properties were monitored by fluorescence and UV–Vis spectroscopy, confirming that the use of these nanotubes favors the confinement effects of net CdTe QDs. In addition, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the non-covalent functionalization of SWNT. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of SWNT coated with CdTe QDs toward three opportunistic multi-resistant pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Growth inhibition tests were conducted by exposing growing bacteria to CdTe QDs/SWNT hybrid compound showing that the new nano-structured composite is a potential antimicrobial agent for heavy metal-resistant bacteria.

  1. The Role of Connectivity on Electronic Properties of Lead Iodide Perovskite-Derived Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E; De Wijs, Gilles; Havenith, Remco W A; Blake, Graeme R; Palstra, Thomas T M

    2017-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth method to synthesize high-quality single crystals of two different benzylammonium lead iodide perovskite-like organic/inorganic hybrids. The well-known (C6H5CH2NH3)(2)PbI4 phase is obtained in the form of bright orange platelets, with a structure comprised of

  2. Hybrid process, electrocoagulation-biofiltration for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Oumar; Drogui, Patrick; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino

    2018-05-01

    Landfill leachates are known for their high and complex composition of organic, inorganic and microbial pollutants. As a result, it is quite challenging to treat these effluents by using only one treatment process. A combining approach is generally required to treat efficiently these wastewaters and comply with the discharge standards. In this present study, electrocoagulation (EC) and biofiltration (BF) processes were sequentially used to treat landfill leachate. EC process has been able to remove 37 ± 2% of the initial total COD. A fractionation of organic compounds showed that EC was particularly efficient to remove insoluble COD and humic acids. In addition, other pollutants such as turbidity, true color, Zn and phosphorus were significantly reduced by EC with 82 ± 2.7%, 60 ± 13%, 95 ± 2.6% and 82 ± 5.5% of removal respectively. The subsequent treatment by BF process led to completely removal of ammonia pollution (>99% of NH 4 removal) and a partial removal of dissolved organic compounds (42 ± 7% of COD removal). The hybrid process EC/BF could form the basis of a process capable of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from many refractory wastewaters (mature landfill leachates, industrial and municipal wastewaters). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Micropatterned 2D Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films with Enhanced Photoluminescence Lifetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Hong Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Blake, Graeme R.; Palstra, Thomas T.M.; Ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2018-01-01

    The application of luminescent materials in display screens and devices requires micropatterned structures. In this work, we have successfully printed microstructures of a two-dimensional (2D), orange-colored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite ((C6H5CH2NH3)2PbI4) using two different soft

  4. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  5. Long-term organic-inorganic fertilization ensures great soil productivity and bacterial diversity after natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Wei; Ren, Yi; Huang, Ting; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Natural ecosystems comprise the planet's wild plant and animal resources, but large tracts of land have been converted to agroecosystems to support the demand for agricultural products. This conversion limits the number of plant species and decreases the soil biological diversity. Here we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the responses of soil bacterial communities in long-term converted and fertilized red soils (a type of Ferralic Cambisol). We observed that soil bacterial diversity was strongly affected by different types of fertilization management. Oligotrophic bacterial taxa demonstrated large relative abundances in chemically fertilized soil, whereas copiotrophic bacterial taxa were found in large relative abundances in organically fertilized and fallow management soils. Only organic-inorganic fertilization exhibited the same local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as that of a natural ecosystem. However, the independent use of organic or inorganic fertilizer reduced local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and caused biotic homogenization. This study demonstrated that the homogenization of bacterial communities caused by natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion can be mitigated by employing rational organic-inorganic fertilization management.

  6. Flexible magnetic polyurethane/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as organic-inorganic nanocomposites for biomedical applications: Properties and cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrousvand, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875/4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hoseinian, Monireh Sadat [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghollasi, Marzieh [Department of Cell & Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karbalaeimahdi, Ali [Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Ali, E-mail: salimiali@bmsu.ac.ir [Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabar, Fatemeh Ahmadi [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875/4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the discovery of cell behaviors and their responses in communication with the stem cell niches and/or microenvironments are one of the major topics in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, incorporated organic-inorganic polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared for better understanding of cell signaling and the effect of magnetite nanoparticles on cell proliferation and cell responses. The properties of PU-IONs were evaluated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of the iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) affects on the properties of polyurethane nanocomposites such as bulk morphology, mechanical, electrochemical, and biological properties. The electrical conductivity and hydrophilicity of PU-IONs were improved by increasing the magnetite nanoparticles; therefore water absorption, biodegradation and cell viability were changed. The biocompatibility of PU-IONs was investigated by MTT assay, cell attachment and cell staining. According to the results, the magnetite polyurethane nanocomposites could be a potential choice for cell therapy and tissue engineering, especially nerve repair. - Highlights: • Biodegradable and biocompatible incorporated organic-inorganic polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared. • The hydrophilicity of polyurethane/iron oxide nanocomposites (PU-IONs) was improved by increasing of magnetite nanoparticles. • The magnetite nanocomposites showed greater electrical conductivity and surface roughness in contrast to neat polyurethane. • The PU-IONs nanocomposites had suitable cell viability and hold promising potential for tissue engineering applications.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of optical and electrical composite hybrid PVAl/CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.S.; Aquino, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aiming to develop new hybrid nanocomposite materials that present the physical properties of both components which allows to be applied in a variety of areas of nanotechnology among them in photonics, optoelectronics and sensor. The hybrid organic / inorganic PVAl / CdS is compound of a polymer matrix the polyvinyl alcohol (PVAl) and phase second cadmium sulfide (CdS), the synthesis was to did using the 'hydrothermal method' with five different concentrations of CdS between 0.05 and 0.7% (w/w). The hybrid solution obtained is to put sth down on glass substrate by the method 'Casting' so we get films with thicknesses ranging from 20 and 150 μm. The morphology of the films was characterized by X ray diffraction (DRX) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). And the influence of CdS on the dielectric behavior in the films of PVAl / CdS, as dielectric relaxation (relaxation frequencies) were characterized by impedance spectroscopy. (author)

  8. Nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon with a high surface area, synthesized through organic-inorganic coassembly, and its application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanfang; Li, Li; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Congxiao; Guo, Zaipin; Xia, Yongyao

    2014-07-21

    A new nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-doped OMC) is synthesized by using an organic-inorganic coassembly method, in which resol is used as the carbon precursor, dicyandiamide as the nitrogen precursor, silicate oligomers as the inorganic precursors, and F127 as the soft template. The N-doped OMC possesses a surface area as high as 1374 m(2)  g(-1) and a large pore size of 7.4 nm. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the obtained carbon exhibits excellent cycling stability and delivers a reversible specific capacitance as high as 308 F g(-1) in 1 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) aqueous electrolyte, of which 58 % of the capacity is due to pseudo-capacitance. The large specific capacitance is attributed to proper pore size distributions, large surface area, and high nitrogen content. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The use of halloysite functionalized with isothiouronium salts as an organic/inorganic hybrid adsorbent for uranium(VI) ions removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysz-Płaska, A; Majdan, M; Tarasiuk, B; Sternik, D; Grabias, E

    2018-07-15

    Elimination of U(VI) from nuclear wastes and from the underground water near the uranium mines is the serious problem. Therefore search for new sorbents for U(VI) is still a big challenge for the scientists. This paper investigates of U(VI) ions sorption on halloysite modified with the isothiouronium salts: S-dodecaneisothiouronium bromide (ligand 1), S,S'-dodecane-1,12-diylbis(isothiouronium bromide) (ligand 2), S-hexadecaneisothiouronium chloride (ligand 3), S,S'-naphthalene-1,4-diylbis(methylisothiouronium) dichloride (ligand 4), and S,S'-2,5-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diylbis(methylisothiouronium) dichloride (ligand 5). It was established that halloysite modified by the ligands with four nitrogen atoms in their structure (ligand-5, 2 and 4) was characterized by higher sorption capacity compared with that modified by the ligands with two donor nitrogens (ligand-1 and 3). The maximum sorption capacity of halloysite-5 toward U(VI) was 157 mg U/g and this places the modified mineral among the most effective sorbents for U(VI) removal from wastes. As follows from ATR, XPS and thermal degradation spectra of the sorption products [R-S-C(NH)(NH 2 )] n = 1-2 (UO 2 2+ ) complexes are formed on the external surface of the halloysite whereas oligomeric hydroxy complexes (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + and (UO 2 ) 4 (OH) 7 + are present in the interior of halloysite structure and interact predominantly with aluminols. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanocrystalline p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol) and gold core-shell structure as a model drug deliverable organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhojit; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2013-09-01

    We report on the generation of core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) having an organic nanocrystal (NC) core coated with an inorganic metallic shell, being dispersed in aqueous medium. First, NCs of p-hydroxyacetanilide (pHA)--known also as paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH < 3), the Au shell could be dissolved, subsequently releasing pHA molecules. The dissolution of Au shell was marked by a gradual diminishing of its SPR band, while the release of pHA molecules in the solution was confirmed from TEM and FTIR studies. The findings suggest that the core-shell NP could be hypothesized to be a model for encapsulating drug molecules, in their crystalline forms, for slow as well as targeted release. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03566b

  11. Encapsulation of Polymer Colloids in a Sol-Gel Matrix. Direct-Writing of Coassembling Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikosch, Annabel; Kuehne, Alexander J C

    2016-03-22

    The spontaneous self-assembly of polymer colloids into ordered arrangements provides a facile strategy for the creation of photonic crystals. However, these structures often suffer from defects and insufficient cohesion, which result in flaking and delamination from the substrate. A coassembly process has been developed for convective assembly, resulting in large-area encapsulated colloidal crystals. However, to generate patterns or discrete deposits in designated places, convective assembly is not suitable. Here we experimentally develop conditions for direct-writing of coassembling monodisperse dye-doped polystyrene particles with a sol-gel precursor to form solid encapsulated photonic crystals. In a simple procedure the colloids are formulated in a sol-gel precursor solution, drop-cast on a flat substrate, and dried. We here establish the optimal parameters to form reproducible highly ordered photonic crystals with good optical performance. The obtained photonic crystals interact with light in the visible spectrum with a narrow optical stop-gap.

  12. Improving the Morphology of the Perovskite Absorber Layer in Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Halide Perovskite MAPbI3 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Ogundana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, perovskite solar cells have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent power conversion efficiency, low cost, simple fabrications, and high photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, the perovskite solar cells are lightweight and possess thin film and semitransparency. However, the nonuniformity in perovskite layer constitutes a major setback to the operation mechanism, performance, reproducibility, and degradation of perovskite solar cells. Therefore, one of the main challenges in planar perovskite devices is the fabrication of high quality films with controlled morphology and least amount of pin-holes for high performance thin film perovskite devices. The poor reproducibility in perovskite solar cells hinders the accurate fabrication of practical devices for use in real world applications, and this is primarily as a result of the inability to control the morphology of perovskites, leading to large variability in the characteristics of perovskite solar cells. Hence, the focus of research in perovskites has been mostly geared towards improving the morphology and crystallization of perovskite absorber by selecting the optimal annealing condition considering the effect of humidity. Here we report a controlled ambient condition that is necessary to grow uniform perovskite crystals. A best PCE of 7.5% was achieved along with a short-circuit current density of 15.2 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.81 V, and a fill factor of 0.612 from the perovskite solar cell prepared under 60% relative humidity.

  13. Effect of Nonionic Surfactant Additive in PEDOT:PSS on PFO Emission Layer in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong Rae; Porte, Yoann; Kim, Yun Cheol; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2018-03-21

    Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) has attracted significant interests owing to its versatility in electronic devices. However, changes in its optical properties caused by its various phases and the formation of oxidation defects limit the application of PFO in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We investigated the effects of the addition of Triton X-100 (hereinafter shortened as TX) in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to induce interlayer diffusion between PEDOT:PSS and PFO to enhance the stability of the PFO phase and suppress its oxidation. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement on PFO/TX-mixed PEDOT:PSS layers revealed that, upon increasing the concentration of TX in the PEDOT:PSS layer, the β phase of PFO could be suppressed in favor of the glassy phase and the wide PL emission centered at 535 nm caused by ketone defects formed by oxidation was decreased considerably. LEDs were then fabricated using PFO as an emission layer, TX-mixed PEDOT:PSS as hole-transport layer, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods as electron-transport layer. As the TX concentration reached 3 wt %, the devices exhibited dramatic increases in current densities, which were attributed to the enhanced hole injection due to TX addition, along with a shift in the dominant emission wavelength from a green electroluminescence (EL) emission centered at 518 nm to a blue EL emission centered at 448 nm. The addition of TX in PEDOT:PSS induced a better hole injection in the PFO layer, and through interlayer diffusion, stabilized the glassy phase of PFO and limited the formation of oxidation defects.

  14. Comprehensive investigation of core-shell dimer nanoparticles size, distance and thicknesses on performance of a hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Significant performance enhancement in an ultrathin perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cell is done using plasmonic embedded core–shell dimer nanoparticles. Three-dimensional finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used. A perovskite absorber with a volume of 400 × 400 × 200 nm3 is considered. At first, a cell with one embedded nanoparticle is simulated. Absorptance of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber and gold nanoparticle are obtained. An optimization is done. Then a cell with embedded dimer nanoparticles is evaluated. The results show higher photocurrent enhancement for that in compared to a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. To further photocurrent enhancement, gold-SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles are used. Photocurrents of 23.37 mA cm‑2, 23.3 mA cm‑2, 22.5 mA cm‑2 and 21.47 mA cm‑2 are obtained for a cell with two embedded core–shell nanoparticles with core radius of 60 nm and shell thickness of 2 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm and 20 nm, respectively. It is important to mention that the photocurrent is 17.9 mA cm‑2 for reference cell and 19.8 mA cm‑2 for a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. Higher photocurrent is due to the near-field plasmonic effect.

  15. Spray-deposition and photopolymerization of organic-inorganic thiol-ene resins for fabrication of superamphiphobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Kendrick, Laken L; Heusser, Hannele; Webb, Jamie C; Sparks, Bradley J; Goetz, James T; Guo, Wei; Stafford, Christopher M; Blanton, Michael D; Nazarenko, Sergei; Patton, Derek L

    2014-07-09

    Superamphiphobic surfaces, exhibiting high contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis to both water and low surface tension liquids, have attracted a great deal attention in recent years because of the potential of these materials in practical applications such as liquid-resistant textiles, self-cleaning surfaces, and antifouling/anticorrosion coatings. In this work, we present a simple strategy for fabricating of superamphiphobic coatings based on photopolymerization of hybrid thiol-ene resins. Spray-deposition and UV photopolymerization of thiol-ene resins containing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles and perfluorinated thiols provide a multiscale topography and low-energy surface that endows the surface with superamphiphobicity. The wettability and chemical composition of the surfaces were characterized by contact-angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The hierarchical roughness features of the thiol-ene surfaces were investigated with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Droplet impact and sandpaper abrasion tests indicate the coatings respectively possess a robust antiwetting behavior and good mechanical durability.

  16. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a small library of hybrid compounds based on Ugi isocyanide multicomponent reactions with a marine natural product scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, Edward; Prudhomme, Jacques; Le Roch, Karine G; Franzblau, Scott G; Chandrasena, Kevin; Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D

    2015-11-15

    A mixture-based combinatorial library of five Ugi adducts (4-8) incorporating known antitubercular and antimalarial pharmacophores was successfully synthesized, starting from the naturally occurring diisocyanide 3, via parallel Ugi four-center three-component reactions (U-4C-3CR). The novel α-acylamino amides obtained were evaluated for their antiinfective potential against laboratory strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and chloroquine-susceptible 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, compounds 4-8 displayed potent in vitro antiparasitic activity with higher cytotoxicity in comparison to their diisocyanide precursor 3, with the best compound exhibiting an IC50 value of 3.6 nM. Additionally, these natural product inspired hybrids potently inhibited in vitro thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation from Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated rat neonatal microglia, with concomitant low short-term toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectroscopic and nonlinear photophysical characterization of organic octupolar-compounds supported by anodic-alumina nanotube-arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Saavedra, O.G.; Ontiveros-Barrera, F.G.; Hennrich, G.; Mata-Zamora, M.E.; Rodriguez-Rosales, A.A.; Banuelos, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Preparation of organic-inorganic nanostructured hybrid materials. → Insertion of octupolar compounds in alumina nanotube arrays. → Linear and nonlinear photophysical characterization of solid-state hybrid structures. → Fabrication of photonic materials. - Abstract: Amorphous anodic alumina membranes (AAM) comprising highly ordered nanometric porous arrays (porous anodic aluminas: PAA) with 1D-nanotube dimensions of ∼75 nm in diameter and 45 microns in depth were successfully prepared and used as nanostructured host networks for different functionalized octupolar chromophores (named here Oct-(n)). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies performed on the developed hybrid systems confirmed a homogeneous insertion of these organic molecules into the PAA nanotube-arrays. Samples with high structural quality were selected for several photophysical characterizations: Comprehensive X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectroscopic characterizations performed according to UV-vis absorption, photoluminescent (PL) and Raman measurements revealed the structural and optical performance of these molecules within the PAA-confinement. Since the implemented optical chromophores were specifically functionalized for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications, the obtained Oct-(n)/PAA-based amorphous hybrids were also characterized according to cubic NLO-techniques such as third harmonic generation (THG) and the Z-Scan method. PAA-confined octupolar chromophores have shown interesting linear and NLO optical properties which have not yet been intensively investigated in bulk hybrid systems; hence, the obtained hybrid nanostructures represent a promising field of investigation in the route to functional octupolar-based materials, where different self-assembled molecular structures may be formed, giving rise to enhanced linear and NLO-properties.

  18. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrenfennig, Christian; Liu, Mingzhen; Snaith, Henry J.; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2014-08-01

    The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3-xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  19. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wehrenfennig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3−xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3−xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  20. Phonon properties and slow organic-to-inorganic sub-lattice thermalization in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Maria; Chang, Angela; Xia, Yi; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Guo, Peijun; Kinaci, Alper; Lin, Hao-Wu; Darancet, Pierre; Schaller, Richard

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite halide compounds have been investigated extensively for photovoltaics (PVs) and related applications. The thermal transport properties of hybrid perovskites, including phonon-carrier and phonon-phonon interactions, are of significance for their PV and solar thermoelectric applications. The interlocking organic and inorganic sublattices can be thought of as an extreme form of nanostructuring. A result of this nanostructuring is the large gap in phonon frequencies between the organic and inorganic sublattices, which is expected to create bottlenecks in phonon equilibration. In this work, we use a combination of ultrafast spectroscopy including photoluminescence and transient absorption, as well as first principles density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics calculations, phonon lifetimes derived from DFT force constants, and non-equilibrium phonon dynamics accounting for phonon lifetimes, to determine the phonon and charge interaction processes. We find evidence that thermalization of carriers occur at an atypically slow 50-100 ps time scale owing to the complex interplay between electronic and phonon excitations.

  1. Extracted Venom and Cuticular Compounds of Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp., and Chemotaxonomic Applications Across a Persistent Hybrid Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of cuticular biomolecular assemblages for imported fire ants permit basic distinctions among colonies of S. invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrids; thus, providing opportunities to investigate details of landscape ecology for this species complex as well as to assess levels of inva...

  2. A compound structure of ELM based on feature selection and parameter optimization using hybrid backtracking search algorithm for wind speed forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Li, Chaoshun; Fu, Wenlong; Peng, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid approach is proposed for wind speed forecasting. • The variational mode decomposition (VMD) is optimized to decompose the original wind speed series. • The input matrix and parameters of ELM are optimized simultaneously by using a hybrid BSA. • Results show that OVMD-HBSA-ELM achieves better performance in terms of prediction accuracy. - Abstract: Reliable wind speed forecasting is essential for wind power integration in wind power generation system. The purpose of paper is to develop a novel hybrid model for short-term wind speed forecasting and demonstrates its efficiency. In the proposed model, a compound structure of extreme learning machine (ELM) based on feature selection and parameter optimization using hybrid backtracking search algorithm (HBSA) is employed as the predictor. The real-valued BSA (RBSA) is exploited to search for the optimal combination of weights and bias of ELM while the binary-valued BSA (BBSA) is exploited as a feature selection method applying on the candidate inputs predefined by partial autocorrelation function (PACF) values to reconstruct the input-matrix. Due to the volatility and randomness of wind speed signal, an optimized variational mode decomposition (OVMD) is employed to eliminate the redundant noises. The parameters of the proposed OVMD are determined according to the center frequencies of the decomposed modes and the residual evaluation index (REI). The wind speed signal is decomposed into a few modes via OVMD. The aggregation of the forecasting results of these modes constructs the final forecasting result of the proposed model. The proposed hybrid model has been applied on the mean half-hour wind speed observation data from two wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China and 10-min wind speed data from the Sotavento Galicia wind farm are studied as an additional case. Parallel experiments have been designed to compare with the proposed model. Results obtained from this study indicate that the

  3. Hydrogen bonded supra-molecular framework in inorganic-organic hybrid compounds: Syntheses, structures, and photoluminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Wei; Li, Chuanbi; Wang, Yifei; Ma, Li; Dong, Qinqin

    2013-03-01

    Two novel compounds constructed from aromatic acid and N-Heterocyclic ligands have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction: [Cd(mip)(1,8-NDC)(H2O)]2 (1) [mip = 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, 1,8-NDC = naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid] and Cd(mip)2(NTC)2 (2) [NTC = nicotinic acid]. Compounds 1 and 2 are characterized by elemental analysis, IR, single crystal X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Single-crystal X-ray investigation reveals that compounds 1-2 are 0 dimensional (0D) structures, and the existence of hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions lead the 0D to 2D novel framework. Hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions are powerful non-covalent intermolecular interactions for directing supra-molecular architectures. TG analysis shows clear courses of weight loss, which corresponds to the decomposition of different ligands. At room temperature, compound 1 exhibits emission at 449 nm upon excitation at 325 nm, and compound 2 shows a strong emission at 656 nm upon excitation at 350 nm. Fluorescent spectrum displays that compounds 1 and 2 are potential luminescent materials.

  4. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively

  5. Evolution of the orbitals Dy-4f in the DyB2 compound using the LDA, PBE approximations, and the PBE0 hybrid functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasero Causil, Diego; Ortega López, César; Espitia Rico, Miguel

    2018-04-01

    Computational calculations of total energy based on density functional theory were used to investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the DyB2 compounds in the hexagonal structure. The calculations were carried out by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, employing the computational Wien2k package. The local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used for the electron-electron interactions. Additionally, we used the functional hybrid PBE0 for a better description the electronic and magnetic properties, because the DyB2 compound is a strongly-correlated system. We found that the calculated lattice constant agrees well with the values reported theoretically and experimentally. The density of states (DOS) calculation shows that the compound exhibits a metallic behavior and has magnetic properties, with a total magnetic moment of 5.47 μ0/cell determined mainly by the 4f states of the rare earth elements. The functional PBE0 shows a strong localization of the Dy-4f orbitals.

  6. Sequential Dip-spin Coating Method: Fully Infiltration of MAPbI 3-x Cl x into Mesoporous TiO 2 for Stable Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Woochul; Park, Jiyoon; Kim, Hyeonghun; Pak, Yusin; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun Young

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have reached a power conversion efficiency of 22.1% in a short period (∼7 years), which has been obtainable in silicon-based solar cells for decades. The high power conversion efficiency

  7. A novel method for detection of phosphorylation in single cells by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS using composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Shachaf

    Full Text Available Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities.To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using "Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles" (COINs Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS nanoparticles, with unique Raman spectra. To measure Raman spectra in single cells, we constructed an automated, compact, low noise and sensitive Raman microscopy device (Integrated Raman BioAnalyzer. Using this technology, we detected proteins expressed on the surface in single cells that distinguish T-cells among human blood cells. Finally, we measured intracellular phosphorylation of Stat1 (Y701 and Stat6 (Y641, with results comparable to flow cytometry.Thus, we have demonstrated the practicality of applying COIN nanoparticles for measuring intracellular phosphorylation, offering new possibilities to expand on the current fluorescent technology used for immunoassays in single cells.

  8. A novel method for detection of phosphorylation in single cells by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachaf, Catherine M; Elchuri, Sailaja V; Koh, Ai Leen; Zhu, Jing; Nguyen, Lienchi N; Mitchell, Dennis J; Zhang, Jingwu; Swartz, Kenneth B; Sun, Lei; Chan, Selena; Sinclair, Robert; Nolan, Garry P

    2009-01-01

    Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities. To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using "Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles" (COINs) Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, with unique Raman spectra. To measure Raman spectra in single cells, we constructed an automated, compact, low noise and sensitive Raman microscopy device (Integrated Raman BioAnalyzer). Using this technology, we detected proteins expressed on the surface in single cells that distinguish T-cells among human blood cells. Finally, we measured intracellular phosphorylation of Stat1 (Y701) and Stat6 (Y641), with results comparable to flow cytometry. Thus, we have demonstrated the practicality of applying COIN nanoparticles for measuring intracellular phosphorylation, offering new possibilities to expand on the current fluorescent technology used for immunoassays in single cells.

  9. Interfacial dynamic surface traps of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystals: test-platform for interfacial charge carrier traps at the organic/inorganic functional interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Ko, Hyungduk; Park, Byoungnam

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystal (NC) size and ligand dependent dynamic trap formation of lead sulfide (PbS) NCs in contact with an organic semiconductor were investigated using a pentacene/PbS field effect transistor (FET). We used a bilayer pentacene/PbS FET to extract information of the surface traps of PbS NCs at the pentacene/PbS interface through the field effect-induced charge carrier density measurement in the threshold and subthreshold regions. PbS size and ligand dependent trap properties were elucidated by the time domain and threshold voltage measurements in which threshold voltage shift occurs by carrier charging and discharging in the trap states of PbS NCs. The observed threshold voltage shift is interpreted in context of electron trapping through dynamic trap formation associated with PbS NCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of interfacial dynamic trap density of PbS NC in contact with an organic semiconductor (pentacene). We found that the dynamic trap density of the PbS NC is size dependent and the carrier residence time in the specific trap sites is more sensitive to NC size variation than to NC ligand exchange. The probing method presented in the study offers a means to investigate the interfacial surface traps at the organic-inorganic hetero-junction, otherwise understanding of the buried surface traps at the functional interface would be elusive.

  10. A polymeric membrane ion selective electrode based on organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger for the determination of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Agarwal, Himanshu; Chandan Kumar, Singh; Sindhu, Susheel Kumar; Pankaj Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on organic- inorganic composite ion exchanger, tin(IV) tungstoselenate-pyridine, has been prepared and tested for the selective determination of thorium(IV) ions. The PVC membrane electrode comprising 16% composite ion exchanger as the electroactive phase, 50% o-dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer, 4% tetraphenyl borate as anionic excluder and 30% poly(vinylchloride) displays a linear response to thorium(IV) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 -8.0 x 10 -6 M with a Nernstain slope of 14.2 mV/ decade. The electrode shows a very short response time (∼15 s) and may be used in the pH range 2.5-9.0. The selectivity coefficient for alkali, alkaline earth and transition is smaller than 4.0 x 10 -4 . The sensor has been successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Th 4+ with EDTA as well as also for the determination of Th 4+ in the binary mixtures. (author)

  11. Flexible magnetic polyurethane/Fe2O3 nanoparticles as organic-inorganic nanocomposites for biomedical applications: Properties and cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrousvand, Mohsen; Hoseinian, Monireh Sadat; Ghollasi, Marzieh; Karbalaeimahdi, Ali; Salimi, Ali; Tabar, Fatemeh Ahmadi

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the discovery of cell behaviors and their responses in communication with the stem cell niches and/or microenvironments are one of the major topics in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, incorporated organic-inorganic polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared for better understanding of cell signaling and the effect of magnetite nanoparticles on cell proliferation and cell responses. The properties of PU-IONs were evaluated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of the iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) affects on the properties of polyurethane nanocomposites such as bulk morphology, mechanical, electrochemical, and biological properties. The electrical conductivity and hydrophilicity of PU-IONs were improved by increasing the magnetite nanoparticles; therefore water absorption, biodegradation and cell viability were changed. The biocompatibility of PU-IONs was investigated by MTT assay, cell attachment and cell staining. According to the results, the magnetite polyurethane nanocomposites could be a potential choice for cell therapy and tissue engineering, especially nerve repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ciprofloxacin-intercalated Zinc Layered Hydroxides Hybrid Material: Synthesis and in Vitro Release Profiles of an Antibiotic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Stanslas, J.; Abdul Halim Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The intriguing anion exchange properties of layered hydroxides salts, combined with its high layer charge density have provided strong motivations for the potential use of the inorganic layered host material in drug delivery applications. Ciprofloxacin (CFX), a wide spectrum antibiotic has been anion exchanged with nitrate of zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN), which belongs to the LHS family, resulted in the expansion of the basal spacing from 9.92 Amstrom of ZHN to 21.5 Angstrom of ZCFX, the obtained hybrid material. Other characterizations, such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), CHNS analysis and TGA/ DTG have further corroborated this finding. Electron microscopy study reveals the plate-like structure of the nano hybrid material. The in vitro release of CFX was performed in phosphate saline buffer at pH 7.4 and it behaves in a slow and sustained release profile over a period of 72 hours. This study suggests that ZHN, which demonstrates a controlled release behavior, could be a potential host material in the drug delivery applications. (author)

  13. Development of a Hybrid Piezo Natural Rubber Piezoelectricity and Piezoresistivity Sensor with Magnetic Clusters Made by Electric and Magnetic Field Assistance and Filling with Magnetic Compound Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kunio; Saga, Norihiko

    2017-02-10

    Piezoelements used in robotics require large elasticity and extensibility to be installed in an artificial robot skin. However, the piezoelements used until recently are vulnerable to large forces because of the thin solid materials employed. To resolve this issue, we utilized a natural rubber and applied our proposed new method of aiding with magnetic and electric fields as well as filling with magnetic compound fluid (MCF) and doping. We have verified the piezoproperties of the resulting MCF rubber. The effect of the created magnetic clusters is featured in a new two types of multilayered structures of the piezoelement. By measuring the piezoelectricity response to pressure, the synergetic effects of the magnetic clusters, the doping and the electric polymerization on the piezoelectric effect were clarified. In addition, by examining the relation between the piezoelectricity and the piezoresistivity created in the MCF piezo element, we propose a hybrid piezoelement.

  14. Hybrid Photonic Cavity with Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds with High Immunity to Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jifang; Wang, Xuerui; Sun, Tao; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yuxiang; Lin, Tong; Fu, Dongliang; Ting, Lennon Lee Yao; Gu, Yuandong; Zhao, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at parts-per-billion (ppb) level is one of the most challenging tasks for miniature gas sensors because of the high requirement on sensitivity and the possible interference from moisture. Herein, for the first time, we present a novel platform based on a hybrid photonic cavity with metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings for VOCs detection. We have fabricated a compact gas sensor with detection limitation ranging from 29 to 99 ppb for various VOCs including styrene, toluene, benzene, propylene and methanol. Compared to the photonic cavity without coating, the MOF-coated solution exhibits a sensitivity enhancement factor up to 1000. The present results have demonstrated great potential of MOF-coated photonic resonators in miniaturized gas sensing applications.

  15. Development of a Hybrid Piezo Natural Rubber Piezoelectricity and Piezoresistivity Sensor with Magnetic Clusters Made by Electric and Magnetic Field Assistance and Filling with Magnetic Compound Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kunio; Saga, Norihiko

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelements used in robotics require large elasticity and extensibility to be installed in an artificial robot skin. However, the piezoelements used until recently are vulnerable to large forces because of the thin solid materials employed. To resolve this issue, we utilized a natural rubber and applied our proposed new method of aiding with magnetic and electric fields as well as filling with magnetic compound fluid (MCF) and doping. We have verified the piezoproperties of the resulting MCF rubber. The effect of the created magnetic clusters is featured in a new two types of multilayered structures of the piezoelement. By measuring the piezoelectricity response to pressure, the synergetic effects of the magnetic clusters, the doping and the electric polymerization on the piezoelectric effect were clarified. In addition, by examining the relation between the piezoelectricity and the piezoresistivity created in the MCF piezo element, we propose a hybrid piezoelement. PMID:28208625

  16. Development of a Hybrid Piezo Natural Rubber Piezoelectricity and Piezoresistivity Sensor with Magnetic Clusters Made by Electric and Magnetic Field Assistance and Filling with Magnetic Compound Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Shimada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelements used in robotics require large elasticity and extensibility to be installed in an artificial robot skin. However, the piezoelements used until recently are vulnerable to large forces because of the thin solid materials employed. To resolve this issue, we utilized a natural rubber and applied our proposed new method of aiding with magnetic and electric fields as well as filling with magnetic compound fluid (MCF and doping. We have verified the piezoproperties of the resulting MCF rubber. The effect of the created magnetic clusters is featured in a new two types of multilayered structures of the piezoelement. By measuring the piezoelectricity response to pressure, the synergetic effects of the magnetic clusters, the doping and the electric polymerization on the piezoelectric effect were clarified. In addition, by examining the relation between the piezoelectricity and the piezoresistivity created in the MCF piezo element, we propose a hybrid piezoelement.

  17. Room-temperature polar order in [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3]--a hybrid inorganic-organic compound with a unique perovskite architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aguirre, L C; Pato-Doldán, B; Stroppa, A; Yáñez-Vilar, S; Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B; Castro-García, S; Mira, J; Sánchez-Andújar, M; Señarís-Rodríguez, M A

    2015-03-02

    We report on the hybrid inorganic-organic ammonium compound [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3], which displays a most unusual framework structure: instead of the expected 4(9)·6(6) topology, it shows an ABX3 perovskite architecture with the peculiarity and uniqueness (among all the up-to-date reported hybrid metal formates) that the Cd ions are connected only by syn-anti formate bridges, instead of anti-anti ones. This change of the coordination mode of the formate ligand is thus another variable that can provide new possibilities for tuning the properties of these versatile functional metal-organic framework materials. The room-temperature crystal structure of [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3] is noncentrosymmetric (S.G.: Pna21) and displays a polar axis. DFT calculations and symmetry mode analysis show that the rather large polarization arising from the off-center shift of the ammonium cations in the cavities (4.33 μC/cm(2)) is partially canceled by the antiparallel polarization coming from the [Cd(HCOO)3](-) framework, thus resulting in a net polarization of 1.35 μC/cm(2). As shown by second harmonic generation studies, this net polarization can be greatly increased by applying pressure (Pmax = 14 GPa), an external stimulus that, in turn, induces the appearance of new structural phases, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Hybrid compounds of Keggin polyoxotungstate with transition metal ion as the central atom. Synthesis, structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ya-Guang; Shi, Tian

    2016-02-01

    The compounds (Hbipy)2[Co(bipy)2(H2O)4]2(CoW12O40)·2bipy·7H2O (1) and [Ni2(Hbipy)2(bipy)(H2O)4(H2W12O40)]·5H2O (2) (bipy = 4,4-bipyridine) were synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, TG analyses, solid ultraviolet diffuse spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. In 1 the complex ions, [Co(bipy)2(H2O)4]2+, construct a supramolecular layer through π-π stacking interaction. The heteropolyanions with central Co atom and supramolecular layers are linked by hydrogen bonds. In 2 a 2D structure is formed from metatungstate anions and binuclear Ni-bipy complexes through the coordination of metatungstate anions and bipy to Ni ions. Between the layers and bipyridine molecules are the hydrogen bond interactions. The formation of 1 and 2 shows that the solution acidity and metal ions influence greatly the structure of the compounds. Solid ultraviolet diffusion results indicate that the compounds 1 and 2 are potential semiconductor materials. In 1 and 2 there exists a weak antiferromagnetic interaction.

  19. Synthesis, structure, and catalytic performance in cyclooctene epoxidation of a molybdenum oxide/bipyridine hybrid material: {[MoO3(bipy)][MoO3(H2O)]}n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Marta; Amarante, Tatiana R; Antunes, Margarida M; Gago, Sandra; Paz, Filipe A Almeida; Margiolaki, Irene; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Pillinger, Martyn; Valente, Anabela A; Gonçalves, Isabel S

    2010-08-02

    The reaction of [MoO(2)Cl(2)(bipy)] (1) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) with water in a Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave (100 degrees C, 19 h), in an open reflux system with oil bath heating (12 h) or in a microwave synthesis system (120 degrees C, 4 h), gave the molybdenum oxide/bipyridine hybrid material {[MoO(3)(bipy)][MoO(3)(H(2)O)]}(n) (2) as a microcrystalline powder in yields of 72-92%. The crystal structure of 2 determined from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data is composed of two distinct neutral one-dimensional polymers: an organic-inorganic polymer, [MoO(3)(bipy)](n), and a purely inorganic chain, [MoO(3)(H(2)O)](n), which are interconnected by O-H...O hydrogen bonding interactions. Compound 2 is a moderately active, stable, and selective catalyst for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene at 55 degrees C with tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBuOOH, 5.5 M in decane or 70% aqueous) as the oxidant. Biphasic solid-liquid or triphasic solid-organic-aqueous mixtures are formed, and 1,2-epoxycyclooctane is the only reaction product. When n-hexane is employed as a cosolvent and tBuOOH(decane) is the oxidant, the catalytic reaction is heterogeneous in nature, and the solid catalyst can be recycled and reused without a loss of activity. For comparison, the catalytic performance of the precursor 1 was also investigated. The IR spectra of solids recovered after catalysis indicate that 1 transforms into the organic-inorganic polymer [MoO(3)(bipy)] when the oxidant is tBuOOH(decane) and compound 2 when the oxidant is 70% aqueous tBuOOH.

  20. Photonics of a conjugated organometallic Pt-Ir polymer and its model compounds exhibiting hybrid CT excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Fortin, Daniel; Zysman-Colman, Eli; Harvey, Pierre D

    2012-04-13

    Trans- dichlorobis(tri-n-butylphosphine)platinum(II) reacts with bis(2- phenylpyridinato)-(5,5'-diethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(III) hexafluorophosphate to form the luminescent conjugated polymer poly[trans-[(5,5'-ethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine)bis(2- phenylpyridinato)-iridium(III)]bis(tri-n-butylphosphine)platinum(II)] hexafluorophosphate ([Pt]-[Ir])n. Gel permeation chromatography indicates a degree of polymerization of 9 inferring the presence of an oligomer. Comparison of the absorption and emission band positions and their temperature dependence, emission quantum yields, and lifetimes with those for models containing only the [Pt] or the [Ir] units indicates hybrid excited states including features from both chromophores. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. chemical studies and sorption behavior of some hazardous metal ions on polyacrylamide stannic (IV) molybdophosphate as 'organic - inorganic' composite cation - exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Galil, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    compsite materials formed by the combination of multivalent metal acid salts and organic polymers provide a new class of (organic-inorganic) hypride ion exchangers with better mechanical and granulometric properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher chemical and radiation stabilites, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. this material was characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. on the basis of distribution studies, the material has been found to be highly selective for pb(II). thermodynamic parameters (i.e δG 0 , δ S 0 and δH 0 ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ ions on polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous endothermic. the mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ in the H-form of polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate composite as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, dring temperature and pH. the exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch techneque and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 polts. the values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. the data obtained have been comared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers.

  2. Synthesis of nanolayers hydroxo-(SnxOyHz) and heteropoly-(HxPWyOz) compounds of hybrid-type on silica surfaces by successive ionic layer deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstoy, V.P.; Gulina, L.B.; Korotchenkov, G.S.; Brynsari, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    We determined the synthesis conditions for successive ionic layer deposition of the Sn 16 (OH) x PW 19 O y ·nH 2 O nanolayers on silica surfaces. The synthesized layers were characterized using UV-Vis and FTIR absorption spectroscopies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). On heating the as-synthesized layers to 200-500 deg. C in air, incorporated water evaporate, while M-OH groups are condensed and concentration of the W-O-W and W-O-Sn bonds increase. The layers have amorphous agglomerate-like structure. The agglomerate size is from 20 to 100 nm. Upon heating to 600 deg. C, the size insignificantly increases, the agglomerate form being practically unchanged. The data obtained allow conclusion that the layers present a hybrid compound consisting of fragments of isopoly-(Sn x O y H z ) and heteropoly-(H x PW y O z ) compounds

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and growth of a new inorganic- organic hybrid compound for nonlinear optical applications: Aquadiiodo (3-aminopropanoic acid) cadmium (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, K.; Babu, S. Moorthy; Jagan, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-12-01

    The new inorganic-organic hybrid material aquadiiodo (3-aminopropanoic acid) cadmium (II) [ADI (3-AP) Cd] has been successfully synthesized and good quality crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique. The structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with centro symmetric space group P21/c and four molecules in the unit cell. The structure of the title compound was further confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the compound. The transmittance and optical parameters of the crystal were studied by UV- Visible-NIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was evaluated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Mechanical hardness has been identified by Vickers micro hardness study and work hardening coefficient was calculated. Dielectric measurement was carried out as a function of frequency and results are discussed. The growth mechanism of the crystal was assessed by chemical etching studies. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of [ADI (3-AP) Cd] was derived using the Z-scan technique, and it was 3.24955 × 10-8 esu. The positive nonlinear refractive index 2.48505 × 10-11 m2/W, is an indication of self-defocusing optical nonlinearity of the sample. It is believed that the [ADI (3-AP) Cd] is a promising new candidate for developing efficient nonlinear optical and optical power limiting devices.

  4. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  5. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Dursun, Ibrahim; Priante, Davide; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Ng, Tien Khee; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  6. Chromate-free Hybrid Coating for Corrosion Protection of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Duhwan; Kwon, Moonjae; Kim, Jongsang

    2012-01-01

    Both electrogalvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets have been finally produced via organic-inorganic surface coating process on the zinc surface to enhance corrosion resistance and afford additional functional properties. Recently, POSCO has been developed a variety of chromate-free coated steels that are widely used in household, construction and automotive applications. New organic-inorganic hybrid coating solutions as chromate alternatives are comprised of surface modified silicate with silane coupling agent and inorganic corrosion inhibitors as an aqueous formulation. In this paper we have prepared new type of hybrid coatings and evaluated quality performances such as corrosion resistance, spot weldability, thermal tolerance, and paint adhesion property etc. The electrogalvanized steels with these coating solutions exhibit good anti-corrosion property compared to those of chromate coated steels. Detailed components composition of coating solutions and experimental results suggest that strong binding between organic-inorganic hybrid coating layer and zinc surface plays a key role in the advanced quality performances

  7. Differential profiling of volatile organic compound biomarker signatures utilizing a logical statistical filter-set and novel hybrid evolutionary classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Claude C.; Zmuda, Michael A.; Boone, Derek W.; Highlander, Tyler C.; Kramer, Ryan M.; Rizki, Mateen M.

    2012-06-01

    A growing body of discoveries in molecular signatures has revealed that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the small molecules associated with an individual's odor and breath, can be monitored to reveal the identity and presence of a unique individual, as well their overall physiological status. Given the analysis requirements for differential VOC profiling via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, our group has developed a novel informatics platform, Metabolite Differentiation and Discovery Lab (MeDDL). In its current version, MeDDL is a comprehensive tool for time-series spectral registration and alignment, visualization, comparative analysis, and machine learning to facilitate the efficient analysis of multiple, large-scale biomarker discovery studies. The MeDDL toolset can therefore identify a large differential subset of registered peaks, where their corresponding intensities can be used as features for classification. This initial screening of peaks yields results sets that are typically too large for incorporation into a portable, electronic nose based system in addition to including VOCs that are not amenable to classification; consequently, it is also important to identify an optimal subset of these peaks to increase classification accuracy and to decrease the cost of the final system. MeDDL's learning tools include a classifier similar to a K-nearest neighbor classifier used in conjunction with a genetic algorithm (GA) that simultaneously optimizes the classifier and subset of features. The GA uses ROC curves to produce classifiers having maximal area under their ROC curve. Experimental results on over a dozen recognition problems show many examples of classifiers and feature sets that produce perfect ROC curves.

  8. Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Leukemia Cells by Novel Artemisinin-, Egonol-, and Thymoquinone-Derived Hybrid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gruber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two major obstacles for successful cancer treatment are the toxicity of cytostatics and the development of drug resistance in cancer cells during chemotherapy. Acquired or intrinsic drug resistance is responsible for almost 90% of treatment failure. For this reason, there is an urgent need for new anticancer drugs with improved efficacy against cancer cells, and with less toxicity on normal cells. There are impressive examples demonstrating the success of natural plant compounds to fight cancer, such as Vinca alkaloids, taxanes, and anthracyclines. Artesunic acid (ARTA, a drug for malaria treatment, also exerts cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. Multidrug resistance often results from drug efflux pumps (ABC-transporters that reduce intracellular drug levels. Hence, it would be interesting to know, whether ARTA could overcome drug resistance of tumor cells, and in what way ABC-transporters are involved. Different derivatives showing improved features concerning cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetic behavior have been developed. Considering both drug sensitivity and resistance, we chose a sensitive and a doxorubicin-resistant leukemia cell line and determined the killing effect of ARTA on these cells. Molecular docking and doxorubicin efflux assays were performed to investigate the interaction of the derivatives with P-glycoprotein. Using single-cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline comet assay, we showed that the derivatives of ARTA induce DNA breakage and accordingly programmed cell death, which represents a promising strategy in cancer treatment. ARTA activated apoptosis in cancer cells by the iron-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In conclusion, ARTA derivatives may bear the potential to be further developed as anticancer drugs.

  9. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  10. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  11. [CH(3)(CH(2))(11)NH(3)]SnI(3): a hybrid semiconductor with MoO(3)-type tin(II) iodide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengtao; Mitzi, David B

    2003-10-20

    The organic-inorganic hybrid [CH(3)(CH(2))(11)NH(3)]SnI(3) presents a lamellar structure with a Sn-I framework isotypic to that of MoO(3). The SnI(3)(-) layer consists of edge and corner-sharing SnI(6) octahedra in which one of the six Sn-I bonds is distinctly elongated (e.g., 3.62 A), indicating lone-pair stereoactivity for the Sn(II) atom. The overall electronic character remains comparable with that of the well-studied SnI(4)(2)(-)-based perovskite semiconductors, such as [CH(3)(CH(2))(11)NH(3)](2)SnI(4), with a red-shifted and broadened exciton peak associated with the band gap, apparently due to the increased dimensionality of the Sn-I framework. The title compound offers, aside from the hybrid perovskites, a new type of solution-processable Sn-I network for potential applications in semiconductive devices.

  12. Thermal, Mechanical and UV-Shielding Properties of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate/Cerium Dioxide Hybrid Systems Obtained by Melt Compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Reyes-Acosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thick and homogeneous hybrid film systems based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using the melt compounding method to improve thermal stability, mechanical and UV-shielding properties, as well as to propose them for use in the multifunctional materials industry. The effect of the inorganic phase on these properties was assessed by using two different weight percentages of synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles (0.5 and 1.0 wt % with the sol–gel method and thermal treatment at different temperatures (120, 235, 400, 600 and 800 °C. Thereafter, the nanoceria powders were added to the polymer matrix by single screw extrusion. The absorption in the UV region was increased with the crystallite size of the CeO2 nanoparticles and the PMMA/CeO2 weight ratio. Due to the crystallinity of CeO2 nanoparticles, the thermal, mechanical and UV-shielding properties of the PMMA matrix were improved. The presence of CeO2 nanostructures exerts an influence on the mobility of PMMA chain segments, leading to a different glass transition temperature.

  13. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  14. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  15. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical investigation and antioxidant activities of a new hybrid cyclohexaphosphate: Cu1.5Li(C2H10N2)P6O18·7H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleymi, Samira; Lahbib, Karima; Rahmouni, Nihed; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Besbes-Hentati, Salma; Abid, Sonia

    2017-09-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid transition metal phosphate, Cu1.5Li(C2H10N2)P6O18·7H2O, has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, diffuse reflectance and UV-Vis) and thermal analysis (TG). In addition, its electrochemical behaviors, as well as its antioxidant and antibacterial activities, have been investigated. Its structure is built up by the alternate linkages between copper and phosphate polyhedra, forming puckered layers with intersecting 12-membered rings, in which the ethylenediammonium cations reside. This compound is the first framework structure constructed from cyclohexaphosphates and three distinct copper cations. Cyclic voltammetry study in an acetonitrile solution reveals the facile anodic oxidation of its organic part on a platinum disk and a progressive growing of a thin film, though the repetitive cycling of potential. The title compound was tested for its in vitro antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), Ferrous chelating ability (FIC) and Ferric Reducing Power (FRP) methods. The antioxidant activity of Cu1.5Li(C2H10N2)P6O18·7H2O was analyzed simultaneously with its antibacterial capacity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococus aureus, Enterococcus feacium, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans. The tested compound showed significant antioxidant activities with low antibacterial properties.

  17. Luminescent hybrid materials based on (8-hydroxyquinoline)-substituted metal-organic complexes and lead-borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Olga B.; Anurova, Maria O.; Akkuzina, Alina A.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R.; Ermolaeva, Ekaterina V.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Taydakov, Ilya V.; Avetissov, Igor Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on 8-hydroxyquinoline metal complexes (Liq, Kq, Naq, Rbq, Mgq2, Srq2, Znq2, Scq3, Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3) have been synthesized by a high temperature exchange reaction with 80PbF2-20B2O3 inorganic low-melting glass. The mechanical and optical properties, transmission spectra, emission an excitation photoluminescence, and luminescence kinetic of hybrid materials were studied. All hybrid materials showed a wide luminescence band in the range 400-700 nm.

  18. Titanium oxo-clusters: precursors for a Lego-like construction of nanostructured hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Titanium oxo-clusters, well-defined monodispersed nano-objects, are appropriate nano-building blocks for the preparation of organic-inorganic materials by a bottom up approach. This critical review proposes to present the different structures of titanium oxo-clusters referenced in the literature and the different strategies followed to build up hybrid materials with these versatile building units. In particular, this critical review cites and reports on the most important papers in the literature, concentrating on recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and the use of titanium oxo-clusters for the construction of advanced hybrid materials (137 references).

  19. Hybrid-DFT  +  V w method for band structure calculation of semiconducting transition metal compounds: the case of cerium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivády, Viktor; Gali, Adam; Abrikosov, Igor A

    2017-11-15

    Hybrid functionals' non-local exchange-correlation potential contains a derivative discontinuity that improves on standard semi-local density functional theory (DFT) band gaps. Moreover, by careful parameterization, hybrid functionals can provide self-interaction reduced description of selected states. On the other hand, the uniform description of all the electronic states of a given system is a known drawback of these functionals that causes varying accuracy in the description of states with different degrees of localization. This limitation can be remedied by the orbital dependent exact exchange extension of hybrid functionals; the hybrid-DFT  +  V w method (Ivády et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 035146). Based on the analogy of quasi-particle equations and hybrid-DFT single particle equations, here we demonstrate that parameters of hybrid-DFT  +  V w functional can be determined from approximate theoretical quasi-particle spectra without any fitting to experiment. The proposed method is illustrated on the charge self-consistent electronic structure calculation for cerium dioxide where itinerant valence states interact with well-localized 4f atomic like states, making this system challenging for conventional methods, either hybrid-DFT or LDA  +  U, and therefore allowing for a demonstration of the advantages of the proposed scheme.

  20. Luminescent hybrid porphyrinosilica obtained by sol gel chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Cláudio Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a methodology used to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid solids, which open new possibilities in the field of material science. The sol-gel technique offers a low temperature attractive approach for introducing organic molecules into amorphous materials. In order to introduce tetrakis (2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylporphyrin covalently bounded to a silicate matrix, the inorganic precursor 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane was added (molar ratio 2:1 to the porphyrin solution in anhydrous dimethylformamide and triethylamine. The isolated porphyrin and the hybrid porphyrinosilica have excitation maximum centred at 400 nm and 424 nm, respectively and the emission spectra for both materials has bands centred at 650 nm and 713 nm. The formation of hybrid matrix was investigated by FTIR.

  1. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  2. Fabrication and Characteristics of ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc Hybrid Solar Cells Prepared by Oblique-Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. The organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc showed short-circuit current density (JSC, open-circuit voltage (VOC, and power conversion efficiencies (η of 1.2 mA/cm2, 0.6 V and 0.144%, respectively.

  3. Biexciton Auger Recombination Differs in Hybrid and Inorganic Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eperon, Giles E; Jedlicka, Erin; Ginger, David S

    2018-01-04

    We use time-resolved photoluminescence measurements to determine the biexciton Auger recombination rate in both hybrid organic-inorganic and fully inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal volume. We find that the volume scaling of the biexciton Auger rate in the hybrid perovskites, containing a polar organic A-site cation, is significantly shallower than in the fully inorganic Cs-based nanocrystals. As the nanocrystals become smaller, the Auger rate in the hybrid nanocrystals increases even less than expected, compared to the fully inorganic nanocrystals, which already show a shallower volume dependence than other material systems such as chalcogenide quantum dots. This finding suggests there may be differences in the strength of Coulombic interactions between the fully inorganic and hybrid perovskites, which may prove to be crucial in selecting materials to obtain the highest performing devices in the future, and hints that there could be something "special" about the hybrid materials.

  4. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  5. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Aiqin; Chen Huawei

    2010-01-01

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  6. New 'chimie douce' approach to the synthesis of hybrid nanosheets of MoS2 on CNT and their anti-friction and anti-wear properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, Claudia; Sarno, Maria; Ciambelli, Paolo; Senatore, Adolfo; Petrone, Vincenzo

    2013-03-29

    Hybrid organic-inorganic oleylamine@MoS2-CNT nanocomposites with different compositions were obtained by thermal decomposition of tetrathiomolybdate in the presence of oleylamine and high quality multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) previously prepared by the CCVD technique. The nanocomposite samples were characterized by the TEM, SEM TG-MS, Raman and XRD techniques and successfully tested as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for grease lubricants.

  7. Luminescent hybrid lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 1,10-phenanthroline involving in-situ oxidation of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie-Cen; Wan, Fang; Sun, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A series of lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates, [Ln2(phen)2(SO4)3(H2O)2]n (I:Ln=Nd(1a), Sm(1b), Eu(1c), phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Ln(phen)(2-SBA)(BZA)]n (II: Ln=Sm(2a), Eu(2b), Dy(2c), 2-SBA=2-sulfobenzoate, BZA=benzoate) have been hydrothermally synthesized from lanthanide oxide, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra, TG analyses and luminescence spectroscopy. Interestingly, SO4 2 - anions in I came from the in situ deep oxidation of thiol groups of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid while 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate ligands in II from the middle oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. Compounds I are organic-inorganic hybrid lanthanide sulfates, which have rare one-dimensional column-like structures. Complexes II are binuclear lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate as bridges and 1,10-phenanthroline as terminal. Photoluminescence studies reveal that complexes I and II exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands in the solid state at room temperature.

  8. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams. In particular, these materials are being extensively studied for the adsorption of CO 2 from simulated flue gas streams, with an eye towards utilizing these materials as part of a post-combustion carbon capture process at large flue gas producing installations, such as coal-fired electricity-generating power plants. In this Application Article, the utilization of amine-modified organic-inorganic hybrid materials is discussed, focusing on important attributes of the materials, such as (i) CO 2 adsorption capacities, (ii) adsorption and desorption kinetics, and (iii) material stability, that will determine if these materials may one day be useful adsorbents in practical CO 2 capture applications. Specific research needs and limitations associated with the current body of work are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Solid-State High Performance Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polypyrrole-MnO2-Carbon Fiber Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Ma, Wenzhen; Ding, Longwei; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2013-07-01

    A solid-state flexible supercapacitor (SC) based on organic-inorganic composite structure was fabricated through an ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' and an electrode material of polypyrrole (PPy)-MnO2 nanoflakes-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid structure was obtained. The conductive organic material of PPy greatly improved the electrochemical performance of the device. With a high specific capacitance of 69.3 F cm-3 at a discharge current density of 0.1 A cm-3 and an energy density of 6.16 × 10-3 Wh cm-3 at a power density of 0.04 W cm-3, the device can drive a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) after being charged. The organic-inorganic composite active materials have enormous potential in energy management and the ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' method might be generalized to open up new strategies for designing next-generation energy storage devices.

  10. Utilizing a CdTe quantum dots-enzyme hybrid system for the determination of both phenolic compounds and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jipei; Guo, Weiwei; Wang, Erkang

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, we attempt to construct a simple and sensitive detection method for both phenolic compounds and hydrogen peroxide, with the successful combination of the unique property of quantum dots and the specificity of enzymatic reactions. In the presence of H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase, phenolic compounds can quench quantum dots' photoluminescence efficiently, and the extent of quenching is severalfold to more than 100-fold increase. Quinone intermediates produced from the enzymatic catalyzed oxidation of phenolic compounds were believed to play the main role in the photoluminescence quenching. Using a quantum dots-enzyme system, the detection limits for phenolic compounds and hydrogen peroxide were detected to be approximately 10(-7) mol L(-1). The coupling of efficient quenching of quantum dot photoluminescence by quinone and the effective enzymatic reactions make this a simple and sensitive method for phenolic compound detection and great potential in the development of H2O2 biosensors for various analytes.

  11. Ultrafast preparation of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based ionic liquid hybrid monolith via photoinitiated polymerization, and its application to capillary electrochromatography of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingyu; Lei, Xiaoyun; Deng, Lijun; Li, Minsheng; Yao, Sicong; Wu, Xiaoping

    2018-06-06

    An ionic liquid hybrid monolithic capillary column was prepared within 7 min via photoinitiated free-radical polymerization of an ionic liquid monomer (1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium-bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide); VBIMNTF 2 ) and a methacryl substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-MA) acting as a cross-linker. The effects of composition of prepolymerization solution and initiation time on the porous structure and electroosmotic flow (EOF) of monolithic column were investigated. The hybrid monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FTIR. Owing to the introduction of a rigid nanosized POSS silica core and ionic liquids with multiple interaction sites, the monolithic column has a well-defined 3D skeleton morphology, good mechanical stability, and a stable anodic electroosmotic flow. The hybrid monolithic stationary phase was applied to the capillary electrochromatographic separation of various alkylbenzenes, phenols, anilines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The column efficiency is highest (98,000 plates/m) in case of alkylbenzenes. Mixed-mode retention mechanisms including hydrophobic interactions, π-π stacking, electrostatic interaction and electrophoretic mobility can be observed. This indicates the potential of this material in terms of efficient separation of analytes of different structural type. Graphical Abstract Preparation of a mixed-mode ionic liquid hybrid monolithic column via photoinitiated polymerization of methacryl substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-MA) and 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium-bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (VBIMNTF 2 ) ionic liquid for use in capillary electrochromatography.

  12. Hybrid materials for optics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Benedicte; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2011-02-01

    The interest in organic-inorganic hybrids as materials for optics and photonics started more than 25 years ago and since then has known a continuous and strong growth. The high versatility of sol-gel processing offers a wide range of possibilities to design tailor-made materials in terms of structure, texture, functionality, properties and shape modelling. From the first hybrid material with optical functional properties that has been obtained by incorporation of an organic dye in a silica matrix, the research in the field has quickly evolved towards more sophisticated systems, such as multifunctional and/or multicomponent materials, nanoscale and self-assembled hybrids and devices for integrated optics. In the present critical review, we have focused our attention on three main research areas: passive and active optical hybrid sol-gel materials, and integrated optics. This is far from exhaustive but enough to give an overview of the huge potential of these materials in photonics and optics (254 references).

  13. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Properties of halloysite nanotube-epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Du Mingliang; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2007-11-14

    A naturally occurred microtubullar silicate, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was co-cured with epoxy/cyanate ester resin to form organic-inorganic hybrids. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the hybrids with low HNT concentration was found to be substantially lower than that of the plain cured resin. The moduli of the hybrids in the glassy state and rubbery state were significantly higher than those for the plain cured resin. The dispersion of HNTs in the resin matrix was very uniform as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The interfacial reactions between the HNTs and cyanate ester (CE) were revealed by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The substantially increased properties of the hybrids were attributed to the covalent bonding between the nanotubes and the matrix.

  15. Properties of halloysite nanotube-epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Du Mingliang; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin

    2007-01-01

    A naturally occurred microtubullar silicate, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was co-cured with epoxy/cyanate ester resin to form organic-inorganic hybrids. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the hybrids with low HNT concentration was found to be substantially lower than that of the plain cured resin. The moduli of the hybrids in the glassy state and rubbery state were significantly higher than those for the plain cured resin. The dispersion of HNTs in the resin matrix was very uniform as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The interfacial reactions between the HNTs and cyanate ester (CE) were revealed by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The substantially increased properties of the hybrids were attributed to the covalent bonding between the nanotubes and the matrix

  16. Photoconducting hybrid perovskite containing carbazole moiety as the organic layer: Fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Meng; Wu Gang; Cheng Siyuan; Wang Mang; Borghs, Gustaaf; Chen Hongzheng

    2008-01-01

    PbCl 2 -based thin films of perovskite structure with hole-transporting carbazole derivatives as the organic layer were successfully prepared by spin-coating from dimethylformamide solution containing stoichiometric amounts of organic and inorganic moieties. The crystal structure and optical property of the hybrid perovskite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL). FT-IR spectra confirmed the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite structure. UV-vis spectra of hybrid perovskite thin films exhibited a wide absorption band in ultraviolet region as well as a sharp peak at 330 nm characteristic of PbCl 2 -based layered perovskite. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the layered structure was oriented parallel to the silica glass slide plane. Meanwhile, double-layer photoreceptors of the hybrid perovskite were also fabricated, which showed the enhancement of photoconductivity by carbazole chromophore

  17. Organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content: syntheses and applications of silsesquioxanes

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.

    2016-11-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials garner properties from their organic and inorganic matrices as well as synergistic features, and therefore have recently attracted much attention at the nanoscale. Non-porous organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content such as silsesquioxanes (R-SiO, with R organic groups) and bridged silsesquioxanes (OSi-R-SiO) are especially attractive hybrids since they provide 20 to 80 weight percent of organic functional groups in addition to the known chemistry and stability of silica. In the organosilica family, silsesquioxanes (R-SiO) stand between silicas (SiO) and silicones (RSiO), and are variously called organosilicas, ormosil (organically-modified silica), polysilsesquioxanes and silica hybrids. Herein, we comprehensively review non-porous silsesquioxane and bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials and their applications in nanomedicine, electro-optics, and catalysis.

  18. Lead-Free MA2CuCl(x)Br(4-x) Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortecchia, Daniele; Dewi, Herlina Arianita; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Chen, Shi; Baikie, Tom; Boix, Pablo P; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Soci, Cesare; Mathews, Nripan

    2016-02-01

    Despite their extremely good performance in solar cells with efficiencies approaching 20% and the emerging application for light-emitting devices, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites suffer from high content of toxic, polluting, and bioaccumulative Pb, which may eventually hamper their commercialization. Here, we present the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) Cu-based hybrid perovskites and study their optoelectronic properties to investigate their potential application in solar cells and light-emitting devices, providing a new environmental-friendly alternative to Pb. The series (CH3NH3)2CuCl(x)Br(4-x) was studied in detail, with the role of Cl found to be essential for stabilization. By exploiting the additional Cu d-d transitions and appropriately tuning the Br/Cl ratio, which affects ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions, the optical absorption in this series of compounds can be extended to the near-infrared for optimal spectral overlap with the solar irradiance. In situ formation of Cu(+) ions was found to be responsible for the green photoluminescence of this material set. Processing conditions for integrating Cu-based perovskites into photovoltaic device architectures, as well as the factors currently limiting photovoltaic performance, are discussed: among them, we identified the combination of low absorption coefficient and heavy mass of the holes as main limitations for the solar cell efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of 2D copper perovskite as light harvesters and lays the foundation for further development of perovskite based on transition metals as alternative lead-free materials. Appropriate molecular design will be necessary to improve the material's properties and solar cell performance filling the gap with the state-of-the-art Pb-based perovskite devices.

  19. Responsive hybrid inorganic-organic system derived from lanthanide luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhan [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zheng, Yuhui, E-mail: yhzheng78@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jiang, Lasheng; Yang, Jinglian [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A novel covalent hybrid material was used to detect hemoglobin. • All the recognition experiments were performed in buffer solution. • Porous nano-structures was extensively studied for the recognition. - Abstract: Terbium ions were incorporated into new organic-inorganic matrices to achieve intense green emissions. Hemoglobin (HB) interactions lead to dramatic changes in the luminescence emission intensities. Infrared spectra, morphological studies and photoluminescence give information for the speciation and process of hemoglobin additions. The porous material has a large specific surface area of 351 cm{sup 2}/g and the detection limit for HB (0.7 μM) was much lower than its physical doped material (8 μM). This promising hybrid material will lead to the design of versatile optical probes that are efficiently responding to the external targets.

  20. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-02

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.