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Sample records for organic wastewater treatment

  1. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  2. The radioactive organic wastewater treatment of INER

    Shen Chinchang; Chen Chaorui; Chung Jenchren

    2014-01-01

    The treatment strategy of radioactive organic wastewater was to separate it at first, then to treat it step by step by the characteristics of liquid layer. The waste liquid has separated into three layers, the organic layer, aqueous layer and the bottom gel mastic by natural sedimentation. The organic layer has occupied 23% of the total volume, the intermediate aqueous layer occupied 75% of the total volume, the bottom mastic was about 2% of the total. The aqueous layer of organic waste was with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 20,000ppm. The combustion test shows good treatment performance and all samples can be decomposed completely by incineration. The experiment of incineration has passed the test more than 200 batches and 3000L low-level radioactive organic aqueous solution. The process goes smoothly and gas emission values far below the regulatory limit. Each kilogram of polymer absorber can absorb 45 kg aqueous solution to form a solid combustible material and can be decomposed by incineration. Organic waste solvents were diesel miscible and similar calorific value and small viscosity. It can be used as an incinerator auxiliary fuel of radioactive incinerator. The method testing has begun in this year. It has expected to save diesel fuel consumption of incineration, and well solved such kind waste liquid. (author)

  3. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  4. Wastewater treatment processes for the removal of emerging organic pollutants

    Ainhoa Rubio Clemente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic pollutants form a very heterogeneous group of substances that have negative effects on aquatic organisms, so they should be removed from the environment. Unfortunately, conventional processes in wastewater treatment plants, especially biological ones, are inefficient in the degradation of these substances. It is therefore necessary to evaluate and optimize the effectiveness of the treatments, including advanced oxidation and membrane filtration processes. However, both techniques have drawbacks that may limit their stand-alone application, so it is proposed that the best solution may be to combine these technologies with biological processes to treat wastewater contaminated with emerging organic pollutants.

  5. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Maruyama, A. [Gunma Prefectural Sewerage Manegement General Office (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D{sub 1ng}, were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg{sup -1}), respectively. Since the D{sub 1ng} of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m{sup -3}. (author)

  6. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Maruyama, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D 1ng , were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg -1 ), respectively. Since the D 1ng of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m -3 . (author)

  7. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  8. Removal of indicator organisms by chemical treatment of wastewater.

    De Zutter, L; van Hoof, J

    1981-01-01

    Recently a new chemical wastewater treatment process based upon precipitation of proteins by sodium lignosulphonate under acid conditions is used to purify the wastewater from slaughterhouses and poultry processing plants. In order to determine the reduction of indicator organisms due to this treatment process, influent and effluent samples from two of such plants (plant A in a pig slaughterhouse and plant B in a poultry processing plant) were examined. The results demonstrated that the pH used in the process, has a considerable influence on the reduction of the indicator organisms. On the first sampling day in plant A the initial working-pH was 4 and the corresponding reduction of the different microorganisms varied from 0.7 to 1.5 log. According to the decrease of the pH to 2.3, the reduction increased to a minimum of at least 1.9 and a maximum of at least 4.5 log. In the other samples from this plant (working-pH 2.4) the elimination ranged from 1.8 to 4.0 log. In plant B, the removal of the indicator organisms brought about by a working-pH of 3.0 ranged from 2.1 to 3.1 log. The results showed that in comparison with the biological treatment processes this chemical wastewater treatment process realized a significant greater removal of indicator organisms.

  9. Wastewater Treatment

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  10. Treatment of trace organic compounds in common onsite wastewater systems

    Robert Siegrist,; Conn, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Onsite wastewater systems (OWS) have historically been relied on to treat conventional pollutants and pathogens in a fashion similar to that expected from centralized wastewater systems. However, based on the occurrence of, and potential effects from, contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters, OWS as well as centralized systems need to account for these compounds in system design and use. One group of contaminants involves organic compounds such as those associated with consumer product chemicals and pharmaceuticals, which are collectively referred to as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) due to their very low levels (e.g., ng/L to ug/L) relative to other pollutants. The question being confronted today is how best to account for TOrCs in onsite system design and use while also achieving other goals such as system simplicity, limited operation and maintenance requirements, low cost, and sustainability. In contrast to conventional pollutants such as nutrients and pathogens which have specific and achievable treatment goals, there are currently no enforceable treatment standards for TOrCs, which often have non-traditional toxicological endpoints (i.e. endocrine disruption). As highlighted in this paper, there are a large number of TOrCs that can be present in OWS and they have different properties, can be present at different frequencies of occurrence and concentrations, and have different susceptibilities to treatment in OWS. In general, based on the studies summarized in this paper, TOrCs normally should not require additional considerations beyond those for conventional pollutants and pathogens (e.g., nitrogen or bacteria and virus) during design and use of OWS. That said, there are situations where TOrCs could be a serious concern warranting special consideration in system design and use. In this paper, the frequency of occurrence of TOrCs and the range of concentrations encountered are highlighted. An evolving approach is outlined that could help assess the

  11. Wastewater treatment

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    perforated surface. Some other processes can also take place during filtration. Centrifugation Centrifugation is a method of separating particles from a suspension due to the effect of the centrifugal force that is many times greater than the force of gravity. For larger water quantities, it is not realistic to apply centrifugation as a water purification technique. Sand sedimentation tanks Substances with specific gravity higher than water, such as sand, gravel, stone, earth, slag, mineral particles, etc., accumulate in the plants called sand traps. Grease traps Substances lighter than water: oil, grease, soap flakes, bits of wood, cork, etc., are removed by means of grease traps. Flow equalization tanks They provide conditions for the slow and steady movement of water and retain wastewater long enough to provide gravity sedimentation of suspended particles. Chemical methods Chemical purification methods are the processes in which the treatment is carried out by means of certain chemical reactions, or certain physical and chemical phenomena. Basic operations of the chemical wastewater treatment are the removal of suspended and colloidal substances: by coagulation and flocculation, and the removal of some dissolved substances: by chemical deposition, ion exchange, oxidation,   gas blowing and adsorption. Chemical deposition The process of chemical deposition is based on the conversion of dissolved substances in wastewater to insoluble compounds, using suitable reagents. Ion exchange Ion exchange is much more widely used as a water preparation process to remove water hardness than as a wastewater purification process. Oxidation Oxidation can convert some organic and inorganic substances in industrial wastewater into compounds that are far less polluting. The most often used oxidant is chlorine. Gas blowing Some dissolved substances can be removed from the wastewater by means of blowing gas, ordinary air or steam. Adsorption Adsorption is a process of accumulating fluid

  12. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  13. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  14. Determination of the Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Three Wastewater Treatment Plants, Jordan

    Wedyan, Mohammed; Al Harahsheh, Ahmed; Qnaisb, Esam

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the composition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species, particularly dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), over the traditional wastewater treatment operations in three biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. It had been found that the DON percentage was up to 30% of TDN within…

  15. Treatment of high salinity organic wastewater by membrane electrolysis

    Dongfang, Shen; Jinghuan, Ma; Ying, Liu; Chenguang, Zhao

    2018-03-01

    The effects of different operating conditions on the treatment of electrolytic wastewater were investigated by analyzing the removal rate of ammonia and COD before and after wastewater treatment by cation exchange membrane. Experiment shows that as the running time increases the electrolysis effect first increases after the smooth. The removal rate of ammonia will increase with the increase of current density, and the removal rate of COD will increase first and then decrease with the increase of current density. The increase of the temperature of the electrolytic solution will slowly increase the COD removal rate to saturation, but does not affect the removal of ammonia nitrogen. When the flow rate is less than 60L / h, the change of influent flow rate will not affect the removal of ammonia nitrogen, but the effect on COD is small, which will increase and decrease slightly. After the experiment, the surface of the cation exchange membrane was analyzed by cold field scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. The surface contamination and the pollutant were determined. The experimental results showed that the aggregates were mainly chlorinated Sodium, calcium and magnesium inorganic salts, which will change the morphology of the film to reduce porosity, reduce the mass transfer efficiency, affecting the electrolysis effect.

  16. Fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in treatment plants.

    Law, Yingyu; Jacobsen, Geraldine E; Smith, Andrew M; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul

    2013-09-15

    This study reports the presence of fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in wastewater treatment plants. The findings pinpoint the inaccuracy of current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines which defines all organic carbon in wastewater to be of biogenic origin. Stable and radiocarbon isotopes ((13)C and (14)C) were measured throughout the process train in four municipal wastewater treatment plants equipped with secondary activated sludge treatment. Isotopic mass balance analyses indicate that 4-14% of influent total organic carbon (TOC) is of fossil origin with concentrations between 6 and 35 mg/L; 88-98% of this is removed from the wastewater. The TOC mass balance analysis suggests that 39-65% of the fossil organic carbon from the influent is incorporated into the activated sludge through adsorption or from cell assimilation while 29-50% is likely transformed to carbon dioxide (CO2) during secondary treatment. The fossil organic carbon fraction in the sludge undergoes further biodegradation during anaerobic digestion with a 12% decrease in mass. 1.4-6.3% of the influent TOC consists of both biogenic and fossil carbon is estimated to be emitted as fossil CO2 from activated sludge treatment alone. The results suggest that current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines, which assume that all CO2 emission from wastewater is biogenic may lead to underestimation of emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  18. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  19. Treatment of persistent organic pollutants in wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation in synergy with advanced oxidation process.

    Badmus, Kassim Olasunkanmi; Tijani, Jimoh Oladejo; Massima, Emile; Petrik, Leslie

    2018-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are very tenacious wastewater contaminants. The consequences of their existence have been acknowledged for negatively affecting the ecosystem with specific impact upon endocrine disruption and hormonal diseases in humans. Their recalcitrance and circumvention of nearly all the known wastewater treatment procedures are also well documented. The reported successes of POPs treatment using various advanced technologies are not without setbacks such as low degradation efficiency, generation of toxic intermediates, massive sludge production, and high energy expenditure and operational cost. However, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have recently recorded successes in the treatment of POPs in wastewater. AOPs are technologies which involve the generation of OH radicals for the purpose of oxidising recalcitrant organic contaminants to their inert end products. This review provides information on the existence of POPs and their effects on humans. Besides, the merits and demerits of various advanced treatment technologies as well as the synergistic efficiency of combined AOPs in the treatment of wastewater containing POPs was reported. A concise review of recently published studies on successful treatment of POPs in wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation technology in combination with other advanced oxidation processes is presented with the highlight of direction for future research focus.

  20. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  1. Municipal wastewater treatment for effective removal of organic matter and nitrogen

    Grebenevich, E.V.; Zaletova, N.A.; Terentieva, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The organic matter, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus, are nutrient substances. Their excess concentrations in water receiving bodies lead to eutrophication, moreover, the nitrogen content in water bodies is standardized according the sanitary-toxicological criterion of harmfulness: NH 4 + -N ≤0,39-2,0 mgl - , NO 3 -N ≤9,1-10 mgl - . The municipal wastewater contain, usually, organic matter estimated by BOD 150-200 mgl - , and COD 300-400 mgl - , the nitrogen compounds 50-60 mgl - , and NH 4 + -N 20-25 mgl - . NO x -N are practically absent. Their presence indicated on discharge of industrial wastewater. The total phosphorus is present in the concentration of 15 mgl - , PO 4 - - P 5-8 mgl - . Activated sludge process has been most widely used in the USSR for municipal wastewater treatment. The activated sludge is biocenoses of heterotrophic and auto trophic microorganisms. They consume nutrient matters, transferring pollution of wastewater by means of enzyme systems in acceptable forms. C, N and P-containing matters are removed from wastewater by biological intake for cell synthesis. Moreover C- containing matters are removed by oxidation to CO 2 and H 2 O. P-containing compounds under definite conditions associate with solid fraction of activated sludge and thus simultaneously removed from wastewater. The removal of nitrogen in addition to biosynthesis is carried out only in the denitrification process, when oxygen of NO x -N is used for oxidation of organic matter and produced gaseous nitrogen escapes into the atmosphere

  2. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Jelic, Aleksandra [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Petrovic, Mira, E-mail: mpetrovic@icra.cat [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Cecchi, Franco [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ss-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 {mu}g/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  3. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification–denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  4. Electrochemical treatment of organic wastewater with high salt content. Ko enbun yuki haisui no denkai shori

    Wada, Hideo; Kitamura, Takao; Kato, Shunsaku; Oyashiki, Satoru (Goverment Industrial Research Inst. Shikoku, Takamatsu, (Japan) Toyo Engineering Work Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-01-31

    Wastewater containing organic pollutants is generally treated by the biological methods like the activated sludge process, etc. But these biological methods are not necessarily applied to the wastewater with high salt content generated at pickles making plants, etc.. In this report, with the objective of application of the electrolytic oxidation treatment to the organic wastewater with high salt content of pickles making plants, the effects of such conditions as pH, temperature and current, etc. on the treatment rate and treatment efficiency were examined, furthermore, the treatment process was simulated on the basis of a simple reaction model, and its simulation results were compared for study with the experimental results. The results are shown below: No effect of pH was observed, hence no pH control is required; The higher temperature of the wastewater accelerates the treatment rate; It was considered that in high temperature, a loss due to autolysis of hypochlorous acid increases, but the current efficiency of generating hypochlorous acid increases too and since the latter effect is bigger, the above phenomenon occurs. The current has a small effect on the treatment efficiency. With the simple reaction model, the change of residual chlorine concentration, etc. with time can be reproduced semiquantitatively. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewater by wet air oxidation

    Mingming Luan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation (WAO is one of the most economical and environmentally-friendly advanced oxidation processes. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. In wet air oxidation aqueous waste is oxidized in the liquid phase at high temperatures (125–320 °C and pressures (0.5–20 MPa in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas (usually air. The advantages of the process include low operating costs and minimal air pollution discharges. The present review is concerned about the literature published in the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters, such as dyes. Phenolics were taken as model pollutants in most cases. Reports on effect of treatment for the WAO of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters are reviewed, such as emulsified wastewater, TNT red water, etc. Discussions are also made on the mechanism and kinetics of WAO and main technical parameters influencing WAO. Finally, development direction of WAO is summed up.

  6. Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.

    Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

    2013-10-01

    A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  8. [Spectral Analysis of Dissolved Organic Matter of Tannery Wastewater in the Treatment Process].

    Fan, Chun-hui; Zhang, Ying-chao; Du, Bo; Song, Juan; Huai, Cui-qian; Wang, Jia-hong

    2015-06-01

    Tannery industry is one of the major traditional industries and important wastewater sources in China. The existing research mainly focus on the quality of inlet and outlet water, rather than the purification and transformation behavior of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the treatment process of tannery wastewater. The UV spectra and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to detect the spectral characteristics of water samples in the treatment process, and it is analyzed that the formation process and the linear relationships between total fluorescence intensity and parameters. The results showed: the UV absorbance of DOM in wastewater increased firstly and then decreased with longer wavelength, and the wave peaks were found around the wavelength of 230 nr. The values of A253 /A203 and SUVA254 increased firstly and then decreased, indicating the complex reaction process related to free substituent and aromatic rings. The fluorescence peaks appeared at the regions of λ(ex/em) = 320-350/440- 460 and λ(ex/em) = 270-300/390-420, referred as visible humic-like and visible fulvic-like fluorescence, respectively. With the treatment process of tannery wastewater, the following fluorescence phenomenon were monitored, such as the blue-shift of humic-like fluorescence peak in the hydrolytic acidification tank, the appearance of tryptophan fluorescence peak in the second biochemical pond (λ(ex/em) = 290/340), the weak fluorescence peak in the fourth biochemical pond (λ(ex/em) = 350/520) and the stabilized fluorescence characteristics in the secondary sedimentation tank and water outlet. The achievements are helpful to investigate the degradation and formation behavior of water components, and significant for the fluorescence variation analysis in the treatment system. The removal rate of total fluorescence intensity of tannery wastewater fit better the removal rate of TOC with coefficient of r 0.835 5. The UV spectra and 3D-EEMs are effective to reveal the purification

  9. Fate and wetting potential of bio-refractory organics in membrane distillation for coke wastewater treatment.

    Ren, Jing; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Zuliang; Cheng, Fangqin

    2018-06-02

    Membrane distillation (MD) has been hindered in industrial applications due to the potential wetting or fouling caused by complicated organic compositions. This study investigated the correlations between the fate and wetting potential of bio-refractory organics in the MD process, where three coke wastewater samples pre-treated with bio-degradation and coagulation served as feed solutions. Results showed that although most of the bio-refractory organics in coke wastewater were rejected by the hydrophobic membrane, some volatile aromatic organics including benzenes, phenols, quinolines and naphthalenes passed through the membrane during the MD process. Interestingly, membrane wetting occurred coincidently with the penetration of phenolic and heterocyclic organics. The wetting rate was obviously correlated with the feed composition and membrane surface properties. Ultimately, novel insights into the anti-wetting strategy of MD with bio-refractory organics was proposed, illustrating that the polyaluminum chloride/polyacrylamide coagulation not only removed contaminants which could accelerate membrane wetting, but also retarded membrane wetting by the complexation with organics. The deposition of these complexes on the membrane surface introduced a secondary hydrophilic layer on the hydrophobic substrate, which established a composite membrane structure with superior wetting resistance. These new findings would be beneficial to wetting control in membrane distillation for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Importance of Electrode Material in the Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants

    Panizza, Marco

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising method for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds. As a general rule, the electrochemical incineration of organics at a given electrode can take place at satisfactory rates and without electrode deactivation only at high anodic potentials in the region of the water discharge due to the participation of the intermediates of oxygen evolution. The nature of the electrode material strongly influences both the selectivity and the efficiency of the process. In particular, anodes with low oxygen evolution overpotential (i.e., good catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions), such as graphite, IrO2, RuO2, and Pt only permit the partial oxidation of organics, while anodes with high oxygen evolution overpotential (i.e., anodes that are poor catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions), such as SnO2, PbO2, and boron-doped diamond (BDD) favor the complete oxidation of organics to CO2 and so are ideal electrodes for wastewater treatment.However, the application of SnO2 and PbO2 anodes may be limited by their short service life and the risk of lead contamination, while BDD electrodes exhibit good chemical and electrochemical stability, a long life, and a wide potential window for water discharge, and are thus promising anodes for industrial-scale wastewater treatment.

  11. Removal of micro-organisms in a small-scale hydroponics wastewater treatment system.

    Ottoson, J; Norström, A; Dalhammar, G

    2005-01-01

    To measure the microbial removal capacity of a small-scale hydroponics wastewater treatment plant. Paired samples were taken from untreated, partly-treated and treated wastewater and analysed for faecal microbial indicators, i.e. coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens spores and somatic coliphages, by culture based methods. Escherichia coli was never detected in effluent water after >5.8-log removal. Enterococci, coliforms, spores and coliphages were removed by 4.5, 4.1, 2.3 and 2.5 log respectively. Most of the removal (60-87%) took place in the latter part of the system because of settling, normal inactivation (retention time 12.7 d) and sand filtration. Time-dependent log-linear removal was shown for spores (k = -0.17 log d(-1), r(2) = 0.99). Hydroponics wastewater treatment removed micro-organisms satisfactorily. Investigations on the microbial removal capacity of hydroponics have only been performed for bacterial indicators. In this study it has been shown that virus and (oo)cyst process indicators were removed and that hydroponics can be an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment.

  12. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  13. Report of the 2nd RCM on Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants. Working Material

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Chronic shortages of water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and environmental policy regulations have stimulated the search for appropriate technologies capable of treating wastewater for reuse or safe discharge. Industrial effluents often carry chemical contaminants such as organics, petrochemicals, pesticides, dyes and heavy metal ions. The standard biological treatment processes commonly used for wastewater treatment are not capable of treating some of these complex organic chemicals that are found in varying quantities in the wastewaters. Another emerging problem is the increasing presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds in municipal wastewater entering into the receiving stream, for which new treatment techniques and procedures are needed to remove excreted drugs before releasing the effluent into public waterways or reuse. Radiation-initiated degradation of organics helps to transform various pollutants into less harmful substances or reduced to the levels below the permissible concentrations. Studies in several Member States (MS) have demonstrated the usefulness and efficiency of radiation technology for treatment of different organic pollutants. The lack of comparative data in pilot scale studies using radiation technique (alone or in combination with other methods) has been a major issue in further utilization of this method for wastewater treatment. There is a need to study further the radiation effects, evaluate reliability and cost of treating specific group of organic pollutants in cooperation with other stakeholders who are involved in using other technologies. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” has been launched with the objective to study the effectiveness, reliability and economics of radiation processing technology to treat wastewater contaminated with low and high concentration of organic

  14. Report of the 2nd RCM on Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants. Working Material

    2012-01-01

    Chronic shortages of water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and environmental policy regulations have stimulated the search for appropriate technologies capable of treating wastewater for reuse or safe discharge. Industrial effluents often carry chemical contaminants such as organics, petrochemicals, pesticides, dyes and heavy metal ions. The standard biological treatment processes commonly used for wastewater treatment are not capable of treating some of these complex organic chemicals that are found in varying quantities in the wastewaters. Another emerging problem is the increasing presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds in municipal wastewater entering into the receiving stream, for which new treatment techniques and procedures are needed to remove excreted drugs before releasing the effluent into public waterways or reuse. Radiation-initiated degradation of organics helps to transform various pollutants into less harmful substances or reduced to the levels below the permissible concentrations. Studies in several Member States (MS) have demonstrated the usefulness and efficiency of radiation technology for treatment of different organic pollutants. The lack of comparative data in pilot scale studies using radiation technique (alone or in combination with other methods) has been a major issue in further utilization of this method for wastewater treatment. There is a need to study further the radiation effects, evaluate reliability and cost of treating specific group of organic pollutants in cooperation with other stakeholders who are involved in using other technologies. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” has been launched with the objective to study the effectiveness, reliability and economics of radiation processing technology to treat wastewater contaminated with low and high concentration of organic

  15. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  16. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    Marincas, O; Avram, V; Moldovan, Z; Petrov, P; Ternes, T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  17. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    Marincas, O; Avram, V; Moldovan, Z [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Petrov, P [Water Treatment Station Siluet B, 21 Pencho Slaveikov Street, Varna 9000 (Bulgaria); Ternes, T, E-mail: olivian.marincas@itim-cj.r [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  18. The Effect of Organic Loading Rate on Milk WastewaterTreatment Using Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR

    Hooman Hajiabadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs were operated under the same conditions for the treatment of milk wastewater at different organic loading rates (OLRs. Cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 56 days (including 21 days of acclimatization and 35 days of data gathering. Effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate, and sludge retention time (SRT of reactors were 5.5 L, 3.5 L/d, and 10 d, respectively. The average COD removal efficiency for the reactors R1, R2, R3, and R4 with influent OLRave values of 633, 929, 1915, and 3261 gCOD/m3d were 95, 96, 95, and 82 percent, respectively. The average effluent suspended solid (SS for all reactors was lower than 44 mg/L. Also, except for R4 with an average effluent turbidity of 270 NTU, other reactors met the Iranian wastewater emission standard (50 NTU. In addition, the average sludge volume index of reactors R1 to R3 was found to be lower than 67 mL/g. According to the results, the overall variation of COD removal efficiency versus influent OLR shows a decreasing rate with a correlation factor of 0.8 (R2.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of cellulose bleach plant wastewater: chlorinated organics and genotoxicity removal

    T. R. Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the removal efficiency of organic matter and how it relates to the decrease of toxic and mutagenic effects when an anaerobic reactor is used to treat the bleaching effluent from two kraft pulp mills. Parameters such as COD (chemical oxygen demand, DOC (dissolved organic carbon, AOX (adsorbable organic halogen, ASL (acid soluble lignin, color, chlorides, total phenols and absorbance values in the UV-VIS spectral region were measured. The acute and chronic toxicity and genetic toxicity assessments were performed with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia sp. and Allium cepa L, respectively. The removal efficiency of organic matter measured as COD, ranged from 45% to 55%, while AOX removal ranged from 40% to 45%. The acute toxic and chronic effects, as well as the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects, decrease as the biodegradable fraction of the organics is removed. These results, together with the organic load measurement of the effluents of the anaerobic treatment, indicate that these effluents are recalcitrant but not toxic. As expected, color increased when the anaerobic treatment was applied. However, the colored compounds are of microbial origin and do not cause an increase in genotoxic effects. To discharge the wastewater, it is necessary to apply a physico-chemical or aerobic biological post-treatment to the effluents of the anaerobic reactor.

  20. Survival, reproduction, growth, and parasite resistance of aquatic organisms exposed on-site to wastewater treated by advanced treatment processes.

    Schlüter-Vorberg, Lisa; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Ternes, Thomas; Coors, Anja

    2017-05-01

    Advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. In the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. Assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor chronically exposed in on-site flow-through tests based on standard guidelines. The treatment combinations were activated sludge treatment followed by ozonation with subsequent filtration by granular activated carbon or biofilters and membrane bioreactor treatment of raw wastewater followed by ozonation. Additionally, the impact of treated wastewater on the immune response of invertebrates was investigated by challenging D. magna with a bacterial endoparasite. Conventionally treated wastewater reduced reproduction of L. variegatus by up to 46%, but did not affect D. magna and L. minor with regard to survival, growth, reproduction and parasite resistance. Instead, parasite susceptibility was significantly reduced in D. magna exposed to conventionally treated as well as ozonated wastewater in comparison to D. magna exposed to the medium control. None of the three test organisms provided clear evidence that wastewater ozonation leads to increased aquatic toxicity. Rather than to the presence of toxic transformation products, the affected performance of L. variegatus could be linked to elevated concentrations of ammonium and nitrite that likely resulted from treatment failures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Wastewater treatment models

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  2. Wastewater Treatment Models

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  3. Organics removal of combined wastewater through shallow soil infiltration treatment: a field and laboratory study.

    Zhang, Zhiyin; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio; Xu, Xiaotian; Yin, Didi

    2007-11-19

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) was proved to be an effective and low-cost treatment technique for decentralized effluents in the areas without perfect sewage systems. Field-scale experiments were conducted under several conditions to assess organics removals through a shallow soil infiltration treatment (SSIT, with effective depth 0.3m) of combined wastewater (discharge from toilets, restaurants and a gas station), while bench-scale soil column experiments were performed in laboratory in parallel to investigate biological and abiological effects of this kind of system. From the start-up to the 10th month, the field SSIT trenches experienced the lowest and highest temperatures of the operation period in Shanghai and exhibited effective organics removals after maturation, with the highest removal rate 75.8% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), highest ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm (UV(254)) decrease by 67.2% and 35.2-100% removals of phenolic and phthalate pollutants. The laboratory results indicated that more organics could be removed in room-temperatured (25+/-2 degrees C) SSIT systems under different influent COD concentrations from 45 mg/l to 406 mg/l, and the highest total COD removal rate could reach 94.0%, in which biological effect accounted for 57.7-71.9%. The results showed that temperature and hydraulic loading rate were the most important factors influencing the removals of COD and organic pollutants in SSIT.

  4. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  5. Modified kinetic-hydraulic UASB reactor model for treatment of wastewater containing biodegradable organic substrates.

    El-Seddik, Mostafa M; Galal, Mona M; Radwan, A G; Abdel-Halim, Hisham S

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a modified kinetic-hydraulic model for up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor aimed to treat wastewater of biodegradable organic substrates as acetic acid based on Van der Meer model incorporated with biological granules inclusion. This dynamic model illustrates the biomass kinetic reaction rate for both direct and indirect growth of microorganisms coupled with the amount of biogas produced by methanogenic bacteria in bed and blanket zones of reactor. Moreover, the pH value required for substrate degradation at the peak specific growth rate of bacteria is discussed for Andrews' kinetics. The sensitivity analyses of biomass concentration with respect to fraction of volume of reactor occupied by granules and up-flow velocity are also demonstrated. Furthermore, the modified mass balance equations of reactor are applied during steady state using Newton Raphson technique to obtain a suitable degree of freedom for the modified model matching with the measured results of UASB Sanhour wastewater treatment plant in Fayoum, Egypt.

  6. Comparison of organic peracids in wastewater treatment: Disinfection, oxidation and corrosion.

    Luukkonen, Tero; Heyninck, Tom; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-11-15

    The use of organic peracids in wastewater treatment is attracting increasing interest. The common beneficial features of peracids are effective anti-microbial properties, lack of harmful disinfection by-products and high oxidation power. In this study performic (PFA), peracetic (PAA) and perpropionic acids (PPA) were synthesized and compared in laboratory batch experiments for the inactivation of Escherichia coli and enterococci in tertiary wastewater, oxidation of bisphenol-A and for corrosive properties. Disinfection tests revealed PFA to be a more potent disinfectant than PAA or PPA. 1.5 mg L(-1) dose and 2 min of contact time already resulted in 3.0 log E. coli and 1.2 log enterococci reduction. Operational costs of disinfection were estimated to be 0.0114, 0.0261 and 0.0207 €/m(3) for PFA, PAA and PPA, respectively. Disinfection followed the first order kinetics (Hom model or S-model) with all studied peracids. However, in the bisphenol-A oxidation experiments involving Fenton-like conditions (pH = 3.5, Fe(2+) or Cu(2+) = 0.4 mM) peracids brought no additional improvement to traditionally used and lower cost hydrogen peroxide. Corrosion measurements showed peracids to cause only a negligible corrosion rate (<6 μm year(-1)) on stainless steel 316L while corrosion rates on the carbon steel sample were significantly higher (<500 μm year(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  8. Identifying changes in dissolved organic matter content and characteristics by fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with self-organizing map and classification and regression tree analysis during wastewater treatment.

    Yu, Huibin; Song, Yonghui; Liu, Ruixia; Pan, Hongwei; Xiang, Liancheng; Qian, Feng

    2014-10-01

    The stabilization of latent tracers of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of wastewater was analyzed by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with self-organizing map and classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in wastewater treatment performance. DOM of water samples collected from primary sedimentation, anaerobic, anoxic, oxic and secondary sedimentation tanks in a large-scale wastewater treatment plant contained four fluorescence components: tryptophan-like (C1), tyrosine-like (C2), microbial humic-like (C3) and fulvic-like (C4) materials extracted by self-organizing map. These components showed good positive linear correlations with dissolved organic carbon of DOM. C1 and C2 were representative components in the wastewater, and they were removed to a higher extent than those of C3 and C4 in the treatment process. C2 was a latent parameter determined by CART to differentiate water samples of oxic and secondary sedimentation tanks from the successive treatment units, indirectly proving that most of tyrosine-like material was degraded by anaerobic microorganisms. C1 was an accurate parameter to comprehensively separate the samples of the five treatment units from each other, indirectly indicating that tryptophan-like material was decomposed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. EEM fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with self-organizing map and CART analysis can be a nondestructive effective method for characterizing structural component of DOM fractions and monitoring organic matter removal in wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  10. Dairy wastewater treatment

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  11. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  12. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  13. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system.

    Conn, Kathleen E; Siegrist, Robert L; Barber, Larry B; Meyer, Michael T

    2010-02-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. Copyright 2009 SETAC.

  14. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    organisms: These are small plants as well as animals and they are some of the most difficult ... It is measured by the oxygen consumption of a pre-inoculated sample at 20-250C in .... Organic wastewater components may be oxidised all the way to CO2.

  15. Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent.

  16. Development of non-thermal plasma jet and its potential application for color degradation of organic pollutant in wastewater treatment

    Pirdo Kasih, Tota; Kharisma, Angel; Perdana, Muhammad Kevin; Murphiyanto, Richard Dimas Julian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the development of non-thermal plasma-based AOPs for color degradation in wastewater treatment. The plasma itself was generated by an in-house high voltage power supply (HVPS). Instead of gas-phase plasma system, we applied plasma jet system underwater during wastewater treatment without additional any chemicals (chemical-free processing). The method is thought to maximize the energy transfer and increase the efficient interaction between plasma and solution during the process. Our plasma jet system could proceed either by using helium (He), argon (Ar) and air as the medium in an open air atmosphere. Exploring the developed plasma to be applied in organic wastewater treatment, we demonstrated that the plasma jet could be generated underwater and yields in color degradation of methylene blue (MB) wastewater model. When using Ar gas as a medium, the color degradation of MB could be achieved within 90 minutes. Whereas, by using Ar with an admixing of oxygen (O2) gas, the similar result could be accomplished within 60 minutes. Additional O2 gas in the latter might produce more hydroxyl radicals and oxygen-based species which speed up the oxidative reaction with organic pollutants, and hence accelerate the process of color degradation.

  17. Modeling of Electrochemical Process for the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants

    Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Cañizares, Pablo; Lobato, Justo; Sáez, Cristina

    Electrocoagulation and electrooxidation are promising electrochemical technologies that can be used to remove organic pollutants contained in wastewaters. To make these technologies competitive with the conventional technologies that are in use today, a better understanding of the processes involved must be achieved. In this context, the development of mathematical models that are consistent with the processes occurring in a physical system is a relevant advance, because such models can help to understand what is happening in the treatment process. In turn, a more detailed knowledge of the physical system can be obtained, and tools for a proper design of the processes, or for the analysis of operating problems, are attained. The modeling of these technologies can be carried out using single-variable or multivariable models. Likewise, the position dependence of the model species can be described with different approaches. In this work, a review of the basics of the modeling of these processes and a description of several representative models for electrochemical oxidation and coagulation are carried out. Regarding electrooxidation, two models are described: one which summarizes the pollution of a wastewater in only one model species and that considers a macroscopic approach to formulate the mass balances and other that considers more detailed profile of concentration to describe the time course of pollutants and intermediates through a mixed maximum gradient/macroscopic approach. On the topic of electrochemical coagulation, two different approaches are also described in this work: one that considers the hydrodynamic conditions as the main factor responsible for the electrochemical coagulation processes and the other that considers the chemical interaction of the reagents and the pollutants as the more significant processes in the description of the electrochemical coagulation of organic compounds. In addition, in this work it is also described a multivariable model

  18. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data.

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2009-11-01

    Historical data on organic waste and wastewater treatment during the period of 1970-2020 were used to assess the impact of treatment on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. The assessment included the waste fractions: Sewage sludge, food waste, yard waste and other organic waste (paper, plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970-2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power production from the remaining organic municipal waste. Wastewater treatment has changed from direct discharge of untreated wastewater to full organic matter and nutrient (N, P) removal combined with anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production with power and heat generation. These changes in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed that the organic waste quantity and composition is the same in 1970 and 2005, the technology change over this time period has resulted in a progression from a net annual GHG emission of 200 kg CO( 2)-eq. capita(-1) in 1970 to a net saving of 170 kg CO(2)-eq. capita(-1) in 2005 for management of urban organic wastes.

  19. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Selective elimination of chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Yang, Xiaofang; Zhou, Zhongbo; Raju, Maddela Naga; Cai, Xiaoxuan; Meng, Fangang

    2017-07-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) from municipal wastewater treatment plants potentially has a detrimental effect on both aquatic organisms and humans. This study evaluated the removal and transformation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant under different seasons. The results showed that bio-treatment was found to be more efficient in removing bulk DOM (in term of dissolved organic carbon, DOC) than CDOM and FDOM, which was contrary to the disinfection process. CDOM and FDOM were selectively removed at various stages during the treatment. Typically, the low molecular weight fractions of CDOM and protein-like FDOM were more efficiently removed during bio-treatment process, whereas the humic-like FDOM exhibited comparable decreases in both bio-treatment and disinfection processes. Overall, the performance of the WWTP was weak in terms of CDOM and FDOM removal, resulting in enrichment of CDOM and FDOM in effluent. Moreover, the total removal of the bulk DOM (PCDOM and the humic-like FDOM showed little differences between summer and winter. In all, the results provide useful information for understanding the fate and transformation of DOM, illustrating that sub-fractions of DOM could be selectively removed depending on treatment processes and seasonality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Wastewater treatment plant effluent as a source of microplastics: review of the fate, chemical interactions and potential risks to aquatic organisms.

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been identified as a potential source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Microplastics have recently been detected in wastewater effluent in Western Europe, Russia and the USA. As there are only a handful of studies on microplastics in wastewater, it is difficult to accurately determine the contribution of wastewater effluent as a source of microplastics. However, even the small amounts of microplastics detected in wastewater effluent may be a remarkable source given the large volumes of wastewater treatment effluent discharged to the aquatic environment annually. Further, there is strong evidence that microplastics can interact with wastewater-associated contaminants, which has the potential to transport chemicals to aquatic organisms after exposure to contaminated microplastics. In this review we apply lessons learned from the literature on microplastics in the aquatic environment and knowledge on current wastewater treatment technologies, with the aim of identifying the research gaps in terms of (i) the fate of microplastics in WWTPs, (ii) the potential interaction of wastewater-based microplastics with trace organic contaminants and metals, and (iii) the risk for aquatic organisms.

  2. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  3. Modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Treatment of Some Organic Dyes in Wastewater

    M. I. Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iraq, a large quantity of basic orange and methyl violet dyes contaminated wastewater from textile industries is discharged into Tigris River. So the aim of this work is to found an efficient and fast technique that can be applied directly for removal of such dyes from the wastewater before discharging into river. Accordingly, CNTs as a new approach prepared by CCVD technique were purified, functionalized, and used as adsorption material to remove dyes from wastewater. The effect of pH, contact time, CNTs dosage, and dyes concentration on removal of pollutants was studied. The removal percentage of both dyes was proportional to the contact time, CNTs dosage, and pH and inversely proportional to the dyes concentration. The results show that the equilibrium time was 20 and 30 min for basic orange and methyl violet dyes, respectively, and the maximum removal percentage for all dyes concentrations was at pH = 8.5 and CNTs dosage of 0.25 g/L and 0.3 g/L for methyl violet and basic orange dye, respectively. The adsorption isotherm shows that the correlation coefficient of Freundlich model was higher than Langmuir model for both dyes, indicating that the Freundlich model is more appropriate to describe the adsorption characteristics of organic pollutants.

  4. Domestic wastewater treatment using electron accelerator

    Borrely, Sueli I.

    1995-01-01

    This work aims the application of an industrial electron beam accelerator to disinfect sludge and to remove organic matter existent in the influent and effluent from the Mairipora domestic wastewater treatment plant. The in vitro Co-60 radiosensitivity of the major representative Salmonella species in wastewater from Sao Paulo city was also studied. (author). 66 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  6. Preparation of dye waste-barium sulfate hybrid adsorbent and application in organic wastewater treatment.

    Hu, Zhang-Jun; Xiao, Yan; Zhao, Dan-Hua; Shen, Yu-Lin; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2010-03-15

    A new hybrid material was developed by the template-free hybridization of weak acidic pink red B (APRB, C.I. 18073) with BaSO(4). The composition and structure of the material were determined and characterized. In contrast to conventional sorbents, the hybrid material has a specific surface area of 0.89 m(2)/g, but it contains lots of negative charges and lipophilic groups as the basis of specific adsorption. The efficient removal of cationic dyes and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) indicates that it has an improved adsorption capacity and selectivity with a short removal time less than 2 min; while the hybrid sorbents fit the Langmuir isotherm model, and follow the octanol-water partition law. Instead of using APRB reagent, an APRB-producing wastewater was reused to prepare the cost-effective sorbent, and the equilibrium adsorption capacities of which reached 222 and 160 mg/g for EV and BPR, respectively. The sorbents was then used to treat three wastewater samples with satisfactory results of over 97% decolonization and 88% COD-decreasing. In addition, the hybrid sorbent was regenerated from sludge over five cycles, and its adsorption capacity was not appreciably changed. This work has developed a simple and eco-friendly method for synthesizing a practical and efficient sorbent. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Organic semiconductor wastewater treatment using a four-stage Bardenpho with membrane system.

    Chung, Jinwook; Fleege, Daniel; Ong, Say Kee; Lee, Yong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic wastewater from a semiconductor plant was treated with a pilot-scale four-stage Bardenpho process with membrane system. The system was operated over a 14-month period with an overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 9.5 to 30 h. With a few exceptions, the pilot plant consistently treated the electronic wastewater with an average removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen of 97% and 93%, respectively, and achieving effluent quality of COD<15 mg/L, turbidity<1, and silt density index<1. Based on removal efficiencies of the pilot plant, it is possible to lower the HRT to less than 9.5 h to achieve comparable removal efficiencies. An energy-saving configuration where an internal recycle line was omitted and the biomass recycle was rerouted to the pre-anoxic tank, can reduce energy consumption by 8.6% and gave removal efficiencies that were similar to the Bardenpho process. The system achieved pre-anoxic and post-anoxic specific denitrification rate values with a 95% confidence interval of 0.091 ± 0.011 g NO₃-N/g MLVSS d and 0.087 ± 0.016 g NO₃-N/g MLVSS d, respectively. The effluent from the four-stage Bardenpho with membrane system can be paired with a reverse osmosis system to provide further treatment for reuse purposes.

  8. Pollutant exposure at wastewater treatment works affects the detoxification organs of an urban adapter, the Banana Bat

    Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M. Corrie

    2016-01-01

    The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana, exploits pollution-tolerant chironomids at wastewater treatment works (WWTWs). We investigated how pollutant exposure impacts the detoxification organs, namely the liver and kidney of N. nana. (i) We performed SEM-EDS to quantify metal content and mineral nutrients, and found significant differences in essential metal (Fe and Zn) content in the liver, and significant differences in Cu and one mineral nutrient (K) in the kidneys. (ii) We performed histological analysis and found more histopathological lesions in detoxification organs of WWTW bats. (iii) We calculated hepatosomatic/renalsomatic indices (HSI/RSI) to investigate whole organ effects, and found significant increases in organ size at WWTWs. (iv) We quantified metallothionein 1E (MT1E), using Western Blot immunodetection. Contrary to predictions, we found no significant upregulation of MT1E in bats at WWTWs. Ultimately, N. nana exploiting WWTWs may suffer chronic health problems from sub-lethal damage to organs responsible for detoxifying pollutants. - Highlights: • We measured pollutant exposure effects on detoxification organs in bats. • Iron, zinc, copper and potassium levels were altered in pollutant-exposed bats. • There was no significant upregulation of metallothionein in liver or kidney. • Pollutant-exposed bats had increased organ indices and histopathological lesions. • These organ effects suggest health risks and increased mortality in the long-term. - Wastewater treatment plants provide a short-term benefit of abundant pollution-tolerant prey, but cause long-term physiological damage to the liver and kidneys in urban bats.

  9. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-tertoctylphenol was found in all the WW samples at high concentration levels (up to 89.7 μg/L). Furthermore, it was observed that WW effluent samples were less contaminated in the second and third sampling periods, which corresponded to dry season. This evaluation revealed that despite the WW was treated in the WWTP, organic contaminants are still being detected in WW effluents and therefore they are released into the environment. Finally the risk of environmental threat due to the presence of some compounds in WWTP effluents, especially concerning 4-tertoctylphenol must be indicated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  11. Investigation on thiosulfate-involved organics and nitrogen removal by a sulfur cycle-based biological wastewater treatment process.

    Qian, Jin; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yanxiang; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-02-01

    Thiosulfate, as an intermediate of biological sulfate/sulfite reduction, can significantly improve nitrogen removal potential in a biological sulfur cycle-based process, namely the Sulfate reduction-Autotrophic denitrification-Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process. However, the related thiosulfate bio-activities coupled with organics and nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment lacked detailed examinations and reports. In this study, S2O3(2-) transformation during biological SO4(2-)/SO3(2-) co-reduction coupled with organics removal as well as S2O3(2-) oxidation coupled with chemolithotrophic denitrification were extensively evaluated under different experimental conditions. Thiosulfate is produced from the co-reduction of sulfate and sulfite through biological pathway at an optimum pH of 7.5 for organics removal. And the produced S2O3(2-) may disproportionate to sulfide and sulfate during both biological S2O3(2-) reduction and oxidation most possibly carried out by Desulfovibrio-like species. Dosing the same amount of nitrate, pH was found to be the more direct factor influencing the denitritation activity than free nitrous acid (FNA) and the optimal pH for denitratation (7.0) and denitritation (8.0) activities were different. Spiking organics significantly improved both denitratation and denitritation activities while minimizing sulfide inhibition of NO3(-) reduction during thiosulfate-based denitrification. These findings in this study can improve the understanding of mechanisms of thiosulfate on organics and nitrogen removal in biological sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reductions of dissolved organic matter and disinfection by-product precursors in full-scale wastewater treatment plants in winter.

    Xue, Shuang; Jin, Wujisiguleng; Zhang, Zhaohong; Liu, Hong

    2017-07-01

    The reductions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection byproduct precursors in four full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (Liaoning Province, China) where different biological treatment processes were employed in winter were investigated. The total removal efficiencies of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light at 254 nm (UV-254), trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) were in the range of 70.3-76.0%, 49.6-57.3%, 54.4-65.0%, and 53.7-63.8% in the four WWTPs, respectively. The biological treatment was the predominant process responsible for the removal of DOC, THMFP, and HAAFP in WWTPs. Differences in the reduction of UV-254 were not significant (p > 0.05) among biochemical reaction pool, secondary sedimentation tank, and disinfection tank. Biological aerated filter and suspended carrier activated sludge processes achieved higher DOM removal than the conventional active sludge and anaerobic-anoxic-oxic processes. Hydrophobic neutral and hydrophilic fraction were removed to a higher degree through biological treatment than the other three DOM fractions. HAAFP removal was more efficient than THMFP reduction during biological treatment. During primary treatment, fluorescent materials in secondary sedimentation tanks were preferentially removed, as compared to the bulk DOM. Humic-like fluorescent compounds were not readily eliminated during biological treatment. The fluorescent materials were more susceptible to chlorine than nonfluorescent compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Aerobic co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater - are slowly biodegradable organics removed or simply diluted?

    Campos, R; Ferraz, F M; Vieira, E M; Povinelli, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate/domestic wastewater in bench-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors to determine whether the slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM) was removed rather than diluted. The AS reactors were loaded with mixtures of raw leachate and leachate that was pretreated by air stripping. The tested volumetric ratios were 0%, 0.2%, 2% and 5%. For all of the tested conditions, the reactors performed better when pretreated leachate was used rather than raw leachate, and the best volumetric ratio was 2%. The following removals were obtained: 97% for the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,20), 79% for total suspended solids, 77% for dissolved organic carbon and 84% for soluble chemical oxygen demand. Most of the pretreated leachate SBOM (65%) was removed rather than diluted or adsorbed into the sludge, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses.

  14. Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis

    Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

    1986-04-01

    With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

  15. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  16. Microbial Community Composition of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Organisms in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Operated in Fully Aerobic Mode

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11–18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5–38.2 mg-C g-VSS−1 h−1). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  17. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    Wei, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    Wei, Chunhai; Harb, Moustapha; Amy, Gary L.; Hong, Pei-Ying; Leiknes, TorOve

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    of Chemical Engineering in UDCT and works ... tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is ... temperature causes the organic molecule to undergo oxidative degradation. ... When ultrasound is applied to effluent, water undergoes ther-.

  20. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste.

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, Nicholas F

    2010-10-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

  1. The performance of a three-phase fluidized bed reactor in treatment of wastewater with high organic load

    R. R. Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out aiming to evaluate the performance of a three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR used to treat milk wastewater. In this study three different concentrations of milk wastewater substrate (462, 825 and 1473 mg O2/L were tested. Using the same number of support particles, the results demonstrate that the average efficiency of COD removal decreased as the concentration of organic load in the substrate was increased. The growth of microorganism in the FBBR was followed by a count of viable cells in both liquid phase and the biofilms attached to the support. An increased number of viable cells were observed inside the reactor when it was used to degrade higher organic loads, with most of the cells on the support. The higher concentration of active biomass was responsible for achieving a relatively high absolute degradation of the wastewater containing the high organic load.

  2. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and compounds showing high removal (defined as >70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of trace organic contaminants from domestic wastewater: A meta-analysis comparison of sewage treatment technologies.

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), represent global threats to aquatic animals and ecosystems. A major source of TrOCs in the aquatic environment is via the discharge of treated sewage, so there is an urgent need to evaluate the comparative efficiencies of the most widely used sewage treatment technologies as regards elimination of these compounds from wastewater. To address this need, 976 published articles were compiled focusing on estimates of removal (%) for 20 common environmental TrOCs, from five major sewage treatment technologies: conventional activated sludge (CAS), oxidation ditch (OD), membrane bioreactor (MBR), ponds and constructed wetlands (PCW), and trickling biological filters (TBF). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare standardized relative removal efficiencies (SREs) of the compounds amongst these technologies, and where possible potential sources of heterogeneity were considered (e.g., flow rates and chemical sorption potential). The results indicate that the most widely used CAS treatment and the less common TBF provide comparatively poor overall removal of common organic micropollutants. Membrane bioreactors appear to be capable of achieving the greatest overall removal efficiencies, but the sustainability and economic viability of this option has been questioned. Treatment with OD systems may be more economical while still achieving comparatively high removal efficiencies, and the analysis revealed OD to be the best option for targeting highly potent estrogenic EDCs. This study offers a unique global assessment of TrOC removal via leading sewage treatment technologies, and is an important step in the identification of effective options for treating municipal sewage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new hybrid treatment system of bioreactors and electrocoagulation for superior removal of organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater.

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo

    2014-02-01

    This paper evaluated a novel pilot scale hybrid treatment system which combines rotating hanging media bioreactor (RHMBR), submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) along with electrocoagulation (EC) as post treatment to treat organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater. The results indicated that the highest removal efficiency was achieved at the internal recycling ratio as 400% of the influent flow rate which produced a superior effluent quality with 0.26mgBOD5L(-1), 11.46mgCODCrL(-1), 0.00mgNH4(+)-NL(-1), and 3.81mgT-NL(-1), 0.03mgT-PL(-1). During 16months of operation, NH4(+)-N was completely eliminated and T-P removal efficiency was also up to 100%. It was found that increasing in internal recycling ratio could improve the nitrate and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Moreover, the TSS and coliform bacteria concentration after treatment was less than 5mgL(-1) and 30MPNmL(-1), respectively, regardless of internal recycling ratios and its influent concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of organic matter strength on anammox for modified greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment.

    Chen, Chongjun; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Lei, Chenxiao; Zhang, Tian C; Wu, Weixiang

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-N removal from modified greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater with different chemical oxygen demand (COD) strengths (194.0-577.8 mg L(-1)) at relatively fixed C/N ratios (≈ 2) was investigated using a lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) anammox reactor. During the entire experiment, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was about 85% or higher, while the average COD removal efficiency was around 56.5 ± 7.9%. Based on the nitrogen and carbon balance, the nitrogen removal contribution was 79.6 ± 4.2% for anammox, 12.7 ± 3.0% for denitrification+denitritation and 7.7 ± 4.9% for other mechanisms. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed that Planctomycete, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi bacteria were coexisted in the reactor. Anammox was always dominant when the reactor was fed with different COD concentrations, which indicated the stability of the anammox process with the coexistence of the denitrification process in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occurrence and potential transport of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds from wastewater-treatment plant influent and effluent to groundwater and canal systems in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Foster, Adam L.; Katz, Brian G.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    An increased demand for fresh groundwater resources in South Florida has prompted Miami-Dade County to expand its water reclamation program and actively pursue reuse plans for aquifer recharge, irrigation, and wetland rehydration. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) and the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM), initiated a study in 2008 to assess the presence of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds in the influent and effluent at three regional wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) operated by the WASD and at one WWTP operated by the City of Homestead, Florida (HSWWTP).

  7. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  8. MiDAS 2.0: an ecosystem-specific taxonomy and online database for the organisms of wastewater treatment systems expanded for anaerobic digester groups.

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Bianca; Nierychlo, Marta; Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Karst, Søren Michael; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater is increasingly viewed as a resource, with anaerobic digester technology being routinely implemented for biogas production. Characterising the microbial communities involved in wastewater treatment facilities and their anaerobic digesters is considered key to their optimal design and operation. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allows high-throughput monitoring of these systems. The MiDAS field guide is a public resource providing amplicon sequencing protocols and an ecosystem-specific taxonomic database optimized for use with wastewater treatment facility samples. The curated taxonomy endeavours to provide a genus-level-classification for abundant phylotypes and the online field guide links this identity to published information regarding their ecology, function and distribution. This article describes the expansion of the database resources to cover the organisms of the anaerobic digester systems fed primary sludge and surplus activated sludge. The updated database includes descriptions of the abundant genus-level-taxa in influent wastewater, activated sludge and anaerobic digesters. Abundance information is also included to allow assessment of the role of emigration in the ecology of each phylotype. MiDAS is intended as a collaborative resource for the progression of research into the ecology of wastewater treatment, by providing a public repository for knowledge that is accessible to all interested in these biotechnologically important systems. http://www.midasfieldguide.org. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  10. Treatment of high organic content wastewater from food-processing industry with the French vertical flow constructed wetland system.

    Paing, J; Serdobbel, V; Welschbillig, M; Calvez, M; Gagnon, V; Chazarenc, F

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the treatment performances of a full-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands designed to treat wastewater from a food-processing industry (cookie factory), and to study the influence of the organic loading rate. The full-scale treatment plant was designed with a first vertical stage of 630 m², a second vertical stage of 473 m² equipped with a recirculation system and followed by a final horizontal stage of 440 m². The plant was commissioned in 2011, and was operated at different loading rates during 16 months for the purpose of this study. Treatment performances were determined by 24 hour composite samples. The mean concentration of the raw effluent was 8,548 mg.L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 4,334 mg.L(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and 2,069 mg.L(-1) suspended solids (SS). Despite low nutrients content with a BOD5/N/P ratio of 100/1.8/0.5, lower than optimum for biological degradation (known as 100/5/1), mean removal performances were very high with 98% for COD, 99% for BOD5 and SS for the two vertical stages. The increasing of the organic load from 50 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD to 237 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD (on the first stage) did not affect removal performances. The mean quality of effluent reached French standards (COD < 125 mg.L(-1), BOD5 < 25 mg.L(-1), SS < 35 mg.L(-1)).

  11. Electrocatalysis in wastewater treatment: recent mechanism advances

    Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years, several scientists and industries have developed new alternatives for wastewater treatment and remediation. Recently, electrochemical technology has been largely developed mainly because of its versatility and environmental compatibility. Scientific contributions about role of the electrode material have allowed determining that the influence of material in the selectivity is an important parameter. However, to interpret this behavior, comprehensive physical chemistry models for organics destruction, related to electrochemical phenomena and material surfaces, were proposed in the last decades. So, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review about the principles and recent mechanism advances in electrocatalysis for wastewater treatment.

  12. Recovery of UAPB from high organic load during startup for phenolic wastewater treatment

    Bakhshi Zeinab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of synthetic wastewater containing phenol by upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAPB was studied in this work. The reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 24 h and under mesophilic (30±1ºC conditions. The startup operation was conducted for 150 days; split into 4 phases. The phenol concentration was stepwise increased. The concentration of phenol in phases 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 100, 400, 700 and 1000 mg/l, respectively. In phase 1, the reactor reached steady state conditions on the 8th day with a phenol removal efficiency and biogas production rate of 96.8% and 1.42 l/d, respectively. For an increase of the initial phenol concentration in phase 2, a slight decrease in phenol removal efficiency was observed. Similar trends were observed in phases 3 and 4 of startup. Due to the high phenol concentration a sudden decrease in removal efficiency and biogas production was observed. The surviving microorganisms were gradually adapted and acclimated to high phenol concentrations. In phases 3 and 4, the phenol removal efficiency at steady state conditions were 98.4 and 98%, respectively. The maximum biogas production was observed at day 130 with a value of 3.57 l/d that corresponds to phenol concentration of 1000 mg/l.

  13. Removal of organics and degradation products from industrial wastewater by a membrane bioreactor integrated with ozone or UV/H₂O₂ treatment.

    Laera, G; Cassano, D; Lopez, A; Pinto, A; Pollice, A; Ricco, G; Mascolo, G

    2012-01-17

    The treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater resulting from the production of an antibacterial drug (nalidixic acid) was investigated employing a membrane bioreactor (MBR) integrated with either ozonation or UV/H(2)O(2) process. This was achieved by placing chemical oxidation in the recirculation stream of the MBR. A conventional configuration with chemical oxidation as polishing for the MBR effluent was also tested as a reference. The synergistic effect of MBR when integrated with chemical oxidation was assessed by monitoring (i) the main wastewater characteristics, (ii) the concentration of nalidixic acid, (iii) the 48 organics identified in the raw wastewater and (iv) the 55 degradation products identified during wastewater treatment. Results showed that MBR integration with ozonation or UV/H(2)O(2) did not cause relevant drawbacks to both biological and filtration processes, with COD removal rates in the range 85-95%. Nalidixic acid passed undegraded through the MBR and was completely removed in the chemical oxidation step. Although the polishing configuration appeared to give better performances than the integrated system in removing 15 out of 48 secondary organics while similar removals were obtained for 19 other compounds. The benefit of the integrated system was however evident for the removal of the degradation products. Indeed, the integrated system allowed higher removals for 34 out of 55 degradation products while for only 4 compounds the polishing configuration gave better performance. Overall, results showed the effectiveness of the integrated treatment with both ozone and UV/H(2)O(2).

  14. Capability of microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems to remove emerging organic contaminants: A pilot-scale study

    Matamoros, Victor; Gutiérrez Martínez, Raquel; Ferrer Martí, Ivet; García Serrano, Joan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and seasonality on the removal efficiency of 26 organic microcontaminants from urban wastewater was studied in two pilot high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs). The targeted compounds included pharmaceuticals and personal care products, fire retardants, surfactants, anticorrosive agents, pesticides and plasticizers, among others. The pilot plant, which was fed at a surface loading rate of 7-29 g of COD m(-2) d(-1), consisted of a homogenisation tank and two...

  15. Evaluation of organic matter removal and electricity generation by using integrated microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment.

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ogino, Akifumi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A floating all-in-one type of microbial fuel cell (Fa-MFC) that allows simple operation and installation in existing wastewater reservoirs for decomposition of organic matter was designed. A prototype cell was constructed by fixing a tubular floater to an assembly composed of a proton-exchange membrane and an air-cathode. To compare anode materials, carbon-cloth anodes or carbon-brush anodes were included in the assembly. The fabricated assemblies were floated in 1-L beakers filled with acetate medium. Both reactors removed acetate at a rate of 133-181 mg/L/d. The Fa-MFC quipped with brush anodes generated a 1.7-fold higher maximum power density (197 mW/m(2)-cathode area) than did that with cloth anodes (119 mW/m(2)-cathode area). To evaluate the performance of the Fa-MFCs on more realistic substrates, artificial wastewater, containing peptone and meat extract, was placed in a 2-L beaker, and the Fa-MFC with brush anodes was floated in the beaker. The Fa-MFC removed the chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater at a rate of 465-1029 mg/L/d, and generated a maximum power density of 152 mW/m(2)-cathode area. When the Fa-MFC was fed with actual livestock wastewater, the biological oxygen demand of the wastewater was removed at a rate of 45-119 mg/L/d, with electricity generation of 95 mW/m(2)-cathode area. Bacteria related to Geobacter sulfurreducens were predominantly detected in the anode biofilm, as deduced from the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence.

  16. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities.

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L -1 . Nitrate (NO 3 - ) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO 3 -  + NH 4 + ), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  18. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  19. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  20. A novel advanced oxidation process——wet electrocatalytic oxidation for high concentrated organic wastewater treatment

    DAI QiZhou; ZHOU MingHua; LEI LeCheng; ZHANG Xing Wang

    2007-01-01

    A novel advanced oxidation process-wet electrocatalytic oxidation(WEO)was studied with p-nitrophenol as model pollutant and β-PbO2 electrode as the anode.Compared with the effect of the individual wet air oxidation(WAO)and electrochemical oxidation(EO),the effect of WEO showed synergistic effect on COD removal under the conditions of temperature 160℃,C=1000mg·L-1,PN2=0.50MPa,Po2=0.9 MPa,current density=3 mA·cm-2,Na2SO4 3 g·L-1.And the synergistic factor got the best value of 0.98 within 120 min after 180 min treatment.The synergistic factor was studied after 120 min treatment at 100℃,120℃,140℃and 160℃,and the effect of 120℃was the best with the value of 1.26.Possible mechanism for the synergistic effect was discussed based on the analysis of free-radical generation and intermediates detected by HPLC and GC/MS.

  1. Wastewater treatment and pollution control in Indonesia

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2006-01-01

    Present status of radiation facilities for Co-60 gamma ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation in Indonesia is first presented. Wastewater treatment is explained: kinds of waste, industrial, agricultural, municipal and nuclear. Each liquid wastewater containing various kinds of contaminants, radioactive or non-radioactive is differently treated by waste treatment industries. On-going project is use of electron beams in which combination with ozone to reduce chlorinated solvent, disinfected sludge from sewage treatment containing organic and inorganic components for soil fertilizer, and high color river water for water supplying. The cost factor and the effect of combined treatment are being examined. Other on-going projects are applications of electron beams for vulcanization of natural rubber latex and flue gas treatment by BATAN. (S. Ohno)

  2. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  3. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    achieve predominant type of transformation-reduction, oxidation, addition or removal of functional groups, aggregation, disintegration etc. However, in general, pollutant transformation involves the chain oxidation, formation of insoluble compounds, coagulation of colloids, and Enhancement of pollutant biodegradability. Due to the great variety of wastewaters generated by different industries, a universal treatment process is currently not available for industrial wastewater. The focus of radiation processing is to convert non-biodegradable pollutants into biodegradable species. Extensive studies have been carried out on the purification of industrial wastewater by radiation processing, although generally on the laboratory and, to a lesser extent, the pilot plant scale. Full-scale application is combined electron beam (1 MeV, 40 kW) and biological treatment in Daegu, Korea. Operation of pilot plant (1000m 3 /d) from 1998 showed the electron beam treatment of textile dyeing wastewater to be a prospective means for its purification. The improvements result in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities with low doses (1-2 kGy). Convinced of feasibility via a pilot plant, an industrial plant for treating 10,000 m 3 /d of textile dyeing wastewater with electron beam (1 MeV, 400 kW) has been constructed and operated continuously since 2005. This plant demonstrated a reduction of chemical reagent consumption and the reduction in retention time with the increase in efficiency of removal of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30-40%. Increase in removal efficiency after radiation treatment is due to radiolytical transformation of biodegradable compounds to more readily digestible forms. (authors)

  4. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  5. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2009-01-01

    , plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970ĝ€"2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power...... in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed...... that the organic waste quantity and composition is the same in 1970 and 2005, the technology change over this time period has resulted in a progression from a net annual GHG emission of 200 kg CO2-eq. capita ĝ€"1 in 1970 to a net saving of 170 kg CO 2-eq. capitaĝ€"1 in 2005 for management of urban organic wastes....

  6. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  8. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    inorganic salts, organic compounds, microbial contamination and turbidity disturbing ... of toxic chemicals by many scientifically simple yet sometimes technologically very ..... amounts of nutrients are required to have optimum degradation of organic .... byWAO. Thus this part of the paper surveys two specific methods namely.

  9. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Al-Gheethi AA; Mohamed RMSR; Wurochekke AA; Nurulainee NR; Mas Rahayu J; Amir Hashim MK

    2017-01-01

    Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compou...

  10. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  11. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T.; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L −1 . Nitrate (NO 3 − ) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO 3 −  + NH 4 + ), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. - Highlights: • DIN was the dominated N pool for most of the tested effluent samples. • DON bioavailability considerably varied depending on the WWTP assessed.

  12. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  13. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  14. Treatment of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes

    Parwin, Rijwana; Karar Paul, Kakoli

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes for treatment of raw kitchen wastewater was studied in the present research work. An artificial wetland of 30 liter capacity was created for phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes. Kitchen wastewater samples were collected from hostel of an educational institute in India. Samples were characterized based on physical and chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid. The physico-chemical parameter of kitchen wastewater samples were analysed for durations of 0 (initial day), 4 and 8 days. After 8 days of retention period, it was observed that pH value increases from 6.25 to 6.63. However, percentage reduction for turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid were found to be 74.71%, 50%, 78.75%, 60.28%, 25.31%, 33.33%, 15.38% and 69.97%, respectively. Hence water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is found efficient and easy to handle and it can be used for low cost phytoremediation technique.

  15. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  16. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL's Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation

  17. Treatment of wastewater from a school in a decentralized filtration system by percolation over organic packing media.

    Garzón-Zúñiga, M A; Buelna, G

    2011-01-01

    Based on results obtained in the laboratory a WWTP composed of a septic tank and an aerated percolating filter packed with organic media was built for a school. The system can treat 18 m3 d(-1) and was operated with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.078 (m3 m(-2) d(-1). For 360 days different operational conditions including start-up; stabilization; operation with aeration and non aeration; effect of rainy season, breaks from activities due to holidays and restart; were monitored and described in the article. Once stabilized, the system was able to remove, without the need for mechanical aeration, 97% of BOD5, 71% of COD, 93% of TKN, 11% of PO(4-)-P, 95% of TSS, 96% of VSS, in addition to having a removal efficiency of 4 log units of Faecal Coliforms (FC) and 100% helminthes eggs (HE). With this quality, the treated wastewater can be chlorinated and reused to irrigate green areas and/or in toilets. Although sanitary wastewater has a high concentration of Total-N (250 mg L(-1)) and a C/N ratio of less than 1, the system removed 65% of Total-N. Finally it was observed that after non activity periods, there was neither system failure nor the need to re-stabilize the system.

  18. Capability of microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems to remove emerging organic contaminants: a pilot-scale study.

    Matamoros, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Raquel; Ferrer, Ivet; García, Joan; Bayona, Josep M

    2015-05-15

    The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and seasonality on the removal efficiency of 26 organic microcontaminants from urban wastewater was studied in two pilot high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs). The targeted compounds included pharmaceuticals and personal care products, fire retardants, surfactants, anticorrosive agents, pesticides and plasticizers, among others. The pilot plant, which was fed at a surface loading rate of 7-29 g of COD m(-2)d(-1), consisted of a homogenisation tank and two parallel lines, each one with a primary settler and an HRAP with a surface area of 1.5 m(2) and a volume of 0.5 m(3). The two HRAPs were operated with different HRTs (4 and 8 d). The removal efficiency ranged from negligible removal to more than 90% depending on the compound. Microcontaminant removal efficiencies were enhanced during the warm season, while the HRT effect on microcontaminant removal was only noticeable in the cold season. Our results suggest that biodegradation and photodegradation are the most important removal pathways, whereas volatilization and sorption were solely achieved for hydrophobic compounds (log Kow>4) with a moderately high Henry's law constant values (11-12 Pa m(-3)mol(-1)) such as musk fragrances. Whereas acetaminophen, ibuprofen and oxybenzone presented ecotoxicological hazard quotients (HQs) higher than 1 in the influent wastewater samples, the HQs for the effluent water samples were always below 1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent.

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa

    2017-03-01

    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H 2 O 2 . Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H 2 O 2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H 2 O 2 /UV tested in different conditions.

  20. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  1. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  2. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale wastewaters

    Jones, B.M.; Harris, G.J.; Daughton, C.G.

    1984-03-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process wastewaters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogen heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment procsses designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential.

  3. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  4. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employ activated sludge processes to treat domestic wastewater using a consortium of bacteria essentially to degrade organic matter. However, bacteria activity is inhibited by toxic substances; thus, potentially...

  5. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  6. A new strategy to maximize organic matter valorization in municipalities: Combination of urban wastewater with kitchen food waste and its treatment with AnMBR technology.

    Moñino, P; Aguado, D; Barat, R; Jiménez, E; Giménez, J B; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating the kitchen food waste (FW) jointly with urban wastewater (WW) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by anaerobic membrane technology (AnMBR). The experience was carried out in six different periods in an AnMBR pilot-plant for a total of 536days, varying the SRT, HRT and the food waste penetration factor (PF) of food waste disposers. The results showed increased methane production of up to 190% at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, compared with WW treatment only. FW COD and biodegradability were higher than in WW, so that the incorporation of FW into the treatment increases the organic load and the methane production and reduces sludge production (0.142 vs 0.614kgVSSkgremovedCOD -1 , at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, as compared to WW treatment only). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) and Constructed Wetlands (CW) Applications for Nutrients and Organic Micropollutants (OMPs) Attenuation Using Primary and Secondary Wastewater Effluents

    Hamadeh, Ahmed F.

    2014-06-01

    Constructed wetlands (CW) and soil aquifer treatment (SAT) represent natural wastewater treatment systems (NWTSs). The high costs of conventional wastewater treatment techniques encourage more studies to investigate lower cost treatment methods which make these appropriate for developing and also in developed countries. The main objective of this research was to investigate the removals of nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) through SAT, CW and the CW-SAT hybrid system. CWs are an efficient technology to purify and remove different nutrients as well as OMPs from wastewater. They removed most of the dissolved organic matter (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium and phosphate. Furthermore, CWs aeration could be used as one of the alternatives to reduce CWs footprint by around 10%. The vegetation in CWs plays an essential role in the treatment especially for nitrogen and phosphate removals, it is responsible for the removal of 15%, 55%, 38%, and 22% for TN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), nitrate and phosphate, respectively. CWs achieved a very high removal for some OMPs; they attenuated acetaminophen, caffeine, fluoxetine and trimethoprim (>90%) under different redox conditions. Moreover, it was found that increasing temperature (up to 36 C) could enhance the removals of atenolol, caffeine, DEET and trimethoprim by 17%, 14%, 28% and 45%, respectively. On the other hand, some OMPs, were found to be removed by vegetation such as: acetaminophen, caffeine, fluoxetine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Moreover, atenolol, caffeine, fluoxetine and trimethoprim, showed high removal (>80%) through SAT system. It was also found that, temperature increasing and using primary instead of secondary effluent could enhance the removal of some OMPs. The CWs performance study showed that these systems are adapted to the prevailing extreme arid conditions and the average percent removals are about, 88%, 96%, 98%, 98% and 92%, for COD, BOD and TSS, ammonium and phosphate

  8. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  9. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  10. Influence of filling ratio and carrier type on organic matter removal in a moving bed biofilm reactor with pretreatment of electrocoagulation in wastewater treatment.

    Lopez-Lopez, C; Martín-Pascual, J; González-Martínez, A; Calderón, K; González-López, J; Hontoria, E; Poyatos, J M

    2012-01-01

    At present, there is great concern about limited water resources and water quality, which require a more advanced technology. The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) has been shown to be an efficient technology for removal of organic matter and nutrients in industrial and urban wastewater treatment. However, there are some pollutants which are more difficult to remove by biological processes, so this process can be improved with additional physical and chemical treatments such as electrocoagulation, which appears to be a promising technology in electrochemical treatments. In this research, urban wastewater was treated in an MBBR plant with an electrocoagulation pre-treatment. K1 from AnoxKaldnes and AQWISE ABC5 from Aqwise were the carriers studied under three different filling ratios (20, 35, and 50%). The experimental pilot plant had four bioreactors with 20 L of operation volume and a common feed tank with 100 L of operation volume. The movement of the carriers was generated by aeration and stirrer systems. Organic matter removal was studied by analysis of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). The maximum organic matter removal in this MBBR system was 65.8% ± 1.4% and 78.4% ± 0.1% for K1 and Aqwise ABC5 carriers, respectively. Moreover, the bacterial diversity of the biofilm was studied by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. 20 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, being the predominant population: β-Proteobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria.

  11. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    Lund, E.

    1975-01-01

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Combination of granular activated carbon adsorption and deep-bed filtration as a single advanced wastewater treatment step for organic micropollutant and phosphorus removal.

    Altmann, Johannes; Rehfeld, Daniel; Träder, Kai; Sperlich, Alexander; Jekel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC) is an established technology in water and advanced wastewater treatment for the removal of organic substances from the liquid phase. Besides adsorption, the removal of particulate matter by filtration and biodegradation of organic substances in GAC contactors has frequently been reported. The application of GAC as both adsorbent for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal and filter medium for solids retention in tertiary wastewater filtration represents an energy- and space saving option, but has rarely been considered because high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended solids concentrations in the influent of the GAC adsorber put a significant burden on this integrated treatment step and might result in frequent backwashing and unsatisfactory filtration efficiency. This pilot-scale study investigates the combination of GAC adsorption and deep-bed filtration with coagulation as a single advanced treatment step for simultaneous removal of OMPs and phosphorus from secondary effluent. GAC was assessed as upper filter layer in dual-media downflow filtration and as mono-media upflow filter with regard to filtration performance and OMP removal. Both filtration concepts effectively removed suspended solids and phosphorus, achieving effluent concentrations of 0.1 mg/L TP and 1 mg/L TSS, respectively. Analysis of grain size distribution and head loss within the filter bed showed that considerable head loss occurred in the topmost filter layer in downflow filtration, indicating that most particles do not penetrate deeply into the filter bed. Upflow filtration exhibited substantially lower head loss and effective utilization of the whole filter bed. Well-adsorbing OMPs (e.g. benzotriazole, carbamazepine) were removed by >80% up to throughputs of 8000-10,000 bed volumes (BV), whereas weakly to medium adsorbing OMPs (e.g. primidone, sulfamethoxazole) showed removals activated carbon (PAC) to deep-bed filtration as a direct

  13. Effect of organic loading rate on anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Borja, R. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville (Spain). Inst. de la Grasa; Banks, C.J.; Zhengjian Wang [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1995-09-01

    COD removal efficiencies in the range 75.0-98.9% were achieved in an aerobic fluidised-bed reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater, when evaluated at organic loading rates (OLR) of between 2.9 and 54.0 g COD/l.d, hydraulic retention times (HRT) of between 0.5 and 8 h and feed COD concentrations of between 250 and 4500 mg/l. More than 94% of feed COD could be removed up to OLR of about 27 g COD/l.d. Up to 0.320 litres of methane were produced per gram of COD removed and this methane production rate was independent of the OLR applied in this investigation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the reactor increased sharply at an OLR of about 30 g COD/l.d and, therefore, sufficient alkalinity should be provided to prevent pH from dropping to an undesirable level. The anaerobic fluidised-bed system can be operated at a significantly higher liquid throughput than other previously reported systems while maintaining its excellent efficiency. (Author)

  14. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  15. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  16. RECENT ADVANCES IN LEATHER TANNERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    LOFRANO Giusy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is one of the most important economic sectors in many countries, representing an important economic field also in developing countries. Leather tannery industry is water intensive and originates highly polluted wastewater that contain various micropollutants raising environmental and health concerns. Tannery wastewater is difficult to treat biologically because of complex characteristics like high salinity e high content of xenobiotics compounds. After conventional treatment (i.e., chromium precipitation–primary sedimentation–biological oxidation–secondary sedimentation, effluents still do not meet the required limits, at least for some parameters such as BOD, COD, salinity, ammonia and surfactants. The leather industry is being pressured to search cleaner, economically as well as environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technologies alternative or integrative to the conventional treatment in order to face the challenge of sustainability. The most spread approach to manage tannery wastewater is the steam segregation before conveying wastewaters to in treatment plants that typically include pre-treatment, mechanical and physico-chemical treatment, biological treatment, and treatment of the generated sludge. Thus proper treatment technologies are needed to handle tannery wastewater to remove effectively the environmental benign pollutants. However among various processes applied or proposed the sustainable technologies are emerging concern. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater.

  17. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  18. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    , which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  19. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  20. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  1. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  2. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  3. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  4. Organic pollutant removal from edible oil process wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Sharma, S.; Can, O. T.; Hammed, M.; Nawarathna, D.; Simsek, H.

    2018-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from vegetable oil industries contain a high concentration of organic pollutants that are detrimental to the aquatic ecosystem. Electrochemical processes are gaining importance in the treatment of inorganic and resistant organic pollutants in wastewaters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was applied to remove organic pollutants and oil and grease from canola oil wastewater using aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes. The application of EC in the wastewater achieved more than 80% removal of organic carbon and nearly 100% removal of suspended solids (SS). The effectiveness of EC is influenced mainly by current density, pH, electrolyte (NaCl), electrode contact time and electrode type. It was observed that Al electrode combination yielded better removal at a lesser time compared to that of Fe electrodes. However, varying current densities had its significance in terms of coagulation time only. Increase in current density achieved decrease in coagulation time. Both Al and Fe could remove between 52-59% of oil and grease from canola oil wastewater

  5. STUDY ON USING A TRICKLE-BED BIOREACTOR FOR REDUCING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATED BY PKN ORLEN S.A.

    Arkadiusz Kamiński

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies conducted by Ekoinwentyka sp. z o.o. concerning the possibility of using a trickle-bed bioreactor for reducing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted by PKN ORLEN S.A. wastewater treatment plant were presented and discussed. During the one-month trial, inlet and outlet concentrations of VOCs, H2S and NH3 were analysed and the efficiency of bio-purification process was determined on their basis. The obtained results confirmed the effectiveness of the applied technology under the given conditions, simultaneously demonstrating the validity of conducting further technological analysis to derive the design assumptions of the bioreactor on the industrial scale.

  6. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  7. Organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewaters: A review.

    Luek, Jenna L; Gonsior, Michael

    2017-10-15

    High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters. In general, analyses of organic compounds have focused on those amenable to gas chromatography, focusing on volatile and semi-volatile oil and gas compounds. Studies of more polar and non-volatile organic compounds have been limited by a lack of knowledge of what compounds may be present as well as quantitative methods and standards available for analyzing these complex mixtures. Liquid chromatography paired with high-resolution mass spectrometry has been used to investigate a number of additives and will be a key tool to further research on transformation products that are increasingly solubilized through physical, chemical, and biological processes in situ and during environmental contamination events. Diverse treatments have been tested and applied to HVHF wastewaters but limited information has been published on the quantitative removal of individual organic compounds. This review focuses on recently published information on organic compounds identified in flowback fluids and produced waters from HVHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  9. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  10. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Electron beam wastewater treatment in Brazil

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Oikawa, H.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Silveira, C.G.; Costa, F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed at laboratory scale and at pilot plant scale to study the efficiency on using EB to remove and degrade toxic and refractory pollutants mainly from industrial origins. An upflow stream hydraulic system that governs the efficiency of the EB energy transferred to the stream was developed. Two different sources of samples were used to treat industrial effluents from a pharmaceutical chemical industry located in Sao Paulo and from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Sao Paulo State, which receives the major quantity of industrial wastewater. Using samples from this WWTP, studies to combine EB irradiation process with conventional treatment were carried out with experimentation doses of 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy and the irradiation effects were evaluated in the following parameters: COD, BOD, solids, TOC, THMs. PCE, TCE, BTX and concentration of organic acids by-products. Toxicity studies were also carried out for different sites and industrial activities showing significant removal of acute toxicity by increasing values of the EC-50 for most of the experiments. The economic aspects of this technology were evaluated and the estimated processing costs for some values of delivered doses and operation are reported here. (author)

  12. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  13. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  14. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  15. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho [Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m{sup 3}/day of wastewater from 80,000m{sup 3}/day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  16. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  17. Application of reverse osmosis in radioactive wastewater treatment

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the conventional evaporation and ion exchange process for radioactive wastewater treatment, the reverse osmosis is used to treat the low level radioactive wastewater. The paper summarizes the research and application progress of the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment and indicates that the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment is very important. (authors)

  18. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  20. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  1. Electron beam treatment of wastewater

    Arai, H.; Hosono, M.; Shimizu, K.; Sugiyama, M.

    1991-01-01

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics so that it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge. By electron beam (EB) irradiation, any kinds of organics in water can be oxidized to biodegradable organic acids. We studied the treatment of supernatant by application of this effect. The direct irradiation of the original supernatant was found not to be so effective to decrease COD. In order to increase the irradiation effect, supernatant was pretreated biologically to decrease the biodegradable organics in it. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were decreased from 800 and 910 mg/L to 78 and 5 mg/L by this pretreatment, respectively. This pretreated supernatant was irradiated by EB of 2 MeV using a batch type reactor. The COD was gradually decreased with dose. In contrast, BOD was increased markedly, indicating increase in biodegradability. The irradiated sample water was treated biologically again. After the final biological treatment, COD was decreased below 30 mg/L in the case of 10 - 12 kGy irradiation. Finally, the initial COD of 800 mg/L was decreased below 30 mg/L by the combination of EB irradiation and biological treatment. The cost of irradiation for this process was evaluated preliminarily. (author)

  2. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  3. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Klančnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  4. Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.

    Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

    2010-08-01

    This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  6. Turbidity-based monitoring of particle concentrations and flocculant requirement in wastewater pre-treatment

    Mels, A.R.; Spanjers, H.; Klapwijk, A.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of particulate organic material in the first step of wastewater treatment may result in significant savings of reactor volume and energy at wastewater treatment plants, because the organic loading to pursuing unit operations can be reduced. This article describes experiments into the

  7. Fate of organic microcontaminants in wastewater treatment and river systems: An uncertainty assessment in view of sampling strategy, and compound consumption rate and degradability.

    Aymerich, I; Acuña, V; Ort, C; Rodríguez-Roda, I; Corominas, Ll

    2017-11-15

    The growing awareness of the relevance of organic microcontaminants on the environment has led to a growing number of studies on attenuation of these compounds in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rivers. However, the effects of the sampling strategies (frequency and duration of composite samples) on the attenuation estimates are largely unknown. Our goal was to assess how frequency and duration of composite samples influence uncertainty of the attenuation estimates in WWTPs and rivers. Furthermore, we also assessed how compound consumption rate and degradability influence uncertainty. The assessment was conducted through simulating the integrated wastewater system of Puigcerdà (NE Iberian Peninsula) using a sewer pattern generator and a coupled model of WWTP and river. Results showed that the sampling strategy is especially critical at the influent of WWTP, particularly when the number of toilet flushes containing the compound of interest is small (≤100 toilet flushes with compound day -1 ), and less critical at the effluent of the WWTP and in the river due to the mixing effects of the WWTP. For example, at the WWTP, when evaluating a compound that is present in 50 pulses·d -1 using a sampling frequency of 15-min to collect a 24-h composite sample, the attenuation uncertainty can range from 94% (0% degradability) to 9% (90% degradability). The estimation of attenuation in rivers is less critical than in WWTPs, as the attenuation uncertainty was lower than 10% for all evaluated scenarios. Interestingly, the errors in the estimates of attenuation are usually lower than those of loads for most sampling strategies and compound characteristics (e.g. consumption and degradability), although the opposite occurs for compounds with low consumption and inappropriate sampling strategies at the WWTP. Hence, when designing a sampling campaign, one should consider the influence of compounds' consumption and degradability as well as the desired level of accuracy in

  8. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  9. Progress report: Use of water hyacinth in wastewater treatment

    Mohd Yusof, Abdullah bin

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that water hyacinth shows remarkable ability to remove, besides heavy metals, BOD and COD load from wastewaters which contain mainly organic pollutants. A survey was conducted to select suitable industrial effluents for pilot field studies, in particular wastewaters which were organic in nature such as those from food industries. A proposal to set up a pilot treatment system for field studies m addition to laboratory investigations was consistent with the recommendation put forward at the First Interim Project Review Meeting held in 1980 . It has been reported that introduction of water hyacinth into digested sugar waste would significantly enhance the efficiency of purification of the waste. Brief trials with a sugar refinery effluent in the laboratory showed the possibility of subjecting the wastewater to the water hyacinth treatment system in a pilot field study and arrangements were then made for the study to be carried out at site

  10. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide-arsenate ...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  11. Stripping of organic compounds from wastewater as an auxiliary fuel of regenerative thermal oxidizer

    Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Organic solvents with different volatilities are widely used in various processes and generate air and water pollution problems. In the cleaning processes of electronics industries, most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are vented to air pollution control devices while most non-volatile organic solvents dissolve in the cleaning water and become the major sources of COD in wastewater. Discharging a high-COD wastewater stream to wastewater treatment facility often disturbs the treatment performance. A pretreatment of the high-COD wastewater is therefore highly desirable. This study used a packed-bed stripping tower in combination with a regenerative thermal oxidizer to remove the COD in the wastewater from a printed circuit board manufacturing process and to utilize the stripped organic compounds as the auxiliary fuel of the RTO. The experimental results showed that up to 45% of the COD could be removed and 66% of the RTO fuel could be saved by the combined treatment system.

  12. A novel approach of anaerobic co-digestion between organic fraction of food waste and waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant: Effect of mixing ratio

    Nga, Dinh Thi; Ngoc, Tran Thi Minh; Van Ty, Nguyen; Thuan, Van Tan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing ratio of co-anaerobic digestion between dewatered waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (DS) and organic fraction of food waste (FW). The experiment was carried out in 3L reactors for 16 days at ambient temperature. Four mixing ratios of DW and FW was investigated including 100 % DS : 0 % FW (Run S100); 75% DS : 25 % FW (Run S75); 50% DS : 50% FW (Run S50); and 25% DS : 75% FW (Run S25) in term of VS concentration. As a result, the Run S50 achieved best performance among the four funs indicated in biogas accumulation of 32.48 L biogas and methane yield of 358.9 400ml CH4/g VS removal after 16 days operation at ambient temperature. Biogas accumulation of Run S25 was higher than that of Run S75. Run S100 produced the lowest of biogas of all runs. It is concluded that co-anaerobic digestion of different organic sources could enhance the performance of methane fermentation.

  13. Visible-light sensitization of TiO2 photocatalysts via wet chemical N-doping for the degradation of dissolved organic compounds in wastewater treatment: a review

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Baoping; Wang, Qiuze; Dionysiou, Dionysois

    2015-05-01

    Increased pollution of ground and surface water and emerging new micropollutants from a wide variety of industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources has increased demand on the development of innovative new technologies and materials whereby challenges associated with the provision of safe potable water can be addressed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using visible-light sensitized TiO2 photocatalysts has attracted a lot of attention as it can effectively remove dissolved organic compound in water without generating harmful by-products. On this note, recent progress on visible-light sensitive TiO2 synthesis via wet chemical N-doping method is reviewed. In a typical visible-light sensitive TiO2 preparation via wet chemical methods, the chemical (e.g., N-doping content and states) and morphological properties (e.g., particle size, surface area, and crystal phase) of TiO2 in as-prepared resultants are sensitively dependent on many experimental variables during the synthesis. This has also made it very difficult to provide a universal guidance at this stage with a certainty for each variable of N-doping preparation. Instead of one-factor-at-a-time style investigation, a statistically valid parameter optimization investigation for general optima of photocatalytic activity will be certainly useful. Optimization of the preparation technique is envisaged to be beneficial to many environmental applications, i.e., dissolved organic compounds removal in wastewater treatment.

  14. Visible-light sensitization of TiO2 photocatalysts via wet chemical N-doping for the degradation of dissolved organic compounds in wastewater treatment: a review

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Baoping; Wang, Qiuze; Dionysiou, Dionysois

    2015-01-01

    Increased pollution of ground and surface water and emerging new micropollutants from a wide variety of industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources has increased demand on the development of innovative new technologies and materials whereby challenges associated with the provision of safe potable water can be addressed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using visible-light sensitized TiO 2 photocatalysts has attracted a lot of attention as it can effectively remove dissolved organic compound in water without generating harmful by-products. On this note, recent progress on visible-light sensitive TiO 2 synthesis via wet chemical N-doping method is reviewed. In a typical visible-light sensitive TiO 2 preparation via wet chemical methods, the chemical (e.g., N-doping content and states) and morphological properties (e.g., particle size, surface area, and crystal phase) of TiO 2 in as-prepared resultants are sensitively dependent on many experimental variables during the synthesis. This has also made it very difficult to provide a universal guidance at this stage with a certainty for each variable of N-doping preparation. Instead of one-factor-at-a-time style investigation, a statistically valid parameter optimization investigation for general optima of photocatalytic activity will be certainly useful. Optimization of the preparation technique is envisaged to be beneficial to many environmental applications, i.e., dissolved organic compounds removal in wastewater treatment

  15. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  16. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes

    Costa, Carla Regina; Botta, Clarice M.R.; Espindola, Evaldo L.G.; Olivi, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity

  17. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes

    Costa, Carla Regina [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14049-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Botta, Clarice M.R.; Espindola, Evaldo L.G. [Nucleo de Estudos em Ecossistemas Aquaticos, Centro de Recursos Hidricos e Ecologia Aplicada, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 292, CEP 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Olivi, Paulo [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14049-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: olivip@ffclrp.usp.br

    2008-05-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity.

  18. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C ∼ -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 ∼ 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD

  19. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  20. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  1. Improvement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by radiation treatment

    Jo, H.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, J.G.; Jung, J.; Choi, J.S.; Park, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation on biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters, gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluent due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However, the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluents. (author)

  2. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Al-Gheethi AA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of coagulation process by using chemical (ferrous sulphate and natural coagulants (Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated. The raw laundry wastewater samples were collected from laundromat located at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja. The characteristics of these wastes were determined and then the wastewater was subjected for the treatment process consisted of three units including aeration, coagulation and sedimentation process. The chemical and natural coagulants were used with four dosage (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L−1 and the coagulation process was carried out at room temperature (25±2ºC for one hour. The results revealed that the laundry wastewater have high concentrations of turbidity (57.8-68.1 NTU and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (423-450 mg L−1 with pH value between 7.96 and 8.37. M. oleifera seeds exhibited high efficiency for removal of turbidity (83.63% with 120 mg L−1 of dosage, while 30 mg L−1 of FeSO4 was the best for removal of COD (54.18%. However, both parameters still more than Standard B for wastewater disposal suggesting the need to increase the period of coagulation process with M. oleifera seeds or to subject of the treated effluents for a secondary coagulation process with natural coagulant products to improve the characteristics of laundry wastewater without a secondary products as that generated with the chemical coagulants.

  3. Fenton treatment of bio-treated fermentation-based pharmaceutical wastewater: removal and conversion of organic pollutants as well as estimation of operational costs.

    Cheng, Yunqin; Chen, Yunlu; Lu, Juncheng; Nie, Jianxin; Liu, Yan

    2018-04-01

    The Fenton process is used as a tertiary treatment to remove organic pollutants from the effluent of bio-treated pharmaceutical wastewater (EBPW). The optimal and most appropriate Fenton conditions were determined by an orthogonal array test and single-factor experiments. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was influenced by the following factors in a descending order: H 2 O 2 /Fe(II) molar ratio > H 2 O 2 dosage > reaction time. Under the most appropriate Fenton conditions (H 2 O 2 /Fe(II) molar ratio of 1:1, H 2 O 2 dosage of 120 mg L -1 and reaction time of 10 min), the COD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were removed with efficiencies of 62 and 53%, respectively, which met the national discharge standard (GB 21903-2008) for the Lake Tai Basin, China. However, the Fenton treatment was inadequate for removal of N compounds, and the removal of organic nitrogen led to an increment in N-NH 3 from 3.28 to 19.71 mg L -1 . Proteins and polysaccharides were completely removed, and humic acids (HAs) were partly removed with an efficiency of 55%. Three-dimensional excitation/emission matrix spectra (3DEEMs) indicated complete removal of fulvic acid-like substances and 90% reduction in the florescence intensity of humic acid-like substances. Organic pollutants with molecular weights (MW) > 10 kDa were completely removed, MW 5-10 kDa were degraded into smaller MW ones, and some low molecular weight acids (MW 0.1-1 kDa) were mineralized during the Fenton process. Some species, including pharmaceutical intermediates and solvents were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The operational costs of the Fenton's treatment were estimated to be 0.58 yuan RMB/m 3 EBPW based on reagent usage and iron sludge treatment and disposal.

  4. Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation

    Basfar, A.A.; Abdel Rehim, F.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60 Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD

  5. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  6. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....

  8. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Worms, Isabelle A.M.; Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2010-01-01

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 μm). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  9. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@epfl.c [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 mum). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  10. Energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants through sludge anaerobic digestion: effect of low-organic-content sludge.

    Zhang, Yuyao; Li, Huan

    2017-09-18

    During anaerobic digestion, low-organic-content sludge sometimes is used as feedstock, resulting in deteriorated digestion performance. The operational experience of conventional anaerobic digestion cannot be applied to this situation. To investigate the feature of low-organic-content sludge digestion and explain its intrinsic mechanism, batch experiments were conducted using designed feedstock having volatile solids (VS) contents that were 30-64% of total solids (TS). The results showed that the accumulative biogas yield declined proportionally from 173.7 to 64.8 ml/g VS added and organic removal rate decreased from 34.8 to 11.8% with decreasing VS/TS in the substrate. The oligotrophic environment resulting from low-organic-content substrates led to decreased microbial activity and a switch from butyric fermentation to propionic fermentation. A first-order model described the biogas production from the batch experiments very well, and the degradation coefficient decreased from 0.159 to 0.069 day -1 , exhibiting a positive relation with organic content in substrate. The results observed here corroborated with data from published literature on anaerobic digestion of low-organic-content sludge and showed that it may not be feasible to recover energy from sludge with an organic content lower than 50% through mono digestion.

  11. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  12. Advanced oxidation-based treatment of furniture industry wastewater.

    Tichonovas, Martynas; Krugly, Edvinas; Grybauskas, Arturas; Jankūnaitė, Dalia; Račys, Viktoras; Martuzevičius, Dainius

    2017-07-16

    The paper presents a study on the treatment of the furniture industry wastewater in a bench scale advanced oxidation reactor. The researched technology utilized a simultaneous application of ozone, ultraviolet radiation and surface-immobilized TiO 2 nanoparticle catalyst. Various combinations of processes were tested, including photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, catalytic ozonation, photolytic ozonation and photocatalytic ozonation were tested against the efficiency of degradation. The efficiency of the processes was primarily characterized by the total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, indicating the remaining organic material in the wastewater after the treatment, while the toxicity changes in wastewater were researched by Daphnia magna toxicity tests. Photocatalytic ozonation was confirmed as the most effective combination of processes (99.3% of TOC reduction during 180 min of treatment), also being the most energy efficient (4.49-7.83 MJ/g). Photocatalytic ozonation and photolytic ozonation remained efficient across a wide range of pH (3-9), but the pH was an important factor in photocatalysis. The toxicity of wastewater depended on the duration of the treatment: half treated water was highly toxic, while fully treated water did not possess any toxicity. Our results indicate that photocatalytic ozonation has a high potential for the upscaling and application in industrial settings.

  13. Electron beam treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 of textile dyeing wastewater per day with electron beam has constructed and operated continuously in Daegu, Korea since 1998. This plant is combined with biological treatment system and it shows the reduction of chemical reagent consumption, and also the reduction in retention time with the increase in removal efficiencies of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30∼40%. Increase in biodegradability after radiation treatment of aqueous-organic systems is due to radiolytical conversions of non-biodegradable compounds. On the basis of data obtained from pilot plant operation, construction of actual industrial scale plant has started in 2003, and will be finished by 2005. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility (Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex) and to have treatment capacity 10,000 m 3 of wastewater per day using one 1 MeV, 400 kW accelerator, and combined with existing bio- treatment facility. The overall construction cost and the operation cost in the radiation processing, when compared to other conventional and advanced oxidation techniques, are more cost-effective and convenient for wastewater treatment. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. (author)

  14. Combined treatment of organic material in oilfield fracturing wastewater by coagulation and UV/H2O2/ferrioxalate complexes process.

    Ge, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Organic material is considered to be a main component of oilfield fracturing wastewater (OFW). This work is intended to optimize the experimental conditions for the maximum oxidative degradation of organic material by coagulation and the UV/H 2 O 2 /ferrioxalate complexes process. Optimal reaction conditions are proposed based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. The overall removal efficiency of COD reached 83.8% when the dilution ratio of raw wastewater was 1:2, the pH was 4 and the FeCl 3 loading was 1,000 mg/L in the coagulation process; the dosage of H 2 O 2 (30%,v/v) was 0.6% (v/v) and added in three steps, the n(H 2 O 2 )/n(Fe 2+ ) was 2:1, n(Fe 2+ )/n(C 2 O 4 2- ) was 3:1 and the pH was 4 in the UV/H 2 O 2 /ferrioxalate complexes process; the pH was adjusted to 8.5-9 with NaOH and then 2 mg/L of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) was added in the neutralization and flocculation process. The decrease in COD during the coagulation process reduced the required H 2 O 2 dosage and improve efficiency in the subsequent UV/H 2 O 2 /ferrioxalate complexes process. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of 13.4% in the COD removal efficiency with the introduction of oxalate compared with UV/Fenton. Experimental results show that the coagulation and UV/H 2 O 2 /ferrioxalate complexes process could efficiently remove the organic material dissolved in OFW. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB8978-1996' Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level III emission standard.

  15. Wastewater Treatment for Pollution Control | Nzabuheraheza ...

    Performance of a Dynamic Roughing Filter (DRF) coupled with a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) in the treatment of a wastewater was studied in tropical conditions. The results show that in HSSFCW planted with Cyperus papyrus and Phragmites mauritianus in series, the removal rates of TDS, ...

  16. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  17. Wastewater treatment modelling: dealing with uncertainties

    Belia, E.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation...

  18. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  19. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  20. Advances in HTGR Wastewater Treatment System Design

    Li Junfeng; Qiu Yu; Wang Jianlong; Jia Fei

    2014-01-01

    The source terms of radioactive wastewater from HTR-PM were introduced. Concentration process should be used to reduce volume. A radioactive wastewater treatment system was designed by using Disc tubular reverse osmosis (DTRO) membrane system. The pretreatment system was simplify by using a cartridge filter. A three-stage membrane system was built. The operated characters to treat low and intermediate radioactive waste water were studied. A concentration rates of 25-50 is reached. The decontamination factor of the membrane system can reach 30-100. (author)

  1. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  2. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  3. Comparative Study on Performance and Organic Fouling of ZrO2 Ceramic Membranes in Ultrafiltration of Synthetic Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    Li, Cen

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption of organic matter on ceramic membrane can lead to hydraulic-irreversible fouling, which decreases the permeate flux and the cost-efficiency of membrane devices. In order to optimize the filtration process, detailed information is necessary about the organic fouling mechanisms on ceramic membranes. In this study, dead-end filtration experiments of both synthetic water and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were conducted on a ZrO2 ceramic membrane. The experiment results of synthetic water showed that humic acid (HA) was able to be adsorbed by the ZrO2 membrane and cause permeate flux decline; and that HA-tryptophan mixture, at the same DOC level, promoted the filtration flux decline; DOC removal in the case of HA-tryptophan was lower than that of HA alone. It seems that hydrophilic organic matter with low molecular weight have some specific contribution to the organic fouling of the ZrO2 membrane. The results also suggest that tryptophan molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the membrane at the beginning, exposing their hydrophobic sides which might further adsorb HA from the feed water. During the filtration of WWTP effluent, protein-like substances (mainly tryptophan-like) were also preferentially adsorbed on the membrane compared with humic-like ones in the initial few cycles of filtration. More humic-like substances were adsorbed in the following filtration cycles due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity. A significant rise in hydraulic-irreversible flux decline was obtained by decreasing pH from near pHpzc to below pHpzc of the membrane. It suggests that a positively charged surface is preferred for HA adsorption. Ionic strength increase did not affect the filtration of HA, but it lessened the hydraulic-irreversible flux decline of HA-tryptophan filtration. The adsorption of HA-tryptophan can be attributed to outersphere interaction while HA adsorption is mainly caused by inner-sphere interaction. The results of

  4. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  5. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  6. Sorption of Emerging Organic Wastewater Contaminants to Four Soils

    Sarah Roberts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional onsite wastewater treatment system design relies on a septic tank and soil treatment unit (STU for treatment of wastewater and integration of the final effluent into the environment. Organic water contaminants (OWCs, chemicals found in pharmaceutical drugs, detergents, surfactants, and other personal care and cleaning products, have been observed in septic tank effluent and the environment. Sorption of OWC mass to soil is a key mechanism in the removal and retardation of many of these chemicals in effluent as it travels through an STU. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the fraction of organic carbon of soil and the equilibrium sorption partitioning coefficient of a selected group of relevant and diverse OWCs. A secondary goal is to evaluate current methods of modeling the sorption of selected OWCs in soil. Five point Freundlich isotherms were constructed from equilibrium sorption batch tests for target OWCs with four different soils. For soils with organic carbon fraction between 0.021 and 0.054, Kd values were calculated between 60 and 185 for 4-nonylphenol, 75 to 260 for triclosan, 115 to 270 for bisphenol-A, 3 to 255 for 17β-estradiol, 40 to 55 for 17α-ethynylestradiol, and 28 to 70 for estrone. An empirically derived, direct relationship between foc and Kd may be a useful approach to estimating sorption for a soil based on organic carbon content.

  7. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  8. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    Sun, Mok Young; Jin-Oh, Jo; Heon-Ju, Lee

    2008-01-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  9. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  10. Treatment of wastewater by lemna minor

    Iram, S.; Zahra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the performance of bio-treatment ponds after one year of functioning at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. The physical parameters (colour, pH, EC, TDS, turbidity) and chemical parameters (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe and Pb) are with in the limits which are not sub-lethal for fish rearing. Lemna accumulates higher concentration of heavy metals as compared to wastewater and best for phyto remediation purpose. The treated wastewater is currently used for rearing of fish and irrigation of crops and plants. The plants around the bio-treatment ponds are healthy, green and showing enough production. The present investigation indicates that in future it would be possible to construct bio-treatment ponds in polluted areas of Pakistan. (author)

  11. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  12. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  13. Treatment of Wastewater by Ozone Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Rita Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid diminishing of water resources in many countries due to, for example, population growth and constant reduction in fresh water supply. The sewage wastewater, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewater are directly and indiscriminately discharged into rivers and lakes and thus primarily cause water pollution in Nepal. This has increased the water crisis and also causes environmental deterioration. Therefore, the need for the development of an effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly process for the treatment of wastewater before discharging into aquatic environment has emerged. Treatment by ozone produced from dielectric barrier discharge is one of the emerging technologies for such application. The ozonation process is more effective for disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. The current study describes the treatment of wastewater of selected site within Kathmandu. Results on various physicochemical and microbial parameters of the inlet and outlet samples are discussed. Our results showed slight increase in pH, decrease in chemical oxygen demand, and significant increase in dissolved oxygen after ozonation. Importantly, ozonation caused total reduction of fecal coliform.

  14. MiDAS 2.0: an ecosystem-specific taxonomy and online database for the organisms of wastewater treatment systems expanded for anaerobic digester groups

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    of the anaerobic digester systems fed primary sludge and surplus activated sludge. The updated database includes descriptions of the abundant genus-level-taxa in influent wastewater, activated sludge and anaerobic digesters. Abundance information is also included to allow assessment of the role of emigration...... taxonomy endeavours to provide a genus-level classification for abundant phylotypes and the online field guide links this identity to published information regarding their ecology, function and distribution. This article describes the expansion of the database resources to cover the organisms...

  15. Sediment microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment: challenges and opportunities

    Xu, Bojun; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2-3 years. SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewater. Most SMFCs used for wastewater treatment contain plants to mimic constructed wetlands. Both synthetic and real wastewaters have been used as substrates in SMFCs that achieved satisfact...

  16. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  17. Energy Data Management Manual for the Wastewater Treatment Sector

    Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); De Fontaine, Andre [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Energy efficiency has become a higher priority within the wastewater treatment sector, with facility operators and state and local governments ramping up efforts to reduce energy costs and improve environmental performance. Across the country, municipal wastewater treatment plants are estimated to consume more than 30 terawatt hours per year of electricity, which equates to about $2 billion in annual electric costs. Electricity alone can constitute 25% to 40% of a wastewater treatment plant’s annual operating budget and make up a significant portion of a given municipality’s total energy bill. These energy needs are expected to grow over time, driven by population growth and increasingly stringent water quality requirements. The purpose of this document is to describe the benefits of energy data management, explain how it can help drive savings when linked to a strong energy management program, and provide clear, step-by-step guidance to wastewater treatment plants on how to appropriately track energy performance. It covers the basics of energy data management and related concepts and describes different options for key steps, recognizing that a single approach may not work for all agencies. Wherever possible, the document calls out simpler, less time-intensive approaches to help smaller plants with more limited resources measure and track energy performance. Reviews of key, publicly available energy-tracking tools are provided to help organizations select a tool that makes the most sense for them. Finally, this document describes additional steps wastewater treatment plant operators can take to build on their energy data management systems and further accelerate energy savings.

  18. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P. M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J. P.; Botelho, M. L. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Sacavém (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  19. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P.M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J.P.; Botelho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  20. Supported graphene oxide hollow fibre membrane for oily wastewater treatment

    Othman, Nur Hidayati; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Shahruddin, Munawar Zaman; Hussein, Siti Nurliyana Che Mohamed; Dollah, Aqilah

    2017-12-01

    Oil and gas industry deals with a large amount of undesirable discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes and the amounts can considerably change during the production phases. Oilfield wastewater or produced water is known to constitute various organic and inorganic components. Discharging the produced water can pollute surface and underground water and therefore the necessity to treat this oily wastewater is an inevitable challenge. The current technologies for the treatment of this metastable oil-in-water are not really effective and very pricey. As a result, there is a great interest from many parties around the world in finding cost-effective technologies. In recent years, membrane processes have been utilized for oily wastewater treatment. In these work, a graphene oxide membrane supported on a highly porous Al2O3 hollow fibre was prepared using vacuum assisted technique and its performance in treating oily wastewater was investigated. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared using a modified Hummer's method and further characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM. The results showed that the GO was successfully synthesized. The GO membrane was deposited on alumina hollow fibre substrates. The membrane performance was then investigated using dead-end filtration setup with synthetic oily wastewater as a feed. The effects of operating times on rejection rate and permeate flux were investigated. The experimental results showed that the oil rejections were over 90%. It was concluded that the supported GO membrane developed in this study may be considered feasible in treating oily wastewater. Detail study on the effects of transmembrane pressure, oil concentration, pH and fouling should be carried out in the future

  1. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Petrinic, Irena

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies is that the forward osmosis process per se eliminates the need for operation with high hydraulic pressure and forward osmosis has low fouling tendency. Hence, it provides an opportunity for saving energy and membrane replacement cost. However, there are many limitations that still need to be addressed. Here we briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication.

  2. Innovative wastewater treatment process with reduced energy consumption and regeneration of nutrients

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Fitsios, E.; Angelidaki, Irini

    Treatment of municipal wastewater by anaerobic digestion was investigated. A new process is described here, where anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater is the main step for removal of organic matter, resulting in much lower sludge production. Steps for removal nutrients are also included. T...

  3. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  5. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  6. Can those organic micro-pollutants that are recalcitrant in activated sludge treatment be removed from wastewater by biofilm reactors (slow sand filters)?

    Escolà Casas, Mònica; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of seven compounds which are usually recalcitrant in classical activated sludge treatment (e.g., diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol tebuconazole and propiconazole) was studied in a biofilm reactor (slow sand filtration). This reactor was used to treat real effluent-wastewater at different flow rates (hydraulic loadings) under aerobic conditions so removal and degradation kinetics of these recalcitrant compounds were calculated. With the hydraulic loading rate of 0.012 m 3 m 2 h −1 the reactor removed 41, 94, 58, 57 and 85% of diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol and iomeprol respectively. For these compounds the removal efficiency was dependent on hydraulic residence-times. Only 59 and 21% of the incoming tebuconazole and propiconazole respectively were removed but their removal did not depend on hydraulic residence time. Biofilm reactors are thus efficient in removing micro-pollutants and could be considered as an option for advanced treatment in small wastewater treatment plants. - Highlights: • A biofilm reactor (biofilter) can remove micro-pollutants from WWTP effluent. • Sorption could be excluded as the dominant removal mechanism. • Biodegradation was responsible for removing seven compounds. • The removal efficiency was usually proportional to the hydraulic residence-time. • Single first-order removal rates apply for most compounds

  7. Can those organic micro-pollutants that are recalcitrant in activated sludge treatment be removed from wastewater by biofilm reactors (slow sand filters)?

    Escolà Casas, Mònica; Bester, Kai, E-mail: kb@dmu.dk

    2015-02-15

    The degradation of seven compounds which are usually recalcitrant in classical activated sludge treatment (e.g., diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol tebuconazole and propiconazole) was studied in a biofilm reactor (slow sand filtration). This reactor was used to treat real effluent-wastewater at different flow rates (hydraulic loadings) under aerobic conditions so removal and degradation kinetics of these recalcitrant compounds were calculated. With the hydraulic loading rate of 0.012 m{sup 3} m{sup 2} h{sup −1} the reactor removed 41, 94, 58, 57 and 85% of diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol and iomeprol respectively. For these compounds the removal efficiency was dependent on hydraulic residence-times. Only 59 and 21% of the incoming tebuconazole and propiconazole respectively were removed but their removal did not depend on hydraulic residence time. Biofilm reactors are thus efficient in removing micro-pollutants and could be considered as an option for advanced treatment in small wastewater treatment plants. - Highlights: • A biofilm reactor (biofilter) can remove micro-pollutants from WWTP effluent. • Sorption could be excluded as the dominant removal mechanism. • Biodegradation was responsible for removing seven compounds. • The removal efficiency was usually proportional to the hydraulic residence-time. • Single first-order removal rates apply for most compounds.

  8. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  9. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  10. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  11. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    Shoener, B. D.; Bradley, I. M.; Cusick, R. D.; Guest, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy

  12. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  13. Wastewater Sludge Stabilization Using Lime A Case Study of West Ahwaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Mehdi Farzadkia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime stabilization is a chemical method used for wastewater sludge stabilization. It is capable of decreasing large quantities of pathogens and of preventing microbial degradation of sludge organic materials. The main objective of the present experimental research was to investigate stabilization of the sludge from west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant by lime addition and to control if the microbial quality of this sludge conforms to the USEPA standards for sludge reuse and safe disposal. The study was carried out on a pilot scale in 5 stages over a period of 12 months (July 2005 to June 2006 at west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant laboratory using raw sludge. For the purposes of this study, a 30-liter reactor was commissioned and loaded with sludge and appropriate quantities of hydrated lime were added based on the solid waste percent. The parameters used to determine stabilization efficiency were pH, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and parasite eggs. The results showed that lime addition at a ratio of 265g Ca(OH2/kg. ds was the optimum level for sludge stabilization in westAhwazwastewater treatment plant, which is acceptable from both economic and technical viewpoints. The method is capable of achieving class B but never satisfied class A of USEPA standards.

  14. Sequential solar photo-fenton-biological system for the treatment of winery wastewaters.

    Mosteo, R; Sarasa, J; Ormad, Maria P; Ovelleiro, J L

    2008-08-27

    In this study, winery wastewaters are considered for degradation using heterogeneous photo-Fenton as a preliminary step before biotreatment. The heterogeneous photo-Fenton process assisted by solar light is able to partially degrade the organic matter present in winery wastewaters. When an initial hydrogen peroxide concentration of 0.1 M is used over 24 h of treatment, a degradation yield of organic matter (measured as TOC) of around 50% is reached. The later treatment (activated sludge process) allows the elimination of 90% of the initial TOC present in pretreated winery wastewaters without producing nondesired side-effects, such as the bulking phenomenon, which is usually detected when this treatment is used alone. The final effluent contains a concentration of organic matter (measured as COD) of 128 mg O2/L. The coupled system comprising the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process and biological treatment based on activated sludge in simple stage is a real alternative for the treatment of winery wastewater.

  15. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  16. Treatment of dairy wastewater with a membrane bioreactor

    L. H. Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the food industries, the dairy industry is considered to be the most polluting one because of the large volume of wastewater generated and its high organic load. In this study, an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for the treatment of wastewater from a large dairy industry and two hydraulic retention times (HRT, 6 and 8 hours, were evaluated. For both HRTs removal efficiencies of organic matter of 99% were obtained. Despite high permeate flux (27.5 L/h.m², the system operated fairly stablely. The molecular weight distribution of feed, permeate and mixed liquor showed that only the low molecular weight fraction is efficiently degraded by biomass and that the membrane has an essential role in producing a permeate of excellent quality.

  17. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Abou-Elela, Sohair I.; Ali, Mohammed Eid M.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2016-01-01

    The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC). The effects of operating condition on Fento...

  18. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  19. Vertical Subsurface Flow (VSSF) constructed wetland for domestic wastewater treatment

    Perdana, M. C.; Sutanto, H. B.; Prihatmo, G.

    2018-04-01

    Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (VSSF) is appraised to become an alternative solution for treating domestic wastewater effectively and efficiently. The system which imitates the natural wetland concept is able to reduce organic material and nutrients in wastewater; therefore, it will be more feasible to be discharged to the environment. This study aimed to compare which species is more recommended to be applied for reducing organic material and nutrients in domestic wastewater. This experimental study applied four treatments, i.e 1) control (unplanted), 2) single species Iris pseudacorus, 3) single species Echinodorus palaefolius, and 4) combination (Iris pseudacorus and Echinodorus palaefolius) with three days of retention time. The application of those plants aims for holding the role in increasing wastewater quality and adding aesthetic impression at once. The plants were planted on VSSF media, in relatively same of weight and size to compare their effectiveness in decreasing organic and inorganic load. The parameters measured pervade TDS, pH, BOD5, COD, Nitrate, and Phosphate. The plants’ condition was also observed during and after the system worked. The result showed that the best average value of effectiveness for each of parameters: COD by combination treatment (50.76%), BOD5 by single I. pseudacorus (30.15%), Nitrate by single E. palaefolius (58.06%), Phosphate by single E. palaefolius (99.5%), and TDS by E.palaefolius (3.25%). The result showed that there was a significant difference of Nitrate and Phosphate reduction between control and three other treatments, while pH parameter showed non-significant change among them. In term of performance, I.pseudacorus seemed showed a preferable achievement.

  20. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  1. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  2. Livestock wastewater treatment by zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation

    Lee, Sang Ryul; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2008-01-01

    Livestock wastewater containing high concentrations of organic matters and ammonia-nitrogen has been known as one of the recalcitrant wastewater. It is difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment techniques. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation treatment of livestock wastewater. The removal efficiencies of SCOD Cr and NH3-N were significantly enhanced by gamma-ray irradiation after zeolite ion exchange as a pre-treatment. However, the effects of zeolite particle size on the SCOD Cr and NH 3 -N removal efficiencies were insignificant. These results indicate that the combined process of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation has potential for the treatment of livestock wastewater

  3. Presence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-02

    Lee, Kathy E.; Barber, Larry B.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, and sterols and hormones were measured at 65 sites in Minnesota as part of a cooperative study among the Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were collected in Minnesota during October 2000 through November 2002 and analyzed for the presence and distribution of 91 OWCs at sites including wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent; landfill and feedlot lagoon leachate; surface water; ground water (underlying sewered and unsewered mixed urban land use, a waste dump, and feedlots); and the intake and finished drinking water from drinking water facilities.

  4. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  5. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    Tizghadam, Mostafa [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Dagot, Christophe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)], E-mail: dagot@ensil.unilim.fr; Baudu, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 {+-} 2% of the total COD and 98 {+-} 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 {+-} 11 mg COD/L and 43 {+-} 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 {+-} 3 and 6 {+-} 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 {+-} 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 {+-} 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1}. The result for the CAS reactor was 60 {+-} 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank.

  6. Microaerobic biodegradation of high organic load wastewater by ...

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... concentration in the simulated wastewater as in the RCVBN medium. Optimization of wastewater composition and treatment conditions. SW with pollutants strength of 3600 mgl-1 COD was used to incubate the phototrophic bacteria microaerobically in the light (appro- ximately 2000 lx), the COD reduction ...

  7. Treatment of wastewaters and methane fermentation

    Lescure, J P; Bourlet, P

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scale experiments were conducted on the anaerobic fermentation of spent sugar beet pulps and wastewater from wineries. The product of the fermentation was a gas typically containing CH/sub 4/ 65, CO/sub 2/ 15, H/sub 2/S 2.4, 0.3, N 0.8, and nonidentified substances 16.1 volume %. A 500 L pilot plant could process 10 kg/day of the spent beet pulp containing 20% solids and produce 500-600 L/day gas. The conversion of organic C was 66-91%.

  8. Solar treatment (H2O2, TiO2-P25 and GO-TiO2 photocatalysis, photo-Fenton) of organic micropollutants, human pathogen indicators, antibiotic resistant bacteria and related genes in urban wastewater.

    Moreira, Nuno F F; Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Polo-López, M Inmaculada; Pastrana-Martínez, Luisa M; Faria, Joaquim L; Manaia, Célia M; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Nunes, Olga C; Silva, Adrián M T

    2018-05-15

    Solar-driven advanced oxidation processes were studied in a pilot-scale photoreactor, as tertiary treatments of effluents from an urban wastewater treatment plant. Solar-H 2 O 2 , heterogeneous photocatalysis (with and/or without the addition of H 2 O 2 and employing three different photocatalysts) and the photo-Fenton process were investigated. Chemical (sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and diclofenac) and biological contaminants (faecal contamination indicators, their antibiotic resistant counterparts, 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes), as well as the whole bacterial community, were characterized. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO 2 -P25 and assisted with H 2 O 2 (P25/H 2 O 2 ) was the most efficient process on the degradation of the chemical organic micropollutants, attaining levels below the limits of quantification in less than 4 h of treatment (corresponding to Q UV  < 40 kJ L -1 ). This performance was followed by the same process without H 2 O 2 , using TiO 2 -P25 or a composite material based on graphene oxide and TiO 2 . Regarding the biological indicators, total faecal coliforms and enterococci and their antibiotic resistant (tetracycline and ciprofloxacin) counterparts were reduced to values close, or beneath, the detection limit (1 CFU 100 mL -1 ) for all treatments employing H 2 O 2 , even upon storage of the treated wastewater for 3-days. Moreover, P25/H 2 O 2 and solar-H 2 O 2 were the most efficient processes in the reduction of the abundance (gene copy number per volume of wastewater) of the analysed genes. However, this reduction was transient for 16S rRNA, intI1 and sul1 genes, since after 3-days storage of the treated wastewater their abundance increased to values close to pre-treatment levels. Similar behaviour was observed for the genes qnrS (using TiO 2 -P25), bla CTX-M and bla TEM (using TiO 2 -P25 and TiO 2 -P25/H 2 O 2 ). Interestingly, higher proportions of sequence reads affiliated to the phylum Proteobacteria

  9. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of wastewater from food waste treatment processes

    Lee, In-Gu [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Korean food wastes have high moisture content (more than 85 wt%) and their major treatment processes such as drying or biological fermentations generate concentrated organic wastewater (CODs of about 100,000 mgO{sub 2}/L). For obtaining both wastewater treatment and hydrogen production from renewable resources, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the organic wastewater was carried out in this work. The effect of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reactor residence time on COD destruction and composition of gas products was examined. As a result, a SCWG of the wastewater over Ni- Y/activated charcoal at 700 C, 28 MPa yielded 99 % COD destruction and hydrogen-rich gas production (45 vol% H{sub 2}). A liquid-phase thermal pretreatment to destroy solid particles from the wastewater was proposed for more effective operation of the SCWG system. (orig.)

  10. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Design and operation of UASB—A/O process for treatment starch and VB12 wastewater

    Yuanyuan CHEN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch and VB12 wastewater with higher COD and ammonia nitrogen concentration, contains a large number of difficult biodegradable material, complex composition, is difficult to deal with. In recent years, with the increasingly stringent wastewater discharge standards, require the use of a stable and efficient wastewater treatment process for purification treatment of high concentration of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater and the refractory organic pollutants, to achieve discharge standards. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB—Anoxic/Oxic(A/O process was employed in a wastewater treatment of starch and Vitamin B12 wastewater, which was 5 000 m3/d with highly concentrated organic pollutants and ammonia. The efficiency and reliability of the process has been proven. The results of the system operation show that the concentration of the effluent COD, ammonia and total nitrogen (TN were at 78.4 mg/L, 18.7 mg/L and 41.1 mg/L, and the treatment efficiencies of COD, ammonia and TN reached over 99%, 92.1%, 82.7%, respectively, when the influent COD and TN concentration were in the ranges of 8 544~9 720 mg/L and 240~250 mg/L. The quality of the treated wastewater met the first-class discharge standards in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978—1996.

  12. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  13. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  14. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  15. Toxic Byproduct Formation during Electrochemical Treatment of Latrine Wastewater.

    Jasper, Justin T; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2017-06-20

    Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation. Production of inorganic byproducts (chlorate and perchlorate) and indicator organic byproducts (haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes) during electrolysis dramatically exceeded recommendations for drinking water after one treatment cycle (∼10-30 000 times), raising concerns for contamination of downstream water supplies. Stopping the reaction after ammonium was removed (i.e., the chlorination breakpoint) was a promising method to minimize byproduct formation without compromising disinfection and nutrient removal. Though treatment was accelerated at increased chloride concentrations and current densities, byproduct concentrations remained similar near the breakpoint. On TiO 2 /IrO 2 anodes, haloacetic acids (up to ∼50 μM) and chlorate (up to ∼2 μM) were of most concern. Although boron-doped diamond anodes mineralized haloacetic acids after formation, high production rates of chlorate and perchlorate (up to ∼4 and 25 μM) made them inferior to TiO 2 /IrO 2 anodes in terms of toxic byproduct formation. Organic byproduct formation was similar during chemical chlorination and electrolysis of wastewater, suggesting that organic byproducts are formed by similar pathways in both cases (i.e., reactions with chloramines and free chlorine).

  16. Treatment of variable and intermittently flowing wastewaters.

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1993-11-01

    The biological treatment of wastewaters originating from hotels and residential areas of seasonal use, flowing intermittently, is difficult due to the fact that bacteria cannot survive during periods of no-flow. An investigation has been conducted in order to develop a system which will be able to overcome the difficulties encountered. After a long investigation the following system has given satisfactory results. The wastewater was taken initially into an aeration tank operating as a sequential batch reactor. Waste was taken after the sedimentation phase of the reactor into a coagulation-flocculation tank where it was treated by chemical means, and then settled in order to separate the floes. When the population of bacteria in the aeration tank reached the required level, the physico-chemical treatment was terminated and the tank used for chemical treatment has been started to be used as an equalization tank while the aeration and sedimentation tanks have been used as an activated sludge unit. This system has been proved to be a satisfactory method for the above mentioned wastes.

  17. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs

  18. Industrial detergent wastewater treatment via fenton reagent

    Mohd Zairie Mohd Yusuff; Mohd Zulkifli Mohamad Noor; Izirwan Izhab

    2010-01-01

    Production of detergent can generates wastewater containing an organic matter with will consume an oxidation demand, surfactants, suspended solids, fat and oil. Besides, sulfate concentration is high in the most detergent plant effluent because of the sulphonation process that has physiological and toxic effects on marine organisms. Therefore, a research must be conducted to find the solution for this problem. The feasibility of Fentons reagent to treat detergent waste was investigated in this study. The sample of detergent wastewater was taken from FPG Oleo chemicals Sdn. Bhd. This experiment studied the effect of temperature towards the feasibility of Fentons reagent process besides the dosage between hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) in the reagent. While, evaluated efficiency of Fentons reagent in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS) and the turbidity reduction within the experimental design. The result found that overall removal was achieved until 96.2 % in term of COD, 98.1 % in term of TSS and 99.6 % in term of turbidity using Fentons reagent process. Besides, also found that this process is optimum at temperature 35 degree Celsius are able to achieve the Standard A of Parameter Limit of Effluent of Standard A and Standard B were outlined by Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) based on Environment Quality Act 1974. (author)

  19. Application of Fenton oxidation to cosmetic wastewaters treatment.

    Bautista, P; Mohedano, A F; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Rodriguez, J J

    2007-05-08

    The removal of organic matter (TOC and COD) from a cosmetic wastewater by Fenton oxidation treatment has been evaluated. The operating conditions (temperature as well as ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide dosage) have been optimized. Working at an initial pH equal to 3.0, a Fe(2+) concentration of 200 mg/L and a H(2)O(2) concentration to COD initial weight ratio corresponding to the theoretical stoichiometric value (2.12), a TOC conversion higher than 45% at 25 degrees C and 60% at 50 degrees C was achieved. Application of the Fenton oxidation process allows to reach the COD regional limit for industrial wastewaters discharges to the municipal sewer system. A simple kinetic analysis based on TOC was carried out. A second-order equation describes well the overall kinetics of the process within a wide TOC conversion range covering up to the 80-90% of the maximum achievable conversion.

  20. Carbon and energy footprint of electrochemical vinegar wastewater treatment

    Gerek, Emine Esra; Yilmaz, Seval; Savaş Koparal, A.; Nezih Gerek, Ömer

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical treatment of wastewaters that are rich in organic compounds is a popular method, due to its acidic nature that avoids biological treatment. In many cases, the pollution hazard is considered as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from active carbon, and the success of the treatment is measured in terms of how much this specific parameter is reduced. However, if electricity is used during the treatment process, the treatment "itself" has manufacturing and operational energy costs. Many of the studies consider energy utilization as a monetary cost, and try to reduce its amount. However, the energy cost of the treatment also causes emission of carbon at the energy producing side of the closed loop. This carbon emission can be converted into oxygen demand, too. Therefore, it can be argued that one must look for the total optimal carbon efficiency (or oxygen demand), while reducing the COD. We chose a highly acidic wastewater case of vinegar production, which is a popular food product in Turkey, to demonstrate the high energy consumption and carbon emission problem of the electrochemical treatment approach. A novel strategy is presented to monitor total oxygen demand simultaneously at the treatment and energy production sides. Necessity of renewable energy utilization and conditions on process termination points are discussed.

  1. A summary of studies on mine wastewater treatment

    Ma Yao; Hu Baoqun; Sun Zhanxue

    2006-01-01

    The composition of mine wastewater is complicated and is harmful to the environment. The mine wastewater treatment methods include mainly neutralization, constructed wetland and microorganism methods. The three methods are summarized, with focus on the microorganism method. The mechanisms, characteristics and influencing factors of the sulfate reducing bacteria and the iron oxidizing bacteria are described in detail. The treatment methods of uranium mine wastewater are presented. (authors)

  2. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  3. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  4. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    Saleem, M.

    2007-01-01

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  5. Response to comment on “Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant”

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Henderson, Alden K.; Reissman, Dori B.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Centers for Disease Control thank Dr. Till for her comments concerning our research (Till, 2005) and welcome the opportunity to respond. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the potential for organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs), including pharmaceuticals, to survive a conventional drinking-water-treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies (Stackelberg et al., 2004). Our study was supported by two USGS laboratories: the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), which provided the HPLC/ESI-MS and CLLE GC/MS data and the Ocala Water Quality and Research Laboratory (OWQRL), which provided the LC/MS data (Stackelberg et al., 2004). Although discussed as distinct techniques by Dr. Till and indicated by differing acronyms to distinguish the laboratories producing the data, as described in our paper, the two LC/MS methods are very similar; they consist of a solid-phase extraction method with analysis of the extract produced using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer operated in the positive mode. The NWQL and OWQRL report ‘trace’ and ‘ultratrace’ determinations of analytes that provide significant benefit for describing the presence and fate of low-level contaminants. For mass spectral methods, an analyte is qualitatively identified by its retention time on the chromatographic column as well as the presence of two or more confirming ions with area ratios that match that of the reference standard compounds. Because of a recognized increased risk of false positives, these qualitative identification criteria are used in conjunction with abundant quality-control samples (detailed below) to confirm detection prior to making an estimate of the concentration. These qualitative identification criteria must be met before a compound is considered present (or detected) in a sample (Oblinger Childress et al., 1999). When a compound has been

  6. Two-year survey of specific hospital wastewater treatment and its impact on pharmaceutical discharges.

    Wiest, Laure; Chonova, Teofana; Bergé, Alexandre; Baudot, Robert; Bessueille-Barbier, Frédérique; Ayouni-Derouiche, Linda; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that pharmaceuticals are not completely removed by conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Hospital effluents are of major concern, as they present high concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds. Despite this, these specific effluents are usually co-treated with domestic wastewaters. Separate treatment has been recommended. However, there is a lack of information concerning the efficiency of separate hospital wastewater treatment by activated sludge, especially on the removal of pharmaceuticals. In this context, this article presents the results of a 2-year monitoring of conventional parameters, surfactants, gadolinium, and 13 pharmaceuticals on the specific study site SIPIBEL. This site allows the characterization of urban and hospital wastewaters and their separate treatment using the same process. Flow proportional sampling, solid-phase extraction, and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used in order to obtain accurate data and limits of quantification consistent with ultra-trace detection. Thanks to these consolidated data, an in-depth characterization of urban and hospital wastewaters was realized, as well as a comparison of treatment efficiency between both effluents. Higher concentrations of organic carbon, AOX, phosphates, gadolinium, paracetamol, ketoprofen, and antibiotics were observed in hospital wastewaters compared to urban wastewaters. Globally higher removals were observed in the hospital wastewater treatment plant, and some parameters were shown to be of high importance regarding removal efficiencies: hydraulic retention time, redox conditions, and ambient temperature. Eleven pharmaceuticals were still quantified at relevant concentrations in hospital and urban wastewaters after treatment (e.g., up to 1 μg/L for sulfamethoxazole). However, as the urban flow was about 37 times higher than the hospital flow, the hospital contribution appeared relatively low compared to

  7. Processes and modeling of hydrolysis of particulate organic matter in aerobic wastewater tratment - A review

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Kommedal, Roald; Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    Carbon cycling and the availability of organic carbon for nutrient removal processes are in most wastewater treatment systems restricted by the rate of hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable (particulate) organic matter. To date, the mechanisms of hydrolysis are not well understood for complex...

  8. Define of internal recirculation coefficient for biological wastewater treatment in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors

    Rossinskyi, Volodymyr

    2018-02-01

    The biological wastewater treatment technologies in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors with recycle of sludge mixture are used for the effective removal of organic compounds from wastewater. The change rate of sludge mixture recirculation between bioreactors leads to a change and redistribution of concentrations of organic compounds in sludge mixture in bioreactors and change hydrodynamic regimes in bioreactors. Determination of the coefficient of internal recirculation of sludge mixture between bioreactors is important for the choice of technological parameters of biological treatment (wastewater treatment duration in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, flow capacity of recirculation pumps). Determination of the coefficient of internal recirculation of sludge mixture requires integrated consideration of hydrodynamic parameter (flow rate), kinetic parameter (rate of oxidation of organic compounds) and physical-chemical parameter of wastewater (concentration of organic compounds). The conducted numerical experiment from the proposed mathematical equations allowed to obtain analytical dependences of the coefficient of internal recirculation sludge mixture between bioreactors on the concentration of organic compounds in wastewater, the duration of wastewater treatment in bioreactors.

  9. Toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms in biological wastewater treatment systems.

    Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Banihani, Qais; León, Glendy; Khatri, Chandra; Field, James A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2009-07-01

    Fluoride is a common contaminant in a variety of industrial wastewaters. Available information on the potential toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms implicated in biological wastewater treatment is very limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of fluoride towards the main microbial populations responsible for the removal of organic constituents and nutrients in wastewater treatment processes. The results of short-term batch bioassays indicated that the toxicity of sodium fluoride varied widely depending on the microbial population. Anaerobic microorganisms involved in various metabolic steps of anaerobic digestion processes were found to be very sensitive to the presence of fluoride. The concentrations of fluoride causing 50% metabolic inhibition (IC(50)) of propionate- and butyrate-degrading microorganisms as well as mesophilic and thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogens ranged from 18 to 43 mg/L. Fluoride was also inhibitory to nitrification, albeit at relatively high levels (IC(50)=149 mg/L). Nitrifying bacteria appeared to adapt rapidly to fluoride, and a near complete recovery of their metabolic activity was observed after only 4d of exposure to high fluoride levels (up to 500 mg/L). All other microbial populations evaluated in this study, i.e., glucose fermenters, aerobic glucose-degrading heterotrophs, denitrifying bacteria, and H(2)-utilizing methanogens, tolerated fluoride at very high concentrations (>500 mg/L).

  10. Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment.

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik; Stensel, David

    2014-11-01

    Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. However, substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning the overall community structure, population dynamics and metabolism of different organic carbon sources. This systematic review provides a summary of current findings pertaining to the microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes. DNA fingerprinting-based analysis has revealed a high level of microbial diversity in denitrification reactors and highlighted the impacts of carbon sources in determining overall denitrifying community composition. Stable isotope probing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays and meta-omics further link community structure with function by identifying the functional populations and their gene regulatory patterns at the transcriptional and translational levels. This review stresses the need to integrate microbial ecology information into conventional denitrification design and operation at full-scale. Some emerging questions, from physiological mechanisms to practical solutions, for example, eliminating nitrous oxide emissions and supplementing more sustainable carbon sources than methanol, are also discussed. A combination of high-throughput approaches is next in line for thorough assessment of wastewater denitrifying community structure and function. Though denitrification is used as an example here, this synergy between microbial ecology and process engineering is applicable to other biological wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic treatment of winery wastewater in fixed bed reactors.

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Rajinikanth, Rajagopal; Thanikal, Joseph V; Ramanujam, Ramamoorty Alwar; Torrijos, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater in three upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactors (S9, S30 and S40) with low density floating supports of varying size and specific surface area was investigated. A maximum OLR of 42 g/l day with 80 +/- 0.5% removal efficiency was attained in S9, which had supports with the highest specific surface area. It was found that the efficiency of the reactors increased with decrease in size and increase in specific surface area of the support media. Total biomass accumulation in the reactors was also found to vary as a function of specific surface area and size of the support medium. The Stover-Kincannon kinetic model predicted satisfactorily the performance of the reactors. The maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) was 161.3, 99.0 and 77.5 g/l day and the saturation value constant (K(B)) was 162.0, 99.5 and 78.0 g/l day for S9, S30 and S40, respectively. Due to their higher biomass retention potential, the supports used in this study offer great promise as media in anaerobic fixed bed reactors. Anaerobic fixed-bed reactors with these supports can be applied as high-rate systems for the treatment of large volumes of wastewaters typically containing readily biodegradable organics, such as the winery wastewater.

  12. Efficient treatment of an electroplating wastewater containing heavy metal ions, cyanide, and organics by H2O2 oxidation followed by the anodic Fenton process.

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Haidong; Chen, Fayuan; Mao, Ran; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2013-01-01

    A real electroplating wastewater, containing heavy metals, cyanide, and organic contaminants, was treated by electrocoagulation (EC), H2O2 oxidation, H2O2 pre-oxidation followed by EC, and the anodic Fenton process and the efficacy of the processes was compared. Concentration of cyanide, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cr was largely decreased by EC within 5 min. When the reaction time was extended, removal of residual cyanide, Cu, and Ni was limited. In H2O2 oxidation, the concentration of cyanide decreased from initial 75 to 12 mg L(-1) in 30 min. The effluents from the H2O2 oxidation were further treated by EC or anodic Fenton. In EC, the concentration of total cyanide, Ni, and Cu decreased to below 0.3, 0.5, and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand by EC was less than 20.0%. By contrast, there was 73.5% reduction by the anodic Fenton process with 5 mM H2O2 at 30 min; this can be attributed to the oxidation induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by the reaction of H2O2 with the electrogenerated Fe(2+). Meanwhile, residual cyanide, Cu, and Ni can also be efficiently removed. Transformation of organic components in various processes was analyzed using UV-visible and fluorescence excitation-emission spectra.

  13. Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor Applications for Biological Wastewater Treatment: A Review of Research and Developments

    Michael J. Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is a process that is vital to protecting both the environment and human health. At present, the most cost-effective way of treating wastewater is with biological treatment processes such as the activated sludge process, despite their long operating times. However, population increases have created a demand for more efficient means of wastewater treatment. Fluidization has been demonstrated to increase the efficiency of many processes in chemical and biochemical engineering, but it has not been widely used in large-scale wastewater treatment. At the University of Western Ontario, the circulating fluidized-bed bioreactor (CFBBR was developed for treating wastewater. In this process, carrier particles develop a biofilm composed of bacteria and other microbes. The excellent mixing and mass transfer characteristics inherent to fluidization make this process very effective at treating both municipal and industrial wastewater. Studies of lab- and pilot-scale systems showed that the CFBBR can remove over 90% of the influent organic matter and 80% of the nitrogen, and produces less than one-third as much biological sludge as the activated sludge process. Due to its high efficiency, the CFBBR can also be used to treat wastewaters with high organic solid concentrations, which are more difficult to treat with conventional methods because they require longer residence times; the CFBBR can also be used to reduce the system size and footprint. In addition, it is much better at handling and recovering from dynamic loadings (i.e., varying influent volume and concentrations than current systems. Overall, the CFBBR has been shown to be a very effective means of treating wastewater, and to be capable of treating larger volumes of wastewater using a smaller reactor volume and a shorter residence time. In addition, its compact design holds potential for more geographically localized and isolated wastewater treatment systems.

  14. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF CARBON, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS TRANSFORMATIONS DURING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Lucyna Bogumiła Przywara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper exploitation of waste water treatment plant is strictly connected with monitoring of basic parameters and effectiveness of particular its stages. Legal requirements include not only organic compounds (BOD5, COD and general suspensions but also highly effective removal of nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorus. Effectiveness of removal of biogenic compounds interferes with temperature fluctuations, effluent quality, problems of active sediment. The aim of this study was to show changes in concentrations of organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus in the municipal wastewater after subsequent stages of mechanical-biological treatment. During researches samples were taken down by the wastewater treatment line: raw wastewater, after mechanical treatment, pre-denitrification, dephosphatation, denitrification, nitrification and treated wastewater. Another aspect of this study was determination of COD fractions, and their changes in the municipal wastewater, after the successive stages of mechanical-biological treatment. It allows separation of dissolved and non-dissolved organic substances, taking into account also their biodegradability and the lack of susceptibility to biological decomposition. It can also be a very important method of the processes control during wastewater treatment.

  16. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  17. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  18. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  19. Critical issues in water and wastewater treatment. Proceedings of the 1994 national conference on environmental engineering

    Ryan, J.N.; Edwards, M.

    1994-01-01

    This proceedings, Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater, contains short versions of most of the 114 papers presented at the 1994 Specialty Conference on Environmental Engineering held in Boulder, Colorado on July 11 to 13, 1994. These papers are organized into 23 distinct sessions that focus primarily on water treatment, water distribution, and wastewater treatment. Some of the topics discussed concern microbes in drinking water, contaminated groundwater remediation, and the effects of floods on hazardous waste sites. To summarize, this proceedings provides a practical and timely reference for engineers interested in the current state of water and wastewater concerns

  20. Effects of reactive filters based on modified zeolite in dairy industry wastewater treatment process

    Kolaković Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of adsorbents based on organo-zeolites has certain advantages over conventional methods applied in food industry wastewater treatment process. The case study presented in this paper examines the possibilities and effects of treatment of dairy industry wastewater by using adsorbents based on organo-zeolites. The obtained results indicate favorable filtration properties of organo-zeolite, their high level of adsorption of organic matter and nitrate nitrogen in the analyzed wastewater. This paper concludes with recommendations of optimal technical and technological parameters for the application of these filters in practice.

  1. Ozone treatment of textile wastewaters for reuse.

    Ciardelli, G; Capannelli, G; Bottino, A

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of textile wastewaters by means of an ozonation pilot plant are described. Wastewaters used were produced by a dyeing and finishing factory and were first treated in an active sludge plant and filtrated through sand. In the appropriate conditions very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and the effluent could be reused in production processes requiring water of high quality as dyeing yarns or light colorations. Even if the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease of up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, recycling experiments were successful. The economical viability of the techniques implementation was also demonstrated and the industrial plant is currently under realisation under an EU financed project. The paper considers also the possible improvement of ozone diffusion by means of membrane contactors realised in a second pilot plant, in order to further reduce operating costs of the technique. With respect to traditional systems, the gas/liquid contact surface is much higher being that of the membrane. Ozone at the interface is therefore immediately solubilized and potentially consumed with no additional resistance to the mass transfer.

  2. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash.

    Sun, Wei-ling; Qu, Yan-zhi; Yu, Qing; Ni, Jin-ren

    2008-06-15

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm(-1) is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption.

  3. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    Sun Weiling; Qu Yanzhi; Yu Qing; Ni Jinren

    2008-01-01

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm -1 is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption

  4. TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER AT VILLA CLARA WATER MANAGEMENT COMPANY

    Floramis Pérez Martín

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the current operating and safety conditions of biological treatment systems for wastewater in the centers of swinish and poultry breeding at Villa Clara Water Management Company, with the purpose of setting a group of organizational, technical and human measures that contributes to prevent contamination and minimize biological risks. In this way it can be guaranteed the protection to the workers, the facilities, community and the environment, to have a sure occupational atmosphere in the organization. As a result of the evaluation the factors that affect the operation of the biodigestion system and the security of the process are defined.

  5. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  6. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO 2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  7. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  8. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  9. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  10. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

    2014-10-17

    A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H(+)-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts.

  11. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  12. Concentration and Distribution Characteristics of Airborne Fungi in the Ambient Air of Milad Hospital, Blood Transfusion Organization and Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods Wastewater Treatment Plant

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently contact with bioaerosols has been presented as an important problem which endangers human being’s health. The aim of this investigation is to compare potential of separation of fungal aerosols in the air around Tehran’s Milad hospital, blood transfusion organization and waste water treatment plant of Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods. methods: this cross-sectional investigation was done in Milad hospital, blood transfusion organization and Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods waste water treatment plant within for 4 months. The sampling was done passively for 1 hour and once in 6 days. The culture medium was Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: comparing selected sampling stations the most fungal density was for 100 meters after the last unit of waste water treatment plant (67 CFU and the least density was for Milad hospital (30 CFU. Dominant genera of fungal in waste water treatment plant and blood transfusion organization was related to Cladosporium (in order of 49% and 84% and in air around Milad hospital was related to Alternaria (47%. Conclusion: according to the results processing and operating sections in waste water treatment plant can be effective in fungal density and separation of bioaerosols. Therefore it seems to be vital that the responsible organizations should do necessary actions to develop guidelines and standards related to bioaerosols. Also appropriate administration of environmental health in waste water treatment plant can be an important factor in reduction of aerosol separation.

  13. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  14. Wastewaters from the bioconversion of biomass. Utilisation and treatment

    Frings, R.M. (Forest Research Inst. (New Zealand)); Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Developed technology for the bioconversion of biomass into energy forms falls into two categories: biogasification and bioliquefaction. Biogasification is the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter by a mixed culture of organisms to produce a gaseous mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Bioliquefaction is the use of a pure culture of organisms (mainly yeasts) to anaerobically ferment sugars into a range of liquid products with acetone, butanol, and ethanol being the most commonly produced. Biological processes have the advantage of occurring at ambient, or relatively low (35-60[sup o]C) temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in dilute substrate, in an aqueous environment. Conversion of raw material to gas or liquid fuel is generally incomplete, leaving the non-convertible residues (organic or inorganic) in solution. Hence, biological processes potentially generate large volumes of wastewater containing significant levels of pollutants. This review briefly describes the two bioconversion process routes and then considers each process separately in relation to the characteristics, utilisation and treatment of the specific wastewaters produced by the process. (author)

  15. Olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan: A Review

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Ghannam, Noor; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.; Al-Ajlouni, Yazan A.; Alshawawreh, Fida'a.; Odeh, Fadwa; Abu-Dalo, Muna A.

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW) pollution is a public concern. OMW contains high levels of phenols, organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), microorganisms, nutrients, and toxic compounds. The treatment of OMW has been investigated by many researchers in the Mediterranean region, using several treatment techniques to remove contaminants from OMW. These techniques include chemical, biological, physiochemical, and biophysical techniques. Surfactants and some adsorbents were used in chemical techniques, anaerobic and aerobic in biological techniques, while the combined treatment methods used Electroosmosis, ozonation and electrocoagulation processes as physiochemical methods, and ultrasonic irradiation combined with aerobic biodegradation as biophysical method. The effects of OMW, whether treated or untreated, have been evaluated on both plants’ growth and soil properties. The treatment methods as well as the environmental impact of OMW in Jordan were summarized in this review.

  16. Enhancing anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing oleic acid

    Hwu, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater

  17. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  18. Balancing the organic load and light supply in symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilm reactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, B.G.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms can be very attractive for municipal wastewater treatment. Microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus and simultaneously produce the oxygen that is required for the aerobic, heterotrophic degradation of organic pollutants. For the application of these biofilms

  19. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  20. Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants.

    Saxena, Gaurav; Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater. Therefore, it is imperative to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater for environmental safety. This paper provides a detail review on the environmental pollution and toxicity profile of tannery wastewater and chemicals. Furthermore, the status and advances in the existing treatment approaches used for the treatment and/or detoxification of tannery wastewater at both laboratory and pilot/industrial scale have been reviewed. In addition, the emerging treatment approaches alone or in combination with biological treatment approaches have also been considered. Moreover, the limitations of existing and emerging treatment approaches have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed. In addition, the clean technologies for waste minimization, control and management are also discussed. Finally, the international legislation scenario on discharge limits for tannery wastewater and chemicals has also been discussed country wise with discharge standards for pollution prevention due to tannery wastewater.

  1. Treatment of winery wastewater in a conventional municipal activated sludge process: five years of experience.

    Bolzonella, D; Zanette, M; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale wastewater treatment plant where municipal and winery wastewaters were co-treated was studied for five years. The experimental results showed that suspended solids, COD, nitrogen and phosphorous were effectively removed both during the treatment of municipal wastewater and the cotreatment of municipal and winery wastewater. The sludge production increase from 4 tons to 5.5 tons per day during the harvesting and wine making period. In any case the specific sludge production was 0.2 kgMLVSS per kgCOD(removed) despite the organic loading increasing. About 70% of the COD was removed through respiration. Also the energy demand increased from 6,000 to 7,000 kWh per day. The estimated costs for the treatment of the winery wastewater was 0.2-0.3 Euros per m3 of treated wastewater. With reference to the process efficiency, the nitrogen removal was just 20%. The co-treatment of municipal and winery wastewater in conventional activated sludge processes can be a feasible solution for the treatment of these streams at relatively low costs.

  2. Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with ...

    Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with flocculent biomass. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of using flocculent sludge in UASB reactors applied to the treatment of dairy ...

  3. Effect of Soil Passage and Ozonation on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Quantification in Wastewater

    Ahmed, Elaf A.

    2013-05-01

    Water quality data are presented from a laboratory bench scale soil columns study, to simulate an aquifer recharge system injected with MBR wastewater effluent. This study investigates the effect of soil filtration and ozonation on the dissolved organic carbon and bacterial count in the wastewater. Flow Cytometry was used to quantify microorganisms in water samples. Other analytical tests were conducted as well, such as seven anions, fluorescence spectroscopy (FEEM), ultraviolet absorption (UV 254 nm) and dissolved organic carbon measurement (DOC). Influent in this study was injected into two identical soil columns. One of the columns was injected with treated wastewater combined with ozonation called SC1, The second column was injected with treated wastewater only and called SC2. Passing the wastewater through a deeper depth in the soil column showed a reduction in the DOC concentration. Removal of DOC was 53.7 % in SC1 and 53.8 % in SC2. UV 254 nm results demonstrated that the majority of the UV absorbing compounds were removed after the first 30 cm in the soil columns. FEEM results revealed that soil column treatment only doesn\\'t remove humic-like and fulvic-like substances. However, combining soil column treatment with ozonation was capable of removing humic-like, fulvic-like and protein-like substances from the wastewater. Flow Cytometry results showed a bacteria removal of 52.5 %-89.5 % in SC1 which was higher than SC2 removal of 29.1 %-56.5 %.

  4. Evaluation of toxicity to the biological treatment and removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from oil refineries wastewaters; Avaliacao da toxicidade ao tratamento biologico e remocao de compostos organicos recalcitrantes existentes em efluentes de refinarias de petroleo

    Barros Junior, Laerte M.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Bezerra, Marcio S.; Pereira, Franklin M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Schmidell, Willibaldo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil industry waste water usually contains recalcitrant chemical compounds, like phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and acenaphthene. The respirometry, determination of respiration rate of an active biomass, is an adequate methodology for quantification of aerobic activity biological. This study aims evaluate the inhibition effect of phenol in the oxidation capacity of an industrial sludge. This work also intends to study the phenol removal through biological and photochemical-biological processes. The respirometry was carried out with synthetic solution, using sludge from an oil processing industry. The phenol degradation experiments were carried out in an activated sludge unit and in a photochemical reactor. This work suggests the potential of photochemical-biological treatment use, in relation to the biological process with a no-acclimated sludge, in the removal of refractory organic compounds from oil industry wastewaters. The characterization of biomass using the respirometry methodology showed which is a useful tool in evaluation of phenol toxicity to biological treatment. (author)

  5. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  6. Digested livestock wastewater treatment using gamma-ray irradiation and struvite crystallization

    Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Sang Ryul; Nam, Youn Ku; Lee, Myun Joo

    2009-01-01

    Livestock wastewater generally contains high strength of organics (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), phosphate phosphorus (PO 4 3- -P) and suspended solids. It is very difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment techniques. In this study, struvite crystallization was carried out to treat the digested livestock wastewater. 1.0 :1.2 :1.2 was determined as an optimal NH 4 + :Mg 2+ : PO 4 3- mol ratio of struvite crystallization. For the digested livestock wastewater, COD, NH 4 + -N and PO 4 3- -P removal efficiencies by struvite crystallization were 72.4%, 98.9%, and 74.8%, respectively. Gamma-ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. The enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency could be obtained by the pretreatment of gamma-ray irradiation due to the decrease of COD, NH 4 + -N and PO 4 3- -P concentration

  7. Wastewater Treatment from Batik Industries Using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Arifan, Fahmi; Nugraheni, FS; Rama Devara, Hafiz; Lianandya, Niken Elsa

    2018-02-01

    Batik is cultural patterned fabric, and the this industries produce wastewater that can pollute the aquatic environment. Besides dyes, batik wastewater also contains synthetic compounds that are hard degraded, such as heavy metals, suspended solids, or organic compounds. In this study, photocatalitic membrane TiO2 coated plastic sheets have been used to degrade batik wastewater under solar exposure. A total of 8 pieces of catalyst sheets are added on 1000 ml of the waste, and managed to degrade 50.41% of the initial concentration during 5-days irradiation. In this study, several parameters of the water quality such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspensed solids (TSS) of the wastewater were observed to be decreasing during photodegradation process. The catalyst sheet also is stable to be used repeatedly in wastewater treatment.

  8. Toxicity Evaluation of Through Fish Bioassay Raw Bulk Drug Industry Wastewater After Electrochemical Treatment

    S Satyanarayan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater (BDW possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter were studied under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that wastewater being very strong in terms of color, COD and BOD is found to be very toxic to the studied fish. The LC50 values for raw wastewater and after electrochemical treatment with carbon and aluminium electrodes for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between, 2.5-3.6%, 6.8-8.0%, 5.0-5.8% respectively. Carbon electrode showed marginally better removals for toxicity than aluminium electrode. It was evident from the studies that electrochemical treatment reduces toxicity in proportion to the removal efficiency shown by both the electrodes. The reduction in toxicity after treatment indicates the intermediates generated are not toxic than the parent compounds. Furthermore, as the electrochemical treatment did not result in achieving disposal standards it could be used only as a pre-treatment and the wastewater needs further secondary treatment before final disposal.

  9. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    Tizghadam, Mostafa; Dagot, Christophe; Baudu, Michel

    2008-01-01

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 ± 2% of the total COD and 98 ± 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 ± 11 mg COD/L and 43 ± 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 ± 3 and 6 ± 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 ± 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 ± 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m -3 day -1 . The result for the CAS reactor was 60 ± 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank

  10. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in ...

    Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in ...

  11. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  12. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  13. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...

  14. Radiation protection -Operation of chemical wastewater treatment facility

    Lee, M. J.; Lim, M. H.; Ahn, S. S.; Jeong, Y. S.

    1996-12-01

    The wastewater and sewage treatment facility have been operated. From the results of operation, it was confirmed that the quality of treated wastewater was 1/5 or 1/10 lower than that of regulation of law for environmental conservation. The quality of treated sewage has been maintained to 70% of regulation of law for environmental conservation. (author). 14 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Application of a membrane bioreactor for winery wastewater treatment.

    Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Pavan, P; Cecchi, F

    2010-01-01

    Winery wastewaters are variable in nature and are hard to treat by means of the conventional activated sludge process because of the high organic loading associated with their production, especially during vintage. To face this situation, recently, membrane bioreactors have been widely applied to treat winery wastewaters. In this study, a full-scale membrane bioreactor treated some 110 m(3)/d of wastewater and organic loadings up to 1,600 kg COD per day. The average removal efficiency was 95% while the corresponding sludge yield was only 0.1 kg MLVSS per kg COD removed, as usual for these wastewaters. A detailed analysis of energy consumption showed specific energy demands of 2.0-3.6 kWh/m(3) of treated wastewater or 1 kWh per kg of COD removed.

  16. Electroplating wastewater treatment by the combined electrochemical and ozonation methods.

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Nad, Karlo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a pilot-plant study of the electroplating wastewater treatment by the processes of electroreduction with iron electrode plates, and electrocoagulation/ozonation with aluminum electrode set, followed by the process of ozonation. The initial effluent was found to be highly enriched in heavy metals and to possess the elevated levels of organic contaminants. The values of Cr(VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, TOC, and COD exceeded the upper permissible limits of 63, 220.2, 1.1, 7, 131.3, 1.7, 12.3, and 11.4 times, respectively. The heavy metal removal was forced either by the coagulation/flocculation using Fe(II), Fe(III), and Al(III) ions released into the treated solution by the electrochemical corrosion of the sacrificial iron and aluminum electrodes, or the precipitation of the metal hydroxides as well as co-precipitation with iron and aluminum hydroxides. The principle organic matter destruction mechanisms were ozone oxidation and the indirect oxidation with chlorine/hypochlorite formed by the anodic oxidation of chloride already present in the wastewater. Following the combined treatment, the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, TOC, and COD were 99.94%, 100.00%, 95.86%, 98.66%, 99.97%, 96.81%, 93.24%, and 93.43%, respectively, thus complying with the regulated values.

  17. Microbial Diversity in Soil Treatment Systems for Wastewater

    Van Cuyk, S.; Spear, J.; Siegrist, R.; Pace, N.

    2002-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness and concern over land based wastewater system performance with respect to the removal of bacteria and virus. The goal of this work is to describe and identify the organismal composition of the microbiota in the applied wastewater effluent, the rich biomat that develops at the infiltrative surface, and in the soil percolate in order to aid in the understanding of bacterial and virus purification in soil treatment systems. The traditional reliance on pure culture techniques to describe microbiota is circumvented by the employment of a molecular approach. Microbial community characterization is underway based on cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes for phylogenetic analyses, to determine the nature and quantity of microbiota that constitute these ecosystems. Knowledge of the organisms naturally present can influence the design and treatment capacity of these widely used land based systems. Laboratory, intermediate and field scale systems are currently under study. Since human pathogens are known to exist in sewage effluents, their removal in wastewater infiltration systems and within the underlying soil are in need of a more fundamental understanding. The relationship between design parameters and environmental conditions, including a microbial characterization, is essential for the prevention of contamination in groundwater sources. Preliminary results indicate the presence of uncultured organisms and phylogenetic kinds that had not been detected in these systems using other methods. Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acrobacter cryaerophilus were the two dominant species found in septic tank effluent, comprising 20% and 11% of the library respectively. In soil samples collected from the infiltrative surface of a column dosed with STE, there was no dominant bacterial species present. Percolate samples collected from the outflow of the column showed that a tuber borchii symbiont, a common soil microorganism, dominated the bacterial

  18. Decision support for redesigning wastewater treatment technologies.

    McConville, Jennifer R; Künzle, Rahel; Messmer, Ulrike; Udert, Kai M; Larsen, Tove A

    2014-10-21

    This paper offers a methodology for structuring the design space for innovative process engineering technology development. The methodology is exemplified in the evaluation of a wide variety of treatment technologies for source-separated domestic wastewater within the scope of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge. It offers a methodology for narrowing down the decision-making field based on a strict interpretation of treatment objectives for undiluted urine and dry feces and macroenvironmental factors (STEEPLED analysis) which influence decision criteria. Such an evaluation identifies promising paths for technology development such as focusing on space-saving processes or the need for more innovation in low-cost, energy-efficient urine treatment methods. Critical macroenvironmental factors, such as housing density, transportation infrastructure, and climate conditions were found to affect technology decisions regarding reactor volume, weight of outputs, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions, investment cost, and net revenue. The analysis also identified a number of qualitative factors that should be carefully weighed when pursuing technology development; such as availability of O&M resources, health and safety goals, and other ethical issues. Use of this methodology allows for coevolution of innovative technology within context constraints; however, for full-scale technology choices in the field, only very mature technologies can be evaluated.

  19. Treatment of winery wastewater by an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Ruíz, C; Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Lebrato Martínez, J; Moletta, R; Delgenès, J P

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of winery wastewater was investigated using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biogas production rate was monitored and permitted the automation of the bioreactor by a simple control system. The reactor was operated at an organic loading rate (ORL) around 8.6 gCOD/L.d with soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency greater than 98%, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.2 d and a specific organic loading rate (SOLR) of 0.96 gCOD/gVSS.d. The kinetics of COD and VFA removal were investigated for winery wastewater and for simple compounds such as ethanol, which is a major component of winery effluent, and acetate, which is the main volatile fatty acid (VFA) produced. The comparison of the profiles obtained with the 3 substrates shows that, overall, the acidification of the organic matter and the methanisation of the VFA follow zero order reactions, in the operating conditions of our study. The effect on the gas production rate resulted in two level periods separated by a sharp break when the acidification stage was finished and only the breaking down of the VFA continued.

  20. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2011-05-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate, using high strength artificial wastewater. The removal rates were determined under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under a constant COD. Within the range of COD concentrations considered (42 mg L-1-135 mg L-1) it was found that at fixed hydraulic loading rate, a decrease in the influent concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. At the high COD concentrations applied residence times influenced the redox conditions in the soil column. Long residence times were detrimental to the removal process for COD, BOD and DOC as anoxic processes and sulphate reduction played an important role as electron acceptors. It was found that total COD mass loading within the range of 911 mg d-1-1780 mg d-1 applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated coupled with short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. The opposite was true for organic nitrogen where relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency. © 2011.

  1. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  2. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  3. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  4. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  5. Case study: centralized wastewater treatment plant at Rawang Integrated Industrial Park

    Ting Teo Ming; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2006-01-01

    Survey has been conducted at Rawang Integrated Industrial Park (RIIP) to investigate the possibility of setting up centralized industrial wastewater treatment plant. Rawang integrated industrial park is selected based on suggestion from department of environment. RIIP consists of about 150 industries with various type of activities operated in the area. Only 9 out of estimated 150 industries have individual wastewater treatment plant. The business activities of the 9 industries include food processing, textile, welding rods manufacturing, steel galvanizing and battery manufacturing. Wastewater generated by the industries are characterized by high oil and grease, cod, bod, organic matter, metal hydroxide and acidic. Besides that most of industries do the monitoring only once a month. This paper will also discuss the advantages of setting up of centralized industrial wastewater treatment plant to the government authorities, industries, people and environment. (Author)

  6. Performance Evaluation of Moving Bed Bio Film Reactor in Saline Wastewater Treatment

    M Ahmadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor is an aerobic attached growth with better biofilm thickness control, lack of plugging and lower head loss. Consequently, this system is greatly used by different wastewater treatment plants. High TDS wastewater produced petrochemical, leather tanning, sea food processing, cannery, pickling and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of MBBR in saline wastewater treatment. Materials and methods: In this study, 50 percent of a cylindrical reactor with 9.5 liter occupied media with 650 m2.m-3. In the first step, hydraulic regime was evaluated and startup reactor was done by sanitary sludge. Bio film was generated with glucose as the sole carbon source in synthetic wastewater. MBBR performance evaluation was performed in 6:30 and 8:45 with saline wastewater after bio film produced on media. Results: After 83 days of passing MBBR operation with saline wastewater containing 3000-12000 mg.L-1 TDS, organic loading rate of 2.2-3.5 kg/m3.d COD removal efficiency reached 80-92%. Conclusion: Moving bed biofilm reactor is effective in organic load elimination from saline wastewater.

  7. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  8. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...... for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant...

  9. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Talvitie, Julia; Mikola, Anna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi

    2017-10-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent. The MBR removed 99.9% of MPs during the treatment (from 6.9 to 0.005 MP L -1 ), rapid sand filter 97% (from 0.7 to 0.02 MP L -1 ), dissolved air flotation 95% (from 2.0 to 0.1 MP L -1 ) and discfilter 40-98.5% (from 0.5 - 2.0 to 0.03-0.3 MP L -1 ) of the MPs during the treatment. Our study shows that with advanced final-stage wastewater treatment technologies WWTPs can substantially reduce the MP pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  11. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  12. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  13. Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

    2010-11-01

    The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4ṡ7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

  14. Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment

    El-Gohary, F.A.; Badawy, M.I.; El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Kalliny, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of an integrated treatment scheme consisting of wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) followed by two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (10 l each) for the treatment of olive mill wastewater was the subject of this study. The diluted wastewater (1:1) was pre-treated using Fenton's reaction. Optimum operating conditions namely, pH, H 2 O 2 dose, Fe +2 , COD:H 2 O 2 ratio and Fe +2 :H 2 O 2 ratio were determined. The UASB reactor was fed continuously with the pre-treated wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was kept constant at 48 h (24 h for each stage). The conventional parameters such as COD, BOD, TOC, TKN, TP, TSS, oil and grease, and total phenols were determined. The concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in raw wastewater and effluents of each treatment step were measured using HPLC. The results indicated a good quality final effluent. Residual concentrations of individual organic compounds ranged from 0.432 mg l -1 for ρ-hydroxy-benzaldhyde to 3.273 mg l -1 for cinnamic acid

  15. Performance of Microbial Fuel Cell for Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Z Yavari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy will have an important role as a resource of energy in the future. Microbial fuel cell (MFC is a promising method to obtain electricity from organic matter andwastewater treatment simultaneously. In a pilot study, use of microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment and electricity generation investigated. The bacteria of ruminant used as inoculums. Synthetic wastewater used at different organic loading rate. Hydraulic retention time was aneffective factor in removal of soluble COD and more than 49% removed. Optimized HRT to achieve the maximum removal efficiency and sustainable operation could be regarded 1.5 and 2.5 hours. Columbic efficiency (CE affected by organic loading rate (OLR and by increasing OLR, CE reduced from 71% to 8%. Maximum voltage was 700mV. Since the microbial fuel cell reactor considered as an anaerobic process, it may be an appropriate alternative for wastewater treatment

  16. Sequencing Batch Reactor and Bacterial Community in Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment of Noodle-Manufacturing Sector

    Tang Thi Chinh; Phung Duc Hieu; Bui Van Cuong; Nguyen Nhat Linh; Nguyen Ngoc Lan; Nguyen Sy Nguyen; Nguyen Quang Hung; Le Thi Thu Hien

    2018-01-01

    The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been increasingly applied in the control of high organic wastewater. In this study, SBR with aerobic granular sludge was used for wastewater treatment in a noodle-manufacturing village in Vietnam. The results showed that after two months of operation, the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorous removal efficiency of aerobic granular SBR reached 92%, 83% and 75%, respectively. Bacterial diversity and bacterial community in wastewater ...

  17. Ozone/UV treatment to enhance biodegradation of surfactants in industrial wastewater. CRADA final report

    Cline, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sullivan, P.F. [Specialty Industrial Products, Inc., Spartanburg, SC (United States); Lovejoy, M.A.; Collier, J. [Sun River Innovations, Ltd., Lexington, KY (United States); Adams, C.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The new owners of a surfactant manufacturing plant wanted to triple production but were limited by the plant`s wastewater treatment capacity. Mass balance calculations indicated that little aerobic biodegradation was occurring in the plant`s wastewater treatment system. Literature reviews and laboratory tests confirmed that as much as 60% of the plant`s products might resist aerobic biodegradation. Overall chemical losses, both solid and aqueous, were estimated at 3.8% of theoretical. Organic loadings to the wastewater treatment system were 170 kg/d of which 50 kg/d reached the biological treatment system. Pollution prevention measures have allowed a > 20% increase in production levels with a > 30% decrease in effluent volume and no increase in discharge of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A new dissolved air flotation (DAF) system removes 70% of the organic loading. Sludge volumes are lower by an order of magnitude than with the clarifier/drum-filter process it replaced.

  18. Tofu wastewater treatment by sediment microbial fuel cells

    Rinaldi, W.; Abubakar; Rahmi, R. F.; Silmina

    2018-03-01

    This research aimed to measure power density generated by sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) by varying anode position and wastewater concentration. Anode position was varied at 2 cm and 4 cm under the surface of sediment, while wastewater concentration varied into 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The electrodes employed was stainless steel mesh, while the organic subtrate source was taken from wastewater of soybean washing and boiling process. The sediment was taken from the Lamnyong River around the outlet of tofu industry wastewater. SMFCs was run until the power density was relatively small. The produced electricity represented in power density. The results of this research showed that power density was decreased over time. Generated power density by varying 2 cm and 4 cm position of anode under the sediment surface was not significantly different, while the lowest wastewater concentration, 25%, gave the highest power density.

  19. Immersed membrane technology for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse

    Hotchkies, J.W. [Zenon Municipal Systems Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The use of membrane technology for both municipal water purification and wastewater/sewage treatment was discussed. Membranes are available in a wide range of forms and configurations. Their primary characteristics are pore size and molecular weight separation which classifies then as either microfiltration, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis membranes. Ultrafiltration can separate soluble organics and insoluble solids such as bacteria, viruses, colloids and suspended particles. Microfiltration can separate most suspended solids including bacteria, many viruses and other suspended solids. It is not, however a complete barrier to viruses and is best used in conjunction with an ultra-violet disinfecting process. Different membrane configurations currently available were described along with their performance and efficiency. The ZenoGem{sup R} process which operates at high organic loadings, meets surface water discharge criteria. This membrane bioreactor makes wastewater reuse an achievable and cost-effective option, particularly when it is combined with carbon filtration and ultra-violet disinfection. The Cycle-Let{sup R} system produces a treated stream that is suitable for re-use in non-potable applications such as toilet flush water or for irrigation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  20. Electron beam processing programme: Wastewater and sludge treatment in Brazil

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Vieira, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research, working on environmental applications, has an extensive research programme using high energy electron beam in treating industrial wastewater and sludge. The experiments are being conducted in a pilot plant using an industrial electron beam 1.5MeV, 25mA, where the streams are presented to the scanned electron beam in counter flow. This pilot plant is designed to process approximately 3.0m 3 /h with an average dose 5kGy and the absorbed dose measurement is performed continuously by calorimetric system in real time. Combined biological and radiation treatment of domestic sewage and sludge were carried out to investigate disinfestation and removal of organic matter. The experiments showed that total and fecal coliforms were decreased by about 5 logs cycles with a 3.0kGy radiation dose in raw sewage and biological effluents, respectively. Concerning the industrial wastewater in the first stage of the programme, the irradiation was conducted using batch systems with samples originating from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant. The data showed a significant color reduction effect when delivered dose was increased, and the opposite was noted for turbidity and total suspended solids. Other experiments were focused to process real industrial effluents from one of the most important chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Brazil. A special transport truck was used to transfer the liquid waste from the Industry to the Electron Beam Pilot Plant. Large quantities of liquid waste were irradiated with and without air addition with the doses from 2kGy to 20kGy. Such experiences performed in association with the Industry demonstrated that this technology has a great potential to be transferred and to contribute with a permanent cleanup alternative for hazardous wastes

  1. The sustainable utilization of malting industry wastewater biological treatment sludge

    Vasilenko, T. A.; Svintsov, A. V.; Chernysh, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the research of using the sludge from malting industry wastewater’s biological treatment and the calcium carbonate slurry as organo-mineral fertilizing additives. The sludge, generated as a result of industrial wastewater biological treatment, is subject to dumping at solid domestic waste landfills, which has a negative impact on the environment, though its properties and composition allow using it as an organic fertilizer. The physical and chemical properties of both wastes have been studied; the recommendations concerning the optimum composition of soil mix, containing the above-mentioned components, have been provided. The phytotoxic effect on the germination capacity and sprouts of cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Hordéum vulgáre) and oats (Avena sativa) in soil mixes has been determined. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the sludge does not exceed the allowable level; it is also free of pathogenic flora and helminthes.

  2. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  3. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  4. Modeling Jambo wastewater treatment system to predict water re ...

    user

    C++ programme to implement Brown's model for determining water quality usage ... predicting the re-use options of the wastewater treatment system was a ... skins from rural slaughter slabs/butchers, slaughter .... City (Karnataka State, India).

  5. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... while the available sources of water are limited and de-. *Corresponding author. ... 186223 m3/d inflow to Asamra wastewater treatment plant. (ASTP) (Bataineh et al., ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar M, ...

  7. Wastewater Treatment Plants, North America, 2010, Dun and Bradstreet

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — D&B 20101220 Wastewater Treatment Plants Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, Canada, and Mexico, Released Quarterly...

  8. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  9. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  10. Design considerations for wastewater treatment by reverse osmosis.

    Bartels, C R; Wilf, M; Andes, K; Iong, J

    2005-01-01

    Reverse Osmosis is finding increasing use for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters due to the growing demand for high quality water in large urban areas. The growing success of membranes in this application is related to improved process designs and improved membrane products. Key factors which have been determined to result in successful operation of large-scale plants will be discussed. Factors which play a key role in the use of RO membranes include ultra or microfiltration pretreatment, low fouling membranes, flux rate, recovery and control of fouling and scaling. In particular, high flux rates can be used when UF or MF pretreatment is used. These technologies remove most of the suspended particles that would normally cause heavy fouling of lead elements. Typically, fluxes in the range of 17-21 lmh lead to cleaning frequencies in the range of 3-4 months. By combining the use of membrane pretreatment and chloramination of the feed water through chlorine addition, two of the primary sources of RO membrane fouling can be controlled. The use of chloramine has become a proven means to control biofouling in a membrane for wastewater applications. The other significant problems for RO membranes result from organics fouling by dissolved organics and scaling due to saturation of marginally soluble salts. The former can be a significant problem for membranes, due to the strong attraction forces. To some extent, these can be mitigated by making the membrane surface more hydrophilic or changing the charge of the membrane surface. To minimize fouling, many plants are turning to low fouling membranes. Extensive studies have demonstrated that the membrane surface is hydrophilic, neutrally charged over a broad pH range, and more resistant to organic adsorption. Also, an analysis of the potential scaling issues will be reviewed. In particular, calcium phosphate has been found to be one of the key scalants that will limit RO system recovery rate. Calcium

  11. Pollutant removal-oriented yeast biomass production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewater: A review

    Yang, Min; Zheng, Shaokui

    2014-01-01

    Microbial single-cell-protein (SCP) production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewaters is considered an attractive method for both wastewater purification and resource utilization. In the last two decades, pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes, i.e., yeast treatment processes, have attracted a great deal of attention from a variety of research groups worldwide. Different from conventional SCP production processes, yeast treatment processes are characterized by higher pollutant removal rates, lower production costs, highly adaptive yeast isolates from nature, no excess nutrient supplements, and are performed under non-sterile conditions. Furthermore, yeast treatment processes are similar to bacteria-dominated conventional activated sludge processes, which offer more choices for yeast SCP production and industrial wastewater treatment. This review discusses why highly adaptive yeast species isolated from nature are used in the yeast treatment process rather than commercial SCP producers. It also describes the application of yeast treatment processes for treating high-carboxyhydrate, oil-rich and high-salinity industrial wastewater, focusing primarily on high-strength biodegradable organic substances, which usually account for the major fraction of biochemical oxygen demand. Also discussed is the biodegradation of xenobiotics, such as color (including dye and pigment) and toxic substances (including phenols, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.), present in industrial wastewater. Based on molecular information of yeast community structures and their regulation in yeast treatment systems, we also discuss how to maintain efficient yeast species in yeast biomass and how to control bacterial and mold proliferation in yeast treatment systems. - Highlights: • Pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes offer more choices. • Highly adaptive yeast isolates replace commercial SCP producers. • Yeasts degrade

  12. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  13. Wastewater treatment by a pilot system of artificial wetlands: removal evaluation of the organic load; Tratamiento de aguas residuales por un sistema piloto de humedales artificiales: evaluacion de la remocion de la carga organica

    Romero Aguilar, Mariana [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: ortizhl@uaem.mx; Colin Cruz, Arturo [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez Salinas, Enrique; Ortiz Hernandez, Ma. Laura [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-08-15

    Wastewater treatment is a priority at the global level, because it is important to have enough water of good quality, which will allow an improvement of environment, health and life quality. In Mexico, because of insufficient infrastructure, high costs, lack of maintenance and qualified staff, only 36 % of the generated wastewaters are treated, which generates the need for developing alternative technologies for their depuration. Artificial wetlands are an alternative due their high efficiency for removal of polluting agents and their low installation and maintenance costs. This paper evaluates the removal percentage of the organic charge of wastewaters in a treatment system of artificial wetlands of horizontal flux, with two vegetal species. The system was designed with three modules installed in a sequential way. At the first one, organisms of the species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel were integrated; at the second, organisms of the species Typha dominguensis (Pers.) Steudel, and at the third, both species. The experimental modules were installed at the effluent of a primary treatment, which contains municipal wastewater coming from a research building. The following parameters were analyzed in the water: chemical oxygen demand (COD), ions of nitrogen (N-NO{sub 3}-, N-NO{sub 2}- y N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and total phosphorus. Additionally, the total count of bacteria associated to the system was evaluated. Results showed that the system is an option for the removal of organic matter and nutrients, of low operation and maintenance costs. [Spanish] El tratamiento de las aguas residuales es una cuestion prioritaria a nivel mundial, ya que es importante disponer de agua de calidad y en cantidad suficiente, lo que permitira una mejora del ambiente, la salud y la calidad de vida. En Mexico, debido a la insuficiente infraestructura, los altos costos, la falta de mantenimiento y de personal capacitado, solo 36 % de las aguas residuales generadas reciben

  14. Tratamento de águas residuárias da suinocultura utilizando-se filtros orgânicos Treatment of swine wastewater using organic filters

    Viviane dos Santos Brandão

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento primário da água residuária de suinocultura pode ser feito por filtragem; para isto, torna-se oportuno o estudo de materiais alternativos a serem utilizados como meio filtrante e, com este intuito, foram utilizados o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, a casca de arroz, a casca de café, o fino de carvão vegetal, o sabugo de milho e a serragem de madeira, acondicionados em tubos de PVC de diâmetro de 100 mm, constituindo colunas de 500 mm de altura. O sistema de filtragem foi mantido sob escoamento permanente, com fluxo em meio saturado, e pequena ou nenhuma alteração foi detectada na concentração de N-total, Ca, Mg e Zn no efluente do filtro, enquanto que as concentrações de P-total, Na e K aumentaram no efluente obtido em filtros de casca de arroz, casca de café e sabugo de milho. Significativa redução na concentração de Cu foi constatada para todos os materiais utilizados como filtro, atingindo-se eficiência de remoção de até 43,6%. Eficiências de remoção superiores a 90% foram obtidas para sólidos sedimentáveis enquanto a remoção de sólidos totais ficou abaixo de 33,0%.The primary treatment of swine wastewater can be done by filtration. To this end, the study of alternative materials as a filter media is necessary. With this objective, rice husk, coffee straw, sugar-cane trash, triturated corncob, wood sawdust and fine vegetable coal were used as media, conditioned in PVC tubes of 100 mm in diameter and 500 mm in height. The filtering system was maintained under saturated flow conditions. Little or no change was detected in the concentration of N-total, Ca, Mg and Zn in the effluent of the filter, although the concentration of P-total and K increased in the effluents of the filters of rice husk, coffee straw, triturate corncob, reaching a maximum removal efficiency of 43.6%. Removal efficiencies of sedimentable solids higher than 90.0% were obtained in all materials employed as a filtration media, although

  15. The use of mathematical models in teaching wastewater treatment engineering

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...... efficiently and responsibly. Approaches for introducing mathematical modeling into courses on wastewater treatment engineering are discussed depending on the learning objectives, level of the course and the time available....

  16. Challege and Opportunities of Membrane Bioelctrochemical Reactors for Wastewater Treatment

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are potentially advantageous as an energy-efficient approach for wastewater treatment. Integrating membrane filtration with MFCs could be a viable option for advanced wastewater treatment with a low energy input. Such an integration is termed as membrane bioelectrochemical reactors (MBERs). Comparing to the conventional membrane bioreactors or anaerobic membrane bioreactors, MBER could be a competitive technology, due to the its advantages on energy consumption and...

  17. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the...

  18. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  19. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  20. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  1. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  2. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  3. Application of electron beam to industrial wastewater treatment

    Han, B.; Kim, D.K.; Boo, J.Y.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.; Chung, W.; Choi, J.S.; Kang, H.J.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with EB irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an EB pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has been constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  4. A study on the treatment process of industrial wastewater related to heavy metal wastewater

    Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, M. J.; Son, J. S.; Park, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    The supernatant from metal wastewater by using magnesium hydroxide and dolomite was used to treat dyeing wastewater. In the case of magnesium hydroxide. In the case of magnesium hydroxide, the optimum dosage was 10 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3 % (v/v) for separation B. Color turbidity and COD removal was 99 to 100 % , 85 to 97 % and 43 to 53 %, respectively. In the case of dolomite, the optimum dosage was 30 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3% for supernatant B. Color, turbidity and COD removal was 96 to 99 %, 62 to 91 % and 52 to 53 %, respectively. In dyeing wastewater treatment by using supernatant from metal wastewater, the cost of chemicals was reduced by about 80 %

  5. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  7. Study on emission characteristics and reduction strategy of nitrous oxide during wastewater treatment by different processes.

    Sun, Shichang; Bao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    Given the inexorable increase in global wastewater treatment, increasing amounts of nitrous oxide are expected to be emitted from wastewater treatment plants and released to the atmosphere. It has become imperative to study the emission and control of nitrous oxide in the various wastewater treatment processes currently in use. In the present investigation, the emission characteristics and the factors affecting the release of nitrous oxide were studied via full- and pilot-scale experiments in anoxic-oxic, sequencing batch reactor and oxidation ditch processes. We propose an optimal treatment process and relative strategy for nitrous oxide reduction. Our results show that both the bio-nitrifying and bio-denitrifying treatment units in wastewater treatment plants are the predominant sites for nitrous oxide production in each process, while the aerated treatment units are the critical sources for nitrous oxide emission. Compared with the emission of nitrous oxide from the anoxic-oxic (1.37% of N-influent) and sequencing batch reactor (2.69% of N-influent) processes, much less nitrous oxide (0.25% of N-influent) is emitted from the oxidation ditch process, which we determined as the optimal wastewater treatment process for nitrous oxide reduction, given the current technologies. Nitrous oxide emissions differed with various operating parameters. Controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at a proper level during nitrification and denitrification and enhancing the utilization rate of organic carbon in the influent for denitrification are the two critical methods for nitrous oxide reduction in the various processes considered.

  8. COMPARISON OF THE FRACTIONS OF COD IN RAW WASTEWATER INFLUENT FOR SMALL AND LARGE SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Joanna Smyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of the share fraction of COD in raw wastewater in treatment plants which flow in a small amount of wastewater and the sewage treatment with high flow. Compared the constructed wetlands with an average capacity of 4 dm3/m,, the treatment plant with biological deposits with an average capacity of 8 dm3/m, and a sewage treatment plant with activated sludge in Bialystok with a capacity of about 70 000 dm3/m. The lowest percentages of dissolved fraction of soluble organic non-biodegradable substances SI was reported in raw sewage in small sewage treatment plants. Based on the available data wasn’t found significant correlation between the factions XI, SS, XS in raw sewage and the amount of wastewater.

  9. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  10. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  11. Biological risk associated to bio-treatments: monitoring and modeling bacterial dispersion into the atmosphere in a soil bioremediation plant and in a wastewater treatment plant

    Tarasiuk, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater is a mixture of domestic, municipal and industrial waste dissolved in water. The biggest fraction of wastewater is sanitary sewer water. Before its release in rivers or sea, water must be cleaned and all harmful bacteria must be killed. Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic waste obtained following wastewater treatment and used beneficially as fertilizer. Routinely, biosolids are deposited in agricultural areas or incinerated. For this reason the level of microbial pathogens in the b...

  12. Treatment of domestic wastewater using conventional and baffled septic tanks.

    Nasr, Fayza Aly; Mikhaeil, Basem

    2013-01-01

    The main theme of the study was a comparative study of domestic wastewater treatment using conventional and baffled septic tanks. The septic tanks were fed continuously with domestic wastewater at three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The HRTs chosen were 24, 48 and 72 h with corresponding organic loads of 0.321, 0.436 and 0.885 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per m3 per day, respectively. The performance of the septic tanks at the three HRTs gave satisfactory results. For the conventional septic tank, COD removal was 53.4%, 56% and 65.3%, at an HRT of 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, with residual COD of 412, 380 and 334mg/l, respectively. At HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h, the following percentages removals were realized for: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 68.4%, 57, 53.5%; total suspended solid (TSS), 65.3%, 58.3, 55%; phosphorus, 29.3%, 26.9, 25.6%; total Kjeldahl nitrogen 26.8%, 20.8, 17.7%, respectively. On the contrary, ammonia concentrations increased by 7.1%, 5.2 and 4.2% under the same conditions. Consequently, the results showed that the removal of fecal coliform at all HRTs was less than one log. The two baffled septic tanks exhibited superior results at HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h. Comparing the treated domestic wastewater quality produced by the two types of septic tanks in terms of physico-chemical and biological characteristics, better results were obtained using the two baffles type.

  13. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  14. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Treatment of real paracetamol wastewater by fenton process

    Dalgic Gamze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the pretreatment of real paracetamol (PCT wastewater of a pharmaceutical industry by Fenton process. At the best experimental conditions (COD/H2O2 = 1/1, Fe+2/H2O2 = 1/70, settling method:centrifuging, pH 6 at settling step, 92.7, 92.7, 95.5, 99.1, 99.9 and 99.4% of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total organic carbon (TOC, 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, PCT, para-amino phenol (PAP and aniline were removed, respectively. Changes in the concentrations of these parameters were also investigated for both oxidation and settling steps of Fenton process. It was found that COD and TOC were removed at the settling step (precipitation whereas PCT, PAP and aniline were removed at the oxidation step. Mass balance calculations were also studied to show the mass distributions of COD in different phases (gas + foam, effluent and sludge. Fenton process was found as an effective method for the pretreatment of real PCT wastewater for discharging in a determined collective treatment plant.

  17. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach. PMID:27341657

  18. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration...... for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment....... permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO...

  19. Effect of time on dyeing wastewater treatment

    Ye, Tingjin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Chen, Xiaogang; Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent using high temperature activated fly ash and sodium carboxymethyl chitosan (CWF), as with the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis process simulation and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The effects of mixing time and static time on decolorization ratio, COD removing rate and turbidness removing rate were investigated. The experimental results show that the wastewater stirring times on the decolorization rate and COD removal rate and turbidity removal rate influence, with increasing of the stirring time, three showed a downward trend, and reached the peak at 10 min time; wastewater time on the decolorization ratio and COD removing efficiency and turbidness removing rate influence, along with standing time increase, three who declined and reached the maximum in 30min time.

  20. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  1. Radiation treatment of refractory substances in wastewater for recycling water

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko; Sawai, Teruko

    1997-01-01

    The refractory substances such as molasses pigments and lignin in sewage interfere with recycle system from the secondary effluents from sewage sludge plants, so we investigated the effects of radiation treatment on these substances in sewage. The dialyzed molasses pigments in the wastewater, discharged from baker's yeast factory were easily decomposed and decolorized. When the artificial sewage sample, containing lignin, fumic acid and tannic acid, was irradiated with gamma rays, the TOC was reduced to one-half of its initial value at 10 kGy, and then the pH dropped to near the minimum value. On the other hand, the pH and TOC of sewage influent sample were little affected by gamma ray irradiation. However, the increases of organic acid formation by gamma rays irradiation were observed for both samples: oxalic acid for the artificial sewage sample, and the formic acid and lactic acid for sewage influent sample were produced at lower absorbed doses, respectively. (author)

  2. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chlorid...

  3. Preliminary study on the effect of mixing and time on turbidity removal in wastewater treatment

    Abu Bakar, A.; Jaafar, J.

    2006-01-01

    The current trend favorable in the wastewater treatment industry is to use natural polymer as a coagulant. It is believed that this natural polymer can perform as well as synthetic organic polymer. In this study, natural polymer - Moringa Oleifera was used to destabilize the colloidal particles in wastewater so that the floc will be formed in this process. Jar test was used to evaluate, to determine the dosages and to optimize the coagulant - Moringa Oleifera in these processes. The experimental result has showed that, by using Moringa Oleifera as a coagulant the turbidity of the wastewater can be removed up to 98% which is comparable to the performance of synthetic polymer, alum. This study however is applicable for wastewater which in the medium to high turbidity ranging from 80 to 100 NTU. (Author)

  4. Natural treatment system models for wastewater management: a study from Hyderabad, India.

    Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Wajihuddin, Md; Jampani, Mahesh; Sarah, S; Somvanshi, V K; Ahmed, Shakeel; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Boisson, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater generated on a global scale has become a significant source of water resources which necessitates appropriate management strategies. However, the complexities associated with wastewater are lack of economically viable treatment systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries. While many types of treatment systems are needed to serve the various local issues, we propose natural treatment systems (NTS) such as natural wetlands that are eco-friendly, cost-effective, and can be jointly driven by public bodies and communities. In order for it to be part of wastewater management, this study explores the NTS potential for removal of pollutants, cost-effectiveness, and reuse options for the 1.20 million m 3 /day of wastewater generated in Hyderabad, India. The pilot study includes hydro-geophysical characterization of natural wetland to determine pollutant removal efficiency and its effective utilization for treated wastewater in the peri-urban habitat. The results show the removal of organic content (76-78%), nutrients (77-97%), and microbes (99.5-99.9%) from the wetland-treated wastewater and its suitability for agriculture applications. Furthermore, the wetland efficiency integrated with engineered interventions led to the development of NTS models with different application scenarios: (i) constructed wetlands, (ii) minimized community wetlands, and (iii) single outlet system, suitable for urban, peri-urban and rural areas, respectively.

  5. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5 /COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3 . Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3 . Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  6. Characteristics of microbial community functional structure of a biological coking wastewater treatment system.

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds are key pollutants in coking wastewater; however, the functional potential of microbial communities for biodegradation of such contaminants during biological treatment is still elusive. Herein, a high throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in combination with Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing was used to compare and characterize the microbial community functional structure in a long run (500days) bench scale bioreactor treating coking wastewater, with a control system treating synthetic wastewater. Despite the inhibitory toxic pollutants, GeoChip 5.0 detected almost all key functional gene (average 61,940 genes) categories in the coking wastewater sludge. With higher abundance, aromatic ring cleavage dioxygenase genes including multi ring1,2diox; one ring2,3diox; catechol represented significant functional potential for degradation of aromatic pollutants which was further confirmed by Illumina HiSeq2500 analysis results. Response ratio analysis revealed that three nitrogenous compound degrading genes- nbzA (nitro-aromatics), tdnB (aniline), and scnABC (thiocyanate) were unique for coking wastewater treatment, which might be strong cause to increase ammonia level during the aerobic process. Additionally, HiSeq2500 elucidated carbozole and isoquinoline degradation genes in the system. These findings expanded our understanding on functional potential of microbial communities to remove organic nitrogenous pollutants; hence it will be useful in optimization strategies for biological treatment of coking wastewater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Omer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06982, Kazan, Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B., E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD{sub 5}/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm{sup -3}. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm{sup -3}. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  8. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of Organic Load in Communal Wastewater by using the Six Stage Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR

    Trilita Minarni Nur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of water quality in the urban drainage is a crucial problem to overcome because it can affect the health of community. This fact encouraged the researcher to conduct the research in efforts to increase the water quality in the drainage. One of the solutions to increase the water quality in the drainage is that the domestic wastewater must be treated at first before it is flown through the drainage. Furthermore, the wastewater treatment was conducted by employing the communal wastewater processor. The research was aimed at knowing the capability of Anaerobic Baffle Reactor with the six-stage design in communal wastewater processor in efforts to decrease the organic load. This research was conducted in a laboratory scale. Meanwhile, the sort of waste used was taken from the domestic wastewater of settlement by varying its discharge and waste concentration flowing into the waste processor. Finally, the research result showed that the reduction of organic load of COD was reaching up to 92%, N was 85% and Phosphate was 50%.

  10. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; La Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin...

  11. Pulsed reactor modelling for catalytic micropollutant treatment in wastewater

    Juarros Bertolín, Helena Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This study stems from the problem of the presence of micropollutants (including phenolic compounds such as Bisphenol A, Nonylphenol and Triclosan) in urban and industrial wastewaters. Systems used in the wastewater treatment plants are inefficient in removing these micropollutants that are harmful for the environment. In an ongoing project, laccases, a group of enzymes, are used to efficiently catalyse the degradation of phenolic micropollutants. In this master thesis, it is proposed...

  12. Method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants

    Ito, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Minato, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    A method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants is characterized by the fact that concentration and volume reduction are performed after Ca and Mg as components for the formation of an adhering scale is converted to an 8-oxyquinoline complex, which is hardly soluble in water, and does not precipitate out as an adhering scale, by the addition of 8-oxyquinoline into nuclear power plant wastewater

  13. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments

    Mendoza-Marin, Claudia; Osorio, Paula [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Benitez, Norberto, E-mail: lubenite@univalle.edu.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia)

    2010-05-15

    The department of Valle del Cauca is the region with the largest sugarcane production in Colombia. This agricultural activity uses high quantities of herbicides, mainly Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wastewater generated in the washing process of spray equipment and empty pesticide containers must be treated to keep natural water sources from being polluted with these pesticides when these effluents are disposed off. Conventional biological treatments are not able to remove recalcitrant substances like Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; therefore, it is essential to have alternative treatment systems. In recent years, photocatalytic processes have been proven efficient methods in treating polluted water with recalcitrant organic substances. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of a coupled treatment constituted for a solar photo-Fenton treatment and a biological system like an immobilized biological reactor to treat industrial wastewater containing pesticides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Diuron). The mineralization and degradation of pesticides were followed by measuring the dissolved organic carbon and pesticide concentrations. The results revealed that industrial wastewaters with high Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations can be successfully treated by a combined solar photo-Fenton-biological system, achieving mineralization of 79.8% in prepared wastewater and 82.5% in real industrial wastewater by using low Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations.

  15. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  16. Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments

    Mendoza-Marin, Claudia; Osorio, Paula; Benitez, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    The department of Valle del Cauca is the region with the largest sugarcane production in Colombia. This agricultural activity uses high quantities of herbicides, mainly Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wastewater generated in the washing process of spray equipment and empty pesticide containers must be treated to keep natural water sources from being polluted with these pesticides when these effluents are disposed off. Conventional biological treatments are not able to remove recalcitrant substances like Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; therefore, it is essential to have alternative treatment systems. In recent years, photocatalytic processes have been proven efficient methods in treating polluted water with recalcitrant organic substances. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of a coupled treatment constituted for a solar photo-Fenton treatment and a biological system like an immobilized biological reactor to treat industrial wastewater containing pesticides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Diuron). The mineralization and degradation of pesticides were followed by measuring the dissolved organic carbon and pesticide concentrations. The results revealed that industrial wastewaters with high Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations can be successfully treated by a combined solar photo-Fenton-biological system, achieving mineralization of 79.8% in prepared wastewater and 82.5% in real industrial wastewater by using low Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 concentrations.

  17. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  18. Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--fate of bisphenol A.

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting compound largely used in plastic and paper industry, ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of BPA in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Many treatment technologies, including various pre-treatment methods, such as hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation, peroxidation, ultrasonication and ozonation have been developed in order to degrade BPA in WW and WWS and for the production of WWS based value-added products (VAPs). WWS based VAPs, such as biopesticides, bioherbicides, biofertilizers, bioplastics and enzymes are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds which has been discussed with a perspective of simultaneous degradation. The pre-treatment produces an impact on rheology as well as value-addition which has been reviewed in this paper. Various analytical techniques available for the detection of BPA in WW and WWS are also discussed. Presence of heavy metals and possible thermodynamical behavior of the compound in WW and WWS can have major impact on BPA removal, which is also included in the review.

  19. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  20. Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment System

    Lennevey Kinidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.

  1. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the right concept and a prototype for a particular processing plant, plastic processing plant. It is possible to determine the parameters that will increase the efficiency of sewage treatment while minimizing the financial effort on the part of the Company. Selection methods of wastewater treatment is also associated with the environmental strategy of the country at the enterprise level specified in the Environmental Policy. This is an additional argument for the use of biological methods in the treatment of industrial waste water.

  2. Brackish Water Desalination Coupled With Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new bio-electrochemical system was proposed for simultaneous removal of organic matters and salinity from actual domestic wastewater and synthetically prepared saline water, respectively. The performance of a three-chambered microbial osmotic fuel cell (MOFC provided with forward osmosis (FO membrane and cation exchange membrane (CEM was evaluated with respect to the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from wastewater, electricity generation, and desalination of saline water. The MOFC wasinoculated with activated sludge and fueled with actual domestic wastewater. Results revealed that maximum removal efficiency of COD from wastewater, TDS removal efficiency from saline water, power density, and current density were 96%, 90%, 30.02 mW/m2, and 107.20 mA/m2, respectively.

  3. Development of Blumlein Line Generator and Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Zainuddin Nawawi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the harm effects of wastewater from industrial sectors toward the environment become one of public major concern. There are several wastewater treatment methods and techniques which have been introduced such as by using biological, chemical, and physical process. However, it is found that there are some shortcomings in the current available methods and techniques. For instance, the application of chlorine can cause bacterial disinfection but produce secondary harmful carcinogenic disinfection.  And the application of ozone treatment –  which is one of the most reliable technique – requires improvement in term of ozone production and treatment system. In order to acquire a better understanding in wastewater treatment process, a study of wastewater treatment system and Hybrid Discharge reactor – to acquire gas-liquid phase corona like discharge – is carried out. In addition to the laboratory experiment, designing and development of the Blumlein pulse power circuit, and modification of reactor for wastewater treatment are accomplished as well.

  4. Wastewater Treatment with Ammonia Recovery System

    M. Örvös; T. Balázs; K. F. Both

    2008-01-01

    From environmental aspect purification of ammonia containing wastewater is expected. High efficiency ammonia desorption can be done from the water by air on proper temperature. After the desorption process, ammonia can be recovered and used in another technology. The calculation method described below give some methods to find either the minimum column height or ammonia rich solution of the effluent.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  6. A Course on Operational Considerations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Student Manual.

    Stottler, Stag and Associates, San Antonio, TX.

    This manual was designed to furnish information for upgrading the design of wastewater treatment plant facilities and to serve as a resource for establishing criteria for upgrading these plants. The manual also furnishes information for modifying plant design to compensate for current organic and hydraulic overloads and/or to meet more stringent…

  7. Anaerobic treatment of protein, lipid and carbohydrate containing wastewaters using the EGSB technology

    Petruy, R.

    1999-01-01

    Industries such as margarine, meat packing, dairy, slaughterhouse, edible oil (palm and olive oil) generate large amount of effluents. Strict environment laws in numerous countries has forced these agro-industries to apply suitable wastewater treatment in order to reduce the organic

  8. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  9. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  10. Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments

    Le-Clech, Pierre [New South Wales Univ., Sydney (Australia). UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology

    2010-12-15

    With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major drawbacks, including high operational costs due to the use of anti-fouling strategies applied to the system to maintain sustainable filtration conditions. Moreover, this specific use of membranes has not reached full maturity yet, as MBR suppliers and users still lack experience regarding the long-term performances of the system. Still, major improvements of the MBR design and operation have been witnessed over the recent years, making MBR an option of choice for wastewater treatment and reuse. This mini-review reports recent developments and current research trends in the field. (orig.)

  11. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  12. Interactions between industrial organic pollutants and rhizosphere components and documentation of material streams in plant-based wastewater treatment plants - laboratory experiments; Wechselwirkungen industrieller organischer Schadstoffe mit Rhizosphaerenkomponenten und Bilanzierung von Stoffstroemen in Pflanzenklaeranlagen - Laborversuche

    Plugge, J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the suitability of plant/soil systems for cleaning organically polluted effluents and to assess the influence of plant growth and dissolved humic substances on processes leading to the elimination of organic pollutants. This involved an examination of sorption interactions between selected pollutants on the one hand and sand and root material on the other, use of vertically irrigated plant-bearing sand columns for simulating real plant-based wastewater treatment plants, assessment of the cleaning efficiency of these systems with respect to the employed model pollutants and determination of the contamination of the filter material and plants with pollutants. Radiotracer techniques were used to determine pollution paths of phenanthrene and its microbial degradation in the model system. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Eignung von Pflanze/Boden-Systemen zur Reinigung carbochemisch belasteter Abwaesser untersucht und der Einfluss eines Pflanzenbewuchses sowie geloester Huminstoffe auf die Prozesse, die zur Entfernung organischer Schadstoffe fuehren, bewertet. Die Bearbeitung dieses Themas umfasste Untersuchungen zu Sorptionswechselwirkungen ausgewaehlter Schadstoffe mit Sand- und Wurzelmaterial, die Anwendung vertikal durchstroemter, bepflanzter Sandsaeulen zur Nachbildung realer Pflanzenklaeranlagen, die Erfassung der Reinigungseffizienz dieser Systeme fuer die Modellschadstoffe sowie die Bestimmung der Schadstoffkontamination des Filtermaterials und der Pflanzen. Unter Anwendung der Radiotracertechnik erfolgte darueber hinaus die Bestimmung der Schadstoffpfade von Phenanthren einschliesslich des mikrobiellen Abbaus im Modellsystem. (orig.)

  13. Effects of the organic matter from swine wastewater on the adsorption and desorption of alachlor in soil.

    Dal Bosco, Tatiane C; Sampaio, Silvio C; Coelho, Silvia R M; Cosmann, Natássia J; Smanhotto, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The application of swine wastewater to the soil for agricultural purposes results in the addition of total and dissolved organic matter to the soil, which may interfere with the dynamics of pesticides in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of total and dissolved organic matter from a biodigester and a treatment lagoon of swine wastewater in the adsorption and desorption of alachlor [2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N(methoxymethyl acetamide)]. The assay was performed by the batch equilibrium method, and the results were fitted to the Freundlich model. The curve comparison test revealed a greater adsorption of alachlor in the soil treated with swine wastewater from the biodigester. The adsorption and desorption of alachlor increased in the soils where swine wastewater was added, and hysteresis was observed in all of the treatments. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  14. Microbial Communities in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz

    Activated sludge treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment systems worldwide for biological nutrient removal from wastewater. Nevertheless, the treatment systems have been for many years operated as so called “black-box”, where specific process parameters were adjusted without...... that plants with return sludge Side-Stream Hydrolysis (SSH) instead of the normal anaerobic process tank tended to have significantly fewer unwanted GAOs in contrast to many plants with traditional mainstream anaerobic tank and thus it was proposed that this system might be an effective strategy of control...

  15. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  16. Future wastewater solutions: removal of pharmaceuticals in conventional wastewater treatment plants

    Jensen, Thomas

    Residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals find their way into the environment mainly through incomplete removal in the conventional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and appear as micro-pollutants at pg L-1 to μg L-1 concentrations. WWTPs were designed...

  17. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m 2 /h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  18. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  19. Use of Both Anode and Cathode Reactions in Wastewater Treatment

    Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi; Cabot, Pere LluíS.

    Here, we describe the fundamentals, laboratory experiments, and environmental applications of indirect electrooxidation methods based on H2O2 electrogeneration such as electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and peroxicoagulation for the treatment of acidic wastewaters containing toxic and recalcitrant organics. These methods are electrochemical advanced oxidation processes that can be used in divided and undivided electrolytic cells in which pollutants are oxidized by hydroxyl radical (•OH) produced from anode and/or cathode reactions. H2O2 is generated from the two-electron reduction of O2 at reticulated vitreous carbon, graphite, carbon-felt, and O2-diffusion cathodes. The most usual method is electro-Fenton where Fe2 + added to the wastewater reacts with electrogenerated H2O2 to yield •OH and Fe3 + from Fenton's reaction. An advantage of this technique is that Fe2 + is continuously regenerated from cathodic reduction of Fe3 +. The characteristics of different electro-Fenton systems where pollutants are simultaneously destroyed by •OH formed in the medium from Fenton's reaction and at the anode surface from water oxidation are explained. The effect of the anode [Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD)] and cathode (carbon-felt or O2-diffusion) on the degradation rate of persistent industrial by-products, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, dyes, etc. is examined. Initial pollutants react much more rapidly with •OH formed in the medium and their degradation sequences are discussed from aromatic intermediates and finally short aliphatic acids are detected. The synergetic positive catalytic effect of Cu2 + on the electro-Fenton process is evidenced. The photoelectro-Fenton method involves the irradiation of the wastewater with UVA light that rapidly photodecomposes complexes of Fe3 + with final carboxylic acids enhancing total decontamination. The peroxicoagulation method uses a sacrificial Fe anode that is continuously oxidized to Fe2 + and organics are either mineralized

  20. Flow rate analysis of wastewater inside reactor tanks on tofu wastewater treatment plant

    Mamat; Sintawardani, N.; Astuti, J. T.; Nilawati, D.; Wulan, D. R.; Muchlis; Sriwuryandari, L.; Sembiring, T.; Jern, N. W.

    2017-03-01

    The research aimed to analyse the flow rate of the wastewater inside reactor tanks which were placed a number of bamboo cutting. The resistance of wastewater flow inside reactor tanks might not be occurred and produce biogas fuel optimally. Wastewater from eleven tofu factories was treated by multi-stages anaerobic process to reduce its organic pollutant and produce biogas. Biogas plant has six reactor tanks of which its capacity for waste water and gas dome was 18 m3 and 4.5 m3, respectively. Wastewater was pumped from collecting ponds to reactors by either serial or parallel way. Maximum pump capacity, head, and electrical motor power was 5m3/h, 50m, and 0.75HP, consecutively. Maximum pressure of biogas inside the reactor tanks was 55 mbar higher than atmosphere pressure. A number of 1,400 pieces of cutting bamboo at 50-60 mm diameter and 100 mm length were used as bacteria growth media inside each reactor tank, covering around 14,287 m2 bamboo area, and cross section area of inner reactor was 4,9 m2. In each reactor, a 6 inches PVC pipe was installed vertically as channel. When channels inside reactor were opened, flow rate of wastewater was 6x10-1 L.sec-1. Contrary, when channels were closed on the upper part, wastewater flow inside the first reactor affected and increased gas dome. Initially, wastewater flowed into each reactor by a gravity mode with head difference between the second and third reactor was 15x10-2m. However, head loss at the second reactor was equal to the third reactor by 8,422 x 10-4m. As result, wastewater flow at the second and third reactors were stagnant. To overcome the problem pump in each reactor should be installed in serial mode. In order to reach the output from the first reactor and the others would be equal, and biogas space was not filled by wastewater, therefore biogas production will be optimum.

  1. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  2. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  3. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) includes about hundred factories occupying the area of 600,000m 2 with 13,000 employees in total. The production requires high consumption of water (90,000m 3 /day), steam, and electric power, being characterized by large amount of highly colored industrial wastewater. Because of increase in productivity and increased assortment of dyes and other chemicals, substantial necessity appears in re-equipment of purification facilities by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment

  4. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  5. Evaluation of rapid methods for in-situ characterization of organic contaminant load and biodegradation rates in winery wastewater.

    Carvallo, M J; Vargas, I; Vega, A; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

    2007-01-01

    Rapid methods for the in-situ evaluation of the organic load have recently been developed and successfully implemented in municipal wastewater treatment systems. Their direct application to winery wastewater treatment is questionable due to substantial differences between municipal and winery wastewater. We critically evaluate the use of UV-VIS spectrometry, buffer capacity testing (BCT), and respirometry as rapid methods to determine organic load and biodegradation rates of winery wastewater. We tested three types of samples: actual and treated winery wastewater, synthetic winery wastewater, and samples from a biological batch reactor. Not surprisingly, respirometry gave a good estimation of biodegradation rates for substrate of different complexities, whereas UV-VIS and BCT did not provide a quantitative measure of the easily degradable sugars and ethanol, typically the main components of the COD in the influent. However, our results strongly suggest that UV-VIS and BCT can be used to identify and estimate the concentration of complex substrates in the influent and soluble microbial products (SMP) in biological reactors and their effluent. Furthermore, the integration of UV-VIS spectrometry, BCT, and mathematical modeling was able to differentiate between the two components of SMPs: substrate utilization associated products (UAP) and biomass associated products (BAP). Since the effluent COD in biologically treated wastewaters is composed primarily by SMPs, the quantitative information given by these techniques may be used for plant control and optimization.

  6. High-rate wastewater treatment combining a moving bed biofilm reactor and enhanced particle separation.

    Helness, H; Melin, E; Ulgenes, Y; Järvinen, P; Rasmussen, V; Odegaard, H

    2005-01-01

    Many cities around the world are looking for compact wastewater treatment alternatives since space for treatment plants is becoming scarce. In this paper development of a new compact, high-rate treatment concept with results from experiments in lab-scale and pilot-scale are presented. The idea behind the treatment concept is that coagulation/floc separation may be used to separate suspended and colloidal matter (resulting in > 70% organic matter removal in normal wastewater) while a high-rate biofilm process (based on Moving Bed biofilm reactors) may be used for removing low molecular weight, easily biodegradable, soluble organic matter. By using flotation for floc/biomass separation, the total residence time for a plant according to this concept will normally be treatment) and sufficient P-removal.

  7. Optimizing the selection of small-town wastewater treatment processes

    Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Siqi

    2018-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment is energy-intensive. This high energy consumption causes high sewage treatment plant operating costs and increases the energy burden. To mitigate the adverse impacts of China’s development, sewage treatment plants should adopt effective energy-saving technologies. Artificial fortified natural water treatment and use of activated sludge and biofilm are all suitable technologies for small-town sewage treatment. This study features an analysis of the characteristics of small and medium-sized township sewage, an overview of current technologies, and a discussion of recent progress in sewage treatment. Based on this, an analysis of existing problems in municipal wastewater treatment is presented, and countermeasures to improve sewage treatment in small and medium-sized towns are proposed.

  8. Status of industrial scale radiation treatment of wastewater and its future. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    2004-09-01

    Providing access to clean water resources is one of the most important objectives of the UN's Millennium Project. Contamination of surface water is a big problem for many, mostly developing countries. The main sources of liquid polluted effluents are municipalities and industry. Effective, mostly biological wastewater technologies for wastewater purification are available nowadays. However, they cannot be applied to solve all existing problems. Destruction of non-biodegradable organic compounds is one problem and biological contamination (caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) of sludge is another. Methods of their purification are sought. Ionizing radiation (gamma or X rays, electron beams) is a very effective form of energy, which can destroy organic or biological contaminants. The IAEA promotes and supports research on radiation treatment of liquid effluents. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Remediation of Polluted Waters and Wastewater by Radiation Processing aims to establish optimal treatment methodologies to disinfect and decontaminate actual samples of drinking water and wastewater by using ionizing radiation. Quite a few technical cooperation (TC) projects concerning radiation treatment of wastewater and sludge are under development. In the frame of one of such TC projects pilot plant for electron beam treatment of textile dyeing complex wastewater was constructed in the Republic of Korea. To discuss developments achieved under these projects and results of the pilot plant operation, the IAEA organized a consultants meeting in Daejon, Republic of Korea, 13-16 October 2003. These proceedings will be of value to research groups working in the field of radiation technology development. Developing Member States with radiation technology programmes will benefit from research in this area. The meeting dealt with advanced radiation processing of wastewater and its technical and economical aspects. It informed about high power accelerators ELV-12

  9. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  10. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  11. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  12. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  13. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia, E-mail: lguerecah@iingen.unam.mx

    2016-02-15

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  14. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    Kurt, Ugur; Apaydin, Omer; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2007-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H 2 O 2 and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated

  15. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    Kurt, Ugur [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ukurt@yildiz.edu.tr; Apaydin, Omer [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: apaydin@yildiz.edu.tr; Gonullu, M. Talha [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: gonul@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated.

  16. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  17. Treatment of wastewater from service areas at motorways

    Makowska Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with wastewater treatment systems placed in motorway service areas (MSAs. In the years 2008-2009 eight of such facilities installed on the stretch of the A2 motorway between Poznań and Nowy Tomyśl were examined and analyzed. The system consists of a septic tank, a submerged aerated biofilter and an outflow filter. The volume of traffic on the highway was analyzed, the amount of water use was measured and peak factors were calculated. On this basis it was concluded that the inflows to the wastewater treatment systems in many cases exceeded the nominal design values.

  18. Thermoeconomic analysis applied to an alternative wastewater treatment

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Silveira, Jose Luz; Mattos dos Reis, Luiz Octavio [Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Oscare Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work develops a methodology for the determination of costs associated to products generated in a small wastewater treatment station. The methodology begins with plant units identification, relating their fluid and thermodynamics features to each point indicated in its process diagram. Following, a functional diagram and a formulation are developed in exergetic basis, describing all equations for these points, which are the constraints for optimisation and are used to determine costs associated to products generated in a Small Wastewater Treatment Station - SWTS. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical system based on SWTS plants and presents consistent results when compared to values based on previous experiments and evaluations. (author)

  19. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  20. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  2. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe 2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H 2 O 2 /COD molar ratio 2, H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  3. Evaluation of wastewater treatment plant at Khartoum refinery company

    Alnour, Y. A. M.

    2010-03-01

    A wastewater treatment plant has been established in Khartoum Refinery Company in order to treat 1800 meters cubic per day, and to meet the increase in the number of employees and the continued expansion of the company. The study aims to evaluate the performance of the station after a three years period of work, and calculate the efficiency of the station through the following variables: average removal of the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and oils, by taking water samples before and after treatment, every week for two month, analysis of samples were conducted in the central laboratory at KRC. The determination of the station efficiency revealed that the station is working well. Treated water characteristics are in conformity with the specifications set by the world Organization Health. It is also proved to be suitable for use in irrigation the amount of water entering to treatment is very large (1500 cubic meters), which lead to dilution of the BOD, COD, SS and oils concentrations. The reason being misuse of water by employees in addition to the large number of damage in the water pipes. The station must be re-evaluated after a certain (5 years) period to determine the impact of future increases of employees, and it is effect on the efficiency of the station. It is recommended to improve the behaviour of employees regarding the use of water, so as to reduce the dilution. (Author)

  4. Treatment of emulsified oily wastewater by commercial scale electrocoagulation at Vancouver shipyards

    Stephenson, R.J.; Tennant, B.D. [McKay Creek Technologies Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hartle, D.R. [Vancouver Shipping Co. Ltd., BC (Canada); Stuckert, B. [Quantum Environmental Group, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Some of the emulsified oily wastewater generated by the Washington Marine Group fleet and the Vancouver shipyards are from sources such as bilge water, tank wash water from gas freeing operations, ballast water, and wastewater from pressure washing equipment. The Washington Marine Group is the largest shipbuilding, ship maintenance and repair, and marine transportation company in Canada, a group to which McKay Creek Technologies belongs. A investigation was performed in an attempt to find commercially viable means of treating this wastewater. McKay Creek Technologies developed its own cleaning process. Electrocoagulation is a process based on the use of an electrical current in an electrochemical cell to coagulate contaminants in wastewater. With three years of experience gained by treating the wastewater of the Washington Marine Group operations at Vancouver shipyards using this technology, McKay Creek Technologies has found ways to treat emulsified oily wastewater simply and effectively. It has been determined that electrocoagulation is an effective treatment method for emulsified oils, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poorly settling solids, poorly soluble organics, contaminants which add turbidity to water, and negatively charged metal species like arsenic, molybdenum, and phosphate. A brief history of electrocoagulation was provided, and the authors explained the process and how it was applied to the situation at Vancouver shipyards. 2 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    Alexis Nzila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation.

  6. Incentives in the water chain: wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries

    Gengenbach, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The proper management of wastewater and its reuse is crucial in order to reduce hazards and maintain a variety of benefits. The merits of improvements in wastewater management are particularly high where effective wastewater treatment is not in place and completely untreated wastewater is reused.

  7. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  8. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  9. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review.

    Lofrano, Giusy; Meriç, Sureyya; Zengin, Gülsüm Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2013-09-01

    Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactors for high strength wastewater treatment

    Ersahin, M.E.; Gimenez Garcia, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Tao, Y.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory scale external anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating high strength wastewater was operated to assess the effect of gas sparging velocity and organic loading rate on removal efficiency and dynamic membrane (DM) filtration characteristics. An increase in gas sparging

  11. Industrial wastewater treatment using natural material as adsorbent ...

    Attempts were made to compare the adsorption efficiency of coconut shell-based granular activated carbon with the adsorption efficiency of commercial carbon, Calgon carbon F-300, with respect to adsorption of organic matter from a beverage industrial wastewater. Freundlich adsorption isotherm was used to analyze the ...

  12. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  13. Biological treatment of wastewaters from a dye manufacturing company using a trickling filter

    Kornaros, M.; Lyberatos, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effectiveness of a biological trickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing organic dyes and varnishes. The combined wastewater effluent was fed to a pilot-scale trickling filter in two feeding modes, continuously and as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The biodegradability of the diluted wastewaters that were subjected to physicochemical treatment, using Ca(OH) 2 and FeSO 4 , was initially studied using a continuously operated trickling filter. The system efficiency ranged up to 60-70% for a hydraulic loading of 1.1 m 3 /m 2 day and up to 80-85% for a hydraulic loading 0.6 m 3 /m 2 day. A stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 60-70% was achieved even in the case of undiluted wastewater at a hydraulic loading of 1.1 m 3 /m 2 day. The effectiveness of biological treatment of a mixture of the company's main wastewater streams was also examined. The microorganisms developed in the trickling filter were able to efficiently remove COD levels up to 36,000 mg/L, under aerobic conditions at pH values between 5.5 and 8.0. Depending on the operating conditions of the system, about 30-60% of the total COD removal was attributed to air stripping caused by the air supply at the bottom of the filter, whereas the rest of the COD was clearly removed through biological action. The proposed biological treatment process based on a trickling filter, which was operated either continuously or even better in an SBR mode, appears as a promising pretreatment step for coping with dye manufacturing wastewaters in terms of removing a significant portion of the organic content

  14. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    Shoener, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m-3 of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m-3 of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13000 kJ m-3 (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and phototrophic

  15. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  16. Upgrade of Al-Aziziah Wastewater Treatment (Wasit to Meet Nutrient Removal Requirements

    Mohammed Siwan Shamkhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to verify of suggestions to upgrade the existing process of wastewater treatment to achieve nutrient removal (phosphorus and nitrogen from the treated wastewater. The results show that the adding a cyclic anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic condition helped to biological nutrient removal efficiencies. The effluent phosphorus and nitrogen contaminants concentrations were below the maximum permissible concentration under various conditions of flow and temperature except considerable release of phosphorus during summer (July and August because the sensitivity of phosphate accumulating organisms PAOs to the temperature effect.

  17. Anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor and process for wastewater treatment

    Amy, Gary

    2015-07-09

    An anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) can include a vessel into which wastewater can be introduced, an anode electrode in the vessel suitable for supporting electrochemically active microorganisms (EAB, also can be referred to as anode reducing bacteria, exoelectrogens, or electricigens) that oxidize organic compounds in the wastewater, and a cathode membrane electrode in the vessel, which is configured to pass a treated liquid through the membrane while retaining the electrochemically active microorganisms and the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (for example, the key functional microbial communities, including EAB, methanogens and possible synergistic fermenters) in the vessel. The cathode membrane electrode can be suitable for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction to generate hydro en.

  18. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  19. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  20. Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Dustin Price, a resident of Berwick Maine and the Chief Operator of the Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant, was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  1. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  2. Solar photochemical treatment of winery wastewater in a CPC reactor.

    Lucas, Marco S; Mosteo, Rosa; Maldonado, Manuel I; Malato, Sixto; Peres, José A

    2009-12-09

    Degradation of simulated winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar reactor. Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO(2)) and homogeneous photocatalysis with photo-Fenton was observed. The influence of TiO(2) concentration (200 or 500 mg/L) and also of combining TiO(2) with H(2)O(2) or Na(2)S(2)O(8) on heterogeneous photocatalysis was evaluated. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2), TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and TiO(2)/S(2)O(8)(2-) is revealed to be inefficient in removing TOC, originating TOC degradation of 10%, 11% and 25%, respectively, at best. However, photo-Fenton experiments led to 46% TOC degradation in simulated wastewater prepared with diluted wine (WV) and 93% in wastewater prepared with diluted grape juice (WG), and if ethanol is previously eliminated from mixed wine and grape juice wastewater (WW) by air stripping, it removes 96% of TOC. Furthermore, toxicity decreases during the photo-Fenton reaction very significantly from 48% to 28%. At the same time, total polyphenols decrease 92%, improving wastewater biodegradability.

  3. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  4. Efficient treatment of aniline containing wastewater in bipolar membrane microbial electrolysis cell-Fenton system.

    Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan; Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-08-01

    Aniline-containing wastewater can cause significant environmental problems and threaten the humans's life. However, rapid degradation of aniline with cost-efficient methods remains a challenge. In this work, a novel microbial electrolysis cell with bipolar membrane was integrated with Fenton reaction (MEC-Fenton) for efficient treatment of real wastewater containing a high concentration (4460 ± 52 mg L -1 ) of aniline. In this system, H 2 O 2 was in situ electro-synthesized from O 2 reduction on the graphite cathode and was simultaneously used as source of OH for the oxidation of aniline wastewater under an acidic condition maintained by the bipolar membrane. The aniline was effectively degraded following first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 0.0166 h -1 under an applied voltage of 0.5 V. Meanwhile, a total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of 93.1 ± 1.2% was obtained, revealing efficient mineralization of aniline. The applicability of bipolar membrane MEC-Fenton system was successfully demonstrated with actual aniline wastewater. Moreover, energy balance showed that the system could be a promising technology for removal of biorefractory organic pollutants from wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW. Two free water surface (FWS constructed wetlands, one without (CW1 and one with effluent recirculation (CW2, were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10 and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency averaged 80%, 83%, 78%, 80%, and 74% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively, during the operation period. Effluent recirculation further improved the treatment efficiency which approached 90%, 98%, 87%, 85%, and 87% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively. Constructed wetlands also showed high removal efficiency for NH4+-N. Nitrate concentration maintained low in both CWs basins, probably due to the prevalence of high denitrification rates that efficiently removed the NO3--N produced by NH4+-N oxidation. Despite the increased removal percentages, pollutant concentration in effluent exceeded the allowable limits for discharge in water bodies, suggesting that additional practices, including enhanced pre-application treatment and/or higher dilution rates, are required to make this practice effective for OMW management.

  6. Foraging at wastewater treatment works increases the potential for ...

    Wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) are known to provide profitable foraging areas for insectivorous bats in Europe and the New World because of their association with high abundance of pollution-tolerant midges (Diptera). However, bats that feed on these insects may also accumulate metal pollutants such as cadmium ...

  7. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able t...

  8. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  9. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  10. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    The use of fungal biomass as a lipase biocatalyst represents an attractive approach for the treatments of oil wastewater as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. In this work, 20 filamentous fungi were isolated from the grease trap ...

  11. Assessment of dairy wastewater treatment and its potential for ...

    The extent of pollution of dairy wastewater treated in a septic tank and its potential for biogas production was investigated. Performance of the existing treatment system was assessed through characterization of both raw and treated effluents. From the analysis parameters likeChemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical ...

  12. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  13. Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

    The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

  14. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  15. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  16. Treatment of grain distillation wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic ...

    In operation of the full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) system at the Stellenbosch Farmers' Winery (SFW) Wellington distillery, a problem encountered in the treatment of grain distillation wastewater was the accumulation of a floating scum layer. On occasion this was so severe that it forced shutdown of the UASB ...

  17. Behavior of natural radionuclides in wastewater treatment plants

    Camacho, A.; Montaña, M.; Vallés, I.; Devesa, R.; Céspedes-Sánchez, R.; Serrano, I.; Blázquez, S.; Barjola, V.

    2012-01-01

    56 samples, including influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent and final effluent wastewater from two Spanish municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess both the occurrence and behavior of natural radioactivity during 12 sampling campaigns carried out over the period 2007–2010. Influent and final effluent wastewaters were sampled by taking into account the hydraulic residence time within the WWTP. A wide range of gross alpha activities (15–129 mBq/L) and gross beta activities (477–983 mBq/L) in liquid samples were obtained. A correlation analysis between radioactivity in liquid samples and the performance characteristics of the WWTPs was performed. The results in liquid samples showed that gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. However, gross alpha activities behave differently and an increase was detected in the effluent values compared with influent wastewater. This behavior was due to the increase in the total dissolved uranium produced during secondary treatment. The results indicate that the radiological characteristics of the effluents do not present a significant radiological risk and make them suitable for future applications. - Highlights: ► Liquids from WWTPs were analyzed to know the behavior of natural radionuclides. ► Gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. ► Increase in gross alpha activity was observed due to uranium desorption/solubilisation. ► Correlation between gross alpha activity and the chemical oxygen demand was found

  18. Operation and effluent quality of a small rural wastewater treatment ...

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of effluent and sludge discharges of an abattoir wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the operation of a municipal aerated pond WWTP. Experiments were carried out in Cervera WWTP, located in northeastern Spain, which comprises four ponds operating in series.

  19. Methodology for Plantwide Design and Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Maria Dragan, Johanna; Zubov, Alexandr; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    Design of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is a complex engineering task which requires integration of knowledge and experience from environmental biotechnology, process engineering, process synthesis and design as well as mathematical programming. A methodology has been formulated and applied...... for the systematic analysis and development of plantwide design of WWTPs using mathematical optimization and statistical methods such as sensitivity and uncertainty analyses....

  20. Public and Private Management of Wastewater Treatment: A Comparative Study.

    O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The costs and performance of contract management of municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered, using information from a nationwide empirical examination of evidence from individual plants, municipalities, and regulatory agencies. The broad issues arising in the evaluation are outlined as the specifics are discussed. (SLD)

  1. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  2. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.

    2009-01-01

    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  3. Efficiency of electrical coagulation process using aluminum electrodes for municipal wastewater treatment: a case study at Karaj wastewater treatment plant

    Samad Gholami Yengejeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of treated municipal wastewater is an important source of water for different purposes. This study evaluated the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process in removing turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate, and phosphate from wastewater at the treatment facility in Karaj, Iran. Methods: This experimental study was performed at a pilot scale and in a batch system. A 4-liter tank made from safety glass with 4 plate electrodes made from aluminum was unipolarly connected to a direct current power supply with a parallel arrangement. Wastewater samples were taken from the influent at the Karaj wastewater treatment facility. Rates of turbidity, TSS, COD, nitrate, and phosphate removal under different conditions were determined. Results: The highest efficiency of COD, TSS, nitrate, turbidity, and phosphate elimination was achieved at a voltage of 30 volts and a reaction time of 30 minutes. The rates were 88.43%, 87.39%, 100%, 80.52%, and 82.69%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, electrocoagulation is an appropriate method for use in removing nitrate, phosphate, COD, turbidity, and TSS from wastewater.

  4. Lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radionuclides and organics

    DuPont, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radio nuclides and organics. Lime is wellknown for its use in softening drinking water the treatment of municipal wastewaters. It is becoming important in the treatment of industrial wastewater and liquid inorganic hazardous waste; however, there are many questions regarding the use of lime for the treatment of liquid hazardous waste

  5. Sterols indicate water quality and wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ho, Wei Y; Zhou, Wenxu; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, water pollution is presenting one of the biggest challenges worldwide. More wastewater is being generated and the demand for clean water is increasing. To ensure the safety and health of humans and the environment, highly efficient wastewater treatment systems, and a reliable assessment of water quality and pollutants are required. The advance of holistic approaches to water quality management and the increasing use of ecological water treatment technologies, such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), challenge the appropriateness of commonly used water quality indicators. Instead, additional indicators, which are direct measures of the processes involved in the stabilisation of human waste, have to be established to provide an in-depth understanding of system performance. In this study we identified the sterol composition of wastewater treated in WSPs and assessed the suitability of human sterol levels as a bioindicator of treatment efficiency of wastewater in WSPs. As treatment progressed in WSPs, the relative abundance of human faecal sterols, such as coprostanol, epicoprostanol, 24-ethylcoprostanol, and sitostanol decreased significantly and the sterol composition in wastewater changed significantly. Furthermore, sterol levels were found to be correlated with commonly used wastewater quality indicators, such as BOD, TSS and E. coli. Three of the seven sterol ratios that have previously been used to track sewage pollution in the environment, detected a faecal signal in the effluent of WSPs, however, the others were influenced by high prevalence of sterols originating from algal and fungal activities. This finding poses a concern for environmental assessment studies, because environmental pollution from waste stabilisation ponds can go unnoticed. In conclusion, faecal sterols and their ratios can be used as reliable indicators of treatment efficiency and water quality during wastewater

  6. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    Zheng, Tianlong

    2015-02-02

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  7. Advanced treatment of sodium dithionite wastewater using the combination of coagulation, catalytic ozonation, and SBR.

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2017-10-01

    A combined process of coagulation-catalytic ozonation-anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)-SBR was developed at lab scale for treating a real sodium dithionite wastewater with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 21,760-22,450 mg/L. Catalytic ozonation with the prepared cerium oxide (CeO 2 )/granular activated carbon catalyst significantly enhances wastewater biodegradability and reduces wastewater microtoxicity. The results show that, under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of COD and suspended solids are averagely 99.3% and 95.6%, respectively, and the quality of final effluent can meet the national discharge standard of China. The coagulation and ASBR processes remove a considerable proportion of organic matter, while the SBR plays an important role in post-polish of final effluent. The ecotoxicity of the wastewater is greatly reduced after undergoing the hybrid treatment. This work demonstrates that the hybrid system has the potential to be applied for the advanced treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater.

  8. Evaluation of organic matter concentration in winery wastewater: a case study from Australia.

    Quayle, Wendy C; Fattore, Alison; Zandona, Roy; Christen, Evan W; Arienzo, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) remains a key indicator for proof of compliance with environmental regulators in the monitoring and management of winery effluent. Inter-conversion factors from alternative tests that are more rapid, accurate and simpler to perform have been determined that allow prediction of BOD(5) in winery wastewaters, generally, and at different stages of production and treatment. Mean values obtained from this dataset offer rule of thumb inter-conversion factors: BOD(5) = 0.7 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), BOD(5) = 2.3 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and BOD(5) = 2.7 Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Specific predictive linear relationships are also provided. Out of the relationships between BOD(5) vs COD, TOC and DOC, in winery wastewater, irrespective of vintage or non-vintage production periods and stage of treatment, TOC offered the most reliable prediction of BOD(5). Ethanol, glucose and fructose were evaluated in untreated wastewater as predictors of BOD(5) due to their high specificity in winery effluent. A significant relationship was determined between BOD(5) and (ethanol + glucose + fructose; R(2) = 0.64, n = 19; pwinery effluents when using a commercially available mercury free test kit compared with using a traditional COD test kit that contained mercury. This suggests that mercury free COD test kits could be used by the wine industry for organic pollution assessment with associated reductions to user and environmental risk, as well as reducing the costs of kit waste disposal.

  9. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  10. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    Since the era of industrialization, concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have tremendously increased in the atmosphere, as a result of the extensive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, improper waste management, transport, and other economic activities (Boer, 2008).This has led to a great accumulation of greenhouse gases, forming a blanket around the Earth which contributes in the so-called "Global Warming". Over the last decades, wastewater treatment has developed strongly and has become a very important asset in mitigating the impact of domestic and industrial effluents on the environment. There are many different forms of wastewater treatment, and one of the most effective treatment technology in terms COD, N and P removal, activated sludge is often criticized for its high energy use. Some other treatment concepts have a more "green" image, but it is not clear whether this image is justified based on their greenhouse gas emission. This study focuses on the estimation of GHG emissions of four different wastewater treatment configurations, both conventional and innovative systems namely: (1) Harnaschpolder, (2) Sneek, (3) EIER-Ouaga and (4) Siddhipur. This analysis is based on COD mass balance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines for estimating CO2 and CH4, and literature review. Furthermore, the energy requirements for each of the systems were estimated based on energy survey. The study showed that an estimated daily average of 87 g of CO2 equivalent, ranging between 38 to 192 g, was derived to be the per capita CO2 emission for the four different wastewater treatment scenarios. Despite the fact that no electrical energy is used in the treatment process, the GHG emission from EIER Ouaga anaerobic pond systems is found to be the highest compared to the three other scenarios analysed. It was estimated 80% higher than the most favourable scenario (Sneek). Moreover, the results indicate that the GHGs emitted from these WWTPs are

  11. Using a life cycle assessment methodology for the analysis of two treatment systems of food-processing industry wastewaters

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Baun, Anders

    2007-01-01

    criteria involve sludge disposal strategies and electrical energy consumption. However, there is a need to develop a systematic methodology to quantify relevant environmental indicators; comprising information of the wastewater treatment system in a life cycle perspective. Also, to identify which...... are the parameters that have the greatest influence on the potential environmental impacts of the systems analyzed. In this study, we present a systematic methodology for the analysis of the operation of two modern wastewater treatment technologies: Biological removal of nitrogen and organic matter by activated...... sludge (Scenario 1), and anaerobic removal of organic matter by a continuous stirred tank reactor (Scenario 2). Both technologies were applied to wastewater coming from a fish meals industry and a pet food industry discharging about 250 to 260 thousand cubic meters of wastewater per year. The methodology...

  12. Development of a BR-UASB-DHS system for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

    Watari, Takahiro; Thanh, Nguyen Thi; Tsuruoka, Natsumi; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Kuroda, Kyohei; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Tan, Nguyen Minh; Hai, Huynh Trung; Hatamoto, Masashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-21

    Natural rubber processing wastewater contains high concentrations of organic compounds, nitrogen, and other contaminants. In this study, a treatment system composed of a baffled reactor (BR), an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and a downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used to treat natural rubber processing wastewater in Vietnam. The BR showed good total suspended solids removal of 47.6%, as well as acidification of wastewater. The UASB reactor achieved a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 92.7% ± 2.3% and energy recovery in the form of methane with an organic loading rate of 12.2 ± 6.6 kg-COD·m -3 ·day -1 . The DHS reactor showed a high performance in residual organic matter removal from UASB effluent. In total, the system achieved high-level total COD removal of 98.6% ± 1.2% and total suspended solids removal of 98.0% ± 1.4%. Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the retained sludge in the UASB reactor showed the predominant microbial phyla to be Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, WWE1, and Euryarchaeota. Uncultured bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes and Phylum WWE1 were predominant in the UASB reactor. This microbial assemblage utilizes the organic compounds contained in natural rubber processing wastewater. In addition, the methane-producing archaea Methanosaeta sp. and Methanolinea sp. were detected.

  13. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  14. Effective Biological Nitrogen Removal Treatment Processes for Domestic Wastewaters with Low C/N Ratios: A Review

    Sun, Sheng-Peng; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Merkey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    with high efficiency and relative low costs. However, the removal of nitrogen from domestic wastewater with a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio can often be limited in municipal wastewater plants (WWTPs) because organic carbon is a limiting factor for denitrification. The present work reviews innovative....... They can effectively be used for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater without external carbon addition. In addition, conventional and alternative carbon sources for enhanced biological nitrogen removal were also reviewed. We conclude that alternative carbon sources such as wine distillery...... at large scale for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater, (2) further method logic are explored to introduce the Anammox pathway into domestic wastewater treatment, and (3) alternative carbon sources are explored and optimized for supporting the denitrification. With these efforts, cost...

  15. Combined oxidative and biological treatment of separated streams of tannery wastewater

    Vidal, G.; Nieto, J. [Environmental Science Center EULA - Chile, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mansilla, H.D. [Lab. of Renewable Resources, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bornhardt, C. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Frontera, Temuco (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    Leather tanning effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to the beamhouse processes, generates an alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids, and salts, which shows significant toxicity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of this industrial wastewater by combined oxidative and biological treatments. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent was used as batch pre-treatment. The relationships of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD were 9 and 4, respectively, reaching an organic matter removal of about 90%. Subsequently, the oxidised beamhouse effluent was fed to an activated sludge system, at increasing organic load rates (OLR), in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 g COD/L.d. The biological organic matter removal of the pre-treated wastewater ranged between 35% and 60% for COD, and from 60% to 70% for BOD. Therefore, sequential AOP pretreatment and biological aerobic treatment increased the overall COD removal up to 96%, compared to 60% without pretreatment. Bioassays with D. magna and D. pulex showed that this kind of treatment achieves only a partial toxicity removal of the tannery effluent. (orig.)

  16. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  17. Potential of Hibiscus Sabdariffa and Jatropha Curcas as Natural Coagulants in the Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Sibartie Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical wastewater is one of the most difficult wastewater to treat due to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds resulting in high concentration of organic matter, high turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD. Chemical-based coagulation is a common method used to treat wastewater. However, the issue that has been raised with the use of chemical coagulants is their presence in water after treatment that can cause risks to the human health such as Alzheimer and cancer. Natural coagulants can be used as a safe alternative to these chemicals instead. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to study the effect of H. Sabdariffa and J. Curcas as natural coagulants, separately and as a combination, on the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. Jar test experiment were carried out where beakers of 0.5L wastewater were mixed with the coagulants. The pH of the wastewater was varied from 2 to 12 while the coagulant dosage was varied from 40 to 200 mg/L. It was found that H. Sabdariffa works best at pH 4 and at a coagulant dosage of 190 mg/L with a highest turbidity removal of 35.8% and a decrease of COD by 29%. J. Curcas was found to perform best at pH 3 and with a coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L with a highest turbidity removal of 51% and a decrease of COD by 32%. When J. Curcas and H. Sabdariffa were used in combination, the optimum composition was found to be 80% J. Curcas and 20% H. Sabdariffa by weight with a maximum turbidity removal of 46.8% and a decrease in COD by 46%. In comparison between the two natural coagulants, J. Curcas is found to be a better and more suited coagulative agent for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. The same experiment was carried with alum at pH 6 and coagulant dosage of 750 mg/L and a turbidity removal of 48% and a decrease in COD by 38% were recorded. In comparison with alum, J. Curcas was a better coagulant in treating the pharmaceutical wastewater. This shows that natural coagulants can be

  18. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Villagrasa, Marta; López de Alda, Miren; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Barceló, Damià

    2013-01-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  19. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Villagrasa, Marta [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); López de Alda, Miren, E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc [AGBAR-Aigües de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 211, E-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  20. PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR TREATMENT WETLAND APPLICATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN DISPERSED DEVELOPMENT

    Magdalena Gajewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the conducted analyses of pre-feasibility study of different approaches for wastewater management in a settlement of 180 persons. In the assessment both technical and economic aspects were analyzed. The costs were calculated for three different and, at the same time, most popular as well as possible technical solutions like: (i construction of local wastewater treatment plant with gravitational and pressurized networks, (ii construction of single family wastewater treatment plants, (iii construction of sealed septic tanks. Carried out analyses of investment and maintenance costs revealed that at the stage of construction the most expensive is local sewer network with treatment plant, while the construction of a single family treatment plant has similar cost regardless of the technology used. When the long term operation and investment cost are accounted the most economical reasonable solution is the application of wetland treatment for household wastewater treatment.