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Sample records for organic sludge waste

  1. Improvement of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial hydrogen gas production from organic matters stands out as one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable green energy production. Based on the literature review, investigation of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste using a mixed culture has been very limited. The objective of this study was to assess the anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste under various conditions. (Author)

  2. Reduction of Fecal Streptococcus and Salmonella by selected treatment methods for sludge and organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Svend Erik; Krause, Michael; Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The increasing utilization of waste water sludge and source-separated organic household waste in agriculture has brought the quality aspects into focus, among others the hygienic aspects. In this study, the reducting effect on Fecal Streptococcus (FS) and Salmonella of different methods...... for stabilization and methods for further treatment of sludge and organic waste has been investigated. The most common methods for stabilization, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic stabilization, only reduce the indicator organisms by approximately 1 logarithmic decade. Methods for further treatment of sludge and organic......) significant reductions of Salmonella were found, while the die out at low temperatures (below 10°C) was limited. FS was not reduced systematically during storage, and therefore, FS is not usable as indicator organism for the hygienic properties of sludge during storage....

  3. Co-fermentation of sewage sludge and organic waste; CO-Vergaerung von Klaerschlamm und Bioabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, K.G. [Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The processes taking place in sewage sludge digestion and organic waste fermentation are identical. It therefore seems obvious to treat organic waste and sewage sludge jointly. In contrast to organic waste fermentation plants to be newly erected, co-fermentation permits making use of anaerobic treatment systems that are already installed at sewage treatment plants. At these plants, in principle only the sections responsible for acceptance and conditioning of organic waste need to be retrofitted. Apart from the possibility to treat organic waste very inexpensively, the co-fermentation process offers a number of other advantages. For this reason, the Emschergenossenschaft and Lippeverband carried out extensive semi-technical scale tests in co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge. (orig.) [German] Die ablaufenden biologischen Prozesse sind bei der Klaerschlammfaulung und der Bioabfallvergaerung gleich. Es liegt daher nahe, Bioabfaelle und Klaerschlaemme gemeinsam zu behandeln. Gegenueber neu zu errichtenden Bioabfall-Vergaerungsanlagen kann bei der Co-Vergaerung auf die bereits installierte Anaerobtechnik auf den Klaeranlagen zurueckgegriffen werden. Dort muss im wesentlichen nur der Annahme- und Aufbereitungsbereich fuer die Bioabfaelle nachgeruestet werden. Das Verfahren der Co-Vergaerung bietet ausser einer sehr kostenguenstigen Behandlungsmoeglichkeit fuer Bioabfaelle eine Reihe weiterer Vorteile. Aus diesem Grund wurden bei Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband umfangreiche halbtechnische Versuche zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  4. Treatment aerobic conjugate of sludges of septic tanks and household organic solid wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Barbosa da Silva Feitosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed at to evaluate the co-composting as technological alternative to the treatment of sludges of septic tanks with household organic solid wastes originating from cities of small and medium loads. The sludges and the domiciliary organic solid waste were collected in Cabaceiras, Caraúbas and Queimadas, state of Paraíba. The experiment consisted of four treatments with three repetitions, totaling 12 reactors, of cylindrical configuration in polyethylene of 100 L of capacity. Each reactor was fed with 50 kg substratum with variable composition in function of the sludge fraction: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The manual turning was accomplished three times a week and the temperature was monitored daily. The total destruction of helminth eggs in period differentiated in function of the sludges fraction (14, 28, 35 and 63 days and the medium transformation of 54.1% of sludges in biosolids class A and class B, with favorable characteristics to the use in agricultural cultures in 91 days, expressed the viability of the treatment for co-composting of sludges of tanks septic multichamber of collective use for the cities of small and medium load.

  5. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  6. EXPECTED IMPACT OF HANFORD PROCESSING ORGANICS OF PLUTONIUM DURING TANK WASTE SLUDGE RETRIEVAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.; WINTERS, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    This document evaluates the potential for extracting plutonium from Hanford waste tanks into residual organic solvents and how this process may have an impact on criticality specifications during the retrieval of wastes. The two controlling factors for concentrating plutonium are the solubility of the plutonium in the wastes and the extraction efficiency of the potential organic extractants that may be found in these wastes. Residual Hanford tank sludges contain plutonium in solid forms that are expected to be primarily insoluble Pu(IV) hydroxides. Evaluation of thermodynamic Pourbaix diagrams, documentation on solubility studies of various components in waste tank matrices, and actual analysis of plutonium in tank supernates all indicate that the solubility of Pu in the alkaline waste is on the order of 10 -6 M. Based on an upper limit plutonium solubility of 10 -5 M in high pH and a conservative distribution coefficient for organic extractants of a 0 for plutonium in 30% TBP at 0.07 M HNO 3 ), the estimated concentration for plutonium in the organic phase would be -7 M. This is well below the process control criteria. A significant increase in plutonium solubility or the E a o would have to occur to raise this concentration to the 0.01 M concern level for organics. Measured tank chemical component values, expected operating conditions, and the characteristics of the expected chemistry and extraction mechanisms indicate that concentration of plutonium from Hanford tank residual sludges to associated process organic extractants is significantly below levels of concern

  7. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  8. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of mixing ratio variation of sludge and organic solid waste on biodrying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. C.; Kristanto, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, organic waste was co-biodried with sludge cake to determine which mixing ratio gave the best result. The organic waste was consisted of dried leaves and green leaves, while the sludge cake was obtained from a waste water treatment plant in Bekasi. The experiment was performed on 3 lab-scale reactors with same specifications. After 21 days of experiment, it was found that the reactor with the lowest mixing fraction of sludge (5:1) has the best temperature profile and highest moisture content depletion compared with others. Initial moisture content and initial volatile solid content of this reactor’s feedstock was 52.25% and 82.4% respectively. The airflow rate was 10 lpm. After biodrying was done, the final moisture content of the feedstock from Reactor C was 22.0% and the final volatile solid content was 75.9%.The final calorific value after biodrying process was 3179,28kcal/kg.

  10. Co-digestion of municipal sludge and external organic wastes for enhanced biogas production under realistic plant constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-12-15

    A bench-scale investigation was conducted to select external organic wastes and mixing ratios for co-digestion with municipal sludge at the F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWHWRC), Gwinnett County, GA, USA to support a combined heat and power (CHP) project. External wastes were chosen and used subject to two constraints: a) digester retention time no lower than 15 d; and b) total biogas (methane) production not to exceed a specific target level based on air permit constraints on CO2 emissions. Primary sludge (PS), thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and digested sludge collected at the FWHWRC, industrial liquid waste obtained from a chewing gum manufacturing plant (GW) and dewatered fat-oil-grease (FOG) were used. All sludge and waste samples were characterized and their ultimate digestibility was assessed at 35 °C. The ultimate COD to methane conversion of PS, TWAS, municipal sludge (PS + TWAS; 40:60 w/w TS basis), GW and FOG was 49.2, 35.2, 40.3, 72.7, and 81.1%, respectively. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with GW, FOG or both, was evaluated using four bench-scale, mesophilic (35 °C) digesters. Biogas production increased significantly and additional degradation of the municipal sludge between 1.1 and 30.7% was observed. Biogas and methane production was very close to the target levels necessary to close the energy deficit at the FWHWRC. Co-digestion resulted in an effluent quality similar to that of the control digester fed only with the municipal sludge, indicating that co-digestion had no adverse effects. Study results prove that high methane production is achievable with the addition of concentrated external organic wastes to municipal digesters, at acceptable higher digester organic loadings and lower retention times, allowing the effective implementation of CHP programs at municipal wastewater treatment plants, with significant cost savings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Process Using Immobilized Anaerobic Sludge from Organic Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Sekoai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential of organic solid waste for biohydrogen production using immobilized anaerobic sludge. Biohydrogen was produced under batch mode at process conditions of 7.9, 30.3 °C and 90 h for pH, temperature and fermentation time, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen fraction of 48.67%, which corresponded to a biohydrogen yield of 215.39 mL H2/g Total Volatile Solids (TVS, was achieved. Therefore, the utilization of immobilized cells could pave the way for a large-scale biohydrogen production process.

  12. Wasting Away: To Sludge or Not to Sludge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nicolle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a century of high standards of sanitation, food and water safety in North America are often taken for granted. Recent outbreaks of illness attributed to food and water contamination, however, have challenged this complacency. Now, sludge is added to the list of concerns. Sewage sludge is the muddy substance that remains after the treatment of municipal sewage. This material includes not only human waste, but also household and industrial toxic wastes disposed of in local sewers. Federal and provincial Canadian regulations support the use of this material as fertilizer, within acceptable guidelines, as does the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. The safety of sludge, however, is questioned by some individuals and groups. Specifically, the risk of infectious agents and toxins to workers or other exposed individuals, and the potential for heavy metals and organic chemicals to be transferred from sludge-treated fields into crops are concerns.

  13. Co-composting as an oxygen stabilization of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, M; Neczaj, E; Parkitna, K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, grass and sawdust. Differing proportions of biodegradable waste were investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio as well as heavy metals and pathogen microorganisms content. The present study has shown that addition of MSW above 10% had a negative impact on the composting process. The initial C/N of the mixtures with a higher MSW content was below 18. Lower losses of organic matter occurred during composting for the mixture with the highest addition of MSW. Although studies have shown that composting is a good method for the disposal of organic waste additional research is required in order to optimize the organic and nitrogen compounds degradation during the co-composting process. In conclusion, a 1:4:4:1 mixture of MSW:sewage sludge:grass:sawdust is recommended because it can achieve high temperature as well as the highest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. The concentration of heavy and light metals in all composts was within the limits of regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development.

  14. Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an

  15. Optimization of organic contaminant and toxicity testing analytical procedures for estimating the characteristics and environmental significance of natural gas processing plant waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, N.

    1990-10-01

    The Gas Plant Sludge Characterization Phase IIB program is a continuation of the Canadian Petroleum Association's (CPA) initiatives to characterize sludge generated at gas processing plants. The objectives of the Phase IIB project were to develop an effective procedure for screening waste sludges or centrifuge/leachate generated from sludge samples for volatile, solvent-soluble and water-soluble organics; verify the reproducibility of the three aquatic toxicity tests recommended as the battery of tests for determining the environmental significance of sludge centrifugates or leachates; assess the performance of two terrestrial toxicity tests in determining the environmental significance of whole sludge samples applied to soil; and to assess and discuss the reproducibility and cost-effectiveness of the sampling and analytical techniques proposed for the overall sludge characterization procedure. Conclusions and recommendations are provided for sludge collection, preparation and distribution, organic analyses, toxicity testing, project management, and procedure standardization. The three aquatic and two terrestrial toxicity tests proved effective in indicating the toxicity of complex mixtures. 27 refs., 3 figs., 59 tabs

  16. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety

  17. Biohydrogen production using waste activated sludge disintegrated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • Combined alkali-irradiation treatment achieved the highest solubilization of sludge. - Abstract: The biohydrogen production using the disintegrated and dissolved sludge by gamma irradiation was studied. The experimental results showed that gamma irradiation and irradiation combined with alkali pretreatment could disintegrate and dissolve waste activated sludge for biohydrogen production. The alkali-irradiation treatment of the sludge at pH = 12 and 20 kGy achieved the highest disintegration and dissolution, i.e., it could destroy the cell walls and release organic matters (such as soluble COD, polysaccharides and protein) into the solution. The disintegrated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for biohydrogen production

  18. New process controls in the co-fermentation of organic waste and municipal sewage sludge; Neue Verfahrensfuehrungen bei der Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und kommunalen Klaerschlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaepers, D.; Schierholt, M.; Buer, T.; Risse, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft (ISA)

    1999-07-01

    For the co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge in digester towers at municipal sewage treatment plant, mainly single-stage processes have so far been studied or are in use in part. Within the framework of a project sponsored by the foundation Oswald-Schulze-Stiftung, the use of a two-stage mode of operation (thermophilic/mesophilic) for co-fermenting organic waste and sewage sludge was investigated. By adding organic waste to the digester content, biogas production per reactor volume was more than doubled in comparison with exclusive sewage sludge fermentation. Because of the thermophilic stage for the conditioning of organic waste, specific biogas yield for an organic load of 1.5 kg organic dry residue TR/m{sup 3*}d was slightly enhanced in comparison with single-stage co-fermentation. (orig.) [German] Zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm in Faultuermen kommunaler Klaeranlagen werden bislang hauptsaechlich einstufige Verfahren untersucht und teilweise eingesetzt. Im Rahmen eines von der Oswald-Schulze-Stiftung gefoerderten Projektes wurde der Einsatz einer 2-stufigen Betriebsweise (thermophil/mesophil) bei der Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm untersucht. Die Biogasproduktion pro Reaktorvolumen konnte durch die Zugabe von Bioabfall in die Faulbehaelter gegenueber der reinen Klaerschlammfaulung mehr als verdoppelt werden. Durch die thermophile Stufe zur Vorbehandlung der Bioabfaelle konnte die spezifische Biogasausbeute bei einer organischen Raumbelastung von 1,5 kg o TR/m{sup 3*}d gegenueber der 1-stufigen Co-Vergaerung leicht erhoeht werden. (orig.)

  19. Study on The Use of Sludge From Yogyakarta Waste Water Processing Plant as Environmental Friendly Organic Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M-Yazid; Mintargo-K; M-E-Supriyatni; Budiono

    2005-01-01

    Study on feasibility of the use of sludge from Yogjakarta Waste Water Processing Plant (JWWPP) as organic fertilizer with several aspects to be considered, such as plant nutrient content, heavy metal content and its pathogenic microbial. From the observation result is expected can be used as an input data for analyzing the use of sludge impact as fertilizer. Sludge sample was taken from JWWPP that located at Bantul. Sludge sample was dried at the room temperature, ground and weighed to be appropriate to the analysis type. The macro element content was analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), then counted using Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometer. The heavy metal content, such as Pb, Cd and Hg was analyzed using AAS, while for Sm, Th, Sb, Cr and Co contents were analyzed using NAA. Sample was irradiated in order to kill pathogenic microbial, using varied doses which are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. Microbial observation was carried out at Microbiological Laboratory of Biological Faculty-Gadjah Mada University that include of total bacteria, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus and Salmonella. The average macro element content was determined from the analysis result, N is 4.10 ± 0.007 ppm, P is 640.51 ± 14.34, K is 3.04 ± 0.06 ppm, while micro element content consist of Mg is 79.31 ± 6.48 ppm, Zn is 599.8 ± 42.2 ppm, Cu is 16.13 ± 0.4 ppm, Ca is 117.6 ± 9.20 ppm and Fe is 4.35 ± 0.18 ppm. The range of heavy metal content consist of Pb is 73.27 - 125.65 ppm, Cd is 1.44 - 2.59 ppm, while Hg is undetected. Another that Sm is 0.04 - 18.68 ppm, Th is 2.20 - 6.37 ppm; Sb is 1.06 - 76.37 ppm, Cr is 1.94 - 51.40 ppm and Co is 0.57 - 84.03 ppm. The greatest bacteria population is Salmonella sp, then Streptococcus and the latest is Escherichia coli. The analysis result can be deduced that sludge from JWWPP can be used as organic fertilizer with specific treatment to decrease Cu, Fe and Zn content to be less then the critical value to hinder the growth of a plant. While the

  20. Sewage sludges compost and organic fraction urban solid waste from selective collection; Compostaje de lodos de depuradora y FORSU procedente de recogida selectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica, A.; Diaz, M. M.; Mohedo, J.

    2001-07-01

    The organic fraction of urban solid waste (FORSU) from selective collection has been analysed to make a good quality compost for soils an agricultural use. Different mixtures of FORSU, sludge from the municipal water treatment plant, and pruning garden has been composted in turned windrow. The composting process and the obtained refined compost were characterised. The results on evolution of pH, conductivity, C/N relation, P, metals,-organic matter and recovery yield were related. (Author) 15 refs.

  1. Disinfection and physical and chemical changes in waste waters, sludge and agricultural wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groneman, A.F.; Oosterheert, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    It is of interest for agriculture to consider recycling scenarios that use undigested sludges as they contain higher concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter than digested sludges. Also from the point of view of waste water management, this approach is of interest because it reduces the time and number of treatments of sludges, thus resulting in technological and economic advantages. However, the utilization of this type of sludge in agriculture is restricted by the presence of human pathogens. Therefore studies concerning the disinfection efficiency of gamma irradiation in undigested sludge at pilot plant level were performed and results compared with the disinfection efficiency of this radiation treatment in digested sludge. (Auth.)

  2. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  4. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. ► System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 were analyzed. ► A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and HRT of 15d. ► With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. ► The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2–8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m 3 d) −1 , with VS reduction rates of 61.7–69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89–5.28 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 . A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 . This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  5. A novel approach of anaerobic co-digestion between organic fraction of food waste and waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant: Effect of mixing ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Dinh Thi; Ngoc, Tran Thi Minh; Van Ty, Nguyen; Thuan, Van Tan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing ratio of co-anaerobic digestion between dewatered waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (DS) and organic fraction of food waste (FW). The experiment was carried out in 3L reactors for 16 days at ambient temperature. Four mixing ratios of DW and FW was investigated including 100 % DS : 0 % FW (Run S100); 75% DS : 25 % FW (Run S75); 50% DS : 50% FW (Run S50); and 25% DS : 75% FW (Run S25) in term of VS concentration. As a result, the Run S50 achieved best performance among the four funs indicated in biogas accumulation of 32.48 L biogas and methane yield of 358.9 400ml CH4/g VS removal after 16 days operation at ambient temperature. Biogas accumulation of Run S25 was higher than that of Run S75. Run S100 produced the lowest of biogas of all runs. It is concluded that co-anaerobic digestion of different organic sources could enhance the performance of methane fermentation.

  6. Effects of temperature and organic loading rate on the performance and microbial community of anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengliu; Yang, Zhaohui; Huang, Jing; Wang, Huiling; Xu, Haiyin; Wang, Like

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste was investigated semi-continuously using continuously stirred tank reactors. Results showed that the performance of co-digestion system was distinctly influenced by temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) in terms of gas production rate (GPR), methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency and the system stability. The highest GPR at 55 °C was 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that at 35 and 45 °C with the OLR of 1 g VSL(-1)d(-1), and the corresponding average CH₄ yields were 0.40, 0.26 and 0.30 L CH₄ g(-1)VSadded, respectively. The thermophilic system exhibited the best load bearing capacity at extremely high OLR of 7 g VSL(-1)d(-1), while the mesophilic system showed the best process stability at low OLRs (< 5 g VSL(-1)d(-1)). Temperature had a more remarkable effect on the richness and diversity of microbial populations than the OLR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacteriological studies on dairy waste activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, A.D.

    1966-01-01

    Dairy-waste activated sludge was examined for bacterial composition and response to different conditions. Strains isolated were classified mainly into three groups: predominantly coryneform bacteria (largely Arthrobacter), some Achromobacteraceae and a small groups of Pseudomonadaceae.

  8. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  9. Co-conditioning and dewatering of chemical sludge and waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G R; Liu, J C; Lee, D J

    2001-03-01

    The conditioning and dewatering behaviors of chemical and waste activated sludges from a tannery were studied. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), and bound water content were used to evaluate the sludge dewatering behaviors. Zeta potentials were also measured. Experiments were conducted on each sludge conditioned and dewatered separately, and on the sludge mixed at various ratios. Results indicate that the chemical sludge was relatively difficult to be dewatered, even in the presence of polyelectrolyte. When the waste activated sludge was mixed with the chemical sludge at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, the dewaterability of chemical sludge improved remarkably while the relatively better dewaterability of the waste activated sludge deteriorated only to a limited extent. As the mixing ratios became 4:1 and 8:1, the dewaterability of the mixed sludge was equal to that of the waste activated sludge. The optimal polyelectrolyte dosage for the mixed sludge was equal to or less than that of the waste activated sludge. It is proposed that the chemical sludges act as skeleton builders that reduce the compressibility of the mixed sludge whose dewaterability is enhanced. Bound water contents of sludge decreased at low polyelectrolyte dosage and were not significantly affected as polyelectrolyte dosage increased. Advantages and disadvantages of co-conditioning and dewatering chemical sludge and waste activated sludge were discussed.

  10. Facile synthesis of porous TiO_2 photocatalysts using waste sludge as the template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Huang, Shouqiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Waste sludge is introduced to synthesize the waste sludge templated TiO_2 photocatalyst with porous structure, which possesses better photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO_2. - Highlights: • Waste sludge is introduced to synthesize the TiO_2 photocatalyst. • Waste sludge templated TiO_2 sample possesses porous structure. • Waste sludge templated TiO_2 sample exhibits high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A resource utilization method of waste sludge is present by the synthesis of waste sludge templated TiO_2 photocatalysts. The organic materials in waste sludge are used as the pore-forming agents, and the transition metals included in the remaining waste sludge through calcination (WSC) can serve as the dopants for the WSC-TiO_2 (WSCT) photocatalyst. The visible and UV–visible light driven photocatalytic activities of WSCT are much better compared to those of pure TiO_2 and WSC, and it is originated from the higher light absorption property and the efficient electron–hole pair separation provided by waste sludge.

  11. Exploiting the energy potential of waste activated sludge with MicroSludge[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.; Laliberte, S. [Paradigm Environmental Technologies, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Nemeth, L. [Earth Tech Canada Inc., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    When waste activated sludge (WAS) is efficiently converted to biogas through anaerobic digestion, the energy potential and economic value of WAS can be exploited. This paper discussed the chemical and pressure pre-treatment process using MicroSludge. MicroSludge uses alkaline pre-treatment to weaken cell membranes and a high-pressure homogenizer to liquefy the cells, enabling the anaerobic digester to work at a higher rate and more efficiently, destroying pathogens and generating less biosolids for disposal, with corresponding higher volumes of methane from which to generate added electrical power and/or produce added heat. MicroSludge was demonstrated at the Chilliwack waste water treatment plant (WWTP), located 115 km east of Vancouver. The paper provided a description of the Chilliwack WWTP and discussed the application of MicroSludge at a full-scale prototype plant. The MicroSludge plant was capable of pre-treating all of the waste secondary sludge generated at the Chilliwack WWTP prior to anaerobic digestion. The paper also discussed digester hydraulic retention time; scanning electron microscope images; temperature; pH; mass loading of primary sludge and waste activated sludge; total volatile solids concentrations; and digester gas composition. Operating and maintenance costs were also outlined along with electrical power costs, maintenance costs and chemical costs. Last, the paper presented the energy benefits for WWTPs when using MicroSludge. It was concluded that the economic benefits of MicroSludge are greater for plants with higher biosolids disposal costs and higher electrical utility costs. 6 refs., 8 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Mackey, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  13. Method of treating radioactive sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Ichihashi, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    For removing water content from sludge wastes, filtration or steam condensation may be considered, but none of them can sufficiently reduce the water content since filtration may cause clogging and steam treatment has a limit in the condensation. In view of the above, radioactive sludge wastes are dehydrated by an electroosmotic process in a vessel and then dehydrated solid contents are solidified in the vessel. Since the sludge wastes are mainly composed o fion exchange resins and iron oxides deposited to the resins, when a DC voltage is applied to the sludges containing such solid contents, a force tending to premeate them through the fine pores in the filter is exerted to water. As a result, only water is removed while the solids are being held on the filters. Since the moving direction of water is different depending on the property of the sludges, the polarity of the electrodes may be changed depending on the nature of the sludges. Thus, volume reduction can be improved and treating conditions can be controlled easily by a simple device. (N.H.)

  14. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal Sludge and Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evren Ersahin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; XPS = 61 g TS/PE⋅day; XSS-OFMSW=50 g TS/PE⋅day.

  15. Residues of pharmaceutical products in recycled organic manure produced from sewage sludge and solid waste from livestock and relationship to their fermentation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and solid waste from livestock being utilized is useful for circulation of nourishment in farmlands as recycled organic manure (ROM). In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of 12 pharmaceutical products generated by human activity in the ROMs produced from human waste sludge (HWS), sewage sludge (SS), cattle manure (CM), poultry manure (PM), swine manure (SM) and horse manure (HM). The kind and number of pharmaceutical products detected in ROMs were different. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) were detected at high levels in HWS and SS samples. In addition, the detection frequency and concentration levels of sulfonamides (SAs) in PM and SM were high. Moreover, high concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC) were found in only SM. These differences reflect specific adherence adsorption of the pharmaceutical products to different livestock and humans. Moreover, it was found that the concentrations of pharmaceutical products and fermentation levels of ROMs had significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p=0.024). When the fermentation test of ROM was conducted in a rotary fermentor in a lab scale test, the residue levels of pharmaceutical products decreased effectively except carbamazepine (CBZ). The rates of decrease were in the case of tetracyclines (TCs): 85-92%, FQs: 81-100%, erythromycine: 67%, SAs: 79-95%, trimethoprim: 86% and CBZ: 37% by 30 d. Pharmaceutical products that can be decomposed by fermentation process at the lowest impact of residual antibiotic activities may therefore be considered as environmentally friendly medicines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved waste-activated sludge dewatering using sludge/oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-07

    Oct 7, 2014 ... 2Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791, ... conventional heating methods in chemical reactions is becom- ... the dewaterability of sludge and reduces the organic matter ..... It is unlikely that this technique will be applied in.

  17. Separation of SRP waste sludge and supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Sludges and supernates were separated from Savannah River Plant waste slurries by centrifugation and sand filtration. This separation, a portion of a conceptual process for solidification and long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes, was tested in shielded cells with small-scale process equipment. Procedures for the separation were developed in tests with nonradioactive materials. Then, in 13 tests with actual sludges and supernates, solids removal ranged from 90 to 99.2 vol percent and averaged 96.4 vol percent after two passes through a basket-type centrifuge. Concentrates from the tests, containing 0.05 to 0.2 vol percent solids, were clarified by sand filter columns to produce solutions of the soluble salts with less than 0.01 vol percent solids. About 700 liters of salt solution and 8 kilograms of washed, dried sludges were separated in the tests. Effects of sludge type, flocculant, flow rates, and batch size were evaluated. Washing and drying of centrifuged sludges were studied, and two types of dryers were tested. Ruthenium volatility during drying was negligible. Washing efficiency was determined by analyses of wash solutions and sludge products

  18. Effect of organic loading rate on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Nie, Qiulin; Zhao, Hongting; Tang, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m 3 d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m 3 d) and 32kgCOD/(m 3 d), respectively. Carbon recovery ranged from 75.2-84.1% in the CSTR and CMISR with the balance assumed to be converted to biomass. One gram waste pastry could produce 0.33g (1.83mmol) glucose which could be further converted to 79.24mL (3.54mmol) hydrogen in the CMISR or 91.66mL (4.09mmol) hydrogen in the CSTR. This is the first study which reports dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Guan-Bu

    2013-01-15

    Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg(-1)) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L(-1) DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (NNH(4)) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Guan-Bu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increases in acidity, washing frequency, and operational temperature enhance the Cd removal. ► Approximately 80% of Cd can be removed from the soil by dissolved organic matter (DOM) washing. ► The DOM washing can moderate the loss of soil fertility. ► The DOM washing will have a great improvement if we employ NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2 , and Mg(OH) 2 to prepare the DOM solution together. -- Abstract: Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg −1 ) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L −1 DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (N-NH 4 ) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively

  1. Comment on "Synergistic co-digestion of solid-organic-waste and municipal-sewage-sludge: 1 plus 1 equals more than 2 in terms of biogas production and solids reduction" [Water Research 87, 416-423].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, Heribert; Markt, Rudolf

    2016-05-15

    Co-digestion of organic waste and sewage sludge enhances biogas production and reduces the mass of remaining solids. This phenomenon of enhanced organic matter decomposition by adding labile substrate is known from other habitats like soils and sediments where it is called priming effect. It is thus suggested to adopt the term priming effect also in environmental biotechnology, and in particular for biomethanisation of wastewater sludges by the addition of energy-rich co-substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia, G.; Van der Putten, J.J.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO2 and CaCO3. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1000 nm. Thus, this sludge is potentially hazardous waste when is improperly

  3. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with the liquid fraction from hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia, M A; Villamil, J A; Rodriguez, J J; Borja, R; Mohedano, A F

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, the influence of substrate pre-treatment (grinding and sieving) on batch anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was first assessed, then followed by co-digestion experiments with the liquid fraction from hydrothermal carbonization (LFHTC) of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS). The methane yield of batch anaerobic digestion after grinding and sieving (20 mm diameter) the OFMSW was considerably higher (453 mL CH 4 STP g -1 VS added ) than that of untreated OFMSW (285 mL CH 4 STP g -1 VS added ). The modified Gompertz model adequately predicted process performance. The maximum methane production rate, R m , for ground and sieved OFMSW was 2.4 times higher than that of untreated OFMSW. The anaerobic co-digestion of different mixtures of OFMSW and LFHTC of DSS did not increase the methane yield above that of the anaerobic digestion of OFMSW alone, and no synergistic effects were observed. However, the co-digestion of both wastes at a ratio of 75% OFMSW-25% LFHTC provides a practical waste management option. The experimental results were adequately fitted to a first-order kinetic model showing a kinetic constant virtually independent of the percentage of LFHTC (0.52-0.56 d -1 ) and decreasing slightly for 100% LFHTC (0.44 d -1 ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung, E-mail: ccliu@niu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Guan-Bu [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, 260, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Increases in acidity, washing frequency, and operational temperature enhance the Cd removal. ► Approximately 80% of Cd can be removed from the soil by dissolved organic matter (DOM) washing. ► The DOM washing can moderate the loss of soil fertility. ► The DOM washing will have a great improvement if we employ NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and Mg(OH){sub 2} to prepare the DOM solution together. -- Abstract: Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg{sup −1}) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L{sup −1} DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (N-NH{sub 4}) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively.

  5. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  6. Co-disposal of sewage sludge and solid wastes-it works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, D B

    1977-10-01

    The problem of sludge disposal is one of more sludge than ever before, few suitable land disposal or land application sites, the ocean dumping option being phased out, and energy cost so high or supplies so few as to make incineration a questionable endeavor. The energy required to run a wastewater treatment plant and the heat needed to incinerate the sludge may be available in the same community in the form of municipal solid waste. Municipal sludge has a heat value of about 10,000 Btu/lb of dry solids; it is autogenous at>30% solids. Codisposal techniques are discussed which use the energy produced by the combustion of solid waste to dewater the sludge to its autogenous point. One approach is to use sewage sludge incinerators, in many cases already installed at the wastewater treatment plant, and to use the organic portion of solid waste as a fuel to dry, burn, and reduce the volume of the sludge that must ultimately be disposed. A second approach would use a solid waste incinerator, solid waste-fired steam generator, or waterwall combustion unit to burn dewatered sludge. Both approaches are being demonstrated or used. Thermal sludge disposal at wastewater treatment plants normally is carried out in multiple-hearth or fluidized-bed incinerators. The experiences of such plants in the US and Europe are summarized.

  7. Hydrothermal carbonization of organic industrial waste and sewage sludge in semi-industrial scale; Hydrothermale Carbonisierung von organischen Industrieabfaellen und Klaerschlaemmen im halbtechnischen Massstab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloehse, Dennis; Ramke, Hans-Guenter [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Hoexter (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft und Deponietechnik; Lehmann, Hans-Joachim

    2012-12-15

    The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a chemicalphysical process wherein the biomass of vegetal origin is converted into a lignite-like material. Only a few hours in an aqueous suspension at temperatures of 180-250 C and under pressure are needed for the transformation. Because of these reaction conditions highly aqueous wastes and residues are well suited materials for the HTC-process. The high calorific values of HTC Biochar enable efficient energy use of primary materials. A basic advantage is seen in the excellent dewatering properties of these biocoals. As part of an ongoing project by the BMBF a semi-industrial scale system was developed (200 liters) by the authors. There the HTC process is examined in a continuous process. After a description of the basic process concept first results of the continuous process are presented. These are compared with previous laboratory results on the example of organic industrial wastes. Further detailed results of continuous carbonization of sewage sludge and flanking batch studies are presented. The final issues to be worked on in the technical implementation are the specific energy consumption of the conversion and its potential for optimization. (orig.)

  8. Predicting the degradability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard; Parker, Wayne; Zhu, Henry; Houweling, Dwight; Murthy, Sudhir

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify methods for estimating anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge (WAS). The WAS streams were generated in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater and WAS properties were initially determined through simulation of SBR operation with BioWin (EnviroSim Associates Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada). Samples of WAS from the SBRs were subsequently characterized through respirometry and batch anaerobic digestion. Respirometry was an effective tool for characterizing the active fraction of WAS and could be a suitable technique for determining sludge composition for input to anaerobic models. Anaerobic digestion of the WAS revealed decreasing methane production and lower chemical oxygen demand removals as the SRT of the sludge increased. BioWin was capable of accurately describing the digestion of the WAS samples for typical digester SRTs. For extended digestion times (i.e., greater than 30 days), some degradation of the endogenous decay products was assumed to achieve accurate simulations for all sludge SRTs.

  9. Sampling and analyses of SRP high-level waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Kelley, J.A.; McMillan, T.S.

    1976-08-01

    Twelve 3-liter samples of high-heat waste sludges were collected from four Savannah River Plant waste tanks with a hydraulically operated sample collector of unique design. Ten of these samples were processed in Savannah River Laboratory shielded cell facilities, yielding 5.3 kg of washed, dried sludge products for waste solidification studies. After initial drying, each batch was washed by settling and decantation to remove the bulk of soluble salts and then was redried. Additional washes were by filtration, followed by final drying. Conclusions from analyses of samples taken during the processing steps were: (a) the raw sludges contained approximately 80 wt percent soluble salts, most of which were removed by the washes; (b) 90 Sr and 238 , 239 Pu remained in the sludges, but most of the 137 Cs was removed by washing; (c) small amounts of sodium, sulfate, and 137 Cs remained in the sludges after thorough washing; (d) no significant differences were found in sludge samples taken from different risers of one waste tank. Chemical and radiometric compositions of the sludge product from each tank were determined. The sludges had diverse compositions, but iron, manganese, aluminum, and uranium were principal elements in each sludge. 90 Sr was the predominant radionuclide in each sludge product

  10. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  11. Synergistic co-digestion of solid-organic-waste and municipal-sewage-sludge: 1 plus 1 equals more than 2 in terms of biogas production and solids reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Peter; Wadhawan, Tanush; Kuprian, Martin; Higgins, Matthew; Ebner, Christian; Fimml, Christian; Murthy, Sudhir; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-12-15

    Making good use of existing water infrastructure by adding organic wastes to anaerobic digesters improves the energy balance of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) substantially. This paper explores co-digestion load limits targeting a good trade-off for boosting methane production, and limiting process-drawbacks on nitrogen-return loads, cake-production, solids-viscosity and polymer demand. Bio-methane potential tests using whey as a model co-substrate showed diversification and intensification of the anaerobic digestion process resulting in a synergistical enhancement in sewage sludge methanization. Full-scale case-studies demonstrate organic co-substrate addition of up to 94% of the organic sludge load resulted in tripling of the biogas production. At organic co-substrate addition of up to 25% no significant increase in cake production and only a minor increase in ammonia release of ca. 20% have been observed. Similar impacts were measured at a high-solids digester pilot with up-stream thermal hydrolyses where the organic loading rate was increased by 25% using co-substrate. Dynamic simulations were used to validate the synergistic impact of co-substrate addition on sludge methanization, and an increase in hydrolysis rate from 1.5 d(-1) to 2.5 d(-1) was identified for simulating measured gas production rate. This study demonstrates co-digestion for maximizing synergy as a step towards energy efficiency and ultimately towards carbon neutrality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K H; Cheah, W L; Leong, Y P; Tan, C F

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  13. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lăcătuşu Radu; Căpăţână Romeo; Lăcătuşu Anca-Rovena

    2016-01-01

    The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33%) of...

  14. Anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse waste using a flocculant sludge UASB reactor. [Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, S.; de Zeeuw, W.; Lettinga, G.

    1984-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the feasibility of using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for the one-step anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse waste, which contains approximately 50% insoluble suspended COD. Batch experiments, as well as continuous experiments, were conducted. The continuous experiments were carried out in a 30 cubic m UASB pilot-plant with digested sewage sludge from the municipal sewage treatment plant of Ede, The Netherlands (Ede-2 sludge), used as seed. Initially the UASB pilot-plant was operated at a temperature of 30 degrees C, but, 20 weeks after the start-up, the temperature was reduced to 20 degrees C, because application of the process at this lower temperature might be quite attractive for economic reasons. The process can be started up at an organic space load of 1 kg COD/m/sup 3/ day (sludge load, 0.11 kg/COD kg VSSday) and at a liquid detention time of 35 h at a process temperature of 30 degrees C. Once started up, the system can satisfactorily handle organic space loads up to 3.5 kg COD/m/sup 3/ day at a liquid detention time of 8 hours at temperatures as low as 20 degrees C. A treatment efficiency up to 70% on a COD tot basis, 90% on a COD sol basis and 95% on a BOD5 sol basis was smoothly approached. Temporary shock loads up to 7 kg COD/m/sup 3/ day during the daytime at a liquid detention time of 5 h can well be accommodated provided such a shock load is followed by a period of underloading, e.g. at night. The methane yield amounted to 0.28 NM/sup 3/ per kilogram of COD removed: the methane content of the biogas from the wastewater varied between 65 and 75%. 19 references.

  15. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  16. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and enzyme activity was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the increase of ultrasonic specific energy in the range of 0 - 90000 kJ/kg dried sludge (DS) benefited WAS particle size reduction and the solubilization ...

  17. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m 2 deg. C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 deg. C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 deg. C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 deg. C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum

  18. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodegradation of waste PET based copolyesters in thermophilic anaerobic sludge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanová, S.; Šmejkalová, P.; Merna, J.; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 111, Jan (2015), s. 176-184 ISSN 0141-3910 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : poly(ethylene terephthalate) * copolymers * sludge * biodegradation * hydrolysis * waste Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.120, year: 2015

  20. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal; Lens, Piet Nl L

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether

  1. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  2. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

    2003-07-01

    The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of winery waste and waste activated sludge: assessment of process feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ros, C; Cavinato, C; Cecchi, F; Bolzonella, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study the anaerobic co-digestion of wine lees together with waste activated sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was tested at pilot scale. Three organic loading rates (OLRs 2.8, 3.3 and 4.5 kgCOD/m(3)d) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs 21, 19 and 16 days) were applied to the reactors, in order to evaluate the best operational conditions for the maximization of the biogas yields. The addition of lee to sludge determined a higher biogas production: the best yield obtained was 0.40 Nm(3)biogas/kgCODfed. Because of the high presence of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and polyphenols in wine lees, the best results in terms of yields and process stability were obtained when applying the lowest of the three organic loading rates tested together with mesophilic conditions.

  5. Reduction of heavy metals in refinery waste sludge using em treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, F.; Saleemi, A.R.; Ahmad, I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts of National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) and Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) Rawalpindi, to address the problem of refinery solid waste. A trial project was designed to treat and convert 1.7 m ton to oil sludge into environmental friendly residue (compost) under anaerobic conditions. The residue can be treated as bio fertilizer for agricultural purpose. The trial on bio remediation (anaerobic) of oily sludge of ARL, Rawalpindi within its premises using EM technology was successfully completed with the collaboration of effective microorganism research organization (EMRO), NCPC and ARL between 29th October to 10th December, 2002. The effective microorganisms transformed the undiluted oily sludge from ARL into bioactive sludge; which may be called as bio sludge. For heavy metal breakdown the trial data shows that Ba has been reduced by 85% in the EM. Treated oily sludge as compared to original ARL sludge, and Pb, Fe, Zn and Ni have been reduced by about 50% in the treated bio sludge. The contents of As, Cr, Cu and Mn showed no change. The residue obtained can be used as a bio fertilizer. (author)

  6. Electrical resistivities of glass melts containing simulated SRP waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.

    1978-08-01

    One option for the long-term management of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant is to solidify the waste in borosilicate glass by using a continuous, joule-heated, ceramic melter. Electrical resistivities that are needed for melter design were measured for melts of two borosilicate, glass-forming mixtures, each of which was combined with various amounts of several simulated-waste sludges. The simulated sludge spanned the composition range of actual sludges sampled from SRP waste tanks. Resistivities ranged from 6 to 10 ohm-cm at 500 0 C. Melt composition and temperature were correlated with resistivity. Resistivity was not a simple function of viscosity. 15 figures, 4 tables

  7. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L.; Baer, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Aquatic worms eating waste sludge in a continuous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic worms are a biological approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced at waste water treatment plants. A new reactor concept was recently introduced in which the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is immobilised in a carrier material. The current paper describes

  9. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.C.; Hagengruber, R.L.; Zuppero, A.C.

    1974-06-01

    The hazards to public health associated with the application of municipal sewage sludge to land usage are reviewed to establish the need for disinfection of sludge prior to its distribution as a fertilizer, especially in the production of food and fodder. The use of ionizing radiation in conjunction with mild heating is shown to be an effective disinfection treatment and an economical one when reactor waste fission products are utilized. A program for researching and experimental demonstration of the process on sludges is also outlined

  10. Bio gasification of industrial bio waste and sewage sludge-management of biogas quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymalainen, M.; Lahde, K.; Kaarnakoski, M.; Pirttijarvi, T.; Arnold, M.; Kurola, J.; Kautola, H.

    2009-07-01

    Bio gasification, i. e. anaerobic digestion, is a well known sustainable option for the management of organic solid wastes and sludges. the produced biogas is a valuable bio fuel to replace fossil fuels in different technical applications (like heating, electricity, transport fuel generation) which in turn determine its quality requirements. (Author)

  11. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghdam, Ehsan Fathi; Kinnunen, V.; Rintala, Jukka A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), biowaste (BW), sewage sludge (SS), and co-digestion of BW and SS. Average methane yields of 386 ± 54, 385 ± 82, 198 ± 14, and 318 ± 59 L CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) were obtained for OFMSW...

  12. Microbial electrolysis contribution to anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, leading to accelerated methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiwei; Guo, Zechong

    2016-01-01

    Methane production rate (MPR) in waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion processes is typically limitedby the initial steps of complex organic matter degradation, leading to a limited MPR due to sludgefermentation speed of solid particles. In this study, a novel microbial electrolysis AD reactor (ME...

  13. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  14. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulepas, Roel J.W.; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g −1 of copper, 487 μg g −1 of lead, 793 μg g −1 of zinc, 27 μg g −1 of nickel and 2.3 μg g −1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 g dry weight L −1 waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner

  15. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulepas, Roel J.W., E-mail: roel.meulepas@wetsus.nl [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Saikaly, Pascal E. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Lens, Piet N.L. [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g{sup −1} of copper, 487 μg g{sup −1} of lead, 793 μg g{sup −1} of zinc, 27 μg g{sup −1} of nickel and 2.3 μg g{sup −1} of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 g{sub dry} {sub weight} L{sup −1} waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner.

  16. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342μgg-1 of copper, 487μgg-1 of lead, 793μgg-1 of zinc, 27μgg-1 of nickel and 2.3μgg-1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3gdry weightL-1 waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  17. Biotechnology of intensive aerobic conversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Stabnikova, O.; Show, K.-Y.; Ding, H.-B.; Tay, S.T.-L.; Ivanov, V.; Tay, J.-H.

    2003-07-01

    Biotechnology for intensive aerobic bioconversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer was developed. The wastes were treated in a closed reactor under controlled aeration, stirring, pH, and temperature at 60{sup o}C, after addition of starter bacterial culture Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The biodegradation of sewage sludge was studied by decrease of volatile solids (VS), content of organic carbon and autofluorescence of coenzyme F{sub 420}. The degradation of anaerobic biomass was faster than biodegradation of total organic matter. The best fertilizer was obtained when sewage sludge was thermally pre-treated, mixed with food waste, chalk, and artificial bulking agent. The content of volatile solid and the content of organic carbon decreased at 24.8% and 13.5% of total solids, respectively, during ten days of bioconversion. The fertilizer was a powder with moisture content of 5%. It was stable, and not toxic for the germination of plant seeds. Addition of 1.0 to 1.5% of this fertilizer to the subsoil increased the growth of different plants tested by 113 to 164 %. The biotechnology can be applied in larger scale for the recycling of sewage sludge and food wastes in Singapore. (author)

  18. Immobilization of radioactive waste sludge from spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Plecas, I.

    1998-01-01

    In the last forty years, in FR Yugoslavia, as result of the research reactors' operation and radionuclides application in medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of the different categories and various levels of specific activities were generated. As a temporary solution, these radioactive waste materials are stored in the two hanger type interim storages for solid waste and some type of liquid waste packed in plastic barrels, and one of three stainless steal underground containers for other types of liquid waste. Spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors in the Vinca Institute have been temporary stored in water filled storage pool. Due to the fact that the water in the spent fuel elements storage pool have not been purified for a long time, all metallic components submerged in the water have been hardly corroded and significant amount of the sludge has been settled on the bottom of the pool. As a first step in improving spent fuel elements storage conditions and slowing down corrosion in the storage spent fuel elements pool we have decided to remove the sludge from the bottom of the pool. Although not high, but slightly radioactive, this sludge had to be treated as radioactive waste material. Some aspects of immobilisation, conditioning and storage of this sludge are presented in this paper. (author

  19. Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary or secondary sewage sludge in medium and large WWTP are most often processed by anaerobic digestion, as a method of conditioning, sludge quantity minimization and biogas production. With the aim to achieve the best results of sludge processing several modifications of technologies were suggested, investigated and introduced in the full technical scale. Various sludge pretreatment technologies before anaerobic treatment have been widely investigated and partially introduced. Obviously, there are always some limitations and some negative side effects. Selected aspects have been presented and discussed. The problem of nitrogen has been highlighted on the basis of the carried out investigations. The single and two step - mesophilic and thermophilic - anaerobic waste activated sludge digestion processes, preceded by preliminary hydrolysis were investigated. The aim of lab-scale experiments was pre-treatment of the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline and hydrodynamic disintegration. Depending on the pretreatment technologies and the digestion temperature large ammonia concentrations, up to 1800 mg NH4/dm3 have been measured. Return of the sludge liquor to the main sewage treatment line means additional nitrogen removal costs. Possible solutions are discussed.

  20. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, B.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    'Insoluble colloidal sludges in hazardous waste streams such as tank wastes can pose serious problems for waste processing, interfering with retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification procedures. Properties of sediment layers and sludge suspensions such as slurry viscosities, sedimentation rates, and final sediment densities can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the particle types present, the degree to which the particles agglomerate or stick to each other, and on a wide range of processing parameters such as solution shear rates, pH, salt content, and temperature. The objectives of this work are to: (1) understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions; (2) determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation, and filtration; and (3) develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena. Insoluble colloidal sludges in hazardous waste streams such as tank wastes can pose serious problems for waste processing, interfering with retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification procedures. Properties of sediment layers and sludge suspensions such as slurry viscosities, sedimentation rates, and final sediment densities can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the particle types present, the degree to which the particles agglomerate or stick to each other, and on a wide range of processing parameters such as solution shear rates, pH, salt content, and temperature. The objectives of this work are to: (1) understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions; (2) determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation, and filtration; and (3) develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control

  1. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  2. The Application of Active Sewage Sludge on the Vermicomposting of Agricultural Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh maryam kharrazi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, active sewage sludge was inoculated in organic waste. The objective was to study its effect on nutrient dynamics during vermicomposting. Active sewage sludge, as a source of nitrogen fixing and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, was added in four combinations to the vermicomposting substrate. Prior to inoculation with active sludge, the treatments were precomposted for 30 days and finally vermicomposted for 40 days. Results showed that inoculation of microorganisms in the substrate accompanied by earthworms’ activity enhances the organic waste biodegradation rate. Increasing sludge concentration from 0 to 6000 mg/l led to reduced Total Organic Carbon from 32.76 to 29.91%, Total Volatile Solids from 49.85 to 48/02%, and C/N ratio from 19.59 to 16.06 but increased Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen from 1.68 to 1.87%, nitrate from 1476.75 to 1699.60 mg/kg, Total Phosphorous from 1.66 to 1.77 g/kg, and Electrical Conductivity from 3.10 to 3.48 mS/cm. By increasing the concentration of sewage sludge, heavy metals content also increased significantly due to the enhanced organic matter biodegradation. Finally, the results showed that, among the treatments, the one with an active sewage sludge concentration of 6000 mg/l had more desirable effects on the final vermicompost quality. Based on the reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final products, this experimental procedure may be proposed for studies requiring a mass reduction in the initial composted waste mixtures.

  3. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visible light photocatalytic disintegration of waste activated sludge for enhancing biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Muzammil; Al-Talhi, Hasan A; Mohamed, Saleh A; Kumar, Rajeev; Barakat, M A

    2018-06-15

    Biogas production using waste activated sludge (WAS) is one of the most demanding technologies for sludge treatment and generating energy in sustainable manner. The present study deals with the photocatalytic pretreatment of WAS using ZnO-ZnS@polyaniline (ZnO-ZnS@PANI) nanocomposite as means for increasing its degradability for improved biogas production by anaerobic digestion (AD). Photocatalysis accelerated the hydrolysis of WAS and increased the sCOD by 6.7 folds after 6 h and transform tCOD into bioavailable sCOD. After the AD of WAS, a removal of organic matter (60.6%) and tCOD (69.3%) was achieved in photocatalytic pretreated sludge. The biogas production was 1.6 folds higher in photocatalytic sludge with accumulative biogas up to 1645.1 ml L -1 vs after 45 days compared with the raw sludge (1022.4 ml L -1 VS ). Moreover, the photocatalysis decrease the onset of methanogenesis from 25 to 12 days while achieve the maximum conversion rate of reducing sugars into organic acids at that time. These results suggested that photocatalysis is an efficient pretreatment method and ZnO-ZnS@PANI can degrade sludge efficiently for enhance biogas production in anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M; Rodrigues, M; Coelho, I

    2011-02-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, R.; Ferreira, V.M.; Machado, L.M.; Rodrigues, M.; Coelho, I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  8. Ammonia emissions from the composting of different organic wastes : dependency on process temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Pagans i Miró, Estel·la

    2006-01-01

    Ammonia emissions were quantified for the laboratory-scale composting of three typical organic wastes with medium nitrogen content: organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge; and the composting of two wastes with high nitrogen content: animal by-products from slaughterhouses and partially hydrolysed hair from the leather industry. All the wastes were mixed with the proper amount of bulking agent. Ammonia emitted in the composting of the five wast...

  9. Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Combination of Tofu processing and anaerobic digester sludge wastes using a microbial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You-Kwan, O.; Mi-Sun, K.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of Tofu manufacturing waste and anaerobic digester sludge was studied for fermentative H 2 production in batch and continuous modes using a mixed culture originated from sewage. In order to increase the solubilization of organic substrates from Tofu waste, various pretreatments including heat-treatment, acid/alkali treatment, and sonication were examined alone or in combination with others. (Author)

  10. Continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Huang, Jingang; Zhao, Hongting; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge was performed. The waste bread was first hydrolyzed by the crude enzymes which were generated by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae via solid-state fermentation. It was observed that 49.78g/L glucose and 284.12mg/L free amino nitrogen could be produced with waste bread mass ratio of 15% (w/v). The waste bread hydrolysate was then used for biohydrogen production by anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The optimal hydrogen production rate of 7.4L/(Ld) was achieved at chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6000mg/L. According to the results obtained from this study, 1g waste bread could generate 0.332g glucose which could be further utilized to produce 109.5mL hydrogen. This is the first study which reports continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  12. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious materials (SCM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia Bianchi, G.; van der Putten, J.J.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO2 and CaCO3. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1000 nm. Thus, this sludge is potentially hazardous waste when is improperly

  13. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious materials (SCM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia Bianchi, G.; van der Putten, J.J.G.; Husken, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO2 and CaCO3. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1 µm. Thus, this sludge constitutes a potentially hazardous waste when it is

  14. Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Donnan, M.Y.; Okamoto, B.Y.

    1979-08-01

    Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of the waste, such as ferric and aluminum hydroxides, and mercuric and manganese oxides), and salt cake (crystals, such as sodium nitrate, formed by evaporation of water from supernate). Analyses of SRP wastes by laser-Raman spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, colorimetry, ion chromatography, and various other wet-chemical and radiochemical methods are discussed. These analyses are useful in studies of waste tank corrosion and of forms for long-term waste storage

  15. Comparison of vermicompost characteristics produced from sewage sludge of wood and paper industry and household solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouei, A I; Yousefi, Z; Khosravi, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of produced compost from the sludge of wastewater treatment plant using earthworms and compare it with the vermicompost produced from household solid waste. In the current study, three treatments with the same conditions in terms of organic wastes type were prepared to produce vermicompost from household solid waste and sewage sludges using earthworms. The standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical parameters in the different produced vermicomposts. The mean of C/N in the household solid waste, raw biological and chemical sludges was 32, 22.5, and 26.5, respectively. These levels were 16.5, 14.5, and 15 in the vermicomposts. The mean of nitrogen and phosphorus percentages in the vermicompost of solid waste, biological and chemical sludges was 2.2%, 2.6%, 2.3% and 0.72%, 0.54%, and 0.56%, respectively. The mean percentages of organic matters in the initial substrates and vermicomposts of solid waste, biological and chemical sludges were 97.2%, 90%, 80.5% and 65.8%, 67.8% and 63% respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in all vermicomposts. The EC levels in solid waste, biological and chemical sludges were 1459, 1041, and 1487 μs/cm, respectively. These levels were 544, 385 and 635 μs/cm in the produced compost. Eisenia fetida can convert household solid waste, and biological and chemical sludges produced from wastewater treatment plant into a high-quality and acceptable compost.

  16. Ensured waste disposal without thermal treatment of sewage sludge?; Entsorgungssicherheit ohne thermische Klaerschlammbehandlung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melsa, A.K. [Niersverband, Viersen (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The Technical Rule on Domestic Waste Management (TASi) specifies that from 2005, sewage sludge containing more than 5% of organic dry matter must no longer be dumped. This means that sewage sludge combustion will be the only means of disposal, apart from using sewage sludge as a fertilizer. The author's employer ('Niersverband' utility) was among the first to develop a future-oriented sewage sludge disposal strategy, and a drying plant was construct which is to reduce the weight and volume of sewage sludge in order to obtain a fuel of high calorific value. Further, a contract was closed for combustion of sewage sludge as fuel in a combustion system. [German] Unter Beruecksichtigung der TASi, die verlangt, dass spaetestens ab dem Jahr 2005 Klaerschlaemme mit einem hoeheren organischen Feststoffgehalt als 5% nicht mehr abgelagert werden duerfen, verbleibt uns neben der stofflichen Verwertung in der Landwirtschaft als massgeblicher Entsorgungsweg die Verbrennung, und zwar nicht - und das ist zu unterstreichen - um die Schadstoffe im Klaerschlamm zu beseitigen, sondern um den Klaerschlamm zu entsorgen. Eine betriebssichere Klaerschlammverbrennung stellt dabei die hoechste erreichbare Stufe der Entsorgungssicherheit dar. Der Niersverband hat sich fruehzeitig mit der Aufstellung einer zukunftsfaehigen Klaerschlammentsorgungsstrategie befasst und eine Trocknungsanlage geplant, die eine weitgehende Gewichts- und Volumenreduktion des Klaerschlamms sowie die Erzeugung eines heizwertreichen Brennstoffs gewaehrleistet und damit die Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten deutlich verbessert. Des weiteren wurde ein erster Vertrag zur energetischen Klaerschlammverwertung in einer Verbrennungsanlage abgeschlossen. (orig.)

  17. Treatment of the oily waste sludges through thermal plasma in absence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda J, G.; Pacheco S, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thermal plasma process in absence of oxygen for the degradation of oily waste sludges was evaluated. These residues are commonly generated in the petrochemical industry and are considered hazardous wastes according to the present environmental regulations. The process was operated using difference residence times and the characteristics of the gaseous by products and residual soils were determined. The efficiency of organic matter degradation was 99.99%. The attained volume reduction, under the best conditions was 95.5%. The residual soils were composed of carbon and clays. The residual gases have low molecular weight. The resulting final wastes were non-hazardous and could be disposed of in landfills. (Author)

  18. Prediction of centrifugal pump-cleaning ability in waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is being transferred from older waste tanks to new, stress-relieved tanks for more effective waste management. The technology developed for waste removal involves the use of long-shaft, recirculating, centrifugal pumps (slurry pumps). Testing completed at the Savannah River Laboratory's 30-meter-diameter mock-up waste tank related the effective cleaning radius (ECR) of a slurry pump to critical pump and materials characteristics. Presently, this theory is being applied to radioactive waste at SRP. However, the technology can be applied to other remote handling situations where the slurry rheology can be determined. For SRP waste, an equation of the form: ECR α DV 0 (rho/tau 0 )/sup 1/2/ was determined where D is the nozzle diameter, V 0 is the average initial velocity, rho is the density of the slurry, and tau 0 is the yield stress of the slurry. Using this relationship, the cleaning performance of a pump operating in any SRP sludge environment can be predicted. Specifically, yield stress and density measurements on sludge samples can be used to predict the required number and effective location for slurry pumps in actual SRP waste tanks

  19. Co-digestion of food and garden waste with mixed sludge from wastewater treatment in continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Boe, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Co-digestions of urban organic waste were conducted to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio between sludge, food waste, grass clippings and green waste at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Compared to the digestion of 100% sludge, the methane yield increased by 48% and 35%, when co...... days. However, the methane yield dropped significantly to 356 (R1) and 315 (R2) NmL CH4/g VS when reducing the HRT to 10 days, indicating that the process was stressed. Since the methane production rate improved significantly with decreasing HRT, the trade-off between yield and productivity...

  20. CFD analysis of sludge accumulation and hydraulic performance of a waste stabilization pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Andres; Sanchez, Esteban; Durazno, Galo; Vesvikar, Mehul; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Sludge management in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is essential for safeguarding the system performance. Sludge accumulation patterns in WSPs are strongly influenced by the pond hydrodynamics. CFD modeling was applied to study the relation between velocity profiles and sludge deposition during 10 years of operation of the Ucubamba WSP in Cuenca (Ecuador). One tracer experiment was performed and three sludge accumulation scenarios based on bathymetric surveys were simulated. A residence time distribution (RTD) analysis illustrated the decrease of residence times due to sludge deposition. Sludge accumulation rates were calculated. The influence of flow pattern on the sludge deposition was studied, enabling better planning of future pond operation and desludging.

  1. Improving efficiency of transport fuels production by thermal hydrolysis of waste activated sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulshin, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with issues of transport biofuels. Transport biofuels are an important element of a system of energy security. Moreover, as part of a system it is inextricably linked to the urban, rural or industrial infrastructure. The paper discusses methods of increasing the yield of biogas from anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants. The thermal hydrolysis method was considered. The main advantages and drawbacks of this method were analyzed. The experimental biomass (from SNDOD-bioreactor) and high-organic substrate have been previously studied by respirometry methods. A biomethane potential of the investigated organic substrate has high rates because of substrate composition (the readily biodegradable substrate in the total composition takes about 85%). Waste activated sludge from SNDOD-bioreactor can be used for biofuel producing with high efficiency especially with pre-treatment like a thermal hydrolysis. Further studies have to consider the possibility of withdrawing inhibitors from waste activated sludge.

  2. Analysis on carbon dioxide emission reduction during the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology of sludge and kitchen waste: Taking kitchen waste synergetic digestion project in Zhenjiang as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qia; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-11-01

    With the popularization of municipal sewage treatment facilities, the improvement of sewage treatment efficiency and the deepening degree of sewage treatment, the sludge production of sewage plant has been sharply increased. Carbon emission during the process of municipal sewage treatment and disposal has become one of the important sources of greenhouse gases that cause greenhouse effect. How to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during sewage treatment and disposal process is of great significance for reducing air pollution. Kitchen waste and excess sludge, as two important organic wastes, once uses anaerobic synergetic digestion technology in the treatment process can on the one hand, avoid instability of sludge individual anaerobic digestion, improve sludge degradation rate and marsh gas production rate, and on the other hand, help increase the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to a great extent. The paper uses material balance method, analyzes and calculates the carbon dioxide emissions from kitchen waste and sludge disposed by the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology, compares the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology with traditional sludge sanitary landfill technology and works out the carbon dioxide emission reductions after synergetic digestion. It takes the kitchen waste and sludge synergetic digestion engineering project of Zhenjiang city in Jiangsu province as an example, makes material balance analysis using concrete data and works out the carbon dioxide daily emission reductions. The paper analyzes the actual situation of emission reduction by comparing the data, and found that the synergetic digestion of kitchen waste and sludge can effectively reduce the carbon dioxide emission, and the reduction is obvious especially compared with that of sludge sanitary landfill, which has a certain effect on whether to promote the use of the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W)

  4. Pathogens\\' Reduction in Vermicompost Process Resulted from the Mixed Sludge Treatments-Household Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Hossien Karimi; Mohammad Rezvani; Morteza Mohammadzadeh; Yaser Eshaghi; Mehdi Mokhtari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of pathogenic microbial agents and pathogens in organic fertilizers causes health problems and disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of vermicomposting process in improve the microbial quality of the compost produced. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted as a pilot-scale one, in the laboratory of school of Health. In order to produce vermicompost, some perishable domestic waste were mixed whit sludge o...

  5. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ''bug bones'' sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals

  6. Design and evaluation of in situ biorestoration methods for the treatment of sludges and soils at waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry-Spark, K L; Barker, J F; Mayfield, C I

    1990-12-31

    In-situ methods for treatment of waste sludges hold great promise for efficient remediation of sludge at waste disposal sites, such as the diverse and complex sludges from the O.E. MacDougall site near Brockville, Ontario. This report presents results of laboratory testing of natural bioremediation techniques using six representative soils and sludges obtained from the MacDougall site. Four of six samples contained concentrations of hydrocarbons typical of petroleum products and solvents. The report includes descriptions of the characterisation of the organic chemistry and microbial populations of the soils, as well as of the experiments conducted under aerobic, methane oxidising, anaerobic-denitrifying, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic conditions.

  7. Solidification as low cost technology prior to land filling of industrial hazardous waste sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sebaie, O; Ahmed, M; Ramadan, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to stabilize and solidify two different treated industrial hazardous waste sludges, which were selected from factories situated close to Alexandria. They were selected to ensure their safe transportation and landfill disposal by reducing their potential leaching of hazardous elements, which represent significant threat to the environment, especially the quality of underground water. The selected waste sludges have been characterized. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) from Alexandria Portland Cement Company, and Calcium Sulphate as a by-product from the dye industry were used as potential solidification additives to treat the selected treated waste sludges from tanning and dyes industry. Waste sludges as well as the solidified wastes have been leach-tested, using the General Acid Neutralization Capacity (GANC) procedure. Concentration of concerning metals in the leachates was determined to assess changes in the mobility of major contaminants. The treated tannery waste sludge has an acid neutralization capacity much higher than that of the treated dyes waste sludge. Experiment results demonstrated the industrial waste sludge solidification mix designs, and presented the reduction of contaminant leaching from two types of waste sludges. The main advantages of solidification are that it is simple and low cost processing which includes readily available low cost solidification additives that will convert industrial hazardous waste sludges into inert materials.

  8. The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a

  9. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the conventional activated sludge treatment process: fate and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2005-01-01

    The fate and the mass balance of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the conventional activated sludge treatment process were investigated in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The POPs of interest were 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 19 organochlorine pesticides. Target compounds were determined at six different points across the treatment system: the influent, the effluent of the primary sedimentation tank, the effluent of the secondary sedimentation tank, the primary sludge, the activated sludge from the recirculation stream, and the digested/dewatered sludge. The distribution of POPs between the dissolved and the adsorbed phases of wastewater and sludge was investigated. A good linear relationship between the distribution coefficients, K d , and the octanol-water partition coefficients, K ow , of the solutes was observed only in raw wastewater, suggesting that other factors affect the phase distribution of organic compounds in treated wastewater. For all POPs, a significant increase in partitioning with a decreasing solids concentration was observed, revealing an effect from non-settling microparticles remaining in the 'dissolved' phase during the separation procedure. A good linear relationship was also revealed between logK d and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of wastewater, suggesting that DOC favors the advective transport of POPs in the dissolved phase. Almost all POPs showed good mass balance agreements at both the primary and the secondary treatment. The losses observed for some species could be attributed to biodegradation/biotransformation rather than volatilization. The relative distribution between the treated effluent and the waste sludge streams varied largely among different compounds, with p-p'-DDE being highly accumulated in the waste sludge (98%) but almost 60% of α-HCH remaining in the treated effluent

  11. Effects of alkali types on waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Peng, Yongzhen; Li, Baikun; Wu, Changyong; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Yaqian

    2017-11-01

    The effects of two alkali agents, NaOH and Ca(OH) 2 , on enhancing waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were studied in semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (semi-CSTR) at different sludge retention time (SRT) (2-10 d). The optimum SRT for SCFAs accumulation of NaOH and Ca(OH) 2 adding system was 8 d and 10 d, respectively. Results showed that the average organics yields including soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), protein, and carbohydrate in the NaOH system were as almost twice as that in the Ca(OH) 2 system. For Ca(OH) 2 system, sludge hydrolysis and protein acidification efficiencies were negatively affected by Ca 2+ precipitation, which was revealed by the decrease of Ca 2+ concentration, the rise of zeta potential and better sludge dewaterability in Ca(OH) 2 system. In addition, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the main microbial functional groups in both types of alkali systems. NaOH system obtained higher microbial quantities which led to better acidification. For application, however, Ca(OH) 2 was more economically feasible owning to its lower price and better dewaterability of residual sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge by extraction with organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Waste water treatment in activated sludge plants results in the production of large amounts of surplus sludge. After composting the sludge can be reused as fertiliser and soil conditioner in agriculture. Compared to landfilling and incineration, utilisation of sludge-compost is a more sustainable

  13. Production of bacterial cellulose and enzyme from waste fiber sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline and mechanically stable nanopolymer, which has excellent potential as a material in many novel applications, especially if it can be produced in large amounts from an inexpensive feedstock. Waste fiber sludge, a residue with little or no value, originates from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries. A high cellulose and low lignin content contributes to making the fiber sludge suitable for bioconversion, even without a thermochemical pretreatment step. In this study, the possibility to combine production of BC and hydrolytic enzymes from fiber sludge was investigated. The BC was characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, and its mechanical properties were investigated. Results Bacterial cellulose and enzymes were produced through sequential fermentations with the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus and the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Fiber sludges from sulfate (SAFS) and sulfite (SIFS) processes were hydrolyzed enzymatically without prior thermochemical pretreatment and the resulting hydrolysates were used for BC production. The highest volumetric yields of BC from SAFS and SIFS were 11 and 10 g/L (DW), respectively. The BC yield on initial sugar in hydrolysate-based medium reached 0.3 g/g after seven days of cultivation. The tensile strength of wet BC from hydrolysate medium was about 0.04 MPa compared to about 0.03 MPa for BC from a glucose-based reference medium, while the crystallinity was slightly lower for BC from hydrolysate cultures. The spent hydrolysates were used for production of cellulase with T. reesei. The cellulase activity (CMCase activity) in spent SAFS and SIFS hydrolysates reached 5.2 U/mL (87 nkat/mL), which was similar to the activity level obtained in a reference medium containing equal amounts of reducing sugar. Conclusions It was shown that waste fiber sludge is a suitable raw material for production of

  14. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  15. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  16. Correlation models for waste tank sludges and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted to support the TEMPEST computer modeling under the Flammable Gas Program (FGP) and to further the comprehension of the physical processes occurring in the Hanford waste tanks. The end products of this task are correlation models (sets of algorithms) that can be added to the TEMPEST computer code to improve the reliability of its simulation of the physical processes that occur in Hanford tanks. The correlation models can be used to augment, not only the TEMPEST code, but other computer codes that can simulate sludge motion and flammable gas retention. This report presents the correlation models, also termed submodels, that have been developed to date. The submodel-development process is an ongoing effort designed to increase our understanding of sludge behavior and improve our ability to realistically simulate the sludge fluid characteristics that have an impact on safety analysis. The effort has employed both literature searches and data correlation to provide an encyclopedia of tank waste properties in forms that are relatively easy to use in modeling waste behavior. These properties submodels will be used in other tasks to simulate waste behavior in the tanks. Density, viscosity, yield strength, surface tension, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, salt solubility, and ammonia and water vapor pressures were compiled for solutions and suspensions of sodium nitrate and other salts (where data were available), and the data were correlated by linear regression. In addition, data for simulated Hanford waste tank supernatant were correlated to provide density, solubility, surface tension, and vapor pressure submodels for multi-component solutions containing sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate

  17. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste to obtain acceptable fertilizer or animal supplement feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    This document is a report of the Beneficial Uses Program. This program consists of a number of activities at Sandia Laboratories to develop the necessary technology for cost-beneficial use of a maximum amount of radioactive waste. Major activity is currently concentrated in the Waste Resources Utilization Program which has as its objective the use of cesium-134/137 as a gamma radiation source, coupled with modest heating, to treat sewage sludge to rid it of pathogenic organisms so that it may safely be used as a fertilizer or a feed supplement for ruminant animals. (author)

  18. Efficiency of a pilot-scale integrated sludge thickening and digestion reactor in treating low-organic excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Liu, Hongxia; Tang, Chuandong; de Koning, Jaap; Spanjers, Henri

    2012-06-01

    The sludge production from medium- and small-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region is low and non-stable; especially, the organic content in this sludge is low (near 40% of VS/TS). An integrated thickening and digestion (ISTD) reactor was developed to treat this low-organic excess sludge. After a flow test and start-up experiment of the reactor, a running experiment was used to investigate the excess sludge treatment efficiency under five different excess sludge inflows: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 400 L/d (a mixture of excess sludge and primary sludge in a volume ratio of 9:1). This trial was carried out in the wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing, which covers 80% of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, under the following conditions: (1) sludge was heated to 38-40 degrees C using an electrical heater to maintain anaerobic mesophilic digestion; (2) the biogas produced was recirculated to mix raw sludge with anaerobic sludge in the reactor under the flow rate of 12.5 L/min. There were three main results. Firstly, the flow pattern of the inner reactor was almost completely mixed under the air flow of 12.0 L/min using clear water. Secondly, under all the different sludge inflows, the water content in the outlet sludge was below 93%. Thirdly, the organic content in the outlet sludge was decreased from 37% to 30% and from 24% to 20%, whose removal ratio was in relation to the organic content of the inlet sludge. The excess sludge treatment capacity of the ISTD reactor was according to the organic content in the excess sludge.

  19. Composting sewage sludge with green waste from tree pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mello Leite Moretti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS has been widely used as organic fertilizer. However, its continuous use can cause imbalances in soil fertility as well as soil-water-plant system contamination. The study aimed to evaluate possible improvements in the chemical and microbiological characteristics of domestic SS, with low heavy metal contents and pathogens, through the composting process. Two composting piles were set up, based on an initial C/N ratio of 30:1, with successive layers of tree pruning waste and SS. The aeration of piles was performed by mechanical turnover when the temperature rose above 65 ºC. The piles were irrigated when the water content was less than 50 %. Composting was conducted for 120 days. Temperature, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, carbon and nitrogen contents, and fecal coliforms were monitored during the composting. A reduction of 58 % in the EC of the compost (SSC compared with SS was observed and the pH reduced from 7.8 to 6.6. There was an increase in the value of cation exchange capacity/carbon content (CEC/C and carbon content. Total nitrogen remained constant and N-NO3- + N-NH4+ were immobilised in organic forms. The C/N ratio decreased from 25:1 to 12:1. Temperatures above 55 ºC were observed for 20 days. After 60 days of composting, fecal coliforms were reduced from 107 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (MPN g−1 to 104 MPN g−1. I one pile the 103 MPN g−1 reached after 90 days in one pile; in another, there was recontamination from 105 to 106 MPN g−1. In SSC, helminth eggs were eliminated, making application sustainable for agriculture purposes.

  20. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  1. Method of processing cellulose filter sludge containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Setsuo; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Kusakabe, Takao; Kawakami, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    To cellulose filter sludges deposited with radioactive wastes, 1 to 15% of cellulase based on the solid content of the filter sludges is caused to act in an aqueous medium with 4 to 8 pH at 10 to 50degC. If the pH value exceeds 8, hydrolyzing effect of cellulase is decreased, whereas a tank is corroded if the pH value is 4 or lower. If temperature is lower than 10degC, the rate of the hydrolysis reaction is too low to be practical. It is appropriate that the temperature is at the order of 40degC. If it exceeds 50degC, the cellulase itself becomes unstable. It is most effective that the amount of cellulase is about 8% and its addition by more than 15% is not effective. In this way, liquids in which most of filter sludges are hydrolyzed are processed as low level radioactive wastes. (T.M.)

  2. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Hishamuddin Hussein; Choo Thye Foo; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; MAsliana MUslimin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  3. Sewage Sludge Treatment for Energy Purpose in China : Waste Treatment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Nyyssönen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is made for ANDRITZ China Technology to find out sludge incineration potential in China. ANDRITZ is looking for markets and customers for ANDRITZ sewage sludge incineration technology in China. In addition ANDRITZ China manufactures centrifuges, skeleton model filter presses, belt presses and rotatory drums to treat the sludge. Sludge in China has become a major problem. It is considered to be toxic waste, because it contains pathogens, which are dangerous for human health. Th...

  4. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects.

  5. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-01-01

    sludge solids. We recommend that these results be evaluated further to determine if these solutions contain sufficient neutron poisons. We observed low general corrosion rates in tests in which carbon steel coupons were contacted with solutions of oxalic acid, citric acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acids. Wall thinning can be minimized by maintaining short contact times with these acid solutions. We recommend additional testing with oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures to measure dissolution performance of sludges that have not been previously dried. This testing should include tests to clearly ascertain the effects of total acid strength and metal complexation on dissolution performance. Further work should also evaluate the downstream impacts of citric acid on the SRS High-Level Waste System (e.g., radiochemical separations in the Salt Waste Processing Facility and addition of organic carbon in the Saltstone and Defense Waste Processing facilities)

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of digestates obtained from sludge mixed to increasing amounts of fruit and vegetable wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Cavallo, Ornella; Malerba, Anna Daniela; Di Maria, Francesco; Ricci, Anna; Gigliotti, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) represents an efficient waste-treatment technology during which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in absence of oxygen yielding a biogas containing methane. The aim of this work was to investigate the transformations occurring in the organic matter during the co-digestion of waste mixed sludge (WMS) with an increasing amount of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) in a pilot scale apparatus reproducing a full-scale digester in an existing wastewater treatment plant. Samples comprised: sludge, FVW, sludge mixed with 10-20-30-40% FVW. Ingestates and digestates were analyzed by means of emission fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR associated to Fourier self deconvolution (FSD) of spectra. With increasing the amount of FVW from 10% to 20% at which percentage biogas production reached the maximum value, FTIR spectra and FSD traces of digestates exhibited a decrease of intensity of peaks assigned to polysaccharides and aliphatics and an increase of peak assigned to aromatics as a result of the biodegradation of rapidly degradable materials and concentration of aromatic recalcitrant compounds. Digestates with 30 and 40% FVW exhibited a relative increase of intensity of peaks assigned to aliphatics likely as a result of the increasing amount of rapidly degradable materials and the consequent reduction of the hydraulic retention time. This may cause inhibition of methanogenesis and accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The highest emission fluorescence intensity was observed for the digestate with 20% FVW confirming the concentration of aromatic recalcitrant compounds in the substrate obtained at the highest biogas production.

  7. Seeking key microorganisms for enhancing methane production in anaerobic digestion of waste sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nurul Asyifah; Hu, Anyi; Yu, Chang-Ping; Sharuddin, Siti Suhailah; Ramli, Norhayati; Shirai, Yoshihito; Maeda, Toshinari

    2018-04-25

    Efficient approaches for the utilization of waste sewage sludge have been widely studied. One of them is to use it for the bioenergy production, specifically methane gas which is well-known to be driven by complex bacterial interactions during the anaerobic digestion process. Therefore, it is important to understand not only microorganisms for producing methane but also those for controlling or regulating the process. In this study, azithromycin analogs belonging to macrolide, ketolide, and lincosamide groups were applied to investigate the mechanisms and dynamics of bacterial community in waste sewage sludge for methane production. The stages of anaerobic digestion process were evaluated by measuring the production of intermediate substrates, such as protease activity, organic acids, the quantification of bacteria and archaea, and its community dynamics. All azithromycin analogs used in this study achieved a high methane production compared to the control sample without any antibiotic due to the efficient hydrolysis process and the presence of important fermentative bacteria and archaea responsible in the methanogenesis stage. The key microorganisms contributing to the methane production may be Clostridia, Cladilinea, Planctomycetes, and Alphaproteobacteria as an accelerator whereas Nitrosomonadaceae and Nitrospiraceae may be suppressors for methane production. In conclusion, the utilization of antibiotic analogs of macrolide, ketolide, and lincosamide groups has a promising ability in finding the essential microorganisms and improving the methane production using waste sewage sludge.

  8. AQUAPONIC SLUDGE DIGESTION FOR ORGANIC REDUCTION AND NUTRIENT REMINERALIZATION IN UASB REACTOR.

    OpenAIRE

    Delaide, Boris

    2017-01-01

    These first results on aquaponic sludge digestion are promising and highlight the interest to treat sludge directly onsite in order to reduce aquaponic system wastes and thus its impact on the environment and at the same time increase plant yield.

  9. Presence of helminth eggs in sewage sludge from waste water plants; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Muro, J. L.; Garcia Orenes, F.; Nieto Asensio, N.; Bonora, I. B.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.

    2003-07-01

    Land application of sewage sludge is a usual practice in wide areas of the Comunidad Valencia, due the low organic contents and nutrients of the soils, and the sewage sludge is a suitable material to use os organic amendment of soils. However the use of sewage sludge involves a very detailed characterization of sewage, to avoid sanitary hazards as the presence of helminth eggs and its high resistant to most of the treatment used to stabilize sewage sludge. The aim of this work was determine the parasitic contamination of helminths found in sewage sludge, stabilized by anaerobic digestion, from two waste water plants of Alicante (Alcoy y Benidorm) destined to agricultural land. Also it was studies the evolution of helminth eggs content of a sewage sludge subjected to composting process. (Author) 12 refs.

  10. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  11. Vitrification Studies with DOE Low-Level Mixed Waste Wastewater Treatment Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.; Hewlett, K.J.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification studies with simulated Low Level Mixed Waste (LLMW) sludges were performed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). These studies focused on finding the optimum glass compositions for four simulated LLMW wastewater treatment sludges and were based on both crucible-scale and pilot-scale studies. Optimum compositions were determined based on the maximum waste loading achievable without sacrificing glass integrity

  12. Fabrication of microfibrillated cellulose gel from waste pulp sludge via mild maceration combined with mechanical shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusheng Chen; Junyong Zhu; Zhaohui Tong

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a facile route, which combines mild maceration of waste pulp sludge and a mechanical shearing process, to prepare microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) with a high storage modulus. In the maceration, the mixture of glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide was used to extract cellulose from never-dried waste pulp sludge. Then, two different mechanical...

  13. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-01-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge. PMID:27905538

  14. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream

  15. Descriptive models for single-jet sluicing of sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erian, F.F.; Mahoney, L.A.; Terrones, G.

    1997-12-01

    Mobilization of sludge waste stored in underground storage tanks can be achieved safely and reliably by sluicing. In the project discussed in this report, the waste in Hanford single-shell Tank 241-C-106 will be mobilized by sluicing, retrieved by a slurry retrieval pump, and transferred via an 1800-ft slurry pipeline to Tank 241-AY-102. A sluicing strategy must be developed that ensures efficient use of the deployed configuration of the sluicing system: the nozzle(s) and the retrieval pump(s). Given a sluicing system configuration in a particular tank, it is desirable to prescribe the sequential locations at which the sludge will be mobilized and retrieved and the rate at which these mobilization and retrieval processes take place. In addition, it is necessary to know whether the retrieved waste slurry meets the requirements for cross-site slurry transport. Some of the physical phenomena that take place during mobilization and retrieval and certain aspects of the sluicing process are described in this report. First, a mathematical model gives (1) an idealized geometrical representation of where, within the confines of a storage tank containing a certain amount of settled waste, sludge can be removed and mobilized; and (2) a quantitative measure of the amount of sludge that can be removed during a sluicing campaign. A model describing an idealized water jet issuing from a circular nozzle located at a given height above a flat surface is also presented in this report. This dynamic water-jet model provides the basis for improving the geometrical sluicing model presented next. In this model the authors assume that the water jet follows a straight trajectory toward a target point on a flat surface. However, the water jet does not follow a straight line in the actual tank, and using the true trajectory will allow a more accurate estimate of the amount of disturbed material. Also, the authors hope that developing accurate force and pressure fields will lead to a better

  16. Treatment of Lagoon sludge waste generated from Uranium Conversion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.S.; Oh, J.H.; Lee, K.I.; Choi, Y.D.; Hwang, S.T.; Park, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the desalination process by water and the drying property of residual solid after separating nitrates in a series of processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97 % at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue. These were decomposed over 600 deg. C while calcium carbonate, which was a main compound of residual solid, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 deg. C. The residual solid has to be decomposed over 800 deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six values into the stable U 3 O 8 of four values. As a result of removing the nitrates at the adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80 %. (authors)

  17. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Waste tank sludge rheology within a hot spot or during draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.; Cash, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    The conditions under which ferrocyanide waste sludge flows as a homogeneous non-Newtonian two-phase (solid precipitate-liquid) mixture rather than as a liquid through a porous medium (of stationary precipitate) are examined theoretically, based on the notion that the preferred rheological behavior of the sludge is the one which imposes the least resistance to the sludge flow. The homogeneous two-phase mixture is modeled as a power-law fluid and simple criteria are derived that show that the homogeneous power-law sludge-flow is a much more likely flow situation than the porous medium model of sludge flow. The implication of this finding is that the formation of a hot spot or the drainage of sludge from a waste tank are not likely to result in the uncovering (drying) and subsequent potential overheating of the reactive-solid component of the sludge

  18. Co-combustion of sewage sludge and energy-rich waste fuels or forest fuels; Sameldning av roetslam och energirika avfallsbraenslen eller skogsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, Kristina [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    In this report literature on incineration of sewage sludge is summarises. In Sweden there is a yearly production of about 0,24 million-ton dry sewage sludge of which 50% is deposited. Recent changes in legislation will restrict and later prohibit the dumping of sewage sludge. Alternative methods for handling the material have not yet been found. In other parts of Europe the problem has been solved by incineration. Sludge incineration can be performed in several ways depending of the pretreatment. The sludge can be raw or digested, dewatered or dried. The sludge can be burnt as single fuel or in mixtures with other fuels. Focus in this work has been on co-combustion with biofuel or waste, as it will make use of existing plants. Digested sludge is also of major interest as 70% of the Swedish sludge is digested. The report describes the situation both in Sweden and in the rest of Europe. Sludge has a varying quality depending on origin and treatment, which affects the combustion properties. Ash and moisture contents differ from other fuels. The heating value of sewage sludge is approximately 20 MJ/kg per dry combustible matter and the amount of organic is around 70%. Compared to forest residue and demolition wood, sludge contains high levels of nitrogen and sulphur, which will cause emissions. The nitrogen level is about 10 times higher and the sulphur level 25 to 50 times higher. Sulphur, in combination with alkali metals, can cause deposit problems in boilers. However, sludge contains low levels of alkali. In the experimental investigation leaching of digested sludge showed low values on water conductivity which indicates a low concentration of sintering ash species in the sludge. A comparison of the aerodynamic properties of dried digested sludge and wood chips from energy coppice showed that sludge has a lower fraction of fines. This indicates that the sewage sludge is not likely to be carried over in the furnace but rather to stay in the fuel and ash bed on the

  19. Using cement, lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste for solidification of chromium electroplating treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantawin, C.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to use baghouse filter waste as a binder mixed with cement and lignite fly ash to solidify sludge from chromium electroplating wastewater treatment. To save cost of solidification, reducing cement in binder and increasing sludge in the cube were focused on. Minimum percent cement in binder of 20 for solidification of chromium sludge was found when controlling lignite fly ash to baghouse filter waste at the ratio of 30:70, sludge to binder ratio of 0.5, water to mixer ratio of 0.3 and curing time of 7 days. Increase of sludge to binder ratio from 0.5 to 0.75 and 1 resulted in increase in the minimum percent cement in binder up to 30 percent in both ratios. With the minimum percent cement in binder, the calculated cement to sludge ratios for samples with sludge to binder ratios of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 were 0.4, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. Leaching chromium and compressive strength of the samples with these ratios could achieve the solidified waste standard by the Ministry of Industry. For solidification of chromium sludge at sludge to binder ratio of 1, the lowest cost binder ratio of cement to lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste in this study was 30:21:49. The cost of binder in this ratio was 718 baht per ton dry sludge.

  20. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  1. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J.V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing

  2. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from co-digestion of wastewater sludges and agricultural wastes: Comparison with microwave pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylin Alagöz, B; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonication and microwave sludge disintegration/pre-treatment techniques on the anaerobic co-digestion efficiency of wastewater sludges with olive and grape pomaces. The effects of both co-digestion and sludge pre-treatment techniques were evaluated in terms of the organic removal efficiency and the biogas production. The "co-digestion" of wastewater sludge with both types of pomaces was revealed to be a much more efficient way for the biogas production compared to the single (mono) sludge digestion. The ultrasonication and microwave pre-treatments applied to the sludge samples caused to a further increase in biogas and methane yields. Based on applied specific energies, ultrasonication pre-treatment was found much more effective than microwave irradiation. The specific energy applied in microwave pre-treatment (87,000kj/kgTS) was almost 9 times higher than that of used in ultrasonication (10,000kj/kgTS), resulting only 10-15% increases in biogas/methane yield. Co-digestion of winery and olive industry residues with pre-treated wastewater sludges appears to be a suitable technique for waste management and energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial population dynamics in urban organic waste anaerobic co-digestion with mixed sludge during a change in feedstock composition and different hydraulic retention times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Treu, Laura; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    -degrading Clostridium were the significantly more abundant bacteria in the reactor fed with an increased share of lignocellulosic biomass in the form of grass clippings and garden waste. Finally, microbes belonging to Coprothermobacter, Syntrophomonas and Clostridium were correlated significantly with the specific...

  4. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  5. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  6. Microalgae Cultivation on Anaerobic Digestate of Municipal Wastewater, Sewage Sludge and Agro-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Zuliani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are fast-growing photosynthetic organisms which have the potential to be exploited as an alternative source of liquid fuels to meet growing global energy demand. The cultivation of microalgae, however, still needs to be improved in order to reduce the cost of the biomass produced. Among the major costs encountered for algal cultivation are the costs for nutrients such as CO2, nitrogen and phosphorous. In this work, therefore, different microalgal strains were cultivated using as nutrient sources three different anaerobic digestates deriving from municipal wastewater, sewage sludge or agro-waste treatment plants. In particular, anaerobic digestates deriving from agro-waste or sewage sludge treatment induced a more than 300% increase in lipid production per volume in Chlorella vulgaris cultures grown in a closed photobioreactor, and a strong increase in carotenoid accumulation in different microalgae species. Conversely, a digestate originating from a pilot scale anaerobic upflow sludge blanket (UASB was used to increase biomass production when added to an artificial nutrient-supplemented medium. The results herein demonstrate the possibility of improving biomass accumulation or lipid production using different anaerobic digestates.

  7. Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge with Food Waste: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubayeda Zahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the codigestion of food manufacturing and processing wastes (FW with sewage sludge (SS, that is, municipal wastewater treatment plant primary sludge and waste activated sludge. Bench scale mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed intermittently with varying ratio of SS and FW and operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days and organic loading of 2.0 kg TS/m3·d. The specific biogas production (SBP increased by 25% to 50% with the addition of 1%–5% FW to SS which is significantly higher than the SBP from SS of 284±9.7 mLN/g VS added. Although the TS, VS, and tCOD removal slightly increased, the biogas yield and methane content improved significantly and no inhibitory effects were observed as indicated by the stable pH throughout the experiment. Metal screening of the digestate suggested the biosolids meet the guidelines for use as a soil conditioner. Batch biochemical methane potential tests at different ratios of SS : FW were used to determine the optimum ratio using surface model analysis. The results showed that up to 47-48% FW can be codigested with SS. Overall these results confirm that codigestion has great potential in improving the methane yield of SS.

  8. Chemical dissolving of sludge from a high level waste tank at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.F.; Hill, A.J. Jr.

    1977-11-01

    The concept for decontamination and retirement of radioactive liquid waste tanks at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) involves hydraulic slurrying to remove most of the settled sludges followed by chemical dissolving of residual sludges. Dissolving tests were carried out with small samples of sludge from SRP Tank 16H. Over 95 percent of the sludge was dissolved by 8 wt percent oxalic acid at 85 0 C with agitation in a two-step dissolving process (50 hours per step) and an initial reagent-to-sludge volume of 20. Oxalic acid does not attack the waste tank material of construction, appears to be compatible with the existing waste farm processes and equipment after neutralization, and with future processes planned for fixation of the waste into a high-integrity solid for packaging and shipping

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF RECLAMATION OF SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous reclamation technologies based on sewage sludge treatment, however, one that is most purposeful consists in applying the sludge in order to achieve green cover (bioremediation with plants on fine grained waste disposal sites which have a high potential for soil formation on the one hand, but on the other, are highly vulnerable to erosive action of wind and atmospheric precipitation. The technological waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant has liquid consistence, contains fine-grained (dust-like and water soluble calcium compounds, and is highly alkaline and saline. The waste was disposed and dehydrated in the large-area earthen ponds elevated beyond the ground level. The combined surface of all the exploited settling ponds (with roads and escarpments jointly exceeds 105 ha. Dehydration by infiltration and evaporation was a source of unrestricted dust emissions from the drying and dry surfaces of the waste site. Urgent action was then deemed necessary to manage the high risk of nuisance dust to the local population, technical infrastructure, engines and cars. Consequently, it was decided that the best way to manage nuisance dust would be to create a thick and permanent vegetal cover on the waste site. The vegetal cover would also limit salt infiltration from the disposal site to groundwater and to adjacent agricultural land, and contribute to improving the local landscape values. Treatment with adequately high (appropriate for reclamation purposes doses of sewage sludge and sowing of plants which have a high growth potential and nutrient demand resulted in the quick establishment of green cover on the waste disposal site. The contents of mineral elements in plants and in the top layer of the ground reclaimed were analyzed starting from the year 2000 onwards until the year 2013. The chemical composition of sewage sludge was systematically analyzed as well. No excessive contents were found of main elements neither of heavy metals in

  10. Sequencing biological acidification of waste-activated sludge aiming to optimize phosphorus dissolution and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilayn, Felipe; Braak, Etienne; Piveteau, Simon; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2017-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as pure crystals such as struvite (MgNH 4 PO 4 .6H 2 O), potassium struvite (KMgPO 4 .6H 2 O) and calcium phosphates (e.g. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ) is an already feasible technique that permits the production of green and marketable fertilizers and the reduction of operational costs. Commercial crystallizers can recovery more than 90% of soluble P. However, most of the P in WWTP sludge is unavailable for the processes (not dissolved). P solubilization and separation are thus the limiting steps in P-crystallization. With an innovative two-step sequencing acidification strategy, the current study has aimed to improve biological P solubilization on waste-activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale plant. In the first step (P-release), low charges of organic waste were used as co-substrates of WAS pre-fermentation, seeking to produce volatile fatty acids to feed the P-release by Polyphosphate-accumulating organisms, while keeping its optimal metabolic pH (6-7). In this phase, milk serum, WWTP grease, urban organic waste and collective restaurant waste were individually applied as co-substrates. In the second step (P-dissolution), pH 4 was aimed at as it allows the dissolution of the most common precipitated species of P. Biological acidification was performed by white sugar addition, as a carbohydrate-rich organic waste model, which was compared to chemical acidification by HCl (12M) addition. With short retention times (48-96 h) and without inoculum application, all experiences succeeded on P solubilization (37-55% of soluble P), principally when carbohydrate-rich co-substrates were applied. Concentrations from 270 to 450 mg [Formula: see text] were achieved. [Formula: see text].

  11. Evaluation of the energetic potential of sewage sludge by characterization of its organic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C; Lensch, D; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    The composition of sewage sludge and, thus, its energetic potential is influenced by wastewater and wastewater treatment processes. Higher or lower heating values (HHV or LHV) are decisive factors for the incineration/gasification/pyrolysis of sewage sludge. The HHV is analyzed with a bomb calorimeter and converted to the LHV. It is also possible to calculate the heating value via chemical oxygen demand (COD), total volatile solids (TVS), and elemental composition. Calculating the LHV via the COD provides a suitable method. In contrast, the correlation of the HHV or LHV with the TVS is limited. One prerequisite here is a constant specific energy density; this was given with the types of sewage sludge (primary, surplus/excess, and digested sludge) investigated. If the energy density is not comparable with sewage sludge, for instance with the co-substrate (bio-waste, grease, etc.), the estimation of the heating value using TVS will fail. When calculating the HHV or LHV via the elemental composition, one has to consider the validity of the coefficients of the calculation equation. Depending on the organic composition, it might be necessary to adjust the coefficients, e.g. when adding co-substrates.

  12. Electrochemical pretreatment of waste activated sludge: effect of process conditions on sludge disintegration degree and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Caihong; Yuan, Haiping; Dai, Xiaohu; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-11-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) requires a long digestion time because of a rate-limiting hydrolysis step - the first phase of anaerobic digestion (AD). Pretreatment can be used prior to AD to facilitate the hydrolysis step and improve the efficiency of WAS digestion. This study evaluated a novel application of electrochemical (EC) technology employed as the pretreatment method prior to AD of WAS, focusing on the effect of process conditions on sludge disintegration and subsequent AD process. A superior process condition of EC pretreatment was obtained by reaction time of 30 min, electrolysis voltage of 20 V, and electrode distance of 5 cm, under which the disintegration degree of WAS ranged between 9.02% and 9.72%. In the subsequent batch AD tests, 206 mL/g volatile solid (VS) methane production in EC pretreated sludge was obtained, which was 20.47% higher than that of unpretreated sludge. The AD time was 19 days shorter for EC pretreated sludge compared to the unpretreated sludge. Additionally, the EC + AD reactor achieved 41.84% of VS removal at the end of AD. The analysis of energy consumption showed that EC pretreatment could be effective in enhancing sludge AD with reduced energy consumption when compared to other pretreatment methods.

  13. Slurry-phase biodegradation of weathered oily sludge waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín-Ramírez, C; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Mayolo-Deloisa, K; Quintero, R; Trejo-Hernández, M R

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the biodegradation of a typical oily sludge waste (PB401) in Mexico using several regimes of indigenous microbial consortium and relevant bioremediation strategies in slurry-phase system. Abiotic loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the PB401 was insignificant, and degradation rates under the various treatment conditions ranged between 666.9 and 2168.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1) over a 15 days reaction period, while viable cell count peaked at between log(10)5.7 and log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Biostimulation with a commercial fertilizer resulted in 24% biodegradation of the TPH in the oily waste and a corresponding peak cell density of log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Addition of non-indigenous adapted consortium did not appear to enhance the removal of TPH from the oily waste. It would appear that the complexities of the components of the alkylaromatic fraction of the waste limited biodegradation rate even in a slurry system.

  14. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcătuşu Radu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33% of each waste, 50% of each of the three wastes separately, the difference being made up in equal amounts (25% of the other two wastes. Composting process was performed in Könemann silos (cubs with side by 1.20m and lasted 60 days, from July 19 until September 16, when the composted material has passed the stages of reduction and oxidation. During composting process, in the reductive stage the material has reached a temperature up to 63°C Celsius, enough heat for its sterilization. Initial material, semi composted and final composted material were been chemical analyzed, especially in terms of macro- and microelements, analytical results revealing high and normal content of such chemicals. Therefore the achieved compost could be used in organic farming systems.

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on radioactive, hazardous, and/or mixed waste sludge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    A workshop sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office, Oak Ridge, was held on December 4--6, 1990, in Knoxville, Tennessee. The primary objective of the workshop was the exchange of information, experiences, solutions, and future plans of DOE and its prime contractors who are engaged in work on the packaging, grouting, storage, and transport of waste sludges. In addition, the group met with industrial participants in an open forum to discuss problems and needs in the management of these wastes and to learn of possible industrial experiences, approaches, and solutions, including demonstrations of potential tools and techniques. Topics discussed include the following: mixed waste sludge issue at the K-25 site; processing saltstone from waste streams at the Savannah River Plant; the Hanford Grout Treatment Facility; treatment of pond sludge at the Rocky Flats Plant; cement solidification of low-level radioactive sludge at the West Valley Demonstration Project; studies on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in cement at INEL; cement solidification systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory; emergency avoidance solidification campaign at ORNL; diffusion plant sludge storage problems at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; the proposed fixation of sludge in cement at the feed materials production center; regulatory aspects of sludge management; and delisting efforts for K-1407-C pond sludges. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  16. German standard methods for the examination of water, waste water and sludge: General measurements of effects and substances (group H), determination of total organic carbon (TOC) (H 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The following method for the determination of the total organic bound carbon is proposed. The carbon of the organic compounds is oxidized to carbon dioxide. There are three oxidation possibilities. Combustion, oxidation with proper oxidation agents in the solution and oxidation by irradiation of ultraviolette light. The resulting carbon dioxide or the possible reduction product methane are analysed with the following measuring instruments: Infrared spectroscopy, acidimetry, coulometry, conductometry, CO 2 sensitive electrodes, heat conductivity detection and flame ionisation detection. (VG) [de

  17. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N [Eurotec West A/S (DK); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H [Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK); Rasmussen, Soeren [SamRas (DK)

    2007-09-15

    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  18. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pancoski, S.E.; Alther, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  19. Selection of hydrothermal pre-treatment conditions of waste sludge destruction using multicriteria decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shiekh Khalil, Wael; Shanableh, Abdullah; Rigby, Portia; Kokot, Serge

    2005-04-01

    The effectiveness of hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of the organic content of sludge waste was investigated. The sludge sampled in this study contained approximately 2% solids. The experimental program consisted of hydrothermal treatment experiments conducted in a batch reactor at temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C, with the addition of an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) in the range of 0-150% with reference to TCOD, and reaction times of up to 60 min. The results suggested that the availability of oxidant, reaction temperature and reaction time were the determining factors for COD removal. A significant fraction of the COD remaining after treatment consisted of the dissolved COD. The results confirmed that hydrothermal treatment proceeds through hydrolysis resulting in the production of dissolved organic products followed by COD removal through oxidation. Two MCDM chemometrics methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to process the large data matrix so as to facilitate the selection of the most suitable hydrothermal conditions for sludge destruction. Two possible scenarios were produced from this analysis-one depended on the use of high temperatures and no oxidant, while the second offered a choice of compromise solutions at lower temperatures but with the use of at least some oxidant. Thus, for the final choice of operating conditions, the decision maker needs local knowledge of the costs and available infrastructure. In principle, such information could be added as further criteria to the data matrix and new rankings obtained.

  20. Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, M; Björnsson, L; Mattiasson, B

    2004-02-01

    The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low buffered system and when the fraction of starch-rich waste was increased, the result was a more sensitive process, with process overload occurring at a lower organic loading rate (OLR). In the second investigation, pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, vegetable waste and various kinds of industrial waste were digested. This resulted in a highly buffered system as the manure contributed to high amounts of ammonia. However, it is important to note that ammonia might be toxic to the micro-organisms. Although the conversion of volatile fatty acids was incomplete the processes worked well with high gas yields, 0.8-1.0 m3 kg(-1) VS.

  1. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition. Transition metal hydroxide sludge contains strong passivating species for carbon steel. Washed precipitate contains organic species that lower solution pH and tend to reduce passivating films, requiring higher inhibitor concentrations than the 0.01 molar nitrite required for reactor fuel reprocessing wastes. Periodic agitation, to keep the organic phase suspended, or cathodic protection are possible alternatives to higher nitrite inhibitor concentrations

  2. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed . It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production. - Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • The hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed .

  3. Unravelling the protein preference of aquatic worms during waste activated sludge degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, S.L.; Khadem, A.F.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Worm predation (WP) by Tubifex tubifex was investigated using waste activated sludge (WAS) as the substrate. In order to better understand the sludge degradation mechanisms during WP, the activity of five common hydrolytic enzymes was determined and compared among the initial feed activated

  4. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution...

  5. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of waste glass and waste foundry sand additions on reclaimed tiles containing sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Zhe-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Applying sewage sludge ash (SSA) to produce reclaimed tiles is a promising recycling technology in resolving the increasing sludge wastes from wastewater treatment. However, performance of such reclaimed tiles is inferior to that of original ceramic tiles. Many researchers have therefore tried adding various industrial by-products to improve reclaimed tile properties. In this study, multiple materials including waste glass and waste foundry sand (WFS) were added in an attempt to improve physical and mechanical properties of reclaimed tiles with SSA. Samples with various combinations of clay, WFS, waste glass and SSA were made with three kiln temperatures of 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1100°C. A series of tests on the samples were next conducted. Test results showed that waste glass had positive effects on bending strength, water absorption and weight loss on ignition, while WFS contributed the most in reducing shrinkage, but could decrease the tile bending strength when large amount was added at a high kiln temperature. This study suggested that a combination of WFS from 10% to 15%, waste glass from 15% to 20%, SSA at 10% at a kiln temperature between 1000°C and 1050°C could result in quality reclaimed tiles with a balanced performance.

  7. Synergistic and alkaline stability studies of mixtures of simulated high level waste sludge with selected energetic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the stability of mercury oxalate and mercury fulminate in alkaline sludge simulating Savannah River Site waste. These compounds represent two classes of energetic compounds previously speculated as potential components in sludge stored without a supernatant liquid

  8. EFFECTS OF SOIL TREATMENT BY COAL MINING CARBONIFEROUS WASTE SLUDGE IN MAIZE GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mujačić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The multifuncional role and importance of organic matter in soil is widely known. It is also known that the organic matter in soil is subjected to microbiological-biochemical processes of transformation, which includes synthesis of humus as well as it’s decomposition -mineralization. Mineralization means transformation-decomposition of organic matter by microbiological processes to mineral products; plant nutrients and water + CO2 as starting and ending component of photosyntesis. Nutrients are partly plant available with fertilizing effect, partly lost from the soil - leaching in ground water, causing it’s eutrophication, but CO2 in atmosphere participates in greenhouse effect. Practically, mineralization means decreasing of organic matter content in soil and soil degradation [1,4]. In natural ecosystems (phytocenoses natural forests and meadows, it is almost a balanced between inflow and consumption of organic matter, while the cultural and anthropogenic soils agrobiocenosis in general, this relationship is disturbed that there is a disproportion between the inflow and loss [1,4]. Therefore, various materials that contains organic material (waste, various flotation, sludge, etc. are often used with more or less success. One of such materials, as well as the potential fertilizer, is carboniferous lake sludge like waste of coal mining sedimented at the bottom of the lake in huge quantities, which is the subject of our reasearch. The research were conducted to determine its fertilizing efects and value for repairing of physical and chemical properties of soil. The research refered to: -- Laboratory analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of the carboniferous sludge samples, -- Analysis of soil of the experimental field -- Research on heavy metals concentration in soil of the experimental farm and in carboniferous sludge, and Research of fertilizing effects of sludge, comparative mineral fertilizer and farmyard manure treatment by

  9. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  10. Organic waste incineration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P. [CEA Valrho, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and {alpha}-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  11. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  12. Effect of thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge on the bioavailability and biodegradability characteristics of the organic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. M. Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most works reported in the literature focus on thermal treatment of waste activated sludge at temperatures in the range of 160 to 180ºC. This research aimed at evaluating the thermal treatment of excess anaerobic sludge at much lower temperatures, using biogas generated in the wastewater treatment process as the energy source for heating a simplified thermal reactor. Direct burning of the biogas allowed an increase in the sludge temperature up to values close to 75ºC, for a 7-hour heating period. Sludge samples taken at different heating times showed that the thermal disintegration of the organic fraction allowed increases in the concentration of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and COD parameters by 30 to 35 times, as well as a 50% increase in the biogas production. Moreover, the simplified thermal treatment system proved to be an effective alternative for recovering energy from biogas and for controlling methane emissions to the atmosphere.

  13. Briquette fuel production from wastewater sludge of beer industry and biodiesel production wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusong, P.; Puajindanetr, S.

    2018-04-01

    The production of industrial wastes is increasing each year. Current methods of waste disposal are severely impacting the environment. Utilization of industrial wastes as an alternative material for fuel is gaining interest due to its environmental friendliness. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the optimum condition for fuel briquettes produced from wastewater sludge of the beer industry and biodiesel production wastes. This research is divided into two parts. Part I will study the effects of carbonization of brewery wastewater sludge for high fixed carbon. Part II will study the ratio between brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth for its high heating value. The results show that the maximum fixed carbon of 10.01% by weight was obtained at a temperature of 350 °C for 30 minutes. The appropriate ratio of brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth by weight was 95:5. This condition provided the highest heating value of approximately 3548.10 kcal/kg.

  14. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  15. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  16. Sludge accumulation and distribution impact the hydraulic performance in waste stabilisation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Liah X; Ghisalberti, Marco; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-03-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are used worldwide for wastewater treatment, and throughout their operation require periodic sludge surveys. Sludge accumulation in WSPs can impact performance by reducing the effective volume of the pond, and altering the pond hydraulics and wastewater treatment efficiency. Traditionally, sludge heights, and thus sludge volume, have been measured using low-resolution and labour intensive methods such as 'sludge judge' and the 'white towel test'. A sonar device, a readily available technology, fitted to a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was shown to improve the spatial resolution and accuracy of sludge height measurements, as well as reduce labour and safety requirements. Coupled with a dedicated software package, the profiling of several WSPs has shown that the ROV with autonomous sonar device is capable of providing sludge bathymetry with greatly increased spatial resolution in a greatly reduced profiling time, leading to a better understanding of the role played by sludge accumulation in hydraulic performance of WSPs. The high-resolution bathymetry collected was used to support a much more detailed hydrodynamic assessment of systems with low, medium and high accumulations of sludge. The results of the modelling show that hydraulic performance is not only influenced by the sludge accumulation, but also that the spatial distribution of sludge plays a critical role in reducing the treatment capacity of these systems. In a range of ponds modelled, the reduction in residence time ranged from 33% in a pond with a uniform sludge distribution to a reduction of up to 60% in a pond with highly channelized flow. The combination of high-resolution measurement of sludge accumulation and hydrodynamic modelling will help in the development of frameworks for wastewater sludge management, including the development of more reliable computer models, and could potentially have wider application in the monitoring of other small to medium water bodies

  17. Actual waste demonstration of the nitric-glycolic flowsheet for sludge batch 9 qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs qualification testing to demonstrate that the sludge batch is processable. Based on the results of this actual-waste qualification and previous simulant studies, SRNL recommends implementation of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in DWPF. Other recommendations resulting from this demonstration are reported in section 5.0.

  18. Effect of potassium ferrate on disintegration of waste activated sludge (WAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fenxia; Ji, Haizhuang; Ye, Yangfang

    2012-06-15

    The activated sludge process of wastewater treatment results in the generation of a considerable amount of excess activated sludge. Increased attention has been given to minimization of waste activated sludge recently. This paper investigated the effect of potassium ferrate oxidation pretreatment on the disintegration of the waste activated sludge at various dosages of potassium ferrate. The results show that potassium ferrate pretreatment disintegrated the sludge particle, resulting in the reduction of total solid content by 31%. The solubility (SCOD/TCOD) of the sludge increased with the increase of potassium ferrate dosage. Under 0.81 g/g SS dosage of potassium ferrate, SCOD/TCOD reached 0.32. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations in the solution all increased significantly after potassium ferrate pretreatment. The sludge particles reduced from 116 to 87 μm. The settleability of the sludge (SVI) was enhanced by 17%, which was due to the re-flocculation by the by-product, Fe(III), during potassium ferrate oxidation and the decrease of the viscosity. From the result of the present investigations, it can be concluded that potassium ferrate oxidation is a feasible method for disintegration of excess activated sludge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DETERMINATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL ASDM PARAMETERS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATING IN THE SEQUENTIAL–FLOW TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zdebik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for calibration of activated sludge model with the use of computer program BioWin. Computer scheme has been developed on the basis of waste water treatment plant operating in the sequential – flow technology. For calibration of the activated sludge model data of influent and treated effluent from the existing object were used. As a result of conducted analysis was a change in biokinetic model and kinetic parameters parameters of wastewater treatment facilities. The presented method of study of the selected parameters impact on the activated sludge biokinetic model (including autotrophs maximum growth rate, the share of organic slurry in suspension general operational, efficiency secondary settling tanks can be used for conducting simulation studies of other treatment plants.

  20. Effect of Addition of High Strength Food Wastes on Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ramola Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and food wastes high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) has been an area of interest for waste water treatment facilities looking to increase methane production, and at the same time, dispose of the wastes and increase the revenue. However, addition of food wastes containing fats, oils and grease (FOG) to the conventional anaerobic digestion process can be difficult and pose challenges to utilities. Incorporating these wastes into the treatment plants c...

  1. [From waste to treasure: turning activated sludge into bioplastic poly-3-hydroxybutyrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia'ni

    2017-12-25

    Large quantity of activated sludge is generated from wastewater treatment but without yet an appropriate deposition. High temperature can lyse the activate sludge so that nitrogen and phosphorus containing nutrients are released. Halomonas CJN was found to grow on the heat lysed activated sludge and glucose for production of bioplastic poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in the absence of yeast extract, nitrogen and phosphorus sources as well as trace elements. This reduces the PHB production cost significantly. Furthermore, acetic acid formed from anaerobic fermentation of heat lysed activated sludge can be used to replace glucose for cell growth but not much for PHB production. After construction of an additional PHB synthesis pathway in Halomonas CJN, we can produce PHB entirely from heat lysed activated sludge, reducing production cost of PHB roughly from ¥ 30 000 Yuan/ton to ¥ 20 000 Yuan/ton, thus turning waste activated sludge to valuable raw material resource.

  2. Evaluation of the functional activity of activated sludge from local waste water treatment plant in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of the activated sludge in the local wastewater treatment plant (LWTP and its ability to purify fully domestic sewage water in the Far North. Biochemical process of destruction of organic pollutants is influenced by a microbial complex functioning in aeration tanks. Taking into account climatic conditions of the region where the organic matter degradation processes are slowed, and lack of control over the operation, efficiency and occupational safety of LWTPs, it seems to be important to study the physiological characteristics of the bacteria used in bioremediation, and their ability to maximize the purifying domestic sewage in the Arctic region. Undue intervention in the biosphere systems leads to disruption of the balance of internal and external ecosystems communications. The goal of research is studying structural determination and functioning of activated sludge bacteriocenosis of LWTP TOPAS-5 (GK "Topol-ECO" in certain physical and chemical conditions of the habitat, and establishing completeness of cleaning process in this treatment plant. The paper considers the structure (quantitative and qualitative composition and function of LWTP activated sludge bacteriocenosis functioning in the Arctic region. The estimation of the activated sludge of full waste water treatment process of the LWTP has been given. The research's results have allowed to identify and determine the bacterial count of physiological groups of microorganisms purified domestic sewage; to isolate from activated sludge the bioflocculant-producing microorganisms' on the experimental medium; to evaluate efficiency of LWTP work in the Arctic region

  3. Remediation and production of low-sludge high-level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.; Brown, K.G.; Beam, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    High-level radioactive sludge will constitute 24-28 oxide weight percent of the high-level waste glass produced at the Savannah River Site. A recent melter campaign using non-radioactive, simulated feed was performed with a sludge content considerably lower than 24 percent. The resulting glass was processed and shown to have acceptable durability. However, the durability was lower than predicted by the durability algorithm. Additional melter runs were performed to demonstrate that low sludge feed could be remediated by simply adding sludge oxides. The Product Composition Control System, a computer code developed to predict the proper feed composition for production of high-level waste glass, was utilized to determine the necessary chemical additions. The methodology used to calculate the needed feed additives, the effects of sludge oxides on glass production, and the resulting glass durability are discussed

  4. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge from waste water. Tratamiento termico de lodos procedentes de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G. (Universidad de Trento (Italy)); Canziani, R.; Ragazzi, M. (Politicnico de Milan (Italy))

    1994-01-01

    Thermal Treatment of sewage sludge can be beneficial as a pre-treatment step of many treatment/disposal options, but above all, it allows the recovery of the energetic content sludge. Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be performed in many ways; direct incineration thermal drying followed by incineration and co-combustion with municipal solid wastes or other non conventional fuels. Another option is the recovery of waste energy (e.g. from an endo thermal engine using biogas as fuel) to dry sludge wich, in turn can be used as a fuel. The paper will evaluate several options of thermal treatment of sewage sludge, with particular emphasis on the energetic yield from different processes. (Author)

  5. Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Vílar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-30

    An industrial waste sludge mainly composed by metal hydroxides was used as a low-cost adsorbent for removing a reactive textile dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue) in solution. Characterization of this waste material included chemical composition, pH(ZPC) determination, particle size distribution, physical textural properties and metals mobility under different pH conditions. Dye adsorption equilibrium isotherms were determined at 25 and 35 degrees C and pH of 4, 7 and 10 revealing reasonably fits to Langmuir and Freundlich models. At 25 degrees C and pH 7, Langmuir fit indicates a maximum adsorption capacity of 91.0mg/g. An adsorptive ion-exchange mechanism was identified from desorption studies. Batch kinetic experiments were also conducted at different initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage and pH. A pseudo-second-order model showed good agreement with experimental data. LDF approximation model was used to estimate homogeneous solid diffusion coefficients and the effective pore diffusivities. Additionally, a simulated real effluent containing the selected dye, salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals, was also used in equilibrium and kinetic experiments and the adsorption performance was compared with aqueous dye solutions.

  6. Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

    2004-03-01

    The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate

  7. Adsorption of organic stormwater pollutants onto activated carbon from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Li, Loretta Y

    2017-07-15

    Adsorption filters have the potential to retain suspended pollutants physically, as well as attracting and chemically attaching dissolved compounds onto the adsorbent. This study investigated the adsorption of eight hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) frequently detected in stormwater - including four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), two phthalates and two alkylphenols - onto activated carbon produced from domestic sewage sludge. Adsorption was studied using batch tests. Kinetic studies indicated that bulk adsorption of HOCs occurred within 10 min. Sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC) was as efficient as tested commercial carbons for adsorbing HOCs; adsorption capacities ranged from 70 to 2800 μg/g (C initial  = 10-300 μg/L; 15 mg SBAC in 150 mL solution; 24 h contact time) for each HOC. In the batch tests, the adsorption capacity was generally negatively correlated to the compounds' hydrophobicity (log K ow ) and positively associated with decreasing molecule size, suggesting that molecular sieving limited adsorption. However, in repeated adsorption tests, where competition between HOCs was more likely to occur, adsorbed pollutant loads exhibited strong positive correlation with log K ow . Sewage sludge as a carbon source for activated carbon has great potential as a sustainable alternative for sludge waste management practices and production of a high-capacity adsorption material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Revegetation of mined land using waste water sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopper, W E; Kerr, N

    1980-01-01

    The benefits of using sludge to reclaim land that has been used for strip mining is explained. Pennsylvania State University developed demonstration plots and used various types of sludges to illustrate this. One application of sludge is sufficient to supply plant nutrients for 3-5 years. After sludge application and incorporation, the site was broadcast seeded with grasses and legumes. Other trials and their results are noted. All show no detrimental effects on vegetation, the soil or groundwater quality due to sludge application.

  9. Results of Sludge Mobilization Testing at Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Waste stored in the Tank 241-AZ-101 at the US DOE Hanford is scheduled as the initial feed for high-level waste vitrification. Tank 241-AZ-101 currently holds over 3,000,000 liters of waste made up of a settled sludge layer covered by a layer of liquid supernant. To retrieve the waste from the tank, it is necessary to mobilize and suspend the settled sludge so that the resulting slurry can be pumped from the tank for treatment and vitrification. Two 223.8-kilowatt mixer pumps have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101 to mobilize the settled sludge layer of waste for retrieval. In May of 2000, the mixer pumps were subjected to a series of tests to determine (1) the extent to which the mixer pumps could mobilize the settle sludge layer of waste, (2) if the mixer pumps could function within operating parameters, and (3) if state-of-the-art monitoring equipment could effectively monitor and quantify the degree of sludge mobilization and suspension. This paper presents the major findings and results of the Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests, based on analysis of data and waste samples that were collected during the testing. Discussion of the results focuses on the effective cleaning radius achieved and the volume and concentration of sludge mobilized, with both one and two pumps operating in various configurations and speeds. The Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests were unique in that sludge mobilization parameters were measured using actual waste in an underground storage tank at the hanford Site. The methods and instruments that were used to measure waste mobilization parameters in Tank 241-AZ-101 can be used in other tanks. It can be concluded from the testing that the use of mixer pumps is an effective retrieval method for the mobilization of settled solids in Tank 241-AZ-101

  10. Fermentative biohydrogen and biomethane co-production from mixture of food waste and sewage sludge: Effects of physiochemical properties and mix ratios on fermentation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Yue, Liangchen; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microanalyses revealed food waste had more gelatinized organics and less mineral ash. • Mixed food waste and sewage sludge at 5 ratios were used for H_2 and CH_4 co-production. • Highest H_2 yield of 174.6 mL/gVS was achieved when food waste:sewage sludge was 3:1. • Co-fermentation enhanced carbon conversion by strengthening hydrolysis of substrates. • Energy yield rose from 1.9 kJ/gVS in H_2 to 11.3 kJ/gVS in H_2 and CH_4 co-production. - Abstract: The accumulation of increasingly generated food waste and sewage sludge is currently a heavy burden on environment in China. In this study, the physiochemical properties of food waste and sewage sludge were identified using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the effects on the fermentation performance in the co-fermentation of food waste and sewage sludge for biohydrogen production. The high gelatinized organic components in food waste, the enhanced bioaccessibility due to the dilution of mineral compounds in sewage sludge, and the balanced C/N ratio synergistically improved the fermentative biohydrogen production through the co-fermentation of food waste and sewage sludge at a volatile solids (VS) mix ratio of 3:1. The biohydrogen yield of 174.6 mL/gVS was 49.9% higher than the weighted average calculated from mono-fermentation of food waste and sewage sludge. Co-fermentation also strengthened the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of the mixture, resulting in a total carbon conversion efficiency of 63.3% and an energy conversion efficiency of 56.6% during biohydrogen production. After the second-stage anaerobic digestion of hydrogenogenic effluent, the energy yield from the mixed food waste and sewage sludge significantly increased from 1.9 kJ/gVS in the first-stage biohydrogen production to 11.3 kJ/gVS in the two-stage fermentative biohydrogen and biomethane co-production.

  11. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project organic concentration mechanisms task. FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Waste Tank Organic Safety Project is conducting research to support Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Waste Tank Safety Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Tank Farm Project Office. The goal of PNL's program is to provide a scientific basis for analyzing organics in Hanford's underground storage tanks (USTs) and for determining whether they are at concentrations that pose a potentially unsafe condition. Part of this research is directed toward determining what organic concentrations are safe by conducting research on organic aging mechanisms and waste energetics to assess the conditions necessary to produce an uncontrolled energy release in tanks due to reactions between the organics and the nitrate and nitrate salts in the tank wastes. The objective of the Organic Concentration Mechanisms Task is to assess the degree of localized enrichment of organics to be expected in the USTs due to concentration mechanisms. This report describes the progress of research conducted in FY 1994 on two concentration mechanisms of interest to the tank safety project: (1) permeation of a separate organic liquid phase into the interstitial spaces of the tank solids during the draining of free liquid from the tanks; and (2) concentration of organics on the surfaces of the solids due to adsorption. Three experiments were conducted to investigate permeation of air and solvent into a sludge simulant that is representative of single-shell tank sludge. The permeation behavior of air and solvent into the sludge simulant can be explained by the properties of the fluid pairs (air/supernate and solvent supernate) and the sludge. One important fluid property is the interfacial tension between the supernate and either the solvent or air. In general, the greater the interfacial tension between two fluids, the more difficult it will be for the air or solvent to displace the supernate during dewatering of the sludge

  13. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  14. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  15. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-02-25

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  16. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes

  17. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes

  18. Vitrification of F006 plating waste sludge by Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Solidification into glass of nickel-on-uranium plating wastewater treatment plant sludge (F006 Mixed Waste) has been demonstrated at the Savannah River She (SRS). Vitrification using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), greatly enhanced the solubility and retention of heavy metals In glass. The bench-scale tests using RASP achieved 76 wt% waste loading In both soda-lime-silica and borosilicate glasses. The RASP has been Independently verified by a commercial waste management company, and a contract awarded to vitrify the approximately 500,000 gallons of stored waste sludge. The waste volume reduction of 89% will greatly reduce the disposal costs, and delisting of the glass waste is anticipated. This will be the world's first commercial-scale vitrification system used for environmental cleanup of Mixed Waste. Its stabilization and volume reduction abilities are expected to set standards for the future of the waste management Industry

  19. Alternative treatment for septic tank sludge: co-digestion with municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfill simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; den Hamer, D; Komboi, J; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-02-01

    Co-disposal of septic tank sludge had a positive effect on the municipal solid waste (MSW) stabilisation process in Bioreactor Landfill simulators. Co-disposal experiments were carried out using the Bioreactor Landfill approach aiming to solve the environmental problems caused by indiscriminate and inadequate disposal of MSW and especially of septic tank sludge. The simulator receiving septic tank sludge exhibited a 200 days shorter lag-phase as compared to the 350 days required by the control simulator to start the exponential biogas production. Additionally, the simulator with septic sludge apparently retained more moisture (>60% w/w), which enhanced the overall conversion of organic matter hence increasing the biogas production (0.60 m3 biogas kg(-1)VS(converted)) and removal efficiency of 60% for VS from the simulator. Alkaline pH values (pH>8.5) did not inhibit the biogas production; moreover it contributed to reduce partially the negative effects of NH(4)(+) (>2 g L(-1)) due to NH(3) volatilisation thus reducing the nitrogen content of the residues. Associated risks and hazards with septage disposal were practically eliminated as total coliform and faecal coliform contents were reduced by 99% and 100%, respectively at the end of the experiment. These results indicate that co-disposal has two direct benefits, including the safe and environmentally sound disposal of septic tank sludge and an improvement of the overall performance of the Bioreactor Landfill by increasing moisture retention and supplying a more acclimatised bacterial population.

  20. Multi-step process for concentrating magnetic particles in waste sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John L.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a multi-step, multi-force process for dewatering sludges which have high concentrations of magnetic particles, such as waste sludges generated during steelmaking. This series of processing steps involves (1) mixing a chemical flocculating agent with the sludge; (2) allowing the particles to aggregate under non-turbulent conditions; (3) subjecting the mixture to a magnetic field which will pull the magnetic aggregates in a selected direction, causing them to form a compacted sludge; (4) preferably, decanting the clarified liquid from the compacted sludge; and (5) using filtration to convert the compacted sludge into a cake having a very high solids content. Steps 2 and 3 should be performed simultaneously. This reduces the treatment time and increases the extent of flocculation and the effectiveness of the process. As partially formed aggregates with active flocculating groups are pulled through the mixture by the magnetic field, they will contact other particles and form larger aggregates. This process can increase the solids concentration of steelmaking sludges in an efficient and economic manner, thereby accomplishing either of two goals: (a) it can convert hazardous wastes into economic resources for recycling as furnace feed material, or (b) it can dramatically reduce the volume of waste material which must be disposed.

  1. Synergetic pretreatment of waste activated sludge by hydrodynamic cavitation combined with Fenton reaction for enhanced dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meiqiang; Hu, Jianqiang; Lian, Guanghu; Xiao, Ruiyang; Song, Zhijun; Jin, Micong; Dong, Chunying; Wang, Quanyuan; Luo, Dewen; Wei, Zongsu

    2018-04-01

    The dewatering of waste activated sludge by integrated hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and Fenton reaction was explored in this study. We first investigated the effects of initial pH, sludge concentration, flow rate, and H 2 O 2 concentration on the sludge dewaterability represented by water content, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration. The results of dewatering tests showed that acidic pH and low sludge concentration were favorable to improve dewatering performance in the HC/Fenton system, whereas optimal flow rate and H 2 O 2 concentration applied depended on the system operation. To reveal the synergism of HC/Fenton treatment, a suite of analysis were implemented: three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (3-DEEM) spectra of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as proteins and polysaccharides, zeta potential and particle size of sludge flocs, and SEM/TEM imaging of sludge morphology. The characterization results indicate a three-step mechanism, namely HC fracture of different EPS in sludge flocs, Fenton oxidation of the released EPS, and Fe(III) re-flocculation, that is responsible for the synergistically enhanced sludge dewatering. Results of current study provide a basis to improve our understanding on the sludge dewatering performance by HC/Fenton treatment and possible scale-up of the technology for use in wastewater treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty; Tarigan, Cerdas

    2010-01-01

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  3. Feasibility study of green wastes composting with digested and dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composting as a waste management technology is becoming more widespread. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and to find the most effective composting process for the ratio of green waste, digested and dewatered sludge from Chonibieh wastewater treatment plant in the west region of Ahvaz. Methods: The composting time was 23 days and the evaluated parameters in this period of the study were organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, moisture content and pH. The C/N ratio was maintained at 30 with weight:weight ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (digested and dewatered sludge to green waste. Results: It was observed that vessel R3 produced higher quality of compost with final total nitrogen (1.28%, final total phosphorus (0.71%, final total organic carbon (TOC (25.78% and C/N (20.65% within the 23 days of composting. While vessel R1 produced higher final total nitrogen and total phosphorus with lower amount of total coliform indicating suitable quality of composting. Therefore, the results showed that the characteristics of dewatered sludge mixed with green waste proportion of green waste significantly influenced the compost quality and process dynamics. The results also showed that the quality of final products in all the conditions was in agreement with Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. However, the moisture content ratios were lower than the mentioned guidelines. With regards to microbial quality, all three ratios were in agreement with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Iranian guidelines. Conclusion: It is suggested that the final product of composting can be safely used in farmland and green space.

  4. Modern disposal techniques for sewage sludge and municipal waste; Moderne Entsorgungsverfahren fuer Klaerschlamm und Hausmuell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garlipp, G. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Maczek, K. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinkamp, H. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Since the passing of the technical code on municipal waste, the issue of the disposal of sewage sludge and municipal waste has become more and more important in Germany. Increasingly, the possibility is made use of to burn industrial and municipal sewage sludge and municipal waste. For such thermal disposal, a great number of techniques are nowadays available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit der Verabschiedung der TA Siedlungsabfall gewinnt die Problematik der Entsorgung von Klaerschlamm und Hausmuell in Deutschland zunehmend an Bedeutung. Von der Moeglichkeit, industrielle und kommunale Klaerschlaemme und Hausmuell zu verbrennen, wird in zunehmendem Masse Gebrauch gemacht. Zur thermischen Entsorgung von Klaerschlaemmen und Hausmuell stehen heute eine Vielzahl von Verfahren zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  5. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Elissen, Hellen; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm

  6. Mechanisms and kinetics models for ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Yong; Ji, Min

    2005-08-31

    Ultrasonic energy can be applied as pre-treatment to disintegrate sludge flocs and disrupt bacterial cells' walls, and the hydrolysis can be improved, so that the rate of sludge digestion and methane production is improved. In this paper, by adding NaHCO3 to mask the oxidizing effect of OH, the mechanisms of disintegration are investigated. In addition, kinetics models for ultrasonic sludge disintegration are established by applying multi-variable linear regression method. It has been found that hydro-mechanical shear forces predominantly responsible for the disintegration, and the contribution of oxidizing effect of OH increases with the amount of the ultrasonic density and ultrasonic intensity. It has also been inferred from the kinetics model which dependent variable is SCOD+ that both sludge pH and sludge concentration significantly affect the disintegration.

  7. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%

  8. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them.

  9. Thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned solid wastes with calcium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahiri, S.; Albizane, A.; Messaoudi, A.; Azzi, M.; Bennazha, J.; Younssi, S. Alami; Bouhria, M.

    2007-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned wastes with Ca(OH) 2 was studied. Ashes obtained after incineration of wastes at various temperatures were analysed by X-ray diffraction and EDX method. The main crystallized phases present in the ash obtained at 600 deg. C are Cr 2 O 3 and NaCl. The diffractograms revealed an increase in the intensities of the chromium oxide peaks and a very notable decrease of the amount of sodium chloride at 1100 deg. C. EDX analysis revealed a total disappearance of the chlorine peak at this temperature. Scanning electron micrographs show that the waste lost its fibrous aspect when the temperature increases. Formation of aggregates was noted after 550 deg. C. Combustion of organic matters and decarbonation phenomenon are the main stages observed on GTA and DTA curves of sludges. These phenomena are, respectively, exothermic and endothermic. The diffractogram of sludges recorded at 550 deg. C, in the presence of a constant oxygen surplus, revealed the presence of CaCrO 4 and CaCO 3

  10. Winery waste recycling through anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ros, C; Cavinato, C; Pavan, P; Bolzonella, D

    2014-11-01

    In this study biogas and high quality digestate were recovered from winery waste (wine lees) through anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge both in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The two conditions studied showed similar yields (0.40 m(3)/kgCODfed) but different biological process stability: in fact the mesophilic process was clearly more stable than the thermophilic one in terms of bioprocess parameters. The resulting digestates showed good characteristics for both the tested conditions: heavy metals, dioxins (PCDD/F), and dioxin like bi-phenyls (PCBs) were concentred in the effluent if compared with the influent because of the important reduction of the solid dry matter, but remained at levels acceptable for agricultural reuse. Pathogens in digestate decreased. Best reductions were observed in thermophilic condition, while at 37°C the concentration of Escherichia coli was at concentrations level as high as 1000 UFC/g. Dewatering properties of digestates were evaluated by means of the capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) tests and it was found that a good dewatering level was achievable only when high doses of polymer (more than 25 g per kg dry solids) were added to sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and greasy sludge from flotation process: batch versus CSTR experiments to investigate optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, R; Bridoux, G; Nauleau, F; Poullain, C; Buffet, J; Peu, P; Sadowski, A G; Béline, F

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sludge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determine the maximum ratio to be used in a CSTR configuration. Additionally, when the ratio of greasy sludge increased from 0% to 60% of the feed COD, CSTR methane production increased by more than 60%. When the greasy sludge ratio increased from 60% to 90% of the feed COD, the reactor yield decreased by 75%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and remediation of low sludge simulated Purex waste glasses, 2: Effects of sludge oxide additions on glass durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Glass produced during the Purex 4 campaigns of the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) and the 774 Research Melter contained a lower fraction of sludge components than targeted by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Purex 4 glass was more durable than the benchmark (EA) glass, but was less durable than most other simulated SRS high-level waste glasses. Further, the measured durability of Purex 4 glass was not as well correlated with the durability predicted from the DWPF process control algorithm, probably because the algorithm was developed to predict the durability of SRS high-level waste glasses with higher sludge content than Purex 4. A melter run, designated Purex 4 Remediation, was performed using the 774 Research Melter to determine if the initial PCCS target composition determined for Purex 4 would produce acceptable glass whose durability could be accurately modeled by the DWPF glass durability algorithm. Reagent grade oxides and carbonates were added to Purex 4 melter feed stock to simulate a higher sludge loading. Each canister of glass produced was sampled and the glass durability was determined by the Product Consistency Test method. This document details the durability data and subsequent analysis

  13. Post-anaerobic digestion thermal hydrolysis of sewage sludge and food waste: Effect on methane yields, dewaterability and solids reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kine; Kjørlaug, Oda; Higgins, Matthew J; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J

    2018-04-01

    Post-anaerobic digestion (PAD) treatment technologies have been suggested for anaerobic digestion (AD) to improve process efficiency and assure hygenization of organic waste. Because AD reduces the amount of organic waste, PAD can be applied to a much smaller volume of waste compared to pre-digestion treatment, thereby improving efficiency. In this study, dewatered digestate cakes from two different AD plants were thermally hydrolyzed and dewatered, and the liquid fraction was recirculated to a semi-continuous AD reactor. The thermal hydrolysis was more efficient in relation to methane yields and extent of dewaterability for the cake from a plant treating waste activated sludge, than the cake from a plant treating source separated food waste (SSFW). Temperatures above 165 °C yielded the best results. Post-treatment improved volumetric methane yields by 7% and the COD-reduction increased from 68% to 74% in a mesophilic (37 °C) semi-continuous system despite lowering the solid retention time (from 17 to 14 days) compared to a conventional system with pre-treatment of feed substrates at 70 °C. Results from thermogravimetric analysis showed an expected increase in maximum TS content of dewatered digestate cake from 34% up to 46% for the SSFW digestate cake, and from 17% up to 43% in the sludge digestate cake, after the PAD thermal hydrolysis process (PAD-THP). The increased dewatering alone accounts for a reduction in wet mass of cake leaving the plant of 60% in the case of sludge digestate cake. Additionaly, the increased VS-reduction will contribute to further reduce the mass of wet cake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New insights into co-digestion of activated sludge and food waste: Biogas versus biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    This study explored two holistic approaches for co-digestion of activated sludge and food waste. In Approach 1, mixed activated sludge and food waste were first hydrolyzed with fungal mash, and produced hydrolysate without separation was directly subject to anaerobic digestion. In Approach 2, solid generated after hydrolysis of food waste by fungal mash was directly converted to biofertilizer, while separated liquid with high soluble COD concentration was further co-digested with activated sludge for biomethane production. Although the potential energy produced from Approach 1 was about 1.8-time higher than that from Approach 2, the total economic revenue generated from Approach 2 was about 1.9-fold of that from Approach 1 due to high market value of biofertilizer. It is expected that this study may lead to a paradigm shift in biosolid management towards environmental and economic sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of organic solid waste for reuse: a step towards zero waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Khan, Z.M.; Raja, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of organic solid wastes are being generated from municipal, industrial and agricultural activities. After necessary processing, the organic solid waste can be reused for agriculture not only as a nutrient supplement for plant growth, but also as a conditioner for seedbed soil. Processed organic wastes may improve soil structure and enhance water and nutrient-holding capacity of the soil, as well as increase the microbial activity within the soil, thereby increasing soil fertility. In this study, problems like undesirably high moisture contents and large volumes per unit weight of the processed organic solid wastes have been addressed through pelletization. Physical properties like durability, percent of fines content, and bulk and particle density of the processed and pelletized organic waste have been investigated, and the optimum values for storage, handling and transportation of the pelletized organic waste have been determined. Three different sizes of extruding sieve (4.35, 6.35 and 7.9 mm) and three different waste-mixing ratios (1:1:2, 1:2:2 and 1:3:3) of farmyard waste, wastewater sludge and sugar industry press mud were used respectively for the production of bio-solid pellets. The physical properties of the palletes show that durability increases by increasing the amount of sewage sludge while fines content, bulk density and unit density decrease. The large sieve size has more durability and less fine content. The results showed that the pelletization technique can be efficiently used by the farmers and appears to be a good option for sustainable management and re-use of organic solid wastes. (author)

  16. Stabilization of industry sludge by composting for use as an organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia Ruda, Ester; Mercedes Ocampo, Ester; Acosta, Adriana; Mongiello, Adriana; Olmos, Graciela

    2013-04-01

    The effluent treatment plant having PBLEINER SA food industry produces sludge coming from aerobic treatment reactors. The research team FIQ-UNL evaluated the feasibility of their use for the production of organic fertilizers as part of an environmental management problem to reduce the volume of sludge to be moved to land farming located more than 300 km of the plant. The mean values of the variables analyzed in the sludge were the following: carbon: 23.7 %, nitrogen: 7.83 %, pH: 7.36, bulk density: 0.722 g.cm-3, actual density: 1.76 g.cm-3, porosity: 50.7 %, potassium: 0.242 %, phosphorus: 1.29 %, calcium: 1.84 %, magnesium: 0.364 % and electrical conductivity: 3.51 dS.m-1 (25 °C). The content of heavy metals in sludge is much lower than the limits set by the European Union, USEPA and SENASA for use in agriculture. The mean values of the metals analyzed in the sludge were the following: cadmium: no detected, lead: 18.7 mg.kg-1, zinc 213 mg.kg-1, copper: 40.7 mg.kg-1, nickel: 110 mg.kg-1, chrome: 406 mg.kg-1, mercury: 1.53 mg.kg-1. In this framework it was proposed stabilization of sludge by composting, using sawdust or chips as stabilizing material, with aeration technique in rows with frequent turning and recycling leachate, so as to degrade organic solids humic material for application as a soil conditioner, this is for transformation into a new product to be used as fertilizer. The company provided the physical space and technical staff to assist the research team. This process design is a proposal to improve the waste treatment of an industrial plant, reducing its environmental impact and enabling the use of the resulting product for soil enhancement in the region. Optimizing operating parameters such as kinetics, moisture, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, nutrient availability, alternative sources of carbon and processing steps, will allow obtaining technical data for the modelling process.

  17. Effects of sludge inoculum and organic feedstock on active microbial communities and methane yield during anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is a widespread microbial technology used to treat organic waste and recover energy in the form of methane (biogas. While most AD systems have been designed to treat a single input, mixtures of digester sludge and solid organic waste are emerging as a means to improve efficiency and methane yield. We examined laboratory anaerobic cultures of AD sludge from two sources amended with food waste, xylose, and xylan at mesophilic temperatures, and with cellulose at meso- and thermophilic temperatures, to determine whether and how the inoculum and substrate affect biogas yield and community composition. All substrate and inoculum combinations yielded methane, with food waste most productive by mass. Pyrosequencing of transcribed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA showed that community composition varied across substrates and inocula, with differing ratios of hydrogenotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic archaea associated with syntrophic partners. While communities did not cluster by either inoculum or substrate, additional sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the source sludge revealed that the bacterial communities were influenced by their inoculum. These results suggest that complete and efficient AD systems could potentially be assembled from different microbial inocula and consist of taxonomically diverse communities that nevertheless perform similar functions.

  18. Restoration of pyritic colliery waste with sewage sludge in the Midlands coalfield, England, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.; Sly, M.

    1994-01-01

    A trial was set up in 1990 in the Midlands coalfield in the United Kingdom (UK) to evaluate the use of sewage sludge to revegetate colliery waste tips containing 1--2% sulfur as iron pyrites. The rate of sewage sludge application is currently restricted by legislation and codes of practice to maximum concentrations of potentially toxic elements (copper, nickel, zinc, etc.) in the soil or waste after application. Following this guidance, an application rate of 250 mt/ha dry solids was applied at the trial site. At this rate, the colliery waste became extremely acidic pH <4.0. From experience elsewhere, much higher levels have been found to be necessary to control acidification in the absence of other measures or treatments. In view of the restriction on the amount of sewage sludge that can be applied, it is recommended that the current practice of covering fresh colliery wastes with soil or low sulfur spoil to a minimum depth of 0.45m is continued in the UK. Where this is not possible, the sludge must always be applied with sufficient neutralizing agent to control the potential acidity. If the acidity cannot be maintained above pH 5.0, the guidelines do not permit the application of sewage sludge

  19. Treatment of off-gas evolved from thermal decomposition of sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doo-Seong Hwang; Yun-Dong Choi; Gyeong-Hwan Jeong; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2013-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of a uranium conversion plant. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of sludge waste are nitrate salts and uranium. The sludge waste is denitrated by thermal decomposition. The treatment of off-gas evolved from the thermal decomposition of nitrate salts in the sludge waste is investigated. The nitrate salts in the sludge were decomposed in two steps: the first decomposition is due to the ammonium nitrate, and the second is due to the sodium and calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate. The components of off-gas from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate at low temperature are NH 3 , N 2 O, NO 2 , and NO. In addition, the components from the decomposition of sodium and calcium nitrate at high temperature are NO 2 and NO. Off-gas from the thermal decomposition is treated by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Ammonia is converted into nitrogen oxides through the oxidation catalyst and all nitrogen oxides are removed by SCR treatment besides nitrous oxide, which is greenhouse gas. An additional process is needed to remove nitrous oxide, and the feeding rate of ammonia in SCR should be controlled properly for evolved nitrogen oxides. (author)

  20. Production of sludge-incorporated paver blocks for efficient waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velumani, P; Senthilkumar, S

    2018-06-01

    Waste management plays a vital role in the reuse of industry wastes in to useful conversions. The treatment of effluents from the combined textile effluent treatment plant and hypo sludge from the paper industry results in sludge generation, which poses a huge challenge for its disposal. Therefore, an eco-friendly attempt is made to utilize them in the production of paver blocks. Paver blocks are construction units that have vast applications in street roads, walking paths, fuel stations, and so on. In this study, an innovative attempt has been made to manufacture paver blocks incorporating textile effluent treatment plant sludge and hypo sludge, to utilize them in suitable proportions. The effect of adding silica fume and polypropylene fibre in paver blocks has also been studied. Paver blocks containing sludge with different proportions were cast based on the recommendations in Indian Standards (IS) 15658, and the test results were compared with the nominal M20 grade and M30 grade paver blocks. The outcomes of the paver block combinations were studied and found to be an effective utilization of sludge with substantial cement replacement of up to 35%, resulting in effective waste management for specific industries. Presently, paver blocks are construction units that have vast application in street roads and other constructions like walking paths, fuel stations, and so on. Also, paver blocks possess easy maintenance during breakages. Based on this application, an innovative attempt has been made to manufacture paver blocks incorporating textile effluent treatment plant sludge and hypo sludge to utilize them in suitable proportions.

  1. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  2. Antifoam Degradation Products in Off Gas and Condensate of Sludge Batch 9 Simulant Nitric-Formic Flowsheet Testing for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-14

    Ten chemical processing cell (CPC) experiments were performed using simulant to evaluate Sludge Batch 9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on eight of the ten. The other two were SRAT cycles only. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has previously shown antifoam decomposes to form flammable organic products, (hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), trimethylsilanol (TMS), and propanal), that are present in the vapor phase and condensate of the CPC vessels. To minimize antifoam degradation product formation, a new antifoam addition strategy was implemented at SRNL and DWPF to add antifoam undiluted.

  3. STABILIZATION AND TESTING OF MERCURY CONTAINING WASTES: BORDEN SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...

  4. Emerging organic contaminants in sludges. Analysis, fate and biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicent, Teresa [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Eljarrat, Ethel [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Caminal, Gloria [IQAC-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Grupo de biocatalisis Aplicada y biodegradacion; Barcelo, Damia (eds.) [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Girona Univ. (Spain). Catalan Inst. for Water Research

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive review. Written by experts. Richly illustrated. There are a growing number of new chemicals in the environment that represent an ascertained or potential risk. Many of them can be found in sewage sludge and are the subject of this volume. Experts in the field highlight their occurrence and fate, risks of biosolid use, advanced chemical analysis methods, and degradation techniques with a special focus on biodegradation using fungi. In the final chapter conclusions and trends are offered as a point of departure for future studies. The double-disciplinary approach combining environmental analysis and engineering makes the book a valuable and comprehensive source of information for a broad audience, such as environmental chemists and engineers, biotechnologists, ecotoxicologists and professionals responsible for waste and water management.

  5. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC's Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings

  6. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N. (Eurotec West A/S (DK)); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H. (Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK)); Rasmussen, Soeren (SamRas (DK))

    2007-09-15

    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  7. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea

  8. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple

  9. Engineering properties of sintered waste sludge as lightweight aggregate in a densified concrete mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭予柱

    2009-01-01

    The global trend towards carbon reduction,energy conservation,and sustainable use of resources has led to an increased focus on the use of waste sludge in construction.We used waste sludge from a reservoir to produce high-strength sintered lightweight aggregate,and then used the densified mixture design algorithm to create high-performance concrete from the sintered aggregate with only small amounts of mixing water and cement.Ultrasonic,electrical resistance and concrete strength efficiency tests were perfo...

  10. Beneficial use of waste nuclear isotopes - 137Cs radiation treatment of municipal sludge and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remini, W.C.; Wahlquist, B.J.; Sivinsky, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    For the past several years, the Nuclear Research and Applications Division has been sponsoring, in cooperation with EPA, a program to develop the technology and investigate the potential of using gamma radiation to reduce pathogen levels in sewage sludge. The irradiation source would be cesium-137 which has been extracted from the reactor wastes and diverted to this use. It would be used in this irradiation process until its source strength had decayed to the point that it was no longer effective. At that point, it would be transferred for disposal. This sludge irradiation program is a part of a larger effort to develop beneficial uses of individual isotopes or combinations of isotopes contained in the reactor wastes. Such potential applications include strontium-90 for power generation in remote applications, extraction of platinum family metals to help alleviate demands on foreign supplies, and use of krypton-85 in self-luminous light sources. Sludge irradiation offers what appears to be near-term benefits and has received the major focus in this program. This summary report reviews the progress and current status in the sludge irradiation program. It reviews the background of the national sludge problem and describes how the irradiation process may be applied to this problem. The two major approaches, wet and dry irradiation, are described and their technical and economic potential is discussed. Finally, the status of on-going efforts to experimentally apply irradiation to sludges are summarized and a projected development plan is outlined. (Auth.)

  11. Three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy with regional integration analysis for assessing waste sludge hydrolysis treated with multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Lu, Mingmin; Li, Qianqian; Zhang, Jiawen; Zong, Yan; She, Zonglian

    2014-11-01

    The hydrolysis effect of waste sludge after multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria pretreatments is investigated using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) in this study. The compositional characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and dissolved organic matters (DOM) were analyzed to evaluate the sludge disintegration. The EPS and cell wall in sludge were disrupted after hydrolysis which led to carbohydrate, protein and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of DOM increasing in sludge supernatant. The bio-degradability level in the extracted fractions of EPS and DOM depending on the fluorescence zones was found after hydrolysis. The highest proportion of percent fluorescence response (Pi,n) in EPS and DOM was soluble microbial by-product and humic acid-like organics. A significant increase of humic acid-like organics in DOM after thermophilic bacteria hydrolysis was obtained. The assessment of hydrolysis using EEM coupled with FRI provided a new insight toward the bio-utilization process of waste sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  13. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14±1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85±0.19 million t representing 37.22±6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait

  14. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna; Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH 4 and CO 2 ) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L -1 and a concentration of CO 2 of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10 5 -10 6 MPN mL -1 ). The acetogenic population was (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH 4 (70%) were higher than CO 2 (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L -1 . Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and methanogenic bacteria (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified

  15. Hydrochar from sewage sludge and urban wastes as a peat replacement in growing media preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Maria Luisa; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Plaza, César; Gascó, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, there is an important trend in Europe for peat replacement with biochar in growing media formulation in order to reduce the environmental impact of peat exploitation. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process of converting organic feedstock into a high carbon rich solid product named hydrochar. It is performed in water mild temperature (180-260°C) under pressure conditions (2-6MPa) for 5-250 min. The reaction pressure is not controlled in the process and is autogenic with the saturation vapour pressure of water corresponding to the reaction temperature. In recent years, the possibility of subjecting organic wastes to HTC has attracted the scientific community attention due to their interesting advantages over other thermal treatments such as pyrolysis, torrefaction or gasification. The aim of the present paper is to study the possible use of two hydrochars produced by Ingelia (Spain) from sewage sludge and urban waste treatment as growing media material in horticulture. For this, thermal, chemical and hydrophysical properties were determined and compared with that of brown commercial peat.

  16. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  17. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-08

    Jan 8, 2010 ... metal loads comparable to Danish sewage sludge, and it exceeds the Danish quality criteria for ... The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the whole plant is .... sludge will contain an important part of the XOCs which were.

  18. Energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants through sludge anaerobic digestion: effect of low-organic-content sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyao; Li, Huan

    2017-09-18

    During anaerobic digestion, low-organic-content sludge sometimes is used as feedstock, resulting in deteriorated digestion performance. The operational experience of conventional anaerobic digestion cannot be applied to this situation. To investigate the feature of low-organic-content sludge digestion and explain its intrinsic mechanism, batch experiments were conducted using designed feedstock having volatile solids (VS) contents that were 30-64% of total solids (TS). The results showed that the accumulative biogas yield declined proportionally from 173.7 to 64.8 ml/g VS added and organic removal rate decreased from 34.8 to 11.8% with decreasing VS/TS in the substrate. The oligotrophic environment resulting from low-organic-content substrates led to decreased microbial activity and a switch from butyric fermentation to propionic fermentation. A first-order model described the biogas production from the batch experiments very well, and the degradation coefficient decreased from 0.159 to 0.069 day -1 , exhibiting a positive relation with organic content in substrate. The results observed here corroborated with data from published literature on anaerobic digestion of low-organic-content sludge and showed that it may not be feasible to recover energy from sludge with an organic content lower than 50% through mono digestion.

  19. Research for waste water treatment technology with low production of excessive active sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the possibility to create a technological scheme of waste water treatment of domestic and similar type of sewage within minimal amount of excessive active sludge by means of bioreactors with immobilized feed. There are various aspects to be considered: technical, economic, social and ecological. According to the above it is strongly needed to provide a combination of proper waste water treatment, minimal sludge formation and the possibility for a further use of the sludge. One of the ways to achieve the goal above is to use an immobilized feed in the aeration tank. The necessary experiments were carried out in the department of waste water treatment and water ecology. The article includes the scheme of the facility and other parameters of the experiments, which has been carried. The combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes helps to provide proper quality of integrated biological treatment. Chambers of the aeration reactor were also equipped with the polymer feed of various structures. The sludge treatment that was also strongly needed was made by means of aerobic stabilization with the use of ejecting aeration. The results of experiment showed a good effect in both components – sewage and sludge treatment. Afterwards there was also an industrial model launched which confirmed the results of the previous stage.

  20. [Using Excess Activated Sludge Treated 4-Chlorophenol Contained Waste Water to Cultivate Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiu-rong; Yan, Long; He, Yi-xuan; Shi, Zhen-dong

    2015-04-01

    Using different rations of sludge extracts and supernate from 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) simulated wastewater's excess sludge after centrifugation to cultivate the Chlorella vulgaris to achieve the goal of excess sludge utilization together with chlorella cultivating. The experiments were performed in 500 mL flasks with different rations of sludge extracts & BG-11 and supernate & BG-11 in a light growth chamber respectively. Number of algal cells, Chlorophyll, enzyme activity, oil and water total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity index were investigated. Result showed that the nutrition supplies and toxicity in the excess sludge were removed efficiently via Chlorella vulgaris, the removal rates of TN and TP were at least 40% and 90% respectively; After 10 days cultivation, the density growth of 50% sludge extracts was 20 times higher of the beginning while its chlorophyll content was lower than that of the blank group. Sludge extracts could promote the proliferation of algae, but were not conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll. The quantity of SOD in per cell showed Chlorella vulgaris gave a positive response via stimulation from toxicant in sludge extracts and supernate. The best time for collecting chlorella vulgaris was the fifth day of cultivation, taking neutral oil accumulation as the evaluating indicator for its utilization combined with the removal of supplies and toxicity.

  1. Dissolved organic carbon from sewage sludge and manure can affect estrogen sorption and mineralization in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpe, Britta, E-mail: britta.stumpe@rub.d [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Geography, Department Soil Science/Soil Ecology, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Marschner, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.marschner@rub.d [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Geography, Department Soil Science/Soil Ecology, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, effects of sewage sludge and manure borne dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) sorption and mineralization processes were investigated in three agricultural soils. Batch equilibrium techniques and equilibrium dialysis methods were used to determine sorption mechanisms between DOC, estrogens and the soil solid phase. It was found that that the presence of organic waste borne DOC decreased estrogen sorption in soils which seems to be controlled by DOC/estrogen complexes in solution and by exchange processes between organic waste derived and soil borne DOC. Incubation studies performed with {sup 14}C-estrogens showed that DOC addition decreased estrogen mineralization, probably due to reduced bioavailability of estrogens associated with DOC. This increased persistence combined with higher mobility could increase the risk of estrogen transport to ground and surface waters. - The effect of DOC on estrogen sorption and mineralization is influenced by exchange processes between organic waste borne and soil derived DOC.

  2. Dissolved organic carbon from sewage sludge and manure can affect estrogen sorption and mineralization in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpe, Britta; Marschner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In this study, effects of sewage sludge and manure borne dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) sorption and mineralization processes were investigated in three agricultural soils. Batch equilibrium techniques and equilibrium dialysis methods were used to determine sorption mechanisms between DOC, estrogens and the soil solid phase. It was found that that the presence of organic waste borne DOC decreased estrogen sorption in soils which seems to be controlled by DOC/estrogen complexes in solution and by exchange processes between organic waste derived and soil borne DOC. Incubation studies performed with 14 C-estrogens showed that DOC addition decreased estrogen mineralization, probably due to reduced bioavailability of estrogens associated with DOC. This increased persistence combined with higher mobility could increase the risk of estrogen transport to ground and surface waters. - The effect of DOC on estrogen sorption and mineralization is influenced by exchange processes between organic waste borne and soil derived DOC.

  3. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal

  4. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate's beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ∼60 C, 80 C, and 95 C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal

  5. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  6. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies

  7. Drying of residue and separation of nitrate salts in the sludge waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the dissolution process by water and the drying property of residue after separating nitrates in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97% at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue These were decomposed over 600 .deg. C and calcium carbonate, which was consisted mainly of residue, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 .deg. C. The residue have to be decomposed over 800 .deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six value into the stable U 3 O 8 of four value. As a result of removing the nitrates at the water adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 .deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80%

  8. Total organic carbon in a soil recovered with sewage sludge and native species of the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara Lima Goulart, Lívia; Amaral Guerrini, Iraê; Fidalgo de Faria, Marianne; Spada, Grasiela; Proença Nalesso, Pedro Henrique; Willian Carlos, Guilherme

    2017-04-01

    The use of organic waste such as sewage sludge, in the recovery of degraded áreas have shown very satisfactory results, because they are constituted by high contentes of organic matter and nutrients, essential to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the total organic carbon (TOC) of a degraded soil, up to a metre deep, after 10 years of application of sewage sludge and planting native species of the Atlantic forest. The experiment was conducted at Fazenda Entre-Rios, owned by Suzano Papel e Celulose, in Itatinga, São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment was designed as randomized block with four replications, six doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1), conventional chemical fertilizer and only with potassium application, totaling eight treatments. Samples were collected every 20 cm (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm) until reaching a metre deep. Ten years after trial deployment, the sewage sludge application in degraded soil was significantly influenced the TOC at all depths sampled. The highest values of the COT were observed in plots that received 15 and 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge, in all depths sampled, except for the layer of 80-100 cm, which presented the highest average COT in the treatment with 10 t ha-1 of residue. As observed for all treatments, the highest TOC averages were observed in the superficial layers of the soil (0-20 and 20-40 cm). The sewage sludge application is useful to recover degraded soils, as it improving their chemical characteristics and showing to be a good alternative to the final destination of this residue.

  9. Optimization of volatile fatty acid production with co-substrate of food wastes and dewatered excess sludge using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen; Haiyun, Wu

    2010-07-01

    Central-composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the parameters of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from food wastes and dewatered excess sludge in a semi-continuous process. The effects of four variables (food wastes composition in the co-substrate of food wastes and excess sludge, hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), and pH) on acidogenesis were evaluated individually and interactively. The optimum condition derived via RSM was food wastes composition, 88.03%; HRT, 8.92 days; OLR, 8.31 g VSS/ld; and pH 6.99. The experimental VFA concentration was 29,099 mg/l under this optimum condition, which was well in agreement with the predicted value of 28,000 mg/l. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis: Active mode measurements of solidified aqueous sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the US Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Active Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. This paper is one of a series of reports quantifying the results of the uncertainty analysis of the PAN system measurements for specific waste types and measurement modes. In particular this report covers active mode measurements of weapons grade plutonium-contaminated aqueous sludge waste contained in 208 liter drums (item description codes 1, 2, 7, 800, 803, and 807). Results of the uncertainty analysis for PAN active mode measurements of aqueous sludge indicate that a bias correction multiplier of 1.55 should be applied to the PAN aqueous sludge measurements. With the bias correction, the uncertainty bounds on the expected bias are 0 ± 27%. These bounds meet the Quality Assurance Program Plan requirements for radioassay systems

  12. Effect of addition of sewage sludge and coal sludge on bioavailability of selected metals in the waste from the zinc and lead industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta; Wystalska, Katarzyna; Grobelak, Anna

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the content of bioavailable forms of selected heavy metals present in the waste from Zn and Pb processing that can potentially have an effect on the observed difficulties in reclamation of landfills with this waste. The particular focus of the study was on iron because its potential excess or deficiency may be one of the causes of the failure in biological reclamation. The study confirmed that despite high content of total iron in waste (mean value of 200.975gkg -1 ), this metal is present in the forms not available to plants (mean: 0.00009gkg -1 ). The study attempted to increase its potential bioavailability through preparation of the mixtures of this waste with additions in the form of sewage sludge and coal sludge in different proportions. Combination of waste with 10% of coal sludge and sewage sludge using the contents of 10%, 20% and 30% increased the amounts of bioavailable iron forms to the level defined as sufficient for adequate plant growth. The Lepidum sativum test was used to evaluate phytotoxicity of waste and the mixtures prepared based on this waste. The results did not show unambiguously that the presence of heavy metals in the waste had a negative effect on the growth of test plant roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  14. Sludge batch 9 follow-on actual-waste testing for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-23

    An actual-waste Sludge Batch 9 qualification run with the nitric-glycolic flowsheet (SC-18) was performed in FY16. In order to supplement the knowledge base for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, additional testing was performed on the product slurries, condensates, and intermediate samples from run SC-18.

  15. Problematic issues of air protection during thermal processes related to the energetic uses of sewage sludge and other waste. Case study: Co-combustion in peaking power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj; Musil, Juraj

    2018-03-01

    Currently, it is necessary to deal with issues related to the emissions as there is a constantly increasing interest in combusting sludge from sewage treatment plants in the boilers for wood. An analysis of the energetic importance of the combustion of sewage sludge has already been carried out, but the effects of various treatments of the sludge are not always clear, e.g. composting and subsequent combustion to the air pollution. Investments in other thermal processes of energetic utilisation of sewage sludge and organic waste are not always successfully implemented. The objective of this paper is to point out some problematic cases for acceptance of thermal processes related to energetic use of waste in terms of the air protection. The other aim is to mention the experience with solutions of such issues in Slovakia. There are mentioned first results of the operational validation experiments during the energy generation in circulating fluidized bed boiler in peaking power plant (Power 110MW) with the addition of the so-called alternative fuel based on wood and sewage sludge to the main fuel - black coal (anthracite). And there has already been achieved the highest share of 12.4%w. (dry matter) of sewage sludge in form of compost in blend with black coal, which is technologically viable. Moreover analyzed the problems of the authorization and operation of the co-combustion of sewage sludge and of combustion of products of various kinds of pyrolysis waste - pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis oil are analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BIOESTABILIZATION ANAEROBIC SOLID WASTE ORGANIC:QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Brazil, the municipal solid waste produced are constituted on average 55% of fermentable organic solid waste and that this quantity can be applied in aerobic or anaerobic stabilization process. Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for the treatment of different types of potentially fermentable waste, considering providing an alternative source of energy that can be used to replace fossil fuels. To perform the experimental part of this work was constructed and monitored an experimental system consisting of an anaerobic batch reactor, shredding unit of fermentable organic wastes and additional devices. Fermentable organic wastes consisted of leftover fruits and vegetables and were listed in EMPASA (Paraibana Company of Food and Agricultural Services, located in the city of Campina Grande- PB. The residues were collected and transported to the Experimental Station Biological Sewage Treatment (EXTRABES where they were processed and used for substrate preparation. The substrate consisted of a mixture of fermentable organic waste, more anaerobic sewage sludge in the proportion of 80 and 20 % respectively. In the specific case of this study, it was found that 1m3 of substrate concentration of total COD equal to 169 g L-1, considering the reactor efficiency equal to 80 %, the production of CH4 would be approximately 47.25 Nm3 CH4. Therefore, fermentable organic waste, when subjected to anaerobic treatment process produces a quantity of methane gas in addition to the partially biostabilized compound may be applied as a soil conditioning agent.

  17. Sludge as dioxins suppressant in hospital waste incineration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, M.; Li, X.; Yang, J.; Chen, T.; Lu, S.; Buekens, A.G.; Olie, K.; Yan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen containing compounds such as ammonia, urea and amines can effectively inhibit the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Sewage sludge accumulates both sulfur and nitrogen during wastewater treatment so it could be used to reduce PCDD/Fs formation.

  18. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Yuanyuan Yan, Leiyu Feng*, Chaojie Zhang, Hongguang Zhu and Qi Zhou. State Key ... soluble chemical oxygen demand; TCOD, total chemical oxygen demand ... studied as well as their effects on the characteristics of sludge. .... universal liquid module (ULM) which could detect particle size from. 0.04 up ...

  19. Survey in organic contaminants content in sewage sludge from the Emilia Romagna region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovi, P.; Sassi, D.; Piccinini, S.; Rossi, L.

    2008-01-01

    Data was collected on the organic pollutants cited in the Working document on sludge, 3. draft (AOX, LAS, DEHP, NPE, PAH, PCB, PCDD/F), for sewage sludge deriving from 12 municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants and 7 agro-industrial wastewater treatment plants located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), taking samples in spring, summer and winter. The limit values given in the Working document were sporadically exceeded. The most frequent contamination was associated with LAS, in particular in the winter period. Results confirmed lower organic contaminant contents in sludge of agro-industrial origin, compared to sludge from municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants, with generally not detectable values for the majority of organic pollutants. Comparison of the results collected in this survey with values recorded in other European countries shows that the organic contaminant content of sewage sludge obtained in plants in the Emilia-Romagna region, excepting LAS, is reasonable [it

  20. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign) and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated

  1. Production and remediation of low-sludge, simulated Purex waste glasses, 1: Effects of sludge oxide additions on melter operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Glass produced during the Purex 4 campaigns of the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS) and the 774 Research Melter contained a lower fraction of sludge components than targeted by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Purex 4 glass was more durable than the benchmark (EA) glass, but less durable than most simulated SRS high-level waste glasses. Also, Purex 4 glass was considerably less durable than predicted by the algorithm which will be used to control production of DWPF glass. A melter run was performed using the 774 Research Melter to determine if the initial PCCS target composition determined for Purex 4 would produce acceptable glass whose durability could be accurately modeled by Hydration Thermodynamics. Reagent grade oxides and carbonates were added to Purex 4 melter feed stock to simulate a higher sludge loading. Each canister of glass produced was sampled and the composition, crystallinity, and durability was determined. This document details the melter operation and composition and crystallinity analyses

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and greasy sludge from flotation process: Batch versus CSTR experiments to investigate optimal design

    OpenAIRE

    Girault , R.; Bridoux , G.; Nauleau , F.; Poullain , C.; Buffet , J.; Peu , P.; Sadowski , A.G.; Béline , F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sluvdge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determi...

  3. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end- of-stream points. Austria and many other countries have to import up to 90% of the material inputs of metals from abroad. These primary resources are becoming more expensive as they become more scarce and remaining deposits more difficult to mine, which is a serious concern for industrialized nations. Basic economic and strategic reasoning demands an increase in recycling activities and waste minimization. Technologies to recover metals in a reasonable and economically relevant manner from very diffuse sources are practically non-existent or require large amounts of energy and chemicals, which pose environmental risks. On the other hand agriculture uses large volumes of mineral fertilizers, which are often sourced from mines as well, and thus are also subject to the same principle of finiteness and potential shortage in supply. These converted biological nutrients are taken up by crops and through the food chain and human consumption end up in sewage systems and in wastewater treatment plants in great quantities. The metabolized nutrients mostly do not return to agriculture, but due to contamination with heavy metals are diverted to be used as construction aggregates or are thermally treated and end up rather uselessly in landfills. The project BIO-ORE aimed to explore new pathways to concentrate metals from diluted sources such as sewage sludge and wastewater by using highly efficient biological absorption and transport mechanisms. These enzymatic systems from plants work with very little energy input. The process is called bioaccumulation and can be most effectively

  4. Low-pressure hydraulic technique for slurrying radioactive sludges in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.F.; Parsons, F.A.; Goodlett, C.B.; Mobley, R.M.

    1977-11-01

    Present technology for the removal of sludges from radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) requires large volumes of fresh water added through high-pressure (approx.3000 psig) nozzles positioned to resuspend and slurry the sludge. To eliminate the cost of storing and evaporating these large volumes of water (several hundred thousand gallons per tank cleaned), a technique was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to use recirculating, radioactive, supernate solution to resuspend the sludge. The system consists in part of a single-stage centrifugal pump operating in the sludge at approx.100 psia. Recirculating supernate is drawn into the bottom of the pump and forced out through two oppositely directed nozzles to give liquid jets with a sludge-slurrying capability equal to that obtained with the present high-pressure system. In addition to eliminating the addition of large quantities of water to the tanks, the low-pressure recirculating technique requires only approximately one-sixth of the power required by the high-pressure system. Test results with clay (as a simulant for sludge) in a waste tank mockup confirmed theoretical predictions that jets with the same momentum gave essentially the same sludge-slurrying patterns. The effective cleaning radius of the recirculating jet was directly proportional to the product of the nozzle velocity and the nozzle diameter (U 0 D). At the maximum U 0 D developed by the pump (approx.14 ft 2 /s), the effective cleaning radius in the tank mockup was approx.20 feet

  5. Research Progress of Hydrogen Production fromOrganic Wastes in Microbial Electrolysis Cell(MEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yin-sheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrolysis cell(MECtechnology as an emerging technology, has achieved the target of hydrogen production from different substrates such as waste water, forestry wastes, activated sludge by simultaneous enzymolysis and fermentation, which can effectively improve the efficiency of resource utilization. This paper described the working principle of MEC and analyzed these factors influencing the process of hydrogen production from organic waste in MEC.

  6. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

    2006-06-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process

  7. Food waste co-digestion with slaughterhouse waste and sewage sludge: Digestate conditioning and supernatant quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Boniecki, Paweł; Kubacki, Przemysław; Czyżowska, Agata

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of food waste (FW) with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and slaughterhouse waste (SHW) was undertaken in 3-dm 3 laboratory reactors as well as in 50-dm 3 reactors operated in semi-continuous conditions. The highest methane yield of around 0.63 m 3 CH 4 /kgVS fed was achieved for the mixture of FW and SHW treated in the laboratory digester operated at solids retention time (SRT) of 30 days, whereas the co-digestion of FW with MSS under similar operating conditions produced 0.46 m 3 of methane from 1 kgVS fed . No significant differences between methane yields from laboratory digesters and large-scale reactors were reported. The conditioning tests with the digestates from reactor experiments revealed the highest efficiency of inorganic coagulants among all investigated chemicals, which applied in a dose of 10 g/kg allowed to reduce capiliary suction time (CST) of the digestate below 20 s. The combined conditioning with coagulants and bentonite did not further reduce the CST value but improved the quality of the digestate supernatant. In particular, the concentrations of suspended solids, COD as well as metals in the supernatant were considerably lowered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  9. Thermogravimetric analysis of the co-pyrolysis of paper sludge and municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Shiwen; Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Yousheng; Hu, Shanchao; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste, paper sludge and the blends was studied. • The reactivity of paper sludge could be improved by blending municipal solid waste. • The FWO and KAS methods were used to calculate activation energy. • The average activation energy was the minimum by blending 50% paper sludge. - Abstract: The pyrolysis characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW), paper sludge (PS) and their blends were studied through a thermogravimetric simultaneous thermal analyzer from room temperature to 1000 °C. Meanwhile their kinetics were studied by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS) methods. The mass proportions of PS in the blends were 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, respectively and the experiments were carried out at different heating rates (30, 40 and 50 °C/min). The initial temperature of MSW was lower than that of PS and the terminated temperature was higher than PS. The comprehensive characteristic index decreased progressively along with the decrease of the MSW proportion. The values of average activation energies calculated by FWO and KAS methods were highly consistent. The average activation energy reached the minimum number, 96.7 kJ/mol by KAS and 11.56 kJ/mol by FWO, with the proportion of PS was 50%

  10. Sludge disintegration techniques - assessment of their impacts on solubilization of organic carbon and methane production

    OpenAIRE

    Fatoorehchi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    In the present thesis, ozone, sodium hydroxide and ultrasound were conducted to disintegrate the excess sludge prior to anaerobic digestion with the aim of improving methane production. The impacts of different sludge disintegration methods on the molecular size distribution of DOC solubilized after disintegration were investigated using size exclusion chromatography with online organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD).

  11. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge | Eriksson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grey-water intended for non-potable reuse is being intensively studied, but little attention has been given to the associated solid fraction, the grey-water sludge. In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty alcohols and ...

  12. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  13. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  14. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste con- stituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  15. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste constituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  16. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MU, Jenny; PM, Adria

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  17. Reprocessing of zinc galvanic waste sludge by selective precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, J.; Maixner, J.; Grygar, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2002), s. 52-55 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4032004; GA ČR GA203/99/0067 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:MSM 223100002 Keywords : galvanic sludge * recovery * zinc Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2002

  18. Removal of Organic Micropollutants by Aerobic Activated Sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Nan

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the removal mechanism of non-acclimated and acclimated aerobic activated sludge for 29 target organic micropollutants (OMPs) at low concentration. The selection of the target OMPs represents a wide range of physical-chemical properties such as hydrophobicity, charge state as well as a diverse range of classes, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. The removal mechanisms of OMPs include adsorption, biodegradation, hydrolysis, and vaporization. Adsorption and biodegradation were found to be the main routes for OMPs removal for all target OMPs. Target OMPs responded to the two dominant removal routes in different ways: (1) complete adsorption, (2) strong biodegradation and weak adsorption, (3) medium biodegradation and adsorption, and (4) weak sorption and weak biodegradatio. Kinetic study showed that adsorption of atenolol, mathylparaben and propylparaben well followed first-order model (R2: 0.939 to 0.999) with the rate constants ranging from 0.519-7.092 h-1. For biodegradation kinetics, it was found that benzafibrate, bisphenol A, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, caffeine and DEET followed zero-order model (K0:1.15E-4 to 0.0142 μg/Lh-1, R2: 0.991 to 0.999), while TCEP, naproxen, dipehydramine, oxybenzone and sulfamethoxazole followed first-order model (K1:1.96E-4 to 0.101 h-1, R2: 0.912 to 0.996). 4 Inhibition by sodium azide (NaN3)and high temperature sterilization was compared, and it was found that high temperature sterilization will damage cells and change the sludge charge state. For the OMPs adaptation removal study, it was found that some of OMPs effluent concentration decreased, which may be due to the slow adaptation of the sludge or the increase of certain bacteria culture; some increased due to chromic toxicity of the chemicals; most of the OMPs had stable effluent concentration trend, it was explained that some of the OMPs were too difficutl to remove while other showed strong quick adaptation

  19. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  20. Systems costs for disposal of Savannah River high-level waste sludge and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.; Goodlett, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    A systems cost model has been developed to support disposal of defense high-level waste sludge and salt generated at the Savannah River Plant. Waste processing activities covered by the model include decontamination of the salt by a precipitation process in the waste storage tanks, incorporation of the sludge and radionuclides removed from the salt into glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and, after interim storage, final disposal of the DWPF glass waste canisters in a federal geologic repository. Total costs for processing of waste generated to the year 2000 are estimated to be about $2.9 billion (1984 dollars); incremental unit costs for DWPF and repository disposal activities range from $120,000 to $170,000 per canister depending on DWPF processing schedules. In a representative evaluation of process alternatives, the model is used to demonstrate cost effectiveness of adjustments in the frit content of the waste glass to reduce impacts of wastes generated by the salt decontamination operations. 13 references, 8 tables

  1. Decontamination of organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.

    1977-01-01

    Decontamination stands for the sack collecting of wc-waste water of nuclear-medical tracts and especially the collecting of primary urine and primary faeces of patients after application of radio-isotopes (e.g. iodine 131). They are tied up in the sacks, treated with antiseptic and decomposition-preventing agents, and finally stored in a decupation depot over the time constant. The decupation depot can, for example, be a deep-freezor with separations and clocks, which is radiation-isolated. After the time constant a chemical and/or physical destruction (e.g. comminution) takes place, with simultaneous disinfection and thawing (vapour heating) and the transfer to the canalization. (DG) [de

  2. Composting of pig manure and forest green waste amended with industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, O; Viña, S; Uzal, M; Soto, M

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this research was to study the composting of chestnut forest green waste (FGW) from short rotation chestnut stands amended with sludge resulting from the manufacture of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDFS) and pig manure (PM). Both FGW and MDFS presented low biodegradation potential but different characteristics in granulometry and bulk density that make its mixture of interest to achieve high composting temperatures. PM decreased the C/N ratio of the mixture and increased its moisture content (MC). Three mixtures of MDFS:FGW at volume ratios of 1:1.3 (M2), 1:2.4 (M3) and 0:1 (M4) were composted after increasing its MC to about 70% with PM. A control with food waste (OFW) and FGW (1:2.4 in volume) (M1) was run in parallel. Watering ratios reached 0.25 (M1), 1.08 (M2) 1.56 (M3) and 4.35 (M4) L PM/kg TS of added solids wastes. Treatments M2 and M3 reached a thermophilic phase shorter than M1, whilst M4 remained in the mesophilic range. After 48days of composting, temperature gradients in respect to ambient temperature were reduced, but the mineralization process continued for around 8months. Final reduction in total organic carbon reached 35-56%, depending mainly on the content in MDFS. MDFS addition to composting matrices largely reduced nitrogen losses, which range from 22% (M2) to 37% (M3) and 53% (M4). Final products had high nutrient content, low electrical conductivity and low heavy metal content which make it a valuable product for soil fertilization, right to amend in the chestnut forests and as a pillar of their sustainable management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Examination of sewage sludge for specific organic pollutants and their effect on the agriculture usage of sewage sludge; Untersuchung von Klaerschlamm auf ausgewaehlte Schadstoffe und ihr Verhalten bei der landwirtschaftlichen Klaerschlammverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, E.; Bischoff, W.A.; Kaupenjohann, M.; Bundschuh, R.; Koehler, S.; Schmidt, B.; Kleiner, M.; Schraitle, T.

    2001-12-01

    In this research report, 50 different kinds of sewage sludges appropriate for the utilization in agriculture were tested for the organic pollutants that are not regulated in the official sewage sludge directive: organo tin compounds, mineral oil hydrocarbons, the tensides LAS and nonylphenol, as well as chlorinated paraffins. The analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons was performed using the gaschromatografic method, which is based on DIN-proposal H 53. The analysis data was evaluated according to the size of the waste water treatment plant, its degree of usage to full capacity, the employed cleaning and sewage treatment methods and the industrial discharges. Investigations of sewer slime were conducted in the duct systems of two selected waste water treatment plants and tested for organo tin compounds. The dependence from domestic as well as from certain industrial and commercial sources was examined. In the second part of this research project, organo tin compounds and mineral oil hydrocarbons were tested in field trials and laboratory column experiments for the effects of the distribution of sewage sludge into agriculture. For the column experiments, ground soil samples were taken from two selected areas with muddy and sandy ground. The samples were then compounded with wet sludge and exposed to rain under strictly defined conditions. At the same time, the selected areas were exposed to the maximum amount of sewage sludge permitted and then planted with carrots. After a vegetation period, the carrots were harvested, adsorption bodies (SIA-system-method) were brought into the soil before the sewage sludge fertilization was examined, and several soil samples were taken and analysed for the selected parameters. In these examinations, a minor shift of organo tin compounds from the sewage sludge deeper into the ground can be detected and a shift of mineral oil hydrocarbons cannot be detected. (orig.)

  4. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Zhang, Pengchu; Arthur, Sara E.; Hutcherson, Sheila K.; Liu, J.; Qian, M.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies

  5. Technology for safe treatment of radioisotope organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Park, Chong Mook; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Kim, B. T.; Park, S. C

    1999-12-01

    An examination of chemical and radiological characteristics of RI organic liquid waste, wet oxidation by Fenton reaction and decomposition liquid waste treatment process were studied. These items will be applied to develop the equipment of wet oxidation and decomposition liquid waste treatment mixed processes for the safe treatment of RI organic liquid waste which is consisted of organic solvents such as toluene, alcohol and acetone. Two types of toluene solutions were selected as a candidate decomposition material. As for the first type, the concentration of toluene was above 20 vol percent. As for the second type, the solubility of toluene was considered. The decomposition ration by Fenton reaction was above 95 percent for both of them. From the adsorption equilibrium tests, a -Na{sup +} substituted/acid treated activated carbon and Zeocarbon mixed adsorbent was selected for the fixed adsorption column. This mixed adsorbent will be used to obtain the basic design data of liquid waste purification equipment for the treatment of decomposition liquid waste arising from the wet oxidation process. Solidification and degree of strength tests were performed with the simulated sludge/spent adsorbent of MgO as an oxide type and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. From the test results, the design and fabrication of wet oxidation and liquid waste purification process equipment was made, and a performance test was carried out. (author)

  6. Technology for safe treatment of radioisotope organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Jin; Park, Chong Mook; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Kim, B. T.; Park, S. C.

    1999-12-01

    An examination of chemical and radiological characteristics of RI organic liquid waste, wet oxidation by Fenton reaction and decomposition liquid waste treatment process were studied. These items will be applied to develop the equipment of wet oxidation and decomposition liquid waste treatment mixed processes for the safe treatment of RI organic liquid waste which is consisted of organic solvents such as toluene, alcohol and acetone. Two types of toluene solutions were selected as a candidate decomposition material. As for the first type, the concentration of toluene was above 20 vol percent. As for the second type, the solubility of toluene was considered. The decomposition ration by Fenton reaction was above 95 percent for both of them. From the adsorption equilibrium tests, a -Na + substituted/acid treated activated carbon and Zeocarbon mixed adsorbent was selected for the fixed adsorption column. This mixed adsorbent will be used to obtain the basic design data of liquid waste purification equipment for the treatment of decomposition liquid waste arising from the wet oxidation process. Solidification and degree of strength tests were performed with the simulated sludge/spent adsorbent of MgO as an oxide type and KH 2 PO 4 . From the test results, the design and fabrication of wet oxidation and liquid waste purification process equipment was made, and a performance test was carried out. (author)

  7. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  8. Relating desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from harbour sludges to type of organic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heister, K.; Pols, S.; Loch, J. P. G.; Bosma, T.

    2009-04-01

    For decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) cause great concern as environmental pollutants. Especially river and marine harbour sediments are frequently polluted with PAH derived from surface runoff, fuel and oil spills due to shipping and industrial activities, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. Harbour sediments contain large amounts of organic carbon and clay minerals and are therefore not easy to remediate and have to be stored in sludge depositories after dredging to maintain sufficient water depth for shipping. The organic contaminants will be adsorbed to particles, leached in association with dissolved organic material or microbially degraded. However, compounds of high molecular weight are very persistent, particularly under anaerobic conditions, thus giving rise to the potential to become desorbed again. PAH adsorb mainly to organic material. It has been shown that components of the organic material with a low polarity and a high hydrophobicity like aliphatic and aromatic components exhibit a high sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants like PAH. Accordingly, not only the amount but also the type of organic material needs to be determined in order to be able to predict contaminant behaviour. In this study, desorption behaviour of the 16 EPA-PAH in two different harbour sludges from the port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, has been investigated. The Beerkanaal (BK) site is located relatively close to the North Sea and represents a brackish environment; the Beneden Merwede River (BMR) site originates from a fresh water environment and is close to industrial sites. The samples were placed in dialysis membranes and brought into contact with water for a period of 130 days. At several time intervals, water samples were retrieved for analysis of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, electrical conductivity and PAH concentrations. The experiment was conducted at 4 and at 20°C. Although the samples were initially treated with

  9. Energy conversion assessment of vacuum, slow and fast pyrolysis processes for low and high ash paper waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridout, Angelo J.; Carrier, Marion; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vacuum, slow and fast pyrolysis of low and high ash paper waste sludge (PWS) is compared. • Reactor temperature and pellet size optimised to maximise liquid and solid product yields. • Gross energy recovery from solid and liquid was assessed. • Fast pyrolysis of low and high ash PWS offers higher energy conversions. - Abstract: The performance of vacuum, slow and fast pyrolysis processes to transfer energy from the paper waste sludge (PWS) to liquid and solid products was compared. Paper waste sludges with low and high ash content (8.5 and 46.7 wt.%) were converted under optimised conditions for temperature and pellet size to maximise both product yields and energy content. Comparison of the gross energy conversions, as a combination of the bio-oil/tarry phase and char (EC_s_u_m), revealed that the fast pyrolysis performance was between 18.5% and 20.1% higher for the low ash PWS, and 18.4% and 36.5% higher for high ash PWS, when compared to the slow and vacuum pyrolysis processes respectively. For both PWSs, this finding was mainly attributed to higher production of condensable organic compounds and lower water yields during FP. The low ash PWS chars, fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vacuum pyrolysis tarry phase products had high calorific values (∼18–23 MJ kg"−"1) making them promising for energy applications. Considering the low calorific values of the chars from alternative pyrolysis processes (∼4–7 MJ kg"−"1), the high ash PWS should rather be converted to fast pyrolysis bio-oil to maximise the recovery of usable energy products.

  10. Enhanced short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge by combining calcium peroxide with free ammonia pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Shuai, Kun; Xu, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xuran; Li, Yifu; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2018-08-01

    This study reported a new low-cost and high-efficient combined method of CaO 2  + free ammonia (FA) pretreatment for sludge anaerobic fermentation. Experimental results showed that the optimal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) yield of 338.6 mg COD/g VSS was achieved when waste activated sludge (WAS) was pretreated with 0.05 g/g VSS of CaO 2  + 180 mg/L of FA for 3 d, which was 2.5-fold of that from CaO 2 pretreatment and 1.5-fold of that from FA pretreatment. The mechanism investigations exhibited that the CaO 2  + FA could provided more biodegradable substrates, this combination accelerated the disintegration of sludge cells, which thereby providing more organics for subsequent SCFA production. It was also found that the combination of CaO 2 and FA inhibited the specific activities of hydrolytic microbes, SCFA producers, and methanogens to some extents, but its inhibition to methanogens was much severer than that to the other two types of microbes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing phosphorus release from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum phosphates by EDTA addition during anaerobic fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition on phosphorus release from biosolids and phosphate precipitates during anaerobic fermentation was investigated. Meanwhile, the impact of EDTA addition on the anaerobic fermentation process was revealed. The results indicate that EDTA addition significantly enhanced the release of phosphorus from biosolids, ferric phosphate precipitate and aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation, which is attributed to the complexation of metal ions and damage of cell membrane caused by EDTA. With the optimal EDTA addition of 19.5 mM (0.41 gEDTA/gSS), phosphorus release efficiency from biosolids was 82%, which was much higher than that (40%) without EDTA addition. Meanwhile, with 19.5 mM EDTA addition, almost all the phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was released, while only 57% of phosphorus in aluminum phosphate precipitate was released. This indicates that phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was much easier to be released than that in aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation of sludge. In addition, proper EDTA addition facilitated the production of soluble total organic carbon and volatile fatty acids, as well as solid reduction during sludge fermentation, although methane production could be inhibited. Therefore, EDTA addition can be used as an alternative method for recovering phosphorus from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum precipitates, as well as recovery of soluble carbon source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Codigestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge Based on β-Cyclodextrins and Alkaline Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Si; Liu, Guangmin; Wu, Shuyan; Wan, Chunli

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are preferred valuable resources, which can be produced from anaerobic digestion process. This study presents a novel technology using β -cyclodextrins ( β -CD) pretreatment integrated alkaline method to enhance VFAs production from codigestion of food waste and sewage sludge. Experiment results showed that optimized ratio of food waste to sewage sludge was 3 : 2 because it provided adequate organic substance and seed microorganisms. Based on this optimized ratio, the integrated treatment of alkaline pH 10 and β -CD addition (0.2 g/g TS) performed the best enhancement on VFAs production, and the maximum VFAs production was 8631.7 mg/L which was 6.13, 1.38, and 1.57 times higher than that of control, initial pH 10, and 0.2 g β -CD/g TS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrolysis rate of protein and polysaccharides was greatly improved in integration treatment, which was 1.18-3.45 times higher than that of other tests. Though the VFAs production and hydrolysis of polymeric organics were highly enhanced, the primary bacterial communities with different treatments did not show substantial differences.

  13. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge and their impact on waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Bunker, B.C.; Graff, G.L.; Keefer, K.D.; Lea, A.S.; Rector, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes in underground storage tanks is a major remediation activity for the US Department of Energy. These wastes include a substantial volume of insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Processing these sludges under the proposed processing conditions presents unique challenges in retrieval transport, separation, and solidification of these waste streams. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerated networks having high viscosities that could clog transfer lines or produce high volumes of low-density sediments that interfere with solid-liquid separations. Under different conditions, these particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that do not settle. Given the wide range of waste chemistries present at Department of Energy sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all treatment procedures. Under the current research activities, the underlying principles of colloid chemistry and physics are being studied to predict and eventually control the physical properties of sludge suspensions and sediment layers in tank wastes and other waste processing streams. Proposed tank processing strategies include retrieval transport, and solid-liquid separations in basic (pH 10 to 14), high ionic strength (0.1 to 1.0 M) salt solutions. The effect of salt concentration, ionic strength, and salt composition on the physical properties such as viscosity, agglomerate size, and sedimentation of model suspensions containing mixtures of one or two of the major components found in actual wastes have been measured to understand how agglomeration influences processing. Property models developed from theory and experiment on these simple suspensions are then applied to explain the results obtained on actual wastes

  14. Determination of arsenic content in the waste sludge from a fertilizer factory of Bangladesh by XRF and EPMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, N.N.; Debnath, T.K.; Roy, T.K.; Saha, K.D.; Alam, B.; Sarkar, M.; Lui, A.

    1994-01-01

    The waste sludge from a fertilizer factory of Bangladesh has been analysed by x-ray fluorescence analysis and electron probe micro-analysis in Bangladesh, Germany and Italy. All these tests confirm that the waste contains approx. 50% by wt of arsenic which is a highly toxic element. The authority has taken proper steps in disposing the waste. (author)

  15. MONITORING OF ORGANIC POLLUTION AND MATURITY OF ORGANIC MATTER FROM SLUDGE LANDFILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLIMANE LAHSAINI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biotransformation during the 3 years of sludge landfilling was evaluated by physicochemical analysis and phytotoxicity test. The final product exhibited a high degree of decomposition rate (51.06 % than the controls as shown by a decrease of C/N ratio of about 19.67. The results showed that the lipid, surfactant and polyphenol as main compound of the sludge were breakdown over time. The concentrations decreased from 29.9 to 11.8 mg·g-1 and 3.4 to 0.6 mg·g-1, respectively for surfactant and polyphenols after 3 years of landfilling. This corresponds to a reduction of 80.2 % for polyphenols and 60.4 % for surfactant, due to the microorganisms activity. Total lipids decrease from 16.5 to 6.27 mg·g-1 of dry matter, representing an abatement rate of about 62 %. The evolution of organic matter reflects the progress of the humification process, which judging by the increase in the polymerization degree, is about 20 %. The landfilling efficiency to reduce phytotoxicity of sludge was confirmed by the germination index, which reached 52 and 59 %, respectively for alfalfa and cress after 3 years of landfilling. These results are promising and pave the way for agricultural spreading of sludge.

  16. Influence of deflocculation on microwave disintegration and anaerobic biodegradability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, A Vimala; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the potential benefits of deflocculation on microwave pretreatment of waste activated sludge were investigated. Deflocculation in the absence of cell lysis was achieved through the removal of extra polymeric substances (EPS) by sodium citrate (0.1g sodium citrate/g suspended solids), and DNA was used as a marker for monitoring cell lysis. Subsequent microwave pretreatment yielded a chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilisation of 31% and 21%, suspended solids (SS) reduction of 37% and 22%, for deflocculated and flocculated sludge, respectively, with energy input of 14,000kJ/kg TS. When microwave pretreated sludge was subjected to anaerobic fermentation, greater accumulation of volatile fatty acid (860mg/L) was noticed in deflocculated sludge, indicating better hydrolysis. Among the samples subjected to BMP (Biochemical methane potential test), deflocculated microwave pretreated sludge showed better amenability towards anaerobic digestion with high methane production potential of 0.615L (gVS)(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  18. Actual Waste Demonstration of the Nitric-Glycolic Flowsheet for Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs qualification testing to demonstrate that the sludge batch is processable. Testing performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown glycolic acid to be effective in replacing the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the catalytic generation of hydrogen and ammonia which could allow purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective rheology adjustment, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. In order to implement the new flowsheet, SRAT and SME cycles, designated SC-18, were performed using a Sludge Batch (SB) 9 slurry blended from SB8 Tank 40H and Tank 51H samples. The SRAT cycle involved adding nitric and glycolic acids to the sludge, refluxing to steam strip mercury, and dewatering to a targeted solids concentration. Data collected during the SRAT cycle included offgas analyses, process temperatures, heat transfer, and pH measurements. The SME cycle demonstrated the addition of glass frit and the replication of six canister decontamination additions. The demonstration concluded with dewatering to a targeted solids concentration. Data collected during the SME cycle included offgas analyses, process temperatures, heat transfer, and pH measurements. Slurry and condensate samples were collected for subsequent analysis

  19. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material (SCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quercia, G.; Putten, J.J.G. van der; Hüsken, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO 2 and CaCO 3 . This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1 μm. Thus, this sludge constitutes a potentially hazardous waste when it is improperly disposed. Due to its high content of amorphous SiO 2 , this sludge has a potential use as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete. In this study the main properties of three different samples of photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge (nSS) were physically and chemically characterized. The characterization techniques included: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physical adsorption isotherm (BET method), density by Helium pycnometry, particle size distribution determined by laser light scattering (LLS) and zeta-potential measurements by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, a dispersability study was performed to design stable slurries to be used as liquid additives for the concrete production on site. The effects on the hydration kinetics of cement pastes by the incorporation of nSS in the designed slurries were determined using an isothermal calorimeter. A compressive strength test of standard mortars with 7% of cement replacement was performed to determine the pozzolanic activity of the waste nano-silica sludge. Finally, the hardened system was fully characterized to determine the phase composition. The results demonstrate that the nSS can be utilized as SCM to replace portion of cement in mortars, thereby decreasing the CO 2 footprint and the environmental impact of concrete. -- Highlights: •Three different samples of PV nano-silica sludge (nSS) were fully characterized. •nSS is composed of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO 2 and CaCO 3 . •Dispersability studies demonstrated that nSS agglomerates are broken to nano-size. •nSS can be classified

  20. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material (SCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quercia, G., E-mail: g.quercia@tue.nl [Materials innovation institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, P.O. Box 5008, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Putten, J.J.G. van der [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hüsken, G. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Brouwers, H.J.H. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1 μm. Thus, this sludge constitutes a potentially hazardous waste when it is improperly disposed. Due to its high content of amorphous SiO{sub 2}, this sludge has a potential use as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete. In this study the main properties of three different samples of photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge (nSS) were physically and chemically characterized. The characterization techniques included: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physical adsorption isotherm (BET method), density by Helium pycnometry, particle size distribution determined by laser light scattering (LLS) and zeta-potential measurements by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, a dispersability study was performed to design stable slurries to be used as liquid additives for the concrete production on site. The effects on the hydration kinetics of cement pastes by the incorporation of nSS in the designed slurries were determined using an isothermal calorimeter. A compressive strength test of standard mortars with 7% of cement replacement was performed to determine the pozzolanic activity of the waste nano-silica sludge. Finally, the hardened system was fully characterized to determine the phase composition. The results demonstrate that the nSS can be utilized as SCM to replace portion of cement in mortars, thereby decreasing the CO{sub 2} footprint and the environmental impact of concrete. -- Highlights: •Three different samples of PV nano-silica sludge (nSS) were fully characterized. •nSS is composed of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. •Dispersability studies demonstrated that nSS agglomerates are broken to nano

  1. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied

  2. Anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse waste using a granular sludge UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, S.; Campen, L.V.; Lettinga, G.

    1987-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the feasibility of the upflow granular anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for one-stage anaerobic treatment of unsettled slaughterhouse wastewater, which contains approximately 50% insoluble coarse suspended COD. The experiments used continuous feeding (24 h day) during the working days combined with weekend feed interruptions at 30 degrees C and 20 degrees C. An organic space load up to 11 and 7 kg COD/cubic m/day was satisfactorily accommodated at process temperatures of 30 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively, with a treatment efficiency up to 55% on COD total basis and 85% on COD filtered basis. The system was less effective in the removal of the coarse Suspended Solids than the removal of the colloidal and soluble fractions. The data indicate that a proper application of a one-stage granular UASB system treating unsettled wastewater, such as slaughterhouse waste, strongly depends on the processes involved in the removal of the colloidal and soluble fraction from the waste and on its conversion into methane. Under the optimal loading conditions of 11 kg COD/cubic m/day (30 degrees C) and 7 kg COD/cubic m/day (20 degrees C) the conversion of removed colloidal and soluble materials into methane was up to 87% and 82%. However, the system still performed very satisfactorily in the removal of the colloidal and soluble pollutants up to loading rates of 15 and 9 kg COD/cubic m/day at 30 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively, although the conversion of the removed organic matter into methane dropped dramatically, rendering the application of the process under these conditions unattractive, if not impossible. (Refs. 16).

  3. Assessment of biogas production in Argentina from co-digestion of sludge and municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Vicentin, Rocio; Campanella, Enrique A

    2017-03-01

    In Argentina, there is an important potential to utilize organic waste to generate bioenergy. This work analyzes the environmental impacts and the energetic and economic requirements of the biogas produced by digesting the sewage sludge (SS) produced in a wastewater treatment plant in a medium city in Argentina. The SS is co-digested with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), and the basis of this study is the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA is performed according to ISO 14040-44 using the SimaPro simulator. First, the transport of the raw materials to the biogas plant was defined. Then, the co-digestion and the biogas treatment for final use were evaluated. The co-digestion was improved with glycerol, and the generation of biogas was estimated using the GPS-X software. Two alternatives for the end use of biogas were considered: combined heat and power (CHP) and biomethane generation. For the first, H 2 S and water vapor were removed from the raw biogas stream, and for the second, also CO 2 was removed. The H 2 S removal process was simulated in the SuperPro software by anaerobic biofiltration. The same software was used to simulate the removal of CO 2 absorption-desorption with water as solvent. Finally, the environmental impacts related to the end use of biogas (CHP and biomethane) were evaluated. The environmental, energetic and economic analyses showed that the co-digestion of SS and OFMSW has great potential for reducing the environmental impacts and increasing the economic and energetic value of the substances via the production of biomethane, electricity and, potentially, fertilizer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. STABILIZATION OF A MIXED WASTE SLUDGE SURROGATE CONTAINING MORE THAN 260 PPM MERCURY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W. J.; Feizollahi, F.; Brimley, R.

    2002-01-01

    In an earlier demonstration of an innovative mercury stabilization technology for the Department of Energy, ATG's full-scale process stabilized mercury in soils that initially contained more than 260 ppm of mercury of unknown speciation. The treated waste satisfied the leaching standards for mercury that qualify wastes containing less than 260 ppm for land disposal. This paper describes the extension of that work to demonstrate a full-scale process for the stabilization of a representative sludge that contained more than 260 ppm of Hg of several mercury species. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) regulations now require the recovery of mercury from any waste containing more than 260 ppm of mercury, usually with thermal retorts. The results of this work with a surrogate sludge, and of the previous work with an actual soil, support a proposal now before the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to allow such wastes to be stabilized without retorting. The full-scale demonstration with a sulfide reagent reduced the mercury concentrations in extracts of treated sludge below the relevant leaching standard, a Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 0.025 mg mercury per liter of leachate generated by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The sulfide formulation reduced the concentration to about onehalf the UTS limit

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almon, A.C.; Buchanan, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Both silver catalyzed and direct electrochemical oxidation of organic species are examined in analytical detail. This paper describes the mechanisms, reaction rates, products, intermediates, capabilities, limitations, and optimal reaction conditions of the electrochemical destruction of organic waste. A small bench-top electrocell being tested for the treatment of small quantities of laboratory waste is described. The 200-mL electrochemical cell used has a processing capacity of 50 mL per day, and can treat both radioactive and nonradioactive waste. In the silver catalyzed process, Ag(I) is electrochemically oxidized to Ag(II), which attacks organic species such as tributylphosphate (TBP), tetraphenylborate (TPB), and benzene. In direct electrochemical oxidation, the organic species are destroyed at the surface of the working electrode without the use of silver as an electron transfer agent. This paper focuses on the destruction of tributylphosphate (TBP), although several organic species have been destroyed using this process. The organic species are converted to carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic acids

  6. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Ultrasonic techniques for the in situ characterisation of 'legacy' Waste sludges and dispersions - 59111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Timothy; Biggs, Simon; Young, James; Fairweather, Michael; Peakall, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Research being undertaken at the University of Leeds, as part of the DIAMOND university consortium, is exploring the effectiveness of various ultrasonic technologies as in situ probes to characterize and monitor nuclear waste slurries, such as the 'Legacy' Magnesium hydroxide sludges found in Sellafield, U.K. Through use of a commercial Acoustic Backscatter Sensor (ABS) with 1 - 5 MHz transducers, various properties of free-settling oxide simulant sludges were determined. Work was focused upon characterizing essentially 'static' sludges (to give prospective use as tools for the wastes in current deposits); although, the sensors also have potential as dispersion monitors during any future processing and storage of the Legacy wastes, as well as many other storage, clarifier or thickener systems across a wide range of industrial processing operations. ABS data of mixed glass powder dispersions was analysed and compared to scattering theory, to understand the correlations between acoustic attenuation and particulate concentration. The ABS was also calibrated to measure changes in average particulate concentration within a settling suspension over time, and showed the depth-wise segregation of the dispersion through the settling column at different particular time intervals. It was found that observed hindered settling also led to an increase in particulate concentration over the sludge zone and significant segregation occurred at moderate time intervals, due to the broad size distribution of the aggregates measured. It is hoped in future that these sensors may be able to be fitted to robotic handlers that have been installed onsite (and previously used for sampling), allowing fully automatic in situ sludge analysis. (authors)

  8. Desiccation of sludges as instruments for solid radioactive wastes reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to maintain as well as possible and optimize use of the radioactive waste storage capacity of El Carbil ENRESA and the Electric Sector put a series of actions into motion in 1994 to reduce and optimize radioactive waste processing. As a result of this strategy, a moist waste desiccation system has been developed with Spanish technology by ENSA. This system was installed in Trillo NPP in 2001 and has operated satisfactorily for the past year, having significantly reduced the volume of waste generated by evaporator concentrates. This article describes the objectives, design and implementation of the desiccation system installed in Trillo NPP. (Author)

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  10. Characterization Of Actinides In Simulated Alkaline Tank Waste Sludges And Leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  11. Effects of ozonation on disinfection and microbial activity in waste activated sludge for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lim, Byung-Ran

    2003-07-01

    Effects of ozonation on microbial biomass activity and community structure in waste activated sludges from various treatment plants were investigated. The densities of viable cells and microbial community structure in the sludges treated with ozone at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS were measured on the basis of the respiratory quinone profile and LIVE/DEAD Backlight(TM). The results from the bacterial concentration and quinone profiles of the waste activated sludge showed that respiratory activities of microorganisms were detected at the ozone dose of 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS. However, fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus and Salmonella sp. in the ozonized sludge were not detected. This result implies that some microorganisms might be more tolerant to ozonation than the pathogenic indicators. The pathogens reduction requirements for Class A biosolids were still met by the ozonation at 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS.

  12. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  13. Volume reducing and modifying of neutralized sludge from acid waste water treatment of uranium ore heap leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Pingru; Ding Tongsen; Gu Jianghan

    1997-01-01

    A process is worked out on the basis of traditional lime neutralization, viz. acid waste water from uranium ore heap leaching is treated by limestone and lime double neutralizing-sludge recycling. First, the waste water is reacted with cheaper limestone to precipitate some metal ions, such as Fe and Al, which form hydroxides at lower pH, and neutralize strong acid, then neutralized with lime to required pH value. The formed precipitate as sludge is steadily recycled in the process. The principal advantage of the process over lime neutralization process is that reagent cost saved by 1/3 and formed sludge volume decreased by 2/3. Besides, the performances of sludge filtrating and settling are improved. The mechanism of sludge volume reducing and modification is also investigated

  14. Relationship between organic matter humification and bioavailability of sludge-borne copper and cadmium during long-term sludge amendment to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht@igsnrr.ac.cn

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of sludge as soil amendment poses certain risk of heavy metals contamination. This study investigated the relationship between organic matter in composted sludge and its heavy metals bioavailability over 7 years. Periodic monitoring indicated a gradual increase in organic matter degradation, accompanied by changing degrees of polymerization, i.e., ratio of humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) coupled with incremental exchangeable fraction of copper (Cu) in sludge, with a growing rate of 74.7%, rather than that in soil. However, cadmium (Cd) in composted sludge exhibited an independent manner. Linear-regression analysis revealed that the total proportion of the Cu active fraction (exchangeable plus carbonate bound) was better correlated with the degree of polymerization (DP) and humification ratio (HR) than the degradation ratio of organic matter. Overall, amount of uptaken Cu was more dependent on the humification degree of organic matter, especially the proportion of HA in humus. - Highlights: • Organic matter in sludge degraded with time goes after sludge was recycled to soil. • DP in sludge is well coupled with incremental uptaken fraction of its borne copper. • Profiles of Cadmium fractions in sludge exhibit an independent manner.

  15. Possibility of forming artificial soil based on drilling waste and sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, J.; Pawłowska, M.; Wasag, H.

    2018-05-01

    Land redevelopment is necessary due to the amount of a degraded area. Depositing waste on the small area of landfills is harmful for the environment. New methods of managing and utilizing waste are being sought in order to minimize the deposition of waste. In small amounts, many types of waste can be treated as a substrate or material improving physicochemical properties of soils, and hence can be used in reclamation of degraded lands. The study analysed the effect of different doses of sewage sludge (35%, 17.5%) with addition (2.5% and 5%) of drilling waste on the properties of degraded soils. The results show that created mixtures improve the sorption properties of soil. The mixtures contain the optimal the ratio of nutrient elements for growth of plants is N:P:K.

  16. Conversion of agricultural waste, sludges and pulp residues into nanofibers for innovative polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    Samyn, Pieter; Carleer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural waste fractions from seasonal crops (corn stover, bagasse, flax), sludges and paper pulp residues contain an important source of lignocellulosic materials that can be recovered and used as material fractions instead of being burnt for energy recovery. Due to the heterogeneity of named products, however, novel processing routes should be developed for the recovery of the lignocellulosic materials at nanoscale. Therefore, we will use nanotechnological routes to transform the res...

  17. Recycling of organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V K

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the recycling of nutrients by vermicomposting of cow dung (CD), poultry droppings (PD) and food industry sludge (FIS) employing earthworms (Eisenia fetida). A total of six vermicomposting units were established and dynamics of chemical and biological parameters has been studied for 13 weeks. The waste mixture containing 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS had better fertilizer value among studied waste combinations. At the end of experiment, vermicomposts showed decrease in pH and organic C, but increase in EC, total Kjeldhal N, total available P and total K contents. The C:N ratio of final vermicomposts also reduced to 10.7-12.7 from 22.8 to 56 in different waste combinations. The earthworms have good biomass gain and cocoon production in all vermicomposting units but CD alone and 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS were better than other studied combinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming; Li Yebo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS added when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH 4 and CO 2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  19. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author's previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B ± $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author's engineering judgment

  20. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A.; Vaidya, Atul N.; Kumar, M. Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-01-01

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y p/s ) was highest (0.184 g g -1 COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  1. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Vaidya, Atul N; Kumar, M Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-01

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=29). PHB production yield (Y(p/s)) was highest (0.184 g g(-1) COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  2. Reuse of waste beer yeast sludge for biosorptive decolorization of reactive blue 49 from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoe; Guo, Xiu

    2011-06-01

    Reactive blue 49 was removed from aqueous solution by biosorption using powder waste sludge composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the beer-brewing industry. The effect of initial pH, temperature and the biosorption thermodynamics, equilibrium, kinetics was investigated in this study. It was found that the biosorption capacity was at maximum at initial pH 3, that the effect of temperature on biosorption of reactive blue 49 was only slight in relation to the large biosorption capacity (25°C, 361 mg g(-1)) according as the biosorption capacity decreased only 43 mg g(-1) at the temperature increased from 25 to 50°C. The biosorption was spontaneous, exothermic in nature and the dye molecules movements decreased slightly in random at the solid/liquid interface during the biosorption of dye on biosorbents. The biosorption equilibrium data could be described by Freundich isotherm model. The biosorption rates were found to be consistent with a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The functional group interaction analysis between waste beer yeast sludge and reactive blue 49 by the aid of Fourier transform infrared (abbr. FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that amino components involved in protein participated in the biosorption process, which may be achieved by the mutual electrostatic adsorption process between the positively charged amino groups in waste beer yeast sludge with negatively charged sulfonic groups in reactive blue 49.

  3. Organic analyses of mixed nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lucke, R.B.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.; Hendren, D.J.; Myers, R.B.

    1987-04-01

    Analytical methods are being developed for the organic analysis of nuclear wastes. Our laboratory analyzed the organic content of three commercial wastes and an organic-rich, complex concentrate waste. The commercial wastes contained a variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organics, at concentrations ranging from nanomolar to micromolar. Alkyl phenols, chelating and complexing agents, as well as their degradation products, and carboxylic acids were detected in the commercial wastes. The complex concentrate waste contained chelating and complexing agents, as well as numerous degradation products, at millimolar concentrations. 75.1% of the complex concentrate waste's total organic carbon content has been identified. The presence of chelator fragments in all of the wastes analyzed, occasionally at elevated concentrations, indicates that organic diagenesis, or degradation, in nuclear wastes is both widespread and quite vigorous. 23 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Understanding the impact of cationic polyacrylamide on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Liu, Xuran; Zeng, Guangming; Zhao, Jianwei; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Chen, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi

    2018-03-01

    Previous investigations showed that cationic polyacrylamide (cPAM), a flocculant widely used in wastewater pretreatment and waste activated sludge dewatering, deteriorated methane production during anaerobic digestion of sludge. However, details of how cPAM affects methane production are poorly understood, hindering deep control of sludge anaerobic digestion systems. In this study, the mechanisms of cPAM affecting sludge anaerobic digestion were investigated in batch and long-term tests using either real sludge or synthetic wastewaters as the digestion substrates. Experimental results showed that the presence of cPAM not only slowed the process of anaerobic digestion but also decreased methane yield. The maximal methane yield decreased from 139.1 to 86.7 mL/g of volatile suspended solids (i.e., 1861.5 to 1187.0 mL/L) with the cPAM level increasing from 0 to 12 g/kg of total suspended solids (i.e., 0-236.7 mg/L), whereas the corresponding digestion time increased from 22 to 26 d. Mechanism explorations revealed that the addition of cPAM significantly restrained the sludge solubilization, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis processes. It was found that ∼46% of cAPM was degraded in the anaerobic digestion, and the degradation products significantly affected methane production. Although the theoretically biochemical methane potential of cPAM is higher than that of protein and carbohydrate, only 6.7% of the degraded cPAM was transformed to the final product, methane. Acrylamide, acrylic acid, and polyacrylic acid were found to be the main degradation metabolites, and their amount accounted for ∼50% of the degraded cPAM. Further investigations showed that polyacrylic acid inhibited all the solubilization, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis processes while acrylamide and acrylic acid inhibited the methanogenesis significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot tests of microbe-soil combined treatment of waste drilling sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Lirong Chen; Min Huang; Xuebin Jiang; Hui Li; Qiang Chen; Min Zhang; Shenglin Li

    2015-01-01

    Microbe-soil combined treatment is a newly developed technology in view of the defects of the curing process and waste drilling mud slag properties. In particular, 0.3%–0.5% bioremediation reagents were fully mixed with the waste drilling sludge according to its wet and dry degree, and 1.5 folds to twice weight of more finely ground soil was added in the mix, which was covered by soil of 5–15 cm thick and thereby grasses or greeneries were planted on the soil. The process was successfully app...

  6. Increased biogas production in a wastewater treatment plant by anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and sewer sludge - a full scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nathan D; Thring, Ronald W; Garton, Randy P; Rutherford, Michael P; Helle, Steve S

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a well established technology for the reduction of organic matter and stabilization of wastewater. Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced as a useful by-product of the process. Current solid waste management at the city of Prince George is focused on disposal of waste and not on energy recovery. Co-digestion of fresh fruit and vegetable waste with sewer sludge can improve biogas yield by increasing the load of biodegradable material. A six week full-scale project co-digesting almost 15,000 kg of supermarket waste was completed. Average daily biogas production was found to be significantly higher than in previous years. Digester operation remained stable over the course of the study as indicated by the consistently low volatile acids-to-alkalinity ratio. Undigested organic material was visible in centrifuged sludge suggesting that the waste should have been added to the primary digester to prevent short circuiting and to increase the hydraulic retention time of the freshly added waste.

  7. Effects of organic contaminants in sewage sludge on soil fertility, plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.E.; Sauerbeck, D.R.; L'Hermite, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sewage sludge production in Europe will continue to rise as a result of higher environmental standards, making disposal increasingly difficult in the future. A considerable part of this sludge is spread beneficially on agricultural land as an organic fertilizer, however, this outlet is very sensitive to the problems associated with the inorganic and organic contaminants which sludge inevitably contains. Much research has been devoted to the problems of contaminants in sludge and their potential effects on soil, plants, animals and man in recent years, and the European Commission's Concerted Action COST 681 has provided a valuable forum for the exchange of views and progress of research on sludge treatment and disposal. This book contains 19 papers presented to a joint meeting of Working Party 4 (Agricultural Value) and Working Party 5 (Environmental Effects) of COST 681, held at the German Federal Research Centre of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig on 6-8 June 1990. The meeting addressed two areas of current concern; the occurrence, behaviour and transfer of sludge-derived organic contaminants (Session 1), and the influence of inorganic and organic contaminants on soil micro-organisms and their activities (Session 2)

  8. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity measurement in a waste water treatment plants using active sludge aerobic biological treatment. Medida de la toxicidad en una estacion depuradora de aguas residuales con tratamiento biologico aerobio por fangos activos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.E. (Surcis, Guadalajara (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The need for reliability in the operation of waste water treatment plants is discussed. In aerobic biological treatments of whatever kind using active sludge, the bio toxicity can be determined by measuring the oxygen consumed in endogenous breathing. The difficulty lies in carrying out the bio toxicity test without effecting the concentration of the organic substrate of the wastes water. This is overcome by operating at maximum organic material load, thereby inducing maximun breathing. (Author)

  10. Relationship between centrifugation and drying of sludge and the organic halogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Hrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on determination of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX concentration in the digested sludge from the sewage treatment plant and the losses of this component during dewatering and drying of sludge. Drying of the sludge from wastewater treatment plant is not extended too much in Czech Republic. In this work, the AOX are monitored, because AOX is one of the limits restraining use of the sludge on an agricultural land. Another reason is technological demand for using the sludge in cement processing, because chlorine in AOX can cause decrease in a heat transfer effect in a cement kiln. It is clear from the results that both centrifuged and dried sludge from the sewage treatment plant Brno fulfilled limits for using sludge on agriculture land. They can also be composted, in case they meet other requirements. If not, it is a possibility of co-incineration in cement kiln. In such case, limit for total chlorine including the AOX is required too. This limit was not exceeded. Another aim was to calculate a mass balance of AOX during the centrifugation and drying processes. It was found out, that after centrifugation the main part of AOX remained in the centrifuged sludge (96.4 %. The rest was drawn-off with reject water. 60 % of AOX in the reject water were dissolved compounds. A similar situation occurred during the drying process. More than 99 % of AOX was bound in the dried sludge. The air and vaporised water contained such quantity of AOX, which corresponded with the amount of the dust in the air and the amount of particles of sludge in vaporised water.

  11. Anaerobic composting of waste organic fraction. Compostaje anaerobico de la fraccion organica de los residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baere, L. de; Verdonck, O.; Verstraete, W.

    1994-01-01

    The dry anaerobic composting can be carried out in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Gas production of 6,2 and 8.5 m''3 biogas m''3 daily in laboratory fermenters was obtained. The quality of waste is higher than obtained in aerobic process. The streptococcus sludge was destroyed. This experimental can be applied for big scale and it permits energy recovery and organic compost of municipal solid wastes. (Author)

  12. A novel rotation generator of hydrodynamic cavitation for waste-activated sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovšek, Martin; Mlakar, Matej; Levstek, Marjetka; Stražar, Marjeta; Širok, Brane; Dular, Matevž

    2015-09-01

    The disintegration of raw sludge is very important for enhancement of the biogas production in anaerobic digestion process as it provides easily degradable substrate for microorganisms to perform maximum sludge treatment efficiency and stable digestion of sludge at lower costs. In the present study the disintegration was studied by using a novel rotation generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (RGHC). At the first stage the analysis of hydrodynamics of the RGHC were made with tap water, where the cavitation extent and aggressiveness was evaluated. At the second stage RGHC was used as a tool for pretreatment of a waste-activated sludge (WAS), collected from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In case of WAS the disintegration rate was measured, where the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and soluble Kjeldahl nitrogen were monitored and microbiological pictures were taken. The SCOD increased from initial 45 mg/L up to 602 mg/L and 12.7% more biogas has been produced by 20 passes through RGHC. The results were obtained on a pilot bioreactor plant, volume of 400 L. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alkaline fermentation of waste sludge causes a significant reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haining; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Hui; Wan, Rui; Su, Yinglong

    2017-02-15

    Alkaline fermentation has been reported to be an effective method to recover valuable products from waste sludge. However, to date, the potential effect of alkaline pH on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during anaerobic fermentation of sludge has never been documented. In this study, the target ARGs in sludge was observed to be removed effectively and stably when sludge was anaerobically fermented at pH10. Compared with the control (without pH adjustment), the abundances of target ARGs at pH10 were reduced by 0.87 (sulI), 1.36 (sulII), 0.42 (tet(O)), 1.11 (tet(Q)), 0.79 (tet(C)) and 1.04 (tet(X)) log units. Further investigations revealed that alkaline fermentation shifted the community structures of potential ARGs hosts. Moreover, alkaline fermentation remarkably decreased the quantities and the ARGs-possessing ability of genetic vectors (plasmid DNA, extracellular DNA and phage DNA), which might limit the transfer of ARGs via conjugation, transformation and transduction. These results suggest that the shifted compositions of gene hosts and restricted gene transfer potential might be the critical reasons for the attenuation of ARGs at pH10. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing of the Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Dissolution Method in Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-10

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tests the applicability of the digestion methods used by the DWPF Laboratory for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt samples and SRAT Product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a method referred to as the DWPF Cold Chemical or Cold Chem Method (CC), (see DWPF Procedure SW4- 15.201). Testing indicates that the CC method produced mixed results. The CC method did not result in complete dissolution of either the SRAT Receipt or SRAT Product with some fine, dark solids remaining. However, elemental analyses did not reveal extreme biases for the major elements in the sludge when compared with analyses obtained following dissolution by hot aqua regia (AR) or sodium peroxide fusion (PF) methods. The CC elemental analyses agreed with the AR and PF methods well enough that it should be adequate for routine process control analyses in the DWPF after much more extensive side-by-side tests of the CC method and the PF method are performed on the first 10 SRAT cycles of the Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) campaign. The DWPF Laboratory should continue with their plans for further tests of the CC method during these 10 SRAT cycles.

  16. Bioconversion of Waste Fiber Sludge to Bacterial Nanocellulose and Use for Reinforcement of CTMP Paper Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genqiang Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC for large-scale applications is restricted by low productivity in static cultures and by the high cost of the medium. Fiber sludge, a waste stream from pulp and paper mills, was enzymatically hydrolyzed to sugar, which was used for the production of BNC by the submerged cultivation of Komagataeibacter xylinus. Compared with a synthetic glucose-based medium, the productivity of purified BNC from the fiber sludge hydrolysate using shake-flasks was enhanced from 0.11 to 0.17 g/(L × d, although the average viscometric degree of polymerization (DPv decreased from 6760 to 6050. The cultivation conditions used in stirred-tank reactors (STRs, including the stirring speed, the airflow, and the pH, were also investigated. Using STRs, the BNC productivity in fiber-sludge medium was increased to 0.32 g/(L × d and the DPv was increased to 6650. BNC produced from the fiber sludge hydrolysate was used as an additive in papermaking based on the chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP of birch. The introduction of BNC resulted in a significant enhancement of the mechanical strength of the paper sheets. With 10% (w/w BNC in the CTMP/BNC mixture, the tear resistance was enhanced by 140%. SEM images showed that the BNC cross-linked and covered the surface of the CTMP fibers, resulting in enhanced mechanical strength.

  17. Effect of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge on yield and heavy metal accumulation in soil and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste (MSw compost and sewage sludge (SS on yield and concentration of heavy metals in soil and black cumin (Nigella sativa L. an experiment with MSW compost at 0, 15, 30 t.ha-1 (C0, C15 and C30 and sewage sludge at 0, 15, 30 t.ha-1 (S0, S15 and S30 in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Results showed that MSW compost and SS had significant effects on plant dry matter. Increasing the amounts of SS increased dry matter of plant. But increasing MSW compost from 15 to 30 t.ha-1 was decreased in dry matter. The Effect of MSW compost and SS on concentration of heavy metals (Ni and Pb in plant except Cd was significant. Addition of MSW compost and sewage sludge increased availability of Pb, Ni and Cd in soil. But effect of MSW compost and sewage sludge on Cd availability was not significant. Results showed that the amounts of Ni exceed the standard limits in dry matter. Therefore in use of organic wastes for medicinal plants we should be careful..

  18. Applying waste heat recovery system in a sewage sludge dryer – A technical and economic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tańczuk, Mariusz; Kostowski, Wojciech; Karaś, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modernization of waste heat recovery system in a sludge drying plant is proposed. • Energy performance analysis rejected the downsize case of modernization. • Optimal system sizes regarding Net Present Value and Net Present Value Ratio do not coincide. • Up to 683 MW h/y of chemical energy savings for optimal heat exchanger size. • Higher profitability for the larger heat exchanger cases: paybacks below 3.65 years. - Abstract: Drying of digested sewage sludge, as an important alternative to sludge disposal at dumping sites, should comply with the requirements of high energy efficiency as well as economic feasibility. The technical and economic optimization analysis of installing a waste process heat recovery unit in a medium-temperature belt dryer operated in a municipal waste water treatment plant was carried out. Inlet capacity of the plant is 1.83 Mg of wet sludge per hour. The post-process air was indicated as a source of waste heat and the configuration of a heat recovery system was proposed. The main objective of the research was to find the optimal size of a chosen type of waste heat recovery heat exchanger for preheating ambient air to the process. The maximization of Net Present Value, and, alternatively, also Net Present Value Ratio were selected for the objective function of the optimization procedure. Simulation of yearly operation of waste heat exchanger was made for a range of different heat exchanging areas (101–270 m"2) regarding given parameters of a post-process air and different temperatures of ambient air. Energy performance of the modernization was evaluated and economic indices were calculated for each of the analyzed cases. The location of the maximum of optimization function was found and the calculations show higher profitability of the cases with larger waste heat exchanger. It can be concluded that the location of optimum of the objective function is very sensitive to the price of natural gas supplied to the

  19. Low Thermal Pretreatment as Method for Increasing the Bioavailability of Organic Matters in Domestic Mixed Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seswoya Roslinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, primary and secondary sludge are fed into anaerobic digestion. However, the microbial cell exists in secondary sludge are an unfavorable substrate for biodegradation. Thermal pretreatment is proved to increase the bioavailability of organic and improve the biodegradation subsequently. During low thermal pretreatment, both intracellular (within the microbial cell and extracellular (within the polymeric network materials were extracted. This process increases the bioavailability meaning that organic compounds are accessible to the microorganisms for their degradation. This research aims to investigate the effect of thermal pretreatment on domestic mixed sludge disintegration. Domestic mixed sludge was thermally treated at 70°C for various holding times. The pre-thermally treated domestic mixed sludge was measured for protein and carbohydrates following the Lowry Method, and Phenol-Sulphuric Acid Method respectively. DR 6000 UV-Vis spectrophotometer, DRB200 Reactor (digester and COD vial (TNT plus 822 were used for COD determination, based on Reactor Digestion Method approved by USEPA. The results showed that the organic matter in domestic mixed sludge is efficiently solubilised during thermal treatment organic matter. The higher soluble yield for each monitored parameter determined in this study indicated that low thermal pretreatment improve bioavailability.

  20. Effects of Sludge Particle Size and Density on Hanford Waste Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Wells, Beric E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Tingey, Joel M.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Piping and pumps have been selected to transport the high-level waste (HLW) slurries in the WTP. Pipeline critical-velocity calculations for these systems require the input of a bounding particle size and density. Various approaches based on statistical analyses have been used in the past to provide an estimate of this bounding size and density. In this paper, representative particle size and density distributions (PSDDs) of Hanford waste insoluble solids have been developed based on a new approach that relates measured particle-size distributions (PSDs) to solid-phase compounds. This work was achieved through extensive review of available Hanford waste PSDs and solid-phase compound data. Composite PSDs representing the waste in up to 19 Hanford waste tanks were developed, and the insoluble solid-phase compounds for the 177 Hanford waste tanks, their relative fractions, crystal densities, and particle size and shape were developed. With such a large combination of particle sizes and particle densities, a Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to model the PSDDs. Further detail was added by including an agglomeration of these compounds where the agglomerate density was modeled with a fractal dimension relation. The Monte Carlo simulations were constrained to hold the following relationships: (1) the composite PSDs are reproduced, (2) the solid-phase compound mass fractions are reproduced, (3) the expected in situ bulk-solids density is qualitatively reproduced, and (4) a representative fraction of the sludge volume comprising agglomerates is qualitatively reproduced to typical Hanford waste values. Four PSDDs were developed and evaluated. These four PSDD scenarios correspond to permutations where the master PSD was sonicated or not

  1. Fuel optimization in a multi chamber incinerator by the moisture control of oily sludge and medical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, I.; Hussain, S.; Khan, S.; Mehran, T.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to study the effects of %age moisture content on fuel optimization during the waste feed combustion of oily sludge, medical waste and mix blend waste in a 50 kg/hr multi chamber incinerator installed at NCPC- ARL RWP. Intention is to find out the optimum and in compliance with NEQs incinerator performance at various moisture contents in the different waste feeds. Optimum performances of the incinerator, so that optimum operating moisture conditions, which has been used for multi purpose waste, feeds, may be defined. Three waste feeds of 10 kg batch size were used for the experimentation namely; Oily Sludge, Medical waste and Mix blend waste (oily sludge and medical), with the primary chamber preheating temperature 655 deg. C for 15 mins. interval monitoring. The secondary chamber temperature was set to 850 deg. C. By the data obtained it is apparent that rising the waste moisture content tend to increase fuel consumption specifically in case of medical waste and hence lowering the overall combustion efficiency. In the emissions the CO/sub 2/ concentration is showing the incineration efficiency. Higher efficiency of the system could have been achieved by increasing the CO/sub 2/ in the gases leaving the incinerator, lower fuel usage per kg waste feed and maintain proper operating conditions. Fuel consumption for the oily sludge with 10% moisture content, was found to be least as compared with the same %age of medical waste and mix blend waste. However environmental compliance of the operation is shown by the flue gas analysis. The results shows that using mix blend(oily sludge and medical) waste having 12-13% moisture content would be suitable for incineration in multi-chamber incinerator .Other makes it possible to determine the optimum incinerator temperature control settings and operating conditions, as well as to assure continuous, efficient, environmentally satisfactory operation. The optimum fuel consumption for 10 kg each waste

  2. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  3. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0

  4. Investigation of waste biomass co-pyrolysis with petroleum sludge using a response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Yubao

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of waste biomass (sawdust) through co-pyrolysis with refinery oily sludge was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. Response surface method was applied to evaluate the main and interaction effects of three experimental factors (sawdust percentage in feedstock, temperature, and heating rate) on pyrolysis oil and char yields. It was found that the oil and char yields increased with sawdust percentage in feedstock. The interaction between heating rate and sawdust percentage as well as between heating rate and temperature was significant on the pyrolysis oil yield. The higher heating value of oil originated from sawdust during co-pyrolysis at a sawdust/oily sludge ratio of 3:1 increased by 5 MJ/kg as compared to that during sawdust pyrolysis alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis. As a result, petroleum sludge can be used as an effective additive in the pyrolysis of waste biomass for improving its energy recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced methane yield by co-digestion of sewage sludge with micro-algae and catering waste leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-04

    The co-digestion of different wastes is a promising concept to improve methane generation during anaerobic process. However, the anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste leachate with algal biomass and sewage sludge has not been studied to date. This work investigated the methane generation by the anaerobic co-digestion of different mixtures of catering waste leachate, micro-algal biomass, and sewage sludge. Co-digestion of waste mixture containing equal ratios of three substrates had 39.31% higher methane yield than anaerobic digestion of raw sludge. This was possibly due to a proliferation of methanogens during the co-digestion period induced by multi-phase digestion of different wastes with different degrees of digestibility. Therefore, co-digestion of catering waste leachate, micro-algal biomass, and sewage sludge appears to be an efficient technology for energy conversion from waste resources. The scientific application of this co-digestion technology with these three substrates may play a role in solving important environmental issues of waste management.

  6. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W.

    1993-01-01

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste

  7. Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-04-01

    Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6%), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94%, As(V) >96% and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30% for shell ash; Hg(II) >98%, As(V) >88% and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88% for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45% for shell ash, and between 19 and 0% for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

  8. Behaviour of pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in biogas production from sewage sludge and municipal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter-Matsui, R.; Seipp, M.

    With a grant from VW-Stiftung a project was investigated by the 'Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Hygiene, Philipps-Universitaet, Marburg' and the 'Faculty of Agriculture, Fayum, University Cairo'. The aim was to modify the biogas process to get an optimal amount of biogas and to kill the pathogen bacteria at the same time. The effect of different materials, for example, plant wastes, sewage sludge, cow dung and town refuse and their various amounts of dry matters (2% - 16%) were tested. Also the bactericidal effects of pH, Lactobacilli and higher temperatures were checked. It was found that only a pasteurisation before the fermentation decontaminate the sludge without declining amounts of biogas. It was also proved that the development of Schistosoma eggs was interrupted by the fermentation process.

  9. ESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ACID FROM PALM OIL WASTE (SLUDGE OIL BY USING ALUM CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamrin Usman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of fatty acids from palm oil waste (sludge oil as biodiesel liquid base has been done by using alum [Al2(SO43.14H2O] catalyst. Some reaction variables like reaction time, catalyst quantity, and molar ratio of sample-reactant was applied for optimal reaction. Yield of 94.66% was obtained at reaction condition 65 °C, 5 h, sample-reactant ratio 1:20, and catalyst quantity 3% (w/w. GC-MS analysis request showed that composition of methyl esters biodiesel are methyl caproic (0.67%, methyl lauric (0.21%, methyl miristic (1.96%, methyl palmitic (49.52%, methyl oleic (41.51%, and methyl stearic (6.13%. Physical properties of synthesized product (viscosity, refraction index and density are similar with those of commercial product.   Keywords: alum, biodiesel, esterification, sludge oil

  10. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10 -3 Ci/m 3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10 -3 Ci/m 3 , detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  11. Thermogravimetric analysis of the co-combustion of paper mill sludge and municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Shanchao; Ma, Xiaoqian; Lin, Yousheng; Yu, Zhaosheng; Fang, Shiwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermogravimetric analysis of paper mill sludge and municipal solid waste were studied. • The combustion of paper mill sludge could be improved by blending municipal solid waste. • There existed significant interaction during co-combustion of the blends. • The OFW and Starink methods were used to obtain the activation energy. • The average activation energy was the lowest by blending 20% municipal solid waste. - Abstract: The thermal characteristics and kinetics of paper mill sludge (PMS), municipal solid waste (MSW) and their blends in the combustion process were investigated in this study. The mass percentages of PMS in the blends were 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%, respectively. The experiments were carried out at different heating rates (10 °C/min, 20 °C/min and 30 °C/min) and the temperature ranged from room temperature to 1000 °C in a thermogravimetric simultaneous thermal analyzer. The results suggested that the ignition temperature and burnout temperature of MSW were lower than that of PMS, and the mass loss rate of MSW was larger especially at low temperatures. There were only two mass loss peaks in the differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve, while three mass loss peaks were observed when the blending ratios of PMS were 30%, 50%, 70%. The value of the comprehensive combustion characteristic index of the blends indicated a good combustibility when the percentage of PMS (PPMS) in the blends was less than 30%. There existed certain interaction between the combustion process of PMS and MSW, especially at high temperature stage. Activation energy (E) value obtained by the Ozawa–Flynn–Wall (OFW) method and the Starink method were very consistent. When the mass percentage of PMS in the blends was 80%, the E average value attained the minimum

  12. A Computer Program for Modeling the Conversion of Organic Waste to Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragasen Pillay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a tool for the analysis of conversion of organic waste into energy. The tool is a program that uses waste characterization parameters and mass flow rates at each stage of the waste treatment process to predict the given products. The specific waste treatment process analysed in this paper is anaerobic digestion. The different waste treatment stages of the anaerobic digestion process are: conditioning of input waste, secondary treatment, drying of sludge, conditioning of digestate, treatment of digestate, storage of liquid and solid effluent, disposal of liquid and solid effluents, purification, utilization and storage of combustible gas. The program uses mass balance equations to compute the amount of CH4, NH3, CO2 and H2S produced from anaerobic digestion of organic waste, and hence the energy available. Case studies are also presented.

  13. An Overview of Organic Waste in Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed studies on the composting process of organic waste. Organic wastes are wastes that easily biodegradable. These wastes are produced from many sources such as agricultural waste, market waste, kitchen waste, urban solid food wastes and municipal solid waste. Without proper management, these waste could create several environment problem. Therefore, composting is the best low cost alternative solution to overcome this problem. Composting method can degrade all types of organic wastes like fruits, vegetables, plants, yard wastes and others. The composition from organic waste that could be used as nutrients for crops, soil additive and for environmental management. However, many factors can contribute to the quality of the compost products as different types of organic wastes have different concentrations of nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P, K which are the common macro nutrients present in fertilizers. The presences of heavy metals show how composts can be applied to soils without contributing any ill effect. In term of the factor affecting the composting process, temperature, pH, moisture contents and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N are the main parameters that contribute to the efficiency of the composting process.

  14. Demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility vitrification process for Tank 42 radioactive sludge -- Glass preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Fellinger, T.L.; Marshall, K.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Cozzi, A.D.; Edwards, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently processing and immobilizing the radioactive high level waste sludge at SRS into a durable borosilicate glass for final geological disposal. The DWPF has recently finished processing the first radioactive sludge batch, and is ready for the second batch of radioactive sludge. The second batch is primarily sludge from Tank 42. Before processing this batch in the DWPF, the DWPF process flowsheet has to be demonstrated with a sample of Tank 42 sludge to ensure that an acceptable melter feed and glass can be made. This demonstration was recently completed in the Shielded Cells Facility at SRS. An earlier paper in these proceedings described the sludge composition and processes necessary for producing an acceptable melter fee. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of the glass from that demonstration. Results substantiate that Tank 42 sludge after mixing with the proper amount of glass forming frit (Frit 200) can be processed to make an acceptable glass

  15. Legislation concerning the energy reuse of sludge from waste water treatment plant in the region of Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mislej, V. (Vodovod-Kanalizacija, Ljubljana (Slovenia)), Email: vmislej@vo-ka.si; Grilc, V. (National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia)), Email: viktor.grilc@ki.si

    2009-07-01

    The legislation on waste management in Slovenia was markedly renovated in the year 2008. The main changes were related to the treatment of biologically degradable wastes, which was extended to the energy-from-waste option. New regulations in Slovenia have set criteria on which wastes can be processed and transformed into a solid recovered fuel and the conditions concerning its quality and use. The legislation also outlines other process conditions for placing sewage sludge on the market as a secondary solid fuel and its application in various thermal processes. Sewage sludge represents the largest share of wastes. generated at biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP). In fresh form it is formed as excess active sludge formed during biological treatment of municipal wastewater and may be consecutive stabilized by an aerobic or anaerobic process. Anaerobic stabilization (digestion)of the raw gravity thickened sludge, followed by mechanical and thermal dehydration transform the fresh sludge into stable dry granules. In this form it is suitable for marketing and utilization in thermal processes. The main problems may be low calorific value and relative high metals content (especially mercury) and sulphur. Sulphur and cadmium are not among the limiting parameters of the noted technical specification for alternative fuels, so the new regulation in Slovenia will be appealed. (orig.)

  16. Impact of urban waste water treatment on sludge utilization and disposal with special emphasis on thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammeltoft, P.

    1993-01-01

    The acceptance of the European Communities Directive 9/271/CEE concerning urban waste water treatment by all the EC Member States will result in a sewage sludge production increase of 2 to 3 times the actual amounts (for the year 2000 the forecast is about 30 million tonnes per year). All the traditional sewage sludge treatment methods (agricultural, disposal, compost, thermal treatment) entail costs which are always increasing because of the stricter requirements; in addition EC policy is oriented towards the reduction of the quantity of sludge production. In some situations, drying and subseque incineration may thus be the only practicable method of disposal, particularly, in very large urban agglomerations

  17. Combining high-rate aerobic wastewater treatment with anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at a pulp and paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Björn; Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2018-05-01

    The activated sludge process within the pulp and paper industry is generally run to minimize the production of waste activated sludge (WAS), leading to high electricity costs from aeration and relatively large basin volumes. In this study, a pilot-scale activated sludge process was run to evaluate the concept of treating the wastewater at high rate with a low sludge age. Two 150 L containers were used, one for aeration and one for sedimentation and sludge return. The hydraulic retention time was decreased from 24 hours to 7 hours, and the sludge age was lowered from 12 days to 2-4 days. The methane potential of the WAS was evaluated using batch tests, as well as continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) in 4 L reactors in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Wastewater treatment capacity was increased almost four-fold at maintained degradation efficiency. The lower sludge age greatly improved the methane potential of the WAS in batch tests, reaching 170 NmL CH 4 /g VS at a sludge age of 2 days. In addition, the continuous AD showed a higher methane production at thermophilic conditions. Thus, the combination of high-rate wastewater treatment and AD of WAS is a promising option for the pulp and paper industry.

  18. Free nitrous acid pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances volatile solids destruction and improves sludge dewaterability in continuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Liguo; Laloo, Andrew; Duan, Haoran; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that pre-treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO 2 ) enhances the biodegradability of WAS, identified by a 20-50% increase in specific methane production in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. This suggests that FNA pre-treatment would enhance the destruction of volatile solids (VS) in an anaerobic sludge digester, and reduce overall sludge disposal costs, provided that the dewaterability of the digested sludge is not negatively affected. This study experimentally evaluates the impact of FNA pre-treatment on the VS destruction in anaerobic sludge digestion and on the dewaterability of digested sludge, using continuously operated bench-scale anaerobic digesters. Pre-treatment of full-scale WAS for 24 h at an FNA concentration of 1.8 mg NN/L enhanced VS destruction by 17 ± 1% (from 29.2 ± 0.9% to 34.2 ± 1.1%) and increased dewaterability (centrifuge test) from 12.4 ± 0.4% to 14.1 ± 0.4%. Supporting the VS destruction data, methane production increased by 16 ± 1%. Biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the final digestate stability was also improved with a lower potential from FNA treated digestate. Further, a 2.1 ± 0.2 log improvement in pathogen reduction was also achieved. With inorganic solids representing 15-22% of the full-scale WAS used, FNA pre-treatment resulted in a 16-17% reduction in the volume of dewatered sludge for final disposal. This results in significantly reduced costs as assessed by economic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dusts, scale, slags, sludges... Not wastes, but sources of profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koros, Peter J.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, the steel industry has focused on the need for and the many benefits of recycling steel that is discarded either in its own or in its customers’ manufacturing processes, as well as in recovery and reuse of steel scrap that arises after the product has served its intended purpose. In fact, modern steelmaking relies on the use of recycled iron units for at least half of its production. The other side of the story is the fate of the non-steel by-products (e.g., oxide dusts, sludges, scales, slags, spent refractories and the contained “low grade” energy units that are generated as natural adjuncts to iron and steelmaking processes). These valuable by-products often are classified as “wastes” and are discarded to landfills, at significant cost, although in reality they offer significant potential for cost savings or profit if reintroduced into the industrial arena via well planned programs. Examples of such instances will be presented, including energy credit issues, in the hope of pointing the way for future expansion of benefits from these opportunities. Preparing for a challenge and honor such as the Howe Memorial Lecture, one has to stand in awe of the accomplishments of the predecessor we honor in this forum. He worked in the early days of our industry without the benefits of the many technological improvements he and his successors brought to play as the years went by. John Stubbles, in his Howe Memorial Lecture in 1997,[1] presented a masterful and entertaining biography of Howe and his very active and prolific life. Perhaps the most telling quotation he attributed to Howe is very pertinent to the topic we will address presently: “Metallurgy lives by profit, not logic,” to which I would like to add a comment that bears on the topic of this lecture from the 1991 Howe lecturer, my friend and mentor Bill Dennis, “Where there is muck, there is money.” There are numerous examples of “one hand washes the other” in this business; that

  20. Thermal decomposition of nitrate salts liquid waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the thermal decomposition property of nitrate salts liquid waste which is produced in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Thermal decomposition property was analyzed by TG/DTA and XRD. Most ammonium nitrate in the nitrate salts liquid waste was decomposed at 250 .deg. C and calcium nitrate was decomposed and converted into calcium oxide at 550 .deg. C. Sodium nitrate was decomposed at 700 .deg. C and converted into sodium oxide which reacts with water easily. But sodium oxide was able to convert into a stable compound by adding alumina. Therefore, nitrate salts liquid waste can be treated by two steps as follows. First, ammonium nitrate is decomposed at 250 .deg. C. Second, alumina is added in residual solid sodium nitrate and calcium nitrate and these are decomposed at 900 .deg. C. Final residue consists of calcium oxide and Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 and can be stored stably

  1. Microbial network for waste activated sludge cascade utilization in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis and anaerobic fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; He, Zhangwei; Yang, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste activated sludge (WAS). Microbial communities in integrated system would build a thorough energetic and metabolic interaction network regarding fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities...... to Firmicutes (Acetoanaerobium, Acetobacterium, and Fusibacter) showed synergistic relationship with exoelectrogensin the degradation of complex organic matter or recycling of MEC products (H2). High protein and polysaccharide but low fatty acid content led to the dominance of Proteiniclasticum...... biofilm. The overall performance of WAS cascade utilization was substantially related to the microbial community structures, which in turn depended on the initial pretreatment to enhance WAS fermentation. It is worth noting that species in AD and MEC communities are able to build complex networks...

  2. In situ chemical characterization of waste sludges using FTIR-based fiber optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Jeppson, D.W.; Lockrem, L.L.; Blewett, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    The characterization of unknown mixed wastes is a mandatory step in today's climate of strict environmental regulations. Cleaning up the nuclear and chemical wastes that have accumulated for 50 years at the Hanford Site is the largest single cleanup task in the United States today. The wastes are stored temporarily in carbon steel single- and double-shell tanks that are buried in tank farms at the Site. In the 1950s, a process to scavenge radioactive cesium and other soluble radionuclides in the wastes was developed to create additional tank space for waste storage. This scavenging process involved treatment of the wastes with alkali cyanoferrates and nickel sulfate to precipitate 137 Cs in the presence of nitrate oxidant. Recent safety issues have focused on the stability of cyanoferrate-bearing wastes with large quantities of nitrates and nitrites. Nitrate has been partially converted to nitrite as a result of radiolysis during more than 35 years of storage. The major safety issue is the possibility of the presence of local hot spots enriched in 137 Cs and 90 Sr that under optimum conditions can self-heat causing dry out and a potential runaway reaction of the cyanoferrates with the nitrates/nitrites). For waste tank safety, accurate data of the concentration and distribution of cyanoferrates in the tanks are needed. Because of the extensive sampling required and the highly restricted activities allowed in the tank farms, simulated tank wastes are used to provide an initial basis for identifying and quantifying realistic concerns prior to waste remediation. Fiber optics provide a tool for the remote and in situ characterization of hazardous and toxic materials. This study is focused on near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) fiber optic sensors for in situ chemical characterization of Hanford Site waste sludges

  3. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity

  4. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  5. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  6. DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY ANALYTICAL METHOD VERIFICATION FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Click, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Henry Ajo, H

    2008-01-01

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples. The SB5 SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB5 Batch composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), to form the SB5 Blend composition. The results for any one particular element should not be used in any way to identify the form or speciation of a particular element in the sludge or used to estimate ratios of compounds in the sludge. A statistical comparison of the data validates the use of the DWPF CC method for SB5 Batch composition. However, the difficulty that was encountered in using the CC method for SB4 brings into question the adequacy of CC for the SB5 Blend. Also, it should be noted that visible solids remained in the final diluted solutions of all samples digested by this method at SRNL (8 samples total), which is typical for the DWPF CC method but not seen in the other methods. Recommendations to the DWPF for application to SB5 based on studies to date: (1) A dissolution study should be performed on the WAPS

  7. The ultrasonically assisted metals recovery treatment of printed circuit board waste sludge by leaching separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fengchun; Li, Haiying; Ma, Yang; Li, Chuncheng; Cai, Tingting; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2009-10-15

    This paper provides a practical technique that realized industrial scale copper and iron separation from printed circuit board (PCB) waste sludge by ultrasonically assisted acid leaching in a low cost, low energy consumption and zero discharge of wastes manner. The separation efficiencies of copper and iron from acid leaching with assistance of ultrasound were compared with the one without assistance of ultrasound and the effects of the leaching procedure, pH value, and ultrasonic strength have been investigated in the paper. With the appropriate leaching procedure, a final pH of 3.0, an ultrasonic generator power of 160 W (in 1l tank), leaching time of 60 min, leaching efficiencies of copper and iron had reached 97.83% and 1.23%, respectively. Therefore the separation of copper and iron in PCB waste sludge was virtually achieved. The lab results had been successfully applied to the industrial scaled applications in a heavy metal recovery plant in city of Huizhou, China for more than two years. It has great potentials to be used in even the broad metal recovery practices.

  8. Composting plant of vegetables wastes and sewage sludges in Castesdefells. Plant de compostaje de restos de poda y lodos de depuradora en Castelldefells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Castelldefells Municipality (Catalonia, Spain) has set up a recycling plant for vegetable wastes mixed with sewage sludge to obtain compost. The plant treats 48.000 m''3/y. of vegetable wastes, and receive 8.000 m''3/y. of sewage sludge. (Author)

  9. How does free ammonia-based sludge pretreatment improve methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Liu, Bowen; Liu, Xuran; Xu, Qiuxiang; Yang, Qi; Liu, Yiwen; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xiaoming; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2018-09-01

    Previous studies reported that free ammonia (FA) pretreatment could improve methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) effectively. However, details of how FA pretreatment improves methane production are poorly understood. This study therefore aims to reveal the underlying mechanisms of FA pretreatment affecting anaerobic digestion of WAS through a series of batch tests using either real sludge or synthetic media as the digestion substrates at different pH values. At pH 8.5 level, with an increase of FA level from 18.5 to 92.5 mg/L (i.e., NH+ 4-N: 100-500 mg/L; pH 8.5) the maximum methane yield varied between 194.0 ± 3.9 and 196.9 ± 7.7 mL/g of VSS (25 °C, 1 atm). At pH 9.5 or 10 level, however, with an increase of initial FA level from 103.2 to 516.2 mg/L, the maximal methane yield increased linearly. The mechanism studies revealed that FA pretreatment at high levels not only accelerated the disintegration of WAS but also enhanced the biodegradability of WAS. Although pH in the digesters was adjusted to 7.0 ± 0.1, the high levels of NH+ 4-N added or released led to substantial levels of residual FA ranging from 4.4 to 11.6 mg/L. It was found that this level of FA inhibited homoacetogenesis and methanogenesis significantly, though hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis processes were unaffected largely. Further analyses showed that the inhibition constant of FA to substrate degradation was in the sequence of dextran > glucose > hydrogen > acetate, indicating the methanogenesis process was more sensitive to FA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization program in the framework of the national sewage sludge plan in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lopez, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Sewage Sludge is the waste originated from the process of treatment of waste water. Due to the physical-chemical processes involved in the treatment, the sludge tends to concentrate heavy metals and poorly biodegradable trace organic compounds as well as potentially pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.). However, sludge is rich in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous and contains valuable organic matter that is useful when soils are depleted or subject to erosion. (Author)

  11. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  12. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  13. Bio-Gas production from municipal sludge waste using anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, S.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) system for the bio-methane gas production was operated for 60 days with municipal sludge wastes as a sole carbon source. The AnMRR system utilized the external cross-flow membrane module and was equipped with on-line data acquisition which enables continuous monitoring of the performance of both bioreactor and membrane through the analyses of pH, temperature, gas production; permeate flow rate, and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Such a configuration also provides an efficient tool to study rapid variations of monitoring membrane pressure (TMP). (Author)

  14. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  15. Transesterification of Waste Activated Sludge for Biosolids Reduction and Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Min Ho; Cha, Daniel K

    2018-02-01

      Transesterification of waste activated sludge (WAS) was evaluated as a cost-effective technique to reduce excess biosolids and recover biodiesel feedstock from activated sludge treatment processes. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated with recycling transesterification-treated WAS back to the aeration basin. Seventy percent recycling of WAS resulted in a 48% reduction of excess biosolids in comparison with a conventional SBR, which was operated in parallel as the control SBR. Biodiesel recovery of 8.0% (dried weight basis) was achieved at an optimum transesterification condition using acidic methanol and xylene as cosolvent. Average effluent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations from the test SBR and control SBR were comparable, indicating that the recycling of transesterification-treated WAS did not have detrimental effect on the effluent quality. This study demonstrated that transesterification and recycling of WAS may be a feasible technique for reducing excess biosolids, while producing valuable biodiesel feedstock from the activated sludge process.

  16. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The content, behaviour and significance of heavy metals in composted waste materials is important from two potentially conflicting aspects of environmental legislation in terms of: (a) defining end-of-waste criteria and increasing recycling of composted residuals on land and (b) protecting soil quality by preventing contamination. This review examines the effects of heavy metals in compost and amended soil as a basis for achieving a practical and sustainable balance between these different policy objectives, with particular emphasis on agricultural application. All types of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost contain more heavy metals than the background concentrations present in soil and will increase their contents in amended soil. Total concentrations of heavy metals in source-segregated and greenwaste compost are typically below UK PAS100 limits and mechanical segregated material can also comply with the metal limits in UK PAS100, although this is likely to be more challenging. Zinc and Pb are numerically the elements present in the largest amounts in MSW-compost. Lead is the most limiting element to use of mechanically-segregated compost in domestic gardens, but concentrations are typically below risk-based thresholds that protect human health. Composted residuals derived from MSW and greenwaste have a high affinity for binding heavy metals. There is general consensus in the scientific literature that aerobic composting processes increase the complexation of heavy metals in organic waste residuals, and that metals are strongly bound to the compost matrix and organic matter, limiting their solubility and potential bioavailability in soil. Lead is the most strongly bound element and Ni the weakest, with Zn, Cu and Cd showing intermediate sorption characteristics. The strong metal sorption properties of compost produced from MSW or sewage sludge have important benefits for the remediation of metal contaminated industrial and urban soils. Compost and sewage sludge

  17. Strength Assessment of Controlled Low Strength Materials (CLSM) Utilizing Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Waste Paper Sludge Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Ridzuan, Ahmad Ruslan Mohd; Fauzi, Mohd Azrizal; Ghazali, Ezliana; Arshad, Mohd Fadzil; Fauzi, Mohd Afiq; Mohd Fauzi, Mohd Afiq

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the strength development of low-strength material (CLSM) is controlled by using waste paper sludge ash (WPSA) in CLSM mixtures without adding Portland cement. Series of four (4) compounds which is the CLSM containing 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of waste paper sludge ash (WPSA) as a substitute for Portland cement. CLSM cubes the sizes of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm compressive strength were tested at age 7, 14 and 28days. It was found that this activity contributes to strength developmen...

  18. Effects of different sources of organic waste application on the growth and biomass production of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahariara, M.S.; Tahsina, S.; Muhammad, S.; Gani, M.N.; Huq, I.

    2012-01-01

    The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown with different sources of organic waste viz. sewage sludge, poultry litter, cow dung and rice straw application were observed in a field experiment. Organic wastes were applied at the rate of 5 t/ha and were compared with recommended dose of fertilizers and control. The plants were harvested at 120 days after sowing (at the flowering stage). Different sources of organic wastes had a significant effect (P cow dung>poultry litter > rice straw treatments. Among the four sources of organic wastes, sewage sludge treated plot produced the highest mean biomass of 23.33 t/ha (dry weight basis) which was 14.64% higher than the mean biomass production from control plot. (author)

  19. Effects of different sources of organic waste application on the growth and biomass production of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahariar, M.S.; Tashin, S.; Gani, N.; Muhammad, S.; Huq, I.

    2012-01-01

    The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf(Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown with different sources of organic waste viz. sewage sludge, poultry litter, cow dung and rice straw application were observed in a field experiment. Organic wastes were applied at the rate of 5 t/ha and were compared with recommended dose of fertilizers and control. The plants were harvested at 120 days after sowing (at the flowering stage). Different sources of organic wastes had a significant effect (P cow dung>poultry litter> rice straw treatments. Among the four sources of organic wastes, sewage sludge treated plot produced the highest mean biomass of 23.33 t/ha (dry weight basis) which was 14.64% higher than the mean biomass production from control plot. (author)

  20. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tara E.; Newell, J. David; Woodham, Wesley H.

    2016-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  2. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  3. A novel conditioning process for enhancing dewaterability of waste activated sludge by combination of zero-valent iron and persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Liu, Peng; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    Improvement of sludge dewaterability is crucial for reducing the costs of sludge disposal in wastewater treatment plants. This study presents a novel conditioning method for improving waste activated sludge dewaterability by combination of persulfate and zero-valent iron. The combination of zero-valent iron (0-30g/L) and persulfate (0-6g/L) under neutral pH substantially enhanced the sludge dewaterability due to the advanced oxidization reactions. The highest enhancement of sludge dewaterability was achieved at 4g persulfate/L and 15g zero-valent iron/L, with which the capillary suction time was reduced by over 50%. The release of soluble chemical oxygen demand during the conditioning process implied the decomposition of sludge structure and microorganisms, which facilitated the improvement of dewaterability due to the release of bound water that was included in sludge structure and microorganism. Economic analysis showed that the proposed conditioning process with persulfate and ZVI is more economically favorable for improving WAS dewaterability than classical Fenton reagent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the co-gasification of sewage sludge and food wastes and cost-benefit analysis of gasification- and incineration-based waste treatment schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Siming; Wang, Wei; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    The compositions of food wastes and their co-gasification producer gas were compared with the existing data of sewage sludge. Results showed that food wastes are more favorable than sewage sludge for co-gasification based on residue generation and energy output. Two decentralized gasification-based schemes were proposed to dispose of the sewage sludge and food wastes in Singapore. Monte Carlo simulation-based cost-benefit analysis was conducted to compare the proposed schemes with the existing incineration-based scheme. It was found that the gasification-based schemes are financially superior to the incineration-based scheme based on the data of net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and internal rate of return (IRR). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to suggest effective measures to improve the economics of the schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil.

  7. Partitioning of Tank Waste Sludge in a 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Under Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, Jr. J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of solids on the hydraulic performance of a 5-cm centrifugal contactor under conditions present in the extraction section of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. In addition to determining if the ability to separate the aqueous and organic phases is affected by the presence of solids in a feed solution, the extent to which solids are accumulated in the contactor was also assessed. The reported task was motivated by the need to determine if removal of cesium from Savannah River Site tank waste can be performed using a contactor-based CSSX process without first removing sludge that is suspended in the feed solution. The ability to pass solids through the CSSX process could facilitate placement of CSSX upstream of a process in which alpha-decaying actinides and strontium are removed from the waste stream by precipitation with monosodium titanate (MST). This relative placement of the CSSX and MST processes is desirable because removal of cesium would greatly reduce the activity level of the feed stream to the MST process, thereby reducing the level of shielding needed and mitigating remote maintenance design features of MST equipment. Both results would significantly reduce the cost of the Salt Processing Project. Test results indicate conclusively that a large fraction of suspended sludge that enters the centrifugal contactor remains inside. It is expected that extended operation would result in continued accumulation of solids and that hydraulic performance would be adversely affected. Results also indicate that a fraction of the solids partitions to the phase boundary and could affect phase separation as contactor operations progress

  8. Development of a test method to access the sludge reduction potential of aquatic organisms in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, B.R.; Klapwijk, A.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the development of a quantitative sludge reduction test method, which uses the sludge consuming aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae). Essential for the test are sufficient oxygen supply and the presence of a non-stirred layer of sludge for burrowing of

  9. Value-Added Products Derived from Waste Activated Sludge: A Biorefinery Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial research has been carried out on sustainable waste activated sludge (WAS management in the last decade. In addition to the traditional approach to reduce its production volume, considering WAS as a feedstock to produce bio-products such as amino acids, proteins, short chain fatty acids, enzymes, bio-pesticides, bio-plastics, bio-flocculants and bio-surfactants represents a key component in the transformation of wastewater treatment plants into biorefineries. The quality of these bio-products is a key factor with respect to the feasibility of non-conventional WAS-based production processes. This review provides a critical assessment of the production process routes of a wide range of value-added products from WAS, their current limitations, and recommendations for future research to help promote more sustainable management of this under-utilised and ever-growing waste stream.

  10. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr.

    1994-12-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented

  11. Research of ceramic matrix for a safe immobilization of radioactive sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeeva, Ludmila; Orekhov, Dmitry

    2018-03-01

    The research and improvement of the existing method for radioactive waste hardening by fixation in a ceramic matrix was carried out. For the samples covered with the sodium silicate and tested after the storage on the air the speed of a radionuclides leaching was determined. The properties of a clay ceramics and the optimum conditions of sintering were defined. The experimental data about the influence of a temperature mode sintering, water quantities, sludge and additives in the samples on their mechanical durability and a water resistance were obtained. The comparative analysis of the conducted research is aimed at improvement of the existing method of the hardening radioactive waste by inclusion in a ceramic matrix and reveals the advantages of the received results over analogs.

  12. Method of decomposing radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decompose radioactive organic solvent wastes or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom into organic materials under moderate conditions, as well as greatly decrease the amount of secondary wastes generated. Method: Radioactive organic solvent wastes comprising an organic phosphoric acid ester ingredient and a hydrocarbon ingredient as a diluent therefor, or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom are oxidatively decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution of phosphoric acid metal salts finally into organic materials to perform decomposing treatment for the radioactive organic solvent wastes. The decomposing reaction is carried out under relatively moderate conditions and cause less burden to facilities or the likes. Further, since the decomposed liquid after the treatment can be reused for the decomposing reaction as a catalyst solution secondary wastes can significantly be decreased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. KEY ELEMENTS OF CHARACTERIZING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE INSOLUBLES THROUGH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S; Barbara Hamm, B

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of HLW is a prerequisite for effective planning of HLW disposition and site closure performance assessment activities. Adequate characterization typically requires application of a combination of data sources, including process knowledge, theoretical relationships, and real-waste analytical data. Consistently obtaining high quality real-waste analytical data is a challenge, particularly for HLW sludge insolubles, due to the inherent complexities associated with matrix heterogeneities, sampling access limitations, radiological constraints, analyte loss mechanisms, and analyte measurement interferences. Understanding how each of these complexities affects the analytical results is the first step to developing a sampling and analysis program that provides characterization data that are both meaningful and adequate. A summary of the key elements impacting SRS HLW sludge analytical data uncertainties is presented in this paper, along with guidelines for managing each of the impacts. The particular elements addressed include: (a) sample representativeness; (b) solid/liquid phase quantification effectiveness; (c) solids dissolution effectiveness; (d) analyte cross contamination, loss, and tracking; (e) dilution requirements; (f) interference removal; (g) analyte measurement technique; and (h) analytical detection limit constraints. A primary goal of understanding these elements is to provide a basis for quantifying total propagated data uncertainty

  14. Process for treating waters and sludges and device for developing this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levaillant, Claude.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating waters and sludge by means of a ionizing radiation beam, featuring the following stages: settlement of primary waters and sludge, centrifugation of the settled waters and sludge in order to separate the waste waters, the sludge formed of organic compounds charged with heavy metals and the sludge formed of mineral compounds, irradiation, by ionizing radiation beam, of the sludge formed of organic compounds, containing heavy metals, and which are transformed into less toxic and denser recoverable mineral compounds, centrifugation of the irradiated sludge making it possible to obtain clarified waters treated by irradiation, sludge composed of organic compounds freed of their heavy metals and sludge formed of mineral compounds containing heavy metals and which will be easily separated owing to their high density [fr

  15. Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease waste: Effect of long chain fatty acids in the methane yield and its dewatering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Illa, J.; Fernández, B.; Bonmatí, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and grease waste (GW) doubles methane yield. • High GW doses in the influent leads to instability and LCFA accumulation in the effluent. • GW addition promotes acetoclastic activity whilst worsening the hydrogenothrophic activity. • The mesophilic codigestion with GW performs better than the thermophilic one. - Abstract: Thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge with three different doses of trapped grease waste (GW) from the pre-treatment of a WWTP has been assessed in a CSTR bench-scale reactor. After adding 12% and 27% of grease waste (on COD basis), the organic loading rate increased from 2.2 to 2.3 and 2.8 kg COD m −3 d −1 respectively, and the methane yield increased 1.2 and 2.2 times. Further GW increase (37% on COD basis) resulted in an unstable methane yield and in long chain fatty acids (LCFA) accumulation. Although this inestability, the presence of volatile fatty acids in the effluent was negligible, showing good adaptation to fats of the thermophilic biomass. Nevertheless, the presence of LCFA in the effluent worsens its dewatering properties. Specific methanogenic activity tests showed that the addition of grease waste ameliorates the acetoclastic activity in detriment of the hydrogenotrophic activity, and suggests that the tolerance to LCFA can be further enhanced by slowly increasing the addition of lipid-rich materials

  17. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  18. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study

  19. Fabrication of a Sludge-Conditioning System for processing legacy wastes from the Gunite and Associated Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, J.D.; Lewis, B.E.; Farmer, J.R.; Johnson, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Sludge Conditioning System (SCS) for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) is designed to receive, monitor, characterize and process legacy waste materials from the South Tank Farm tanks in preparation for final transfer of the wastes to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), which are located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SCS includes (1) a Primary Conditioning System (PCS) Enclosure for sampling and particle size classification, (2) a Solids Monitoring Test Loop (SMTL) for slurry characterization, (3) a Waste Transfer Pump to retrieve and transfer waste materials from GAAT consolidation tank W-9 to the MVSTs, (4) a PulsAir Mixing System to provide mixing of consolidated sludges for ease of retrieval, and (5) the interconnecting piping and valving. This report presents the design, fabrication, cost, and fabrication schedule information for the SCS

  20. Bio-adsorption (Pilot-scale). Investigation of cleansing effect and sludge formation. [Municipal wastes]. Biosorption. Pilot-skala. Undersoegelse af renseeffekt og slamudbytte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-15

    The aim of the project was to investigate the process of bioadsorption in relation to the purifying of sewage waste where the oxygen levels were 0%, 2.5% and 10%. Cleansing results for 2.5% oxygen saturation was 50-70% for BOD and 30-50% for COD. Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus was 15-20% and 20-25%. 40% of the removed nitrogen, and the organic bound phosphorus, was returned to the system via the internal reject-flow and thus to the biological processing. The tendence to sludge production was heightened where oxygen saturation was moderate. It is reckoned that operational costs were reduced by 10 Danish oere per cubic meter waste water where the unprocessed waste had a content of 250mg BOD/1. (AB).

  1. Biosorption of chromium, copper and zinc by wine-processing waste sludge: Single and multi-component system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Li, Yuan-Shen; Yang, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yu-An

    2009-01-01

    Wine-processing waste sludge (WPWS) has been shown to have powerful potential for sorption of some heavy metals (i.e., chromium, lead and nickel) in single-component aqueous solutions. But although most industrial wastewater contains two or more toxic metals, there are few sorption studies on multicomponent metals by WPWS. This study has two goals: (i) conduct competitive adsorption using Cr, Cu and Zn as sorbates and examine their interaction in binary or ternary systems; and (ii) determine the effects of temperature on the kinetic sorption reaction. The sludge tested contained a high amount of organic matter (38%) and had a high cation exchange capacity (CEC, 255 cmol c kg -1 ). Infrared analysis reveals that carboxyl is the main functional group in this WPWS. The 13 C NMR determination indicates alkyl-C and carboxyl-C are major organic functional groups. At steady state, there are about 40.4% (Cr), 35.0% (Cu) and 21.9% (Zn) sorbed in the initial 6.12 mM of single-component solutions. Only pseudo-second-order sorption kinetic model successfully describes the kinetics of sorption for all experimental metals. The rate constants, k 2 , of Cr, Cu and Zn in single-component solutions are 0.016, 0.030 and 0.154 g mg -1 min -1 , respectively. The sorption of metals by WPWS in this competitive system shows the trend: Cr > Cu > Zn. Ions of charge, hydrated radius and electronic configuration are main factors affecting sorption capacity. The least sorption for Zn in this competitive system can be attributed to its full orbital and largest hydrated radius. Though the effect of temperature on Zn sorption is insignificant, high temperature favors the other metallic sorptions, in particular for Cr. However, the Cr sorption is lower than Cu at 10 deg. C. The Cr sorption by WPWS can be higher than that of Cu at 30 deg. and 50 deg. C.

  2. Repeated application of organic waste affects soil organic matter composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Gregorich, Edward G.; Bruun, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Land application of organic waste is an important alternative to landfilling and incineration because it helps restore soil fertility and has environmental and agronomic benefits. These benefits may be related to the biochemical composition of the waste, which can result in the accumulation...... of different types of carbon compounds in soil. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition after repeated applications of organic waste. Soil from the CRUCIAL field experiment in Denmark was sampled after 12 years of annual application...... that there was accumulation in soil of different C compounds for the different types of applied organic waste, which appeared to be related to the degree to which microbial activity was stimulated and the type of microbial communities applied with the wastes or associated with the decomposition of applied wastes...

  3. Impact of coagulant and flocculant addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating waste-activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, G.; Lopes, Wilton; Zhou, Z.; Guo, H.; de Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.L.F.M.; van Lier, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of flocculation aid (FA) addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) (7 L, 35°C) treating waste-activated sludge (WAS). The experiment consisted of three distinct periods. In period 1 (day 1–86), the reactor was operated as a

  4. Two-step upflow anaerobic sludge bed system for sewage treatment under subtropical conditions with posttreatment in waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Trupiano, A.P.; Liberal, V.; Todd, P.G.; Figueroa, M.E.; Gutierrez, M.A.; Silva Wilches, Da A.C.; Iribarnegaray, M.; Guerra, R.G.; Arena, A.; Cuevas, C.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale sewage treatment system consisting of two upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors followed by five waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in series was studied under subtropical conditions. The first UASB reactor started up in only 1 mo (stable operation, high chemical oxygen demand

  5. Organizing waste reduction in the Dutch waste sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    Many organizations in the Netherlands are concerned with the collection, treatment and disposal of waste (either by tipping or incineration). They make up what is called the refuse market, and they all have their own business interests. What they have in common is that their internal objectives are not necessarily concerned with limiting the size or altering the composition of refuse streams. On the contrary, the organizations have an interest in the destination of waste streams. Besides the market-oriented organization, the waste sector also comprises various tiers of government, policy support groups and pressure and lobby organizations. All these organizations have their own different sets of interests. In other words, the refuse sector in the Netherlands is complex. The research project on 'Organizing Waste Reduction in the Dutch Waste Sector' focuses on the structure of the sector: the organizations, the relations between them, and organizational factors such as tariff systems, ownership relations and the market situation. An important question, which the research seeks to answer, is whether a modification in the structure of the sector can lead to the encouragement of reduction in the quantity of waste

  6. Treatment of radioactive organics liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Galarce, Tania

    1999-01-01

    Because of the danger that radioactive wastes can pose to society and to the environment a viable treatment alternative must be developed to prepare these wastes for final disposal. The waste studied in this work is a liquid organic waste contaminated with the radioisotope tritium. This must be treated and then changed into solid form in a 200 liter container. This study defined an optimum formulation that immobilizes the liquid waste. The organic waste is first submitted to an absorption treatment, with Celite absorbent, which had the best physical characteristics from the point of view of radioactive waste management. Then this was solidified by forming a cement mortar, using a highly resistant local cement, Polpaico 400. Various mixes were tested, with different water/cement, waste/absorbent and absorbed waste/cement ratios, until a mixture that met the quality control requirements was achieved. The optimum mixture obtained has a water/cement ratio of 0.35 (p/p) that is the amount of water needed to make the mixture workable, and minimum water for hydrating the cement; a waste/absorbent ration of 0.5 (v/v), where the organic liquid is totally absorbed, and is incorporated in the solid's crystalline network; and an absorbed waste/cement ratio of 0.8 (p/p), which represents the minimum amount of cement needed to obtain a solid product with the required mechanical resistance. The mixture's components join together with no problem, to produce a good workable mixture. It takes about 10 hours for the mixture to harden. After 14 days, the resulting solid product has a resistance to compression of 52 Kgf/cm2. The formulation contains 22.9% immobilized organic waste, 46.5% cement, 14.3% Celite and 16.3% water. Organic liquid waste can be treated and a solid product obtained, that meets the qualitative and quantitative parameters required for its disposal. (CW)

  7. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  8. Production of Controlled Low Strength Material Utilizing Waste Paper Sludge Ash and Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the best method to make the concrete industry more sustainable was using the waste materials to replace the natural resources. Currently waste paper sludge is a major economic and environmental problem in this country. In this research, the alternative method is to dwindle the usage of natural resources and the usage of cement in the construction. This method is to replace the usage of cement with the waste paper sludge ash (WPSA and to use the recycle aggregate collected from the construction is used. The WPSA has ingredient likely cement such as self-cementation but for a low strength. The research was conducted at heavy laboratory UITM Pulau Pinang. Meanwhile, the WPSA is collected at MNI Industries at Mentakab, Pahang. The recycle aggregate is a separated half, which were fine aggregate and the coarse aggregate with the specific size. In this research, the ratio is divided into two (2 which is 1:1 and 1:2 for the aggregate and difference percentage levels of WPSA. The percentage levels of WPSA that use in this research are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%. A total of 36 cubes were prepared. Aim of this research is to develop a simple design approach for the mixture proportioning of WPSA and recycle concrete aggregate (RCA within the concrete and to assess the effect of concrete mix with different percentage of WPSA and RCA ratio on the properties. It is found that the best design mix that achieves control low strength material (CLSM is on 30% of WPSA with the ratio 1:2 on day 28 of compression test.

  9. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marañón, E.; Castrillón, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernández-Nava, Y.; Gómez, L.; García, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. ► Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. ► Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. ► Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. ► Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2–1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH 4 /kg VS feed for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 °C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20–28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 °C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  10. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon, E., E-mail: emara@uniovi.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M. [Zero Emissions Technology, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  11. Pyritic waste from precombustion coal cleaning: Amelioration with oil shale retort waste and sewage sludge for growth of soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.G.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Stevens, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Solid residue from fossil fuel mining and utilization generally present little hazard to human health. However, because of the high volumes generated, they do pose unique disposal problems in terms of land use and potential degradation of soil and water. In the specific case of wastes from precombustion coal cleaning, the materials include sulfur compounds that undergo oxidation when exposed to normal atmospheric conditions and microbial action and then produce sulfuric acid. The wastes also contain compounds of metals and nonmetals at concentrations many times those present in the original raw coal. Additionally, the residues often contain coal particles and fragments that combust spontaneously if left exposed to the air, thus contributing to the air pollution that the coal cleaning process was designed to prevent. Federal and state efforts in the United States to ameliorate the thousands of hectares covered with these wastes have focused on neutralizing the acidity with limestone and covering the material with soil. The latter procedure creates additional degraded areas, which were originally farmland or wildlife habitat. It would seem preferable to reclaim the coal refuse areas without earth moving. The authors describe here experiments with neutralization of coal waste acidity using an alkaline waste derived from the extraction of oil from oil shale to grow soya beans (Glycine max. [L]) on a mixture of wastes and sewage sludge. Yield of plant material and content of nutrients an potentially toxic elements in the vegetation and in the growth mixtures were determined; results were compared with those for plants grown on an agricultural soil, with particular focus on boron

  12. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Rani, R.; Adish Kumar, S.; Kaliappan, S.; Yeom, IckTae; Rajesh Banu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microwave pretreatment of dairy WAS was studied. ► MW pretreatment at 70% intensity for 12 min, COD solubilization was 18.6%. ► Biogas production and SS reduction was 35% and 14% higher than control. ► In digester at 15 days SRT with medium OLR, SS and VS reduction was 67% and 64%. ► Biogas and methane production was 57% and 49% higher than control, in digesters. - Abstract: Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12 min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5 L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively

  13. Copper (II) addition to accelerate lactic acid production from co-fermentation of food waste and waste activated sludge: Understanding of the corresponding metabolisms, microbial community and predictive functional profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingting; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Su, Yinglong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Jun; Gan, Yanfei; Zhang, Ai; Liu, Yanan; Xue, Gang

    2018-03-20

    Bio-refinery of food waste and waste activated sludge to high value-added chemicals, such as lactic acid, has attracted particular interest in recent years. In this paper, the effect of copper (II) dosing to the organic waste fermentation system on lactic acid production was evaluated, which proved to be a promising method to stimulate high yield of lactic acid (77.0% higher than blank) at dosage of 15 μM-Cu 2+ /g VSS. As mechanism study suggested, copper addition enhanced the activity of α-glycosidase and glycolysis, which increased the substrate for subsequent acidification; whereas, the high dosage (70 μM-Cu 2+ /g VSS) inhibited the conversion of lactic acid to VFA, thus stabilized lactic acid concentration. Microbial community study revealed that small amount of copper (II) at 15 μM/g VSS resulted in the proliferation of Lactobacillus to 82.6%, which mainly produced lactic acid. Finally, the variation of functional capabilities implied that the proposed homeostatic system II was activated at relatively low concentration of copper. Meanwhile, membrane transport function and carbohydrate metabolism were also strengthened. This study provides insights into the effect of copper (II) on the enhancement of lactic acid production from co-fermentation of food waste and waste activated sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher [Wastren Advantage, Inc., Transuranic Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road, Lenoir City, Tennessee 37771 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct

  16. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct and install

  17. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    OpenAIRE

    Yagüe, A.; Valls, S.; Vázquez, E.; Kuchinow, V.

    2002-01-01

    Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of...

  18. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  19. Experimental determination of the empirical formula and energy content of unknown organics in waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizas, I. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kosmatos, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Two experimental methods are described in this paper: one for determining the empirical formula, and one for determining the energy content of unknown organics in waste streams. The empirical formula method requires volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) to be measured for the waste; the formula can then be calculated from these values. To determine the energy content of the organic waste, bomb calorimetry was used with benzoic acid as a combustion aid. The results for standard compounds (glucose, propionic acid, L-arginine, and benzoic acid) were relatively good. The energy content measurement for wastewater and sludges had good reproducibility (i.e. 1.0 to 3.2% relative standard deviation for triplicate samples). Trouble encountered in the measurement of the empirical formulae of the waste samples was possibly due to difficulties with the TOC test; further analysis of this is required. (author)

  20. Experimental determination of the empirical formula and energy content of unknown organics in waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizas, I.; Kosmatos, A.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Two experimental methods are described in this paper: one for determining the empirical formula, and one for determining the energy content of unknown organics in waste streams. The empirical formula method requires volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) to be measured for the waste; the formula can then be calculated from these values. To determine the energy content of the organic waste, bomb calorimetry was used with benzoic acid as a combustion aid. The results for standard compounds (glucose, propionic acid, L-arginine, and benzoic acid) were relatively good. The energy content measurement for wastewater and sludges had good reproducibility (i.e. 1.0 to 3.2% relative standard deviation for triplicate samples). Trouble encountered in the measurement of the empirical formulae of the waste samples was possibly due to difficulties with the TOC test; further analysis of this is required. (author)

  1. WIPP WAC Equivalence Support Measurements for Low-Level Sludge Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 12242

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) as an off-site disposal facility for low-level waste (LLW), including sludge waste. NNSS has issued a position paper that indicates that systems that are not certified by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste must demonstrate equivalent practices to the CBFO certified systems in order to assign activity concentration values to assayed items without adding in the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) when certifying waste for NNSS disposal. Efforts have been made to meet NNSS requirements to accept sludge waste for disposal at their facility. The LANL LLW Characterization Team uses portable high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems for the nondestructive assay (NDA) of both debris and sludge LLW. A number of performance studies have been conducted historically by LANL to support the efficacy and quality of assay results generated by the LANL HPGe systems, and, while these detector systems are supported by these performance studies and used with LANL approved procedures and processes, they are not certified by CBFO for TRU waste disposal. Beginning in 2009, the LANL LLW Characterization Team undertook additional NDA measurements of both debris and sludge simulated waste containers to supplement existing studies and procedures to demonstrate full compliance with the NNSS position paper. Where possible, Performance Demonstration Project (PDP) drums were used for the waste matrix and PDP sources were used for the radioactive sources. Sludge drums are an example of a matrix with a uniform distribution of contaminants. When attempting to perform a gamma assay of a sludge drum, it is very important to adequately simulate this uniform distribution of radionuclides in order to accurately model the assay results. This was accomplished by using a spiral radial source tube placement in a sludge drum rather than the standard

  2. A direct, single-step plasma arc-vitreous ceramic process for stabilizing spent nuclear fuels, sludges, and associated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Einziger, R.E.; Eschenbach, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    A single-step plasma arc-vitreous ceramic (PAVC) process is described for converting spent nuclear fuel (SNF), SNF sludges, and associated wastes into a vitreous ceramic waste form. This proposed technology is built on extensive experience of nuclear waste form development and nuclear waste treatment using the commercially available plasma arc centrifugal (PAC) system. SNF elements will be loaded directly into a PAC furnace with minimum additives and converted into vitreous ceramics with up to 90 wt% waste loading. The vitreous ceramic waste form should meet the functional requirements for borosilicate glasses for permanent disposal in a geologic repository and for interim storage. Criticality safety would be ensured through the use of batch modes, and controlling the amount of fuel processed in one batch. The minimum requirements on SNF characterization and pretreatment, the one-step process, and minimum secondary waste generation may reduce treatment duration, radiation exposure, and treatment cost

  3. Combined thermo-chemo-sonic disintegration of waste activated sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Yukesh Kannah, R; Yeom, Ick Tae; Do, Khac-Uan; Banu, J Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, there was an investigation about the impact of a new combined thermo-chemo-sonic disintegration of waste activated sludge (WAS) on biodegradability. The outcome of sludge disintegration reveals that maximum Suspended Solids (SS) reduction and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilization effectuated at a specific energy input of 5290.5kJ/kgTS, and was found to be 20%, 16.4%, 15% and 27%, 22%, and 20%, respectively for the three alkalis (NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2). The conversion coefficient of the Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) to product Soluble COD (SCOD), calculated by nonlinear regression modeling, was found to be 0.5530gSCOD/gVSS, 0.4587gSCOD/gVSS, and 0.4195gSCOD/gVSS for NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2, respectively. In the biodegradability studies, the parameter evaluation provides an estimate of parameter uncertainty and correlation, and elucidates that there is no significant difference in biodegradability (0.413gCOD/gCOD, 0.367gCOD/gCOD, and 0.342gCOD/gCOD) for three alkalis (NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of waste-activated sludge pretreatment using hydrodynamic cavitation for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2013-11-01

    Disintegration of waste-activated sludge (WAS) is regarded as a prerequisite of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process to reduce sludge volume and increase methane yield. Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), which shares a similar underlying principle with ultrasonication but is energy-efficient, was employed as a physical means to break up WAS. Compared with ultrasonic (180-3600 kJ/kg TS) and thermal methods (72,000 kJ/kg TS), HC (60-1200 kJ/kg TS) found to consume significantly low power. A synergetic effect was observed when HC was combined with alkaline treatment in which NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2 were used as alkaline catalysts at pH ranging from 8 to 13. As expected, the production yield of CH4 gas increased proportionally as WAS disintegration proceeded. HC, when combined with alkaline pretreatment, was found to be a cost-effective substitute to conventional methods for WAS pretreatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Han, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Selective release characteristics of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated during combined thermal and alkali treatment. Alkali (0.001-1.0N NaOH) treatment and combined thermal-alkali treatment were applied to WAS for releasing total P(T-P) and total nitrogen(T-N). Combined thermal-alkali treatment released 94%, 76%, and 49% of T-P, T-N, and COD, respectively. Release rate was positively associated with NaOH concentration, while temperature gave insignificant effect. The ratio of T-N and COD to T-P that released with alkali treatment ranged 0.74-0.80 and 0.39-0.50, respectively, while combined thermal-alkali treatment gave 0.60-0.90 and 0.20-0.60, respectively. Selective release of T-P and T-N was negatively associated with NaOH. High NaOH concentration created cavities on the surface of WAS, and these cavities accelerated the release rate, but reduced selectivity. Selective release of P and N from sludge has a beneficial effect on nutrient recovery with crystallization processes and it can also enhance methane production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  7. Removal of phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds from waste activated sludge using UV, H2O2, and UV/H2O2 oxidation processes: Effects of reaction conditions and sludge matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ai; Li, Yongmei

    2014-01-01

    Removal of six phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estriol, bisphenol A, and 4-nonylphenols) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using ultraviolet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and the combined UV/H 2 O 2 processes. Effects of initial EDC concentration, H 2 O 2 dosage, and pH value were investigated. Particularly, the effects of 11 metal ions and humic acid (HA) contained in a sludge matrix on EDC degradation were evaluated. A pseudo-first-order kinetic model was used to describe the EDC degradation during UV, H 2 O 2 , and UV/H 2 O 2 treatments of WAS. The results showed that the degradation of the 6 EDCs during all the three oxidation processes fitted well with pseudo-first-order kinetics. Compared with the sole UV irradiation or H 2 O 2 oxidation process, UV/H 2 O 2 treatment was much more effective for both EDC degradation and WAS solubilization. Under their optimal conditions, the EDC degradation rate constants during UV/H 2 O 2 oxidation were 45–197 times greater than those during UV irradiation and 11–53 times greater than those during H 2 O 2 oxidation. High dosage of H 2 O 2 and low pH were favorable for the degradation of EDCs. Under the conditions of pH = 3, UV wavelength = 253.7 nm, UV fluence rate = 0.069 mW cm −2 , and H 2 O 2 dosage = 0.5 mol L −1 , the removal efficiencies of E1, E2, EE2, E3, BPA, and NP in 2 min were 97%, 92%, 95%, 94%, 89%, and 67%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical (·OH) was proved to take the most important role for the removal of EDCs. Metal ions in sludge could facilitate the removal of EDCs during UV/H 2 O 2 oxidation. Fe, Ag, and Cu ions had more obvious effects compared with other metal ions. The overall role of HA was dependent on the balance between its competition as organics and its catalysis/photosensitization effects. These indicate that the sludge matrix plays an important role in the degradation of EDCs. - Highlights:

  8. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig

  9. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  10. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  11. Relationships between waste physicochemical properties, microbial activity and vegetation at coal ash and sludge disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woch, Marcin W; Radwańska, Magdalena; Stanek, Małgorzata; Łopata, Barbara; Stefanowicz, Anna M

    2018-06-11

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between vegetation, physicochemical and microbial properties of substrate at coal ash and sludge disposal sites. The study was performed on 32 plots classified into 7 categories: dried ash sedimentation ponds, dominated by a grass Calamagrostis epigejos (AH-Ce), with the admixture of Pinus sylvestris (AH-CePs) or Robinia pseudoacacia (AH-CeRp), dry ash landfill dominated by Betula pendula and Pinus sylvestris (AD-BpPs) or Salix viminalis (AD-Sv) and coal sludge pond with drier parts dominated by Tussilago farfara (CS-Tf) and the wetter ones by Cyperus flavescens (CS-Cf). Ash sites were covered with soil layer imported as a part of technical reclamation. Ash had relatively high concentrations of some alkali and alkaline earth metals, Mn and pH, while coal sludge had high water and C, S, P and K contents. Concentrations of heavy metals were lower than allowable limits in all substrate types. Microbial biomass and, particularly, enzymatic activity in ash and sludge were generally low. The only exception were CS-Tf plots characterized by the highest microbial biomass, presumably due to large deposits of organic matter that became available for aerobic microbial biomass when water level fell. The properties of ash and sludge adversely affected microbial biomass and enzymatic activity as indicated by significant negative correlations between the content of alkali/alkaline earth metals, heavy metals, and macronutrients with enzymatic activity and/or microbial biomass, as well as positive correlations of these parameters with metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ). Plant species richness and cover were relatively high, which may be partly associated with alleviating influence of soil covering the ash. The effect of the admixture of R. pseudoacacia or P. sylvestris to stands dominated by C. epigejos was smaller than expected. The former species increased NNH 4 , NNO 3 and arylsulfatase activity, while the latter reduced activity of

  12. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-04

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  13. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Modin

    Full Text Available New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC per g volatile suspend solids (VSS for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  14. Novel procurement concepts utilized to award contract for vitrification of an F006 mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Musall, J.C.; Hayes, A.F.; Campbell, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    A number of novel concepts were utilized in a procurement bid process to award a contract for the stabilization of a mixed wastewater treatment plating line sludge from the Reactor Materials department (M-Area) at the Savannah River site (SRS). The contract award was based on a combination of technical and cost considerations. The technical aspects included an evaluation of the technical validity of the proposed process(es) (i.e., would the process work?), the physical resources of the proposer and the expertise of the personnel proposed to work on the program, and prior experience of the firm wit treatment and stabilization of mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. This paper will concentrate on the cost and the bid award considerations, rather than the technical aspects

  15. Protein from preprocessed waste activated sludge as a nutritional supplement in chicken feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Evans M N; Lebitso, Moses T

    2014-01-01

    Five groups of broiler chickens were raised on feed containing varying substitutions of single cell protein from preprocessed waste activated sludge (pWAS) in varying compositions of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 pWAS: fishmeal by mass. Forty chickens per batch were evaluated for growth rate, mortality rate, and feed conversion efficiency (ηє). The initial mass gain rate, mortality rate, initial and operational cost analyses showed that protein from pWAS could successfully replace the commercial feed supplements with a significant cost saving without adversely affecting the health of the birds. The chickens raised on preprocessed WAS weighed 19% more than those raised on fishmeal protein supplement over a 45 day test period. Growing chickens on pWAS translated into a 46% cost saving due to the fast growth rate and minimal death losses before maturity.

  16. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  17. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  18. Development of a carbonate crust on alkaline nuclear waste sludge at the Hanford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jason S; Reynolds, Jacob G; Ely, Tom M; Cooke, Gary A

    2018-01-15

    Hard crusts on aging plutonium production waste have hindered the remediation of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington, USA. In this study, samples were analyzed to determine the cause of a hard crust that developed on the highly radioactive sludge during 20 years of inactivity in one of the underground tanks (tank 241-C-105). Samples recently taken from the crust were compared with those acquired before the crust appeared. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that aluminum and uranium phases at the surface had converted from (hydr)oxides (gibbsite and clarkeite) into carbonates (dawsonite and cejkaite) and identified trona as the cementing phase, a bicarbonate that formed at the expense of thermonatrite. Since trona is more stable at lower pH values than thermonatrite, the pH of the surface decreased over time, suggesting that CO 2 from the atmosphere lowered the pH. Thus, a likely cause of crust formation was the absorption of CO 2 from the air, leading to a reduction of the pH and carbonation of the waste surface. The results presented here help establish a model for how nuclear process waste can age and can be used to aid future remediation and retrieval activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaching tests of cemented organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.

    2011-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in research, medical and industrial activities generates organic liquid radioactive wastes. At Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) are produced organic liquid wastes from different sources, one of these are the solvent extraction activities, whose the waste volume is the largest one. Therefore a research was carried out to treat them. Several techniques to treat organic liquid radioactive wastes have been evaluated, among them incineration, oxidation processes, alkaline hydrolysis, distillation, absorption and cementation. Laboratory experiments were accomplished to establish the most adequate process in order to obtain qualified products for storage and disposal. Absorption followed by cementation was the procedure used in this study, i.e. absorbent substances were added to the organic liquid wastes before mixing with the cement. Initially were defined the absorbers, and evaluated the formulation in relation to the compressive strength of its products. Bentonite from different suppliers (B and G) and vermiculite in two granulometries (M - medium and F - small) were tested. In order to assess the product quality the specimens were submitted to the leaching test according the Standard ISO 6961 and its results were evaluated. Then they were compared with the values established by Standard CNEN NN 6.09 A cceptance criteria for waste products to be disposed , to verify if they meet the requirements for safely storage and disposal. Through this study the best formulations to treat the organic wastes were established. (author)

  20. Thermo-alkaline pretreatment of waste activated sludge at low-temperatures: effects on sludge disintegration, methane production, and methanogen community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Yu, Youngseob; Lee, Changsoo

    2013-09-01

    Low-temperature thermo-alkaline pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) was studied, within the region of 0-0.2 M NaOH and 60-90°C, for the effects of NaOH concentration and temperature on sludge degradability in anaerobic digestion (AD). Significant disintegration of sludge solids (up to 75.6%) and an increase in methane production (up to 70.6%) were observed in the pretreatment trials. Two quadratic models were successfully generated by response surface analysis (R(2)>0.9, pdisintegration (SD) and methane production (MP) respond to changes in the pretreatment conditions. The maximum responses of SD (77.8%) and MP (73.9% increase over the control) were shown at [0.16 M NaOH, 90°C] and [0.10 M NaOH, 73.7°C], respectively. NaOH addition showed a significant influence on the evolution of methanogen community structure during AD, whereas temperature did not. Aceticlastic Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina speceies were likely the major methanogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3 month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  2. Optimising the anaerobic co-digestion of urban organic waste using dynamic bioconversion mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Dorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical anaerobic bioconversion models are often used as a convenient way to simulate the conversion of organic materials to biogas. The aim of the study was to apply a mathematical model for simulating the anaerobic co-digestion of various types of urban organic waste, in order to develop...... in a continuously stirred tank reactor. The model's outputs were validated with experimental results obtained in thermophilic conditions, with mixed sludge as a single substrate and urban organic waste as a co-substrate at hydraulic retention times of 30, 20, 15 and 10 days. The predicted performance parameter...... (methane productivity and yield) and operational parameter (concentration of ammonia and volatile fatty acid) values were reasonable and displayed good correlation and accuracy. The model was later applied to identify optimal scenarios for an urban organic waste co-digestion process. The simulation...

  3. Anaerobic digester for treatment of organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. K. [Indian Insitute of Technology, Delhi (India)]|[ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy); Fortuna, F.; Canditelli, M.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Farina, R. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The essential features of both new and more efficient reactor systems and their appropriate applications for various organic waste management situations, description of several working plants are discussed in the present communication. It is hoped that significant development reported here would be useful in opening a new vista to the application of anaerobic biotechnology for the waste treatment of both low/high organic strength and specialized treatment for toxic substances, using appropriate anaerobic methods.

  4. Sludge busters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  5. Sludge busters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-07-15

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  6. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  7. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  8. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  9. Production of oil and coke from sludges containing organic pollutants; Gewinnung von Oel und Koks aus organisch belasteten Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, M [Martin Steger GmbH, Eggenfelden (Germany); Meissner, W; Herold, R [Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Since the mid-eighties, Messrs. Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH at Hammerau, Germany have been investigating sewage sludge pyrolysis. Laboratory experiments and semi-industrial investigations led to the construction of a combined sludge drying and conversion plant (``Aicher sludge recycling process``), in which the organic sludge fraction is converted into recyclable or combustible oils. Carbon is obtained as a by-product in solid form as conversion coke which can be utilized. Apart from sewage sludge, also industrial sludges with high organic fractions can be processed, e.g. sludges and sewage sludges from petroleum processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschaeftigt sich die Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH in Hammerau seit Mitte der Achtzigerjahre mit der Niedertemperaturkonvertierung (Pyrolyse) von Klaerschlamm. Versuche im Labor- und im halbtechnischen Massstab fuehrten zur Realisierung einer betriebstechnischen Anlage mit den Komponenten Schlammtrocknung und Konvertierung. Ziel des Aicher-Schlamm-Recycling-Verfahrens ist die Umwandlung der organischen Schlammfraktion in stofflich und energetisch verwertbare Oele. Bei der Umwandlung entsteht fixer Kohlenstoff, der im festen Rueckstand (Konversionskoks) angereichert wird. Neben dem gewonnenen Oel ist auch der produzierte Koks verwertbar. Einsatzstoffe fuer das Verfahren sind neben Klaerschlamm aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung vor allem industrielle Schlaemme mit hohen organischen Anteilen z.B. Schlaemme und Klaerschlaemme aus der Erdoelverarbeitung. (orig.)

  10. pH-dependent biotransformation of ionizable organic micropollutants in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulde, Rebekka; Helbling, Damian E; Scheidegger, Andreas; Fenner, Kathrin

    2014-12-02

    Removal of micropollutants (MPs) during activated sludge treatment can mainly be attributed to biotransformation and sorption to sludge flocs, whereby the latter process is known to be of minor importance for polar organic micropollutants. In this work, we investigated the influence of pH on the biotransformation of MPs with cationic-neutral speciation in an activated sludge microbial community. We performed batch biotransformation, sorption control, and abiotic control experiments for 15 MPs with cationic-neutral speciation, one control MP with neutral-anionic speciation, and two neutral MPs at pHs 6, 7, and 8. Biotransformation rate constants corrected for sorption and abiotic processes were estimated from measured concentration time series with Bayesian inference. We found that biotransformation is pH-dependent and correlates qualitatively with the neutral fraction of the ionizable MPs. However, a simple speciation model based on the assumption that only the neutral species is efficiently taken up and biotransformed by the cells tends to overpredict the effect of speciation. Therefore, additional mechanisms such as uptake of the ionic species and other more complex attenutation mechanisms are discussed. Finally, we observed that the sorption coefficients derived from our control experiments were small and showed no notable pH-dependence. From this we conclude that pH-dependent removal of polar, ionizable organic MPs in activated sludge systems is less likely an effect of pH-dependent sorption but rather of pH-dependent biotransformation. The latter has the potential to cause marked differences in the removal of polar, ionizable MPs at different operational pHs during activated sludge treatment.

  11. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-08-28

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions

  12. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions

  13. pH neutralization of the by-product sludge waste water generated from waste concrete recycling process using the carbon mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Shin, Hee-young; Bang, Jun Hwan; Ahn, Ji-Whan

    2017-04-01

    About 44 Mt/year of waste concrete is generated in South Korea. More than 95% of this waste concrete is recycled. In the process of regenerating and recycling pulmonary concrete, sludge mixed with fine powder generated during repeated pulverization process and water used for washing the surface and water used for impurity separation occurs. In this way, the solid matter contained in the sludge as a by-product is about 40% of the waste concrete that was input. Due to the cement component embedded in the concrete, the sludge supernatant is very strong alkaline (pH about 12). And it is necessary to neutralization for comply with environmental standards. In this study, carbon mineralization method was applied as a method to neutralize the pH of highly alkaline waste water to under pH 8.5, which is the water quality standard of discharged water. CO2 gas (purity 99%, flow rate 10ml/min.) was injected and reacted with the waste water (Ca concentration about 750mg/L) from which solid matter was removed. As a result of the experiment, the pH converged to about 6.5 within 50 minutes of reaction. The precipitate showed high whiteness. XRD and SEM analysis showed that it was high purity CaCO3. For the application to industry, it is needed further study using lower concentration CO2 gas (about 14%) which generated from power plant.

  14. Evaluation of the influence of mechanical activation on physical and chemical properties of municipal solid waste incineration sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprai, V; Florea, M V A; Brouwers, H J H

    2018-06-15

    Despite numerous studies concerning the application of by-products in the construction field, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are not widely used as secondary building materials. In some European countries, washing treatment to the full bottom ash (BA) fraction (0-32 mm) is applied, isolating more contaminated particles, smaller than 0.063 mm. Therefore, a MWSI sludge is produced, having a high moisture content, and thus a limited presence of soluble species. In order to enhance its performance as building material, here, dry mechanical activation is applied on MSWI sludge. Thereafter, a reactivity comparison between reference BA and untreated and treated MSWI sludge is provided, evaluating their behaviour in the presence of cement and their pozzolanic activity. Moreover, the mechanical performances, as 25% substitution of Portland cement (PC) are assessed, based on the EN 450. Mechanical activation enhances MSWI sludge physically due to the improved particle morphology and packing. Chemically, the hydration degree of PC is enhanced by the MSWI sludge by ≈25%. The milling treatment proved to be beneficial to the residues performances in the presence of PC, providing 32% higher strength than untreated sample. Environmentally, the compliance with the unshaped material legislation is successfully verified, according to the Soil Quality Decree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of ozone and thermal hydrolysis combined with anaerobic digestion for municipal and pharmaceutical waste sludge with tetracycline resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jin; Yao, Hong; Wang, Hui; Ren, Jia; Yu, Xiaohua

    2016-08-01

    Biosolids from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which attract great concerns on their efficient treatments. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used for sewage sludge treatment but its effectiveness is limited due to the slow hydrolysis. Ozone and thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment were employed to improve AD efficiency and reduce antibiotic-resistant genes in municipal and pharmaceutical waste sludge (MWS and PWS, respectively) in this study. Sludge solubilization achieved 15.75-25.09% and 14.85-33.92% after ozone and thermal hydrolysis, respectively. Both pre-treatments improved cumulative methane production and the enhancements were greater on PWS than MWS. Five tetracycline-resistant genes (tet(A), tet(G), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(X)) and one mobile element (intI1) were qPCR to assess pre-treatments. AD of pre-treated sludge reduced more tet genes than raw sludge for both ozonation and thermal hydrolysis in PWS and MWS. Thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment was more efficient than ozone for reduction after AD. Results of this study help support management options for reducing the spread of antibiotic resistance from biosolids. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites

  18. Adaptation of SW-846 methodology for the organic analysis of radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Schenley, R.L.; Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E. Jr.; Fleming, G.S.; Harmon, S.H.; Wachter, L.J.; Garcia, M.E.; Edwards, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Modifications to SW-846 sample preparation methodology permit the organic analysis of radioactive mixed waste with minimum personal radiation exposure and equipment contamination. This paper describes modifications to SW-846 methods 5030 and 3510-3550 for sample preparation in radiation-zoned facilities (hood, glove box, and hot cell) and GC-MS analysis of the decontaminated organic extracts in a conventional laboratory for volatile and semivolatile organics by methods 8240 and 8270 (respectively). Results will be presented from the analysis of nearly 70 nuclear waste storage tank liquids and 17 sludges. Regulatory organics do not account for the organic matter suggested to be present by total organic carbon measurements. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Influence of organic matter transformations on the bioavailability of heavy metals in a sludge base compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, M. J.; Ingelmo, F.; Soriano, M. D.; Gallardo, A.; Lapena, L.

    2009-01-01

    The agricultural use of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS) as stable, mature compost implies knowing its total content in heavy metals and their bioavailability. since the chemical form of the metal in the sewage sludge-based compost depends on the effect of stabilization and maturation of the organic material during composting, the objective of this work was to examine the relationships between the changes in the organic matter content and humus fractions, and the bioavailability of heavy metals in a mixture of ADSS and wood chips (70:30 on wet basis) with an initial C/N ratio of 30.4, during its aerobic batch composting at 30 degree centigrade of external temperature in an open type lab-scale reactor with-out lixiviation. (Author)

  20. Influence of organic matter transformations on the bioavailability of heavy metals in a sludge base compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, M. J.; Ingelmo, F.; Soriano, M. D.; Gallardo, A.; Lapena, L.

    2009-07-01

    The agricultural use of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS) as stable, mature compost implies knowing its total content in heavy metals and their bioavailability. since the chemical form of the metal in the sewage sludge-based compost depends on the effect of stabilization and maturation of the organic material during composting, the objective of this work was to examine the relationships between the changes in the organic matter content and humus fractions, and the bioavailability of heavy metals in a mixture of ADSS and wood chips (70:30 on wet basis) with an initial C/N ratio of 30.4, during its aerobic batch composting at 30 degree centigrade of external temperature in an open type lab-scale reactor with-out lixiviation. (Author)

  1. Composting of waste paint sludge containing melamine resin as affected by nutrients and gypsum addition and microbial inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yongqiang; Chen Liming; Gao Lihong; Michel, Frederick C.; Wan Caixia; Li Yebo; Dick, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resins have hard and durable properties and are found in many products, including automobile paints. These resins contain high concentrations of nitrogen and, if properly composted, can yield valuable products. We evaluated the effects of starter compost, nutrients, gypsum and microbial inoculation on composting of paint sludge containing melamine resin. A bench-scale composting experiment was conducted at 55 °C for 91 days and then at 30 °C for an additional 56 days. After 91 days, the composts were inoculated with a mixed population of melamine-degrading microorganisms. Melamine resin degradation after the entire 147 days of composting varied between 73 and 95% for the treatments with inoculation of microorganisms compared to 55–74% for the treatments without inoculation. Degradation was also enhanced by nutrients and gypsum additions. Our results infer that large scale composting of melamine resins in paint sludge is possible. - Highlights: ► Melamine resin in waste paint sludges could be efficiently composted at bench scale. ► Melamine resin degradation after 147 days of composting was 73–95% complete. ► Nutrients, gypsum and melamine-degrading microorganisms increased composting rate. ► Melamine degradation products first increased and then decreased in the compost. ► Final compost was enriched in nitrogen and other essential plant nutrients. - Melamine resin in waste paint sludges was efficiently composted at bench scale, with finished composts having low levels of heavy metals and enriched in plant nutrients.

  2. Processing method for radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Kaneko, Masaaki.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive sludges contained in a storage tank is controlled, thereafter, a filter is charged into a processing vessel to continuously conduct dewatering. Then, the radioactive sludges and an oxidizer are mixed by stirring using a stirring impeller and by vibrations using a vibrator. At the same time, thermic rays are irradiated by using infrared ray lamps to heat and decompose them. Since thermic rays reach the center of the radioactive sludges by the infrared ray lamps, ion exchange resins are sufficiently decomposed and carbonized into inorganic material. Then, a filling hardener such as mortar cement having a good flowability is charged to solidify the wastes. With such procedures, radioactive sludges can be stored under a stable condition for a long period of time by decomposing organic materials into inorganic materials and solidifying them. Further, an operator's radiation exposure dose can remarkably be reduced by applying a predetermined and a stabilization treatment in an identical processing vessel. (N.H.)

  3. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2009-11-01

    Historical data on organic waste and wastewater treatment during the period of 1970-2020 were used to assess the impact of treatment on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. The assessment included the waste fractions: Sewage sludge, food waste, yard waste and other organic waste (paper, plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970-2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power production from the remaining organic municipal waste. Wastewater treatment has changed from direct discharge of untreated wastewater to full organic matter and nutrient (N, P) removal combined with anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production with power and heat generation. These changes in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed that the organic waste quantity and composition is the same in 1970 and 2005, the technology change over this time period has resulted in a progression from a net annual GHG emission of 200 kg CO( 2)-eq. capita(-1) in 1970 to a net saving of 170 kg CO(2)-eq. capita(-1) in 2005 for management of urban organic wastes.

  4. Nitrate removal from high strength nitrate-bearing wastes in granular sludge sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Mohan, Tulasi Venkata; Renu, Kadali; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda Venkata; Satya Sai, Pedapati Murali; Venugopalan, Vayalam Purath

    2016-02-01

    A 6-L sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for development of granular sludge capable of denitrification of high strength nitrates. Complete and stable denitrification of up to 5420 mg L(-1) nitrate-N (2710 mg L(-1) nitrate-N in reactor) was achieved by feeding simulated nitrate waste at a C/N ratio of 3. Compact and dense denitrifying granular sludge with relatively stable microbial community was developed during reactor operation. Accumulation of large amounts of nitrite due to incomplete denitrification occurred when the SBR was fed with 5420 mg L(-1) NO3-N at a C/N ratio of 2. Complete denitrification could not be achieved at this C/N ratio, even after one week of reactor operation as the nitrite levels continued to accumulate. In order to improve denitrification performance, the reactor was fed with nitrate concentrations of 1354 mg L(-1), while keeping C/N ratio at 2. Subsequently, nitrate concentration in the feed was increased in a step-wise manner to establish complete denitrification of 5420 mg L(-1) NO3-N at a C/N ratio of 2. The results show that substrate concentration plays an important role in denitrification of high strength nitrate by influencing nitrite accumulation. Complete denitrification of high strength nitrates can be achieved at lower substrate concentrations, by an appropriate acclimatization strategy. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Change of heavy metal speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and ecological risk during potassium ferrate treatment of waste-activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Zhang, Jian; Tian, Yu

    2018-05-01

    The effects of potassium ferrate treatment on the heavy metal concentrations, speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and environmental risk in waste-activated sludge (WAS) at various dosages of potassium ferrate and different treatment times were investigated. Results showed that the total concentrations of all metals (except Cd) were decreased slightly after treatment and the order of metal concentrations in WAS and treated waste-activated sludge (TWAS) was Mg > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. Most heavy metals in WAS remained in TWAS after potassium ferrate treatment with metal residual rates over 67.8% in TWAS. The distribution of metal speciation in WAS was affected by potassium ferrate treatment. The bioavailability and the mobility of heavy metals (except Mg) in TWAS were mitigated, compared to those in WAS. Meanwhile, the environmental risk of heavy metals (except Pb and Cu) was alleviated after potassium ferrate treatment.

  6. Effect of low solids retention time and focused pulsed pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Su; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-02-01

    The interacting effects of Focused Pulsed (FP) treatment and solids retention time (SRT) were evaluated in laboratory-scale digesters operated at SRTs of 2-20 days. Anaerobic digestion and methanogenesis of waste activated