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Sample records for organic molecular beam

  1. Ion beam effects in organic molecular solids and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T.; Calcagno, L.; Elman, B.S.; Foti, G.

    1987-01-01

    In general ion implantation leads to irreversible changes in organic films and hence it is important to understand the damage mechanisms in these solids. Most of the technology based on irradiation effects in organics must somehow make use of the fact that the chemistry of the organic films is easily changed. This chapter is organized to explore the various ion induced chemical changes in the organic films followed by a description of the optical and electrical property changes produced in the films due to the ion irradiation

  2. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  3. Importance of dewetting in organic molecular-beam deposition: Pentacene on gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beernink, G.; Strunskus, T.; Witte, G.; Woell, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Organic molecular-beam deposition of pentacene on gold substrates has been investigated using a multitechnique approach. The morphology of the organic thin films depends strongly on the substrate temperature. Pronounced dewetting and island formation are observed at room temperature. Whereas pentacene molecules adopt a planar monolayer structure, they continue to grow in an upright orientation in multilayer films as inferred from x-ray absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. These results are in pronounced contrast to a recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study by Kang and Zhu [Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3248 (2003)] and indicate fundamental problems in the interpretation of STM measurements for organic thin films

  4. Investigation into the use of molecular hydrogen on the growth of gallium nitride via metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Daniel; Pritchett, David; Henderson, Walter; Carver, Alexander G.; Burnham, Shawn D.; Doolittle, W.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 777 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) has been investigated as a means to improve ammonia nitridation efficiency and attempts to reduce carbon contamination in ammonia-based metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE). A 30% improvement in crystalline quality, inferred from XRD, as well as an increase in subsequent GaN bulk growth rate was observed when bare sapphire was subject to H{sub 2} annealing before nitridation. However, the use of H{sub 2} during GaN homoepitaxy on GaN templates resulted in increased carbon contamination and decreased growth rate of GaN. The results demonstrate promise and proper uses of H{sub 2} during GaN growth under certain conditions. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Chemical intermediate detection following corona discharge on volatile organic compounds: general method using molecular beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Luning; Sulkes, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma (NTP)-based treatments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have potential for effective environmental remediation. Theory and experiment that consider the basic science pertaining to discharge events have helped improve NTP remediation outcomes. If direct information on early post-discharge chemical intermediates were also available, it would likely lead to additional improvement in NTP remediation outcomes. To this point, however, experiments yielding direct information on post-NTP VOC intermediates have been limited. An approach using supersonic expansion molecular beam methods offers general promise for detection of post-discharge VOC intermediates. To illustrate the potential utility of these methods, we present mass spectra showing the growth of early products formed when pulsed corona discharges were carried out on toluene in He and then in He with added O 2 . Good general detection of neutral post-discharge species was obtained using 800 nm 150 fs photoionization pulses.

  6. Crossed molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities with crossed molecular beams at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: scattering of Ar*, Kr*, with Xe; metastable rare gas interactions, He* + H 2 ; an atomic and molecular halogen beam source; a crossed molecular beam study of the Cl + Br 2 → BrCl + Br reaction; O( 3 P) reaction dynamics, development of the high pressure plasma beam source; energy randomization in the Cl + C 2 H 3 Br → Br + C 2 H 3 Cl reaction; high resolution photoionization studies of NO and ICl; photoionization of (H 2 O)/sub n/ and (NH 3 ) 2 ; photoionization mass spectroscopy of NH 3 + and O 3 + ; photo fragmentation of bromine; and construction of chemiluminescence-laser fluorescence crossed molecular beam machine

  7. High mobility n-type organic thin-film transistors deposited at room temperature by supersonic molecular beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarella, F., E-mail: fabio.chiarella@spin.cnr.it; Barra, M.; Ciccullo, F.; Cassinese, A. [CNR-SPIN and Physics Department, University of Naples, Piazzale Tecchio 80, I-80125 Naples (Italy); Toccoli, T.; Aversa, L.; Tatti, R.; Verucchi, R. [IMEM-CNR-FBK Division of Trento, Via alla Cascata 56/C, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Iannotta, S. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy)

    2014-04-07

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication of N,N′-1H,1H-perfluorobutil dicyanoperylenediimide (PDIF-CN{sub 2}) organic thin-film transistors by Supersonic Molecular Beam Deposition. The devices exhibit mobility up to 0.2 cm{sup 2}/V s even if the substrate is kept at room temperature during the organic film growth, exceeding by three orders of magnitude the electrical performance of those grown at the same temperature by conventional Organic Molecular Beam Deposition. The possibility to get high-mobility n-type transistors avoiding thermal treatments during or after the deposition could significantly extend the number of substrates suitable to the fabrication of flexible high-performance complementary circuits by using this compound.

  8. Use of molecular beams for the analysis of liquid and solid organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.; Giroud, Josiane.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical composition of every solid can be determined by the M.B.S.A. method (Molecular Beam Surface Analysis). The method was used to analyze deposits on a filter paper, obtained by evaporation of a liquid solution, as well a liquid films with very low evaporation rate (dioctyl-azelate for instance). The S.C.I.C. method (Separation of Ions by Collision) was used to know exactly the composition of ions of fixed mass, separated by an electromagnet. The separated ions collide a target gas (helium or argon); apart of them are dissociated and the composition and structure of the primary ions can be deduced from the kinetic energy of the dissociated ions. Results obtained from such analysis of a thin film of baryum acetate on a platinum substrate are given [fr

  9. Characteristics of OTFTs based on α-ω- Dihexyl-sexithiophene(DH6T) using Organic Molecular Beam Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dae Hee; Park, Byung Eun

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated an organic thin film transistor using organic semiconductor material α-ω- Dihexyl-sexithiophene (DH6T). The organic semiconductor was deposited using organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD). The deposition rate was 0.3A/s and the final thickness was 100 nm. After deposition, we annealed at 40 deg. C, 60 deg. C, 80 deg. C. In present, DH6T was used as a p-type semiconductor, so we measured 0V∼-40V. We measured drain current versus drain voltage, drain current versus gate voltage, calculated mobility and On/Off ratio at 40 deg. C, 60 deg. C, 80 deg. C. The field-effect mobility was 8x10- 3 , 9x10- 3 , 1.2x10- 2 , and on/off ratio was 1.75x10- 2 , 1.85x10- 2 , 2.17x10- 2 , respectively.

  10. CH2 molecular beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.A.R.; Grosser, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular beam source of CH 2 is described. Coaxial beams of methylene halide and alkali metal react and the mixture is formed into a molecular beam. Passage through a mechanical velocity selector rotating at a suitably high speed purifies the beam, separating light, fast CH 2 from heavier, slower contaminating species

  11. Molecular-beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N 2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl → NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2 2 P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3 2 P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included

  12. Molecular beam kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R. Jr.

    1975-11-01

    The design of a crossed molecular beam ''supermachine'' for neutral--neutral collisions is discussed. The universal electron bombardment ionizer, mass filter, and ion detection system of the detector, the supersonic nozzle sources, the differential pumping arrangement for the sources and detector, the time-of-flight detection of scattered products, and the overall configuration of the apparatus are described. The elastic scattering of two systems, CH 4 + Ar and NH 3 + Ar, has been measured using the supermachine with two supersonic nozzle sources. The rainbow structure and the interference oscillations are seen in each system. The best fit to the data was found using a Morse--Spline--Van der Waals (MSV) potential. The three potential parameters epsilon, r/sub m/, and β were found to be 2.20(+-0.04) x 10 -14 ergs, 3.82(+-0.04)A, and 7.05 +- 0.20 for CH 4 + Ar, and 2.21(+-0.04) x 10 -14 ergs 3.93 (+-0.05)A, and 8.45 +- 0.30 for NH 3 + Ar. A new phenomenon in crossed molecular beams of condensation of a molecule on a cluster to form a complex was observed. A bromine molecule condensed on clusters of chlorine (Cl 2 )/sub chi/ and ammonia (NH 3 )/sub chi/. The value of chi for measurements in these experiments ranges from 7 to 40 for chlorine clusters and from 10 to 70 ammonia clusters

  13. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  14. Photoelectron photoion molecular beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevor, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    The use of supersonic molecular beams in photoionization mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy to assist in the understanding of photoexcitation in the vacuum ultraviolet is described. Rotational relaxation and condensation due to supersonic expansion were shown to offer new possibilities for molecular photoionization studies. Molecular beam photoionization mass spectroscopy has been extended above 21 eV photon energy by the use of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) facilities. Design considerations are discussed that have advanced the state-of-the-art in high resolution vuv photoelectron spectroscopy. To extend gas-phase studies to 160 eV photon energy, a windowless vuv-xuv beam line design is proposed

  15. Growth of Pb(Ti,Zr)O 3 thin films by metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrutin, V.; Liu, H. Y.; Izyumskaya, N.; Xiao, B.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2009-02-01

    Single-crystal Pb(Zr xTi 1-x)O 3 thin films have been grown on (0 0 1) SrTiO 3 and SrTiO 3:Nb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using metal-organic source of Zr and two different sources of reactive oxygen—RF plasma and hydrogen-peroxide sources. The same growth modes and comparable structural properties were observed for the films grown with both oxygen sources, while the plasma source allowed higher growth rates. The films with x up to 0.4 were single phase, while attempts to increase x beyond gave rise to the ZrO 2 second phase. The effects of growth conditions on growth modes, Zr incorporation, and phase composition of the Pb(Zr xTi 1-x)O 3 films are discussed. Electrical and ferroelectric properties of the Pb(Zr xTi 1-x)O 3 films of ~100 nm in thickness grown on SrTiO 3:Nb were studied using current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and polarization-field measurements. The single-phase films show low leakage currents and large breakdown fields, while the values of remanent polarization are low (around 5 μC/cm 2). It was found that, at high sweep fields, the contribution of the leakage current to the apparent values of remanent polarization can be large, even for the films with large electrical resistivity (˜10 8-10 9 Ω cm at an electric filed of 1 MV/cm). The measured dielectric constant ranges from 410 to 260 for Pb(Zr 0.33Ti 0.67)O 3 and from 313 to 213 for Pb(Zr 0.2Ti 0.8)O 3 in the frequency range from 100 to 1 MHz.

  16. A recycling molecular beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Silva, G.; Haller, G.L.; Fenn, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    In a Recycling Molecular Beam Reactor, RMBR, a beam of reactant gas molecules is formed from a supersonic free jet. After collision with a target the molecules pass through the vacuum pumps and are returned to the nozzle source. Continuous recycling permits the integration of very small reaction probabilities into measurable conversions which can be analyzed by gas chromatography. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out on the isomerization of cyclopropane

  17. Molecular-beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, S.; Parks, E.K.; Young, C.E.; Dehmer, P.M.; Kuhry, J.G.; Cohen, R.B.; Pobo, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    Highlights of experimental results obtained with chemical accelerators are described under the following headings: development of an aerodynamic source of fast I atoms and I 2 molecules; chemi-ionization processes in collisions of uranium atoms with oxygen molecules; chemi-ionization reactions in other metal--O 2 collisions (La, Ce, Th); kinetic surface ionization; and single-crystal beam source. Relative cross sections for formation of various collision products are shown, as a function of energy in the eV range. (12 figures) (U.S.)

  18. Versatile piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source for gaseous compounds and organic molecules with femtomole accuracy for UHV and surface science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiesser, Alexander; Schaefer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the construction of a piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source based upon a design presented in an earlier work [D. Proch and T. Trickl, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 713 (1988)]. The design features significant modifications that permit the determination of the number of molecules in a beam pulse with an accuracy of 1x10 11 molecules per pulse. The 21 cm long plunger-nozzle setup allows the molecules to be brought to any point of the UHV chamber with very high intensity. Furthermore, besides typical gaseous compounds, also smaller organic molecules with a vapor pressure higher than 0.1 mbar at room temperature may serve as feed material. This makes the new design suitable for various applications in chemical and surface science studies.

  19. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO)/sub 2/, ArICl, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO)/sub 2/, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO/sup +/, Ar/sub 2//sup +/, Kr/sub 2//sup +/, and Xe/sub 2//sup +/ have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed.

  20. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C 2 H 2 and CH 3 I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO) 2 , ArICl, Ar 2 , Kr 2 and Xe 2 have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO) 2 , Ar 2 , Kr 2 and Xe 2 van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO + , Ar 2 + , Kr 2 + , and Xe 2 + have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed

  1. Photodissociation processes in molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    A description is presented of a study of the photodissociation dynamics of molecules in a molecular beam. Photo-fragmentation translational spectroscopy has been utilized to observe the photodissociation dynamics of ozone. Using a supersonic molecular beam and a 10 nanosecond pulsed laser at lambda = 266 nm, the velocities of the fragment products are measured by the method of time of flight. The resolution of the time of flight spectrum of ozone is sufficiently high that the electronic and vibrational states are clearly resolved and identified. Above the threshold (lambda 1 D) has been estimated in the past to be unity for the process O 3 ( 1 A 1 ) + hν)lambda 3 ( 1 B 2 ) → O 2 ( 1 Δ/sub g/) + O( 1 D). However a small production of O 2 ( 3 Σ/sub g/ - ) + O( 3 P) has been observed in this study. The O 2 ( 1 Δ/sub g/) product yields four vibrational states (v = 0, 1, 2, 3) which yields a vibrational temperature of 2700 0 K along with narrow energy distributions of rotational levels. These energy distributions are compared with photodissociation models along with the polarization dependence of the dissociative process which was also measured. 143 references

  2. Photodissociation processes in molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    A description is presented of a study of the photodissociation dynamics of molecules in a molecular beam. Photo-fragmentation translational spectroscopy has been utilized to observe the photodissociation dynamics of ozone. Using a supersonic molecular beam and a 10 nanosecond pulsed laser at lambda = 266 nm, the velocities of the fragment products are measured by the method of time of flight. The resolution of the time of flight spectrum of ozone is sufficiently high that the electronic and vibrational states are clearly resolved and identified. Above the threshold (lambda < 310 nm), the quantum yield for the production of O(/sup 1/D) has been estimated in the past to be unity for the process O/sub 3/ (/sup 1/A/sub 1/) + h..nu..)lambda < 300 nm) ..-->.. O/sub 3/(/sup 1/B/sub 2/) ..-->.. O/sub 2/(/sup 1/..delta../sub g/) + O(/sup 1/D). However a small production of O/sub 2/ (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/) + O(/sup 3/P) has been observed in this study. The O/sub 2/(/sup 1/..delta../sub g/) product yields four vibrational states (v = 0, 1, 2, 3) which yields a vibrational temperature of 2700/sup 0/K along with narrow energy distributions of rotational levels. These energy distributions are compared with photodissociation models along with the polarization dependence of the dissociative process which was also measured. 143 references.

  3. Beam formation in molecular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwald, B.A.

    1974-01-01

    Comparison of experimental angular distribution data with theoretical models has show a considerable disagreement with the Clausing model (free molecular flow with diffuse reflexion). For a real system this idealized model has to be modified by taking into consideration possible perturbations of the Clausing flow chemical reactions, surface diffusion and deviations from diffuse reflexion. By comparison with the diffusion differential equation and Monte Carlo stimulations, it has been shown that the iteration of a system of appropriately modified Clausing integral equations is especially suited for solving this complex problem. Suitable characterized parameters for angular distribution data are the beam half-width upsilon 1/2 and the peaking factor chi defined according to Olander and Jones. The computer program in a first step calculates the real steady state of molecular flow. In a second step the computer program calculates the dependence of upsilon 1/2 and chi upon the parameters L/2R (orifice geometry) and m' (order of the surface reaction preceding the desorption from the inner wall of the cylindrical orifice). For the real steady state of molecular flow

  4. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation & dynamics; and surfaces.

  5. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation dynamics; and surfaces.

  6. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation ampersand dynamics; and surfaces

  7. Atomic and molecular beams production and collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Cyril Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Atomic and molecular beams are employed in physics and chemistry experiments and, to a lesser extent, in the biological sciences. These beams enable atoms to be studied under collision-free conditions and allow the study of their interaction with other atoms, charged particles, radiation, and surfaces. Atomic and Molecular Beams: Production and Collimation explores the latest techniques for producing a beam from any substance as well as from the dissociation of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and the halogens.The book not only provides the basic expressions essential to beam design but also offers

  8. PULSED MOLECULAR BEAM PRODUCTION WITH NOZZLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagena, Otto-Friedrich

    1963-05-15

    Molecular beam experiments that can be carried out in pulsed operation may be performed at considerably reduced expense for apparatus if, for pulse generation, the gas supply to the beam production system is interrupted as opposed to the usual steady molecular beam. This technique is studied by measuring intensity vs time of molecular beam impulses of varying length, how fast and through which intermediate states the initial intensity of the impulse attains equilibrium, and in which way the intensity of the molecular-beam impulse is affected by the pulse length and by increasing pressure in the first pressure stage. For production of pulses, a magnetically actuated, quick shutting, valve is used whose scaling area is the inlet cone of the nozzle used for the beam generation. The shortest pulses produced had a pulse length of 1.6 ms. (auth)

  9. Experimental study of the molecular beam destruction by beam-beam and beam-background scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossel, U.; Dettleff, G.

    1974-01-01

    The extraction of flow properties related to the molecular motion normal to stream lines of an expanding gas jet from observed intensity profiles of supersonic beams is critically assessed. The perturbation of the profile curves by various effects is studied for a helium beam. Exponential laws appear to describe scattering effects to a satisfactory degree

  10. Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Kuba, J.; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Hájková, Věra; Koptyaev, Sergey; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Bergh, M.; Caleman, C.; Hajdu, J.; Bionta, R.M.; Chapman, H.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; London, R.A.; Jurek, M.; Krzywinski, J.; Nietubyc, R.; Pelka, J. B.; Sobierajski, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Tronnier, A.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Stojanovic, N.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Wabnitz, H.; Zastrau, U.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 10 (2007), s. 6036-6042 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA235; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1K05026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : free-electron laser * soft X-rays * focusing * beam profile * ablation threshold * laser-matter interaction Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2007

  11. Molecular beam epitaxy a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W

    2015-01-01

    This volume describes the development of molecular beam epitaxy from its origins in the 1960s through to the present day. It begins with a short historical account of other methods of crystal growth, both bulk and epitaxial, to set the subject in context, emphasising the wide range of semiconductor materials employed. This is followed by an introduction to molecular beams and their use in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the development of the microwave MASER.

  12. Influence of growth conditions and surface reaction byproducts on GaN grown via metal organic molecular beam epitaxy: Toward an understanding of surface reaction chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, David; Henderson, Walter; Burnham, Shawn D.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-04-01

    The surface reaction byproducts during the growth of GaN films via metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) were investigated as a means to optimize material properties. Ethylene and ethane were identified as the dominant surface reaction hydrocarbon byproducts, averaging 27.63% and 7.15% of the total gas content present during growth. Intense ultraviolet (UV) photoexcitation during growth was found to significantly increase the abundance of ethylene and ethane while reducing the presence of H2 and N2. At 920°C, UV excitation was shown to enhance growth rate and crystalline quality while reducing carbon incorporation. Over a limited growth condition range, a 4.5×1019-3.4×1020 cm-3 variation in carbon incorporation was achieved at constant high vacuum. Coupled with growth rate gains, UV excitation yielded films with ˜58% less integrated carbon content. Structural material property variations are reported for various ammonia flows and growth temperatures. The results suggest that high carbon incorporation can be achieved and regulated during MOMBE growth and that in-situ optimization through hydrocarbon analysis may provide further enhancement in the allowable carbon concentration range.

  13. Molecular-beam spectroscopy of interhalogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrow, S.A.

    1983-08-01

    A molecular-beam electric-resonance spectrometer employing a supersonic nozzle source has been used to obtain hyperfine spectra of 79 Br 35 Cl. Analyses of these spectra and of microwave spectra published by other authors have yielded new values for the electric dipole moment and for the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in this molecule. The new constants are significantly different from the currently accepted values. Van der Waals clusters containing chlorine monofluoride have been studied under various expansion conditions by the molecular-beam electric-deflection method. The structural possibilities indicated by the results are discussed, and cluster geometries are proposed

  14. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  15. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-17

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  16. Rovibrational optical pumping of a molecular beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournol, A.; Pillet, P.; Lignier, H.; Comparat, D.

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of molecules in well-defined internal states is essential for various studies in fundamental physics and physical chemistry. It is thus of particular interest to find methods that increase the brightness of molecular beams. Here, we report on rotational and vibrational pumpings of a supersonic beam of barium monofluoride molecules. With respect to previous works, the time scale of optical vibrational pumping has been greatly reduced by enhancing the spectral power density in the vicinity of the appropriate molecular transitions. We demonstrate a complete transfer of the rovibrational populations lying in v″=1 -3 into the vibrational ground-state v″=0 . Rotational pumping, which requires efficient vibrational pumping, has been also demonstrated. According to a Maxwell-Boltzmann description, the rotational temperature of our sample has been reduced by a factor of ˜8 . In this fashion, the population of the lowest rotational levels increased by more than one order of magnitude.

  17. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams provide a unique source of energetic projectile nuclei which are correlated in space and time. The recognition of this property has prompted several recent investigations of various aspects of the interactions of these ions with matter. High-resolution measurements on the fragments resulting from these interactions have already yielded a wealth of new information on such diverse topics as plasma oscillations in solids and stereochemical structures of molecular ions as well as a variety of atomic collision phenomena. The general features of several such experiments will be discussed and recent results will be presented

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, J.E.; Trevor, D.J.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution photoelectron spectrometer which uses molecular beam sampling is described. Photons from a rare-gas resonance lamp or UV laser are crossed with the beam from a differentially pumped supersonic nozzle source. The resulting photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic analyzer of a unique design consisting of a 90 0 spherical sector preanalyzer, a system of lenses, and a 180 0 hemispherical deflector. A multichannel detection system based on dual microchannel plates with a resistive anode position encoder provides an increase in counting efficiency by a factor of 12 over the equivalent single channel detector. The apparatus has demonstrated an instrumental resolution of better than 10 meV FWHM, limited largely by the photon source linewidth. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to characterize the composition of the molecular beam. Extensive differential pumping is provided to protect the critical surfaces of the analyzer and mass spectrometer from contamination. Because of the near elimination of Doppler and rotational broadenings, the practical resolution is the highest yet obtained in molecular PES

  19. Pumping requirements and options for molecular beam epitaxy and gas source molecular beam epitaxy/chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollum, M.J.; Plano, M.A.; Haase, M.A.; Robbins, V.M.; Jackson, S.L.; Cheng, K.Y.; Stillman, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of gas sources in growth by MBE as a result of current interest in growth of InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs lattice matched to InP. For gas flows greater than a few sccm, pumping speed requirements dictate the use of turbomolecular or diffusion pumps. GaAs samples with high p-type mobilities have been grown with diffusion pumped molecular beam epitaxial system. According to the authors, this demonstration of the inherent cleanliness of a properly designed diffusion pumping system indicates that a diffusion pump is an excellent inexpensive and reliable choice for growth by molecular beam epitaxy and gas source molecular beam epitaxy/chemical beam epitaxy

  20. Gas flow parameter determination by molecular beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarvin, A.E.; Sharafutdinov, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes a molecular-beam system intended for studying nonequilibrium processes in supersonic rarefied gas flows. The system represented is a small molecular beam source placed inside the low intensity wind tunnel of the Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The time-of-flight method is used for measuring molecular velocity distribution functions on molecular beam axis. (Auth.)

  1. Molecular beam epitaxy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1984-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is most commonly used to fabricate super-lattices, high electron mobility transistors, multi-quantum well lasers and other new semiconductor devices by utilizing its excellent controlability. MBE for the future is presumed to include techniques such as metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, photochemical reaction process using gas sources and ion implantation. A report on the crystal growth of GaAs using metalorganics, trimethylgallium and triethylgallium, which are usually used in chemical vapor deposition, as gaseous sources of gallium in an MBE system is made. (Author) [pt

  2. Molecular beam studies and hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Lee, Y.T.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the crossed molecular beam technique to the study of hot atom chemistry has provided significant insights into the dynamics of hot atom reaction. To illustrate this, two recent studies are discussed. Those are the study on the influence of translational energy in 0.6 to 1.5 eV range on endoergic reaction, and the experimental study on the detailed dynamics of elementary reaction at translational energy of 0.53 and 1.01 eV. The first example illustrates the contribution that molecular beam experiment can make in the understanding of the dynamics of endoergic substitution reaction. The second example illustrates the role that such studies can play in evaluating exact three-dimensional quantum scattering calculation and ab initio potential energy surfaces for chemical reaction. In the case of endoergic reaction of halogen substitution, it was observed that the reactive collision involved short lived collision complexes. It is suggested that energetic effect alone cannot account for the difference in cross sections, and dynamic effect most play a large role. In atom-diatom reaction, the differential cross section measurement of D+H 2 →DH+H reaction was carried out, and the results are discussed. (K.I.)

  3. Photoelectron spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1982-05-01

    A new technique for performing high resolution molecular photoelectron spectroscopy is described, beginning with its conceptual development, through the construction of a prototypal apparatus, to the initial applications on a particularly favorable molecular system. The distinguishing features of this technique are: (1) the introduction of the sample in the form of a collimated supersonic molecular beam; and (2) the use of an electrostatic deflection energy analyzer which is carefully optimized in terms of sensitivity and resolution. This combination makes it possible to obtain photoelectron spectra at a new level of detail for many small molecules. Three experiments are described which rely on the capability to perform rotationally-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on the hydrogen molecule and its isotopes. The first is a measurement of the ionic vibrational and rotational spectroscopic constants and the vibrationally-selected photoionization cross sections. The second is a determination of the photoelectron asymmetry parameter, β, for selected rotational transitions. The third is an investigation of the rotational relaxation in a free jet expansion, using photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of the rotational state population distributions. In the closing chapter an assessment is made of the successes and limitations of the technique, and an indication is given of areas for further improvement in future spectrometers

  4. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and ion-beam analysis systems for functional materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Naramoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental systems for molecular beam epitaxial growth and ion beam analysis have been designed and constructed for the research of inorganic functional materials such as thin films and superlattices. (author)

  5. Angular momentum alignment in molecular beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treffers, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how the angular momentum alignment in a molecular beam can be determined using laser-induced fluorescence in combination with precession of the angular momenta in a magnetic field. After a general analysis of the method, some results are presented to illustrate the possibilities of the method. Experimental data are presented on the alignment production for Na 2 molecules that made a collision induced angular momentum transition. Magnitude as well as direction of the alignment have been determined for scattering with several scattering partners and for a large number of scattering angles and transitions. The last chapter deals with the total alignment production in a final J-state, i.e. without state selection of the initial rotational state. (orig.)

  6. Molecular beam epitaxy applications to key materials

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, Robin F C

    1995-01-01

    In this volume, the editor and contributors describe the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for a range of key materials systems that are of interest for both technological and fundamental reasons. Prior books on MBE have provided an introduction to the basic concepts and techniques of MBE and emphasize growth and characterization of GaAs-based structures. The aim in this book is somewhat different; it is to demonstrate the versatility of the technique by showing how it can be utilized to prepare and explore a range of distinct and diverse materials. For each of these materials systems MBE has played a key role both in their development and application to devices.

  7. Twenty years of molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A. Y.

    1995-05-01

    The term "molecular beam epitaxy" (MBE) was first used in one of our crystal growth papers in 1970, after having conducted extensive surface physics studies in the late 1960's of the interaction of atomic and molecular beams with solid surfaces. The unique feature of MBE is the ability to prepare single crystal layers with atomic dimensional precision. MBE sets the standard for epitaxial growth and has made possible semiconductor structures that could not be fabricated with either naturally existing materials or by other crystal growth techniques. MBE led the crystal growth technologies when it prepared the first semiconductor quantum well and superlattice structures that gave unexpected and exciting electrical and optical properties. For example, the discovery of the fractional quantized Hall effect. It brought experimental quantum physics to the classroom, and practically all major universities throughout the world are now equipped with MBE systems. The fundamental principles demonstrated by the MBE growth of III-V compound semiconductors have also been applied to the growth of group IV, II-VI, metal, and insulating materials. For manufacturing, the most important criteria are uniformity, precise control of the device structure, and reproducibility. MBE has produced more lasers (3 to 5 million per month for compact disc application) than any other crystal growth technique in the world. New directions for MBE are to incorporate in-situ, real-time monitoring capabilities so that complex structures can be precisely "engineered". In the future, as environmental concerns increase, the use of toxic arsine and phosphine may be limited. Successful use of valved cracker cells for solid arsenic and phosphorus has already produced InP based injection lasers.

  8. Molecular beam studies of stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Teresa Anne

    1998-12-01

    Photochemistry of chlorine oxide containing species plays a major role in stratospheric ozone depletion. This thesis discusses two photodissociation studies of the key molecules ClONO2 and ClOOCl which were previously thought to only produce Cl-atom (ozone depleting) products at wavelengths relevant to the stratosphere. The development of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl and the photodissociation dynamics of the model system Cl2O are also discussed. In the first chapter, the photochemistry of ClONO2 is examined at 308 nm using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy. Two primary decomposition pathways, leading to Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2, were observed, with a lower limit of 0.33 for the relative yield of ClO. The angular distributions for both channels were anisotropic, indicating that the dissociation occurs within a rotational period. Chapter two revisits the photodissociation dynamics of Cl2O at 248 and 308 nm, on which we had previously reported preliminary findings. At 248 nm, three distinct dissociation pathways leading to Cl + ClO products were resolved. At 308 nm, the angular distribution was slightly more isotropic that previously reported, leaving open the possibility that Cl2O excited at 308 nm lives longer than a rotational period. Chapter three describes the development and optimization of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl. We utilized pulsed laser photolysis of ClA2O to generate ClO radicals, and cooled the cell to promote three body recombination to form ClOOCl. The principal components in the beam were Cl2, Cl2O, and ClOOCl. In the fourth chapter, the photodissociation dynamics of ClOOCl are investigated at 248 and 308 nm. We observed multiple dissociation pathways which produced ClO + ClO and 2Cl + O2 products. The relative Cl:ClO product yields are 1.0:0.13 and 1.0:0.20 for ClOOCl photolysis at 248 and 308 nm, respectively. The upper limit for the relative yield of the ClO + ClO channel was 0.19 at 248 nm and 0.31 at 308 nm

  9. Properties of Molecular organized assemblies at interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr.AURNA

    Organized molecular assemblies. An organized molecular assembly is a group of atoms or ..... Simulations of the growth of clusters on a .... dynamics and function. ➢Actively ... Study of amphiphilic derivatives of YIGSR, mutated at hyper active ...

  10. A source of translationally cold molecular beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Laszlo C.

    Currently the fields studying or using molecules with low kinetic energies are experiencing an unprecedented growth. Astronomers and chemists are interested in chemical reactions taking place at temperatures below or around 20 K, spectroscopists could make very precise measurements on slow molecules and molecular physicists could chart the potential energy surfaces more accurately. And the list continues. All of these experiments need slow molecules, with kinetic energies from around 10 cm-1 down to 0. Several designs of cold sources have already been made. The most interesting ones are presented. This work describes the design and the testing of a cold source based on the collisional cooling technique: the molecules of interest are cooled well below their freezing point by a precooled buffer gas. This way condensation is avoided. The source is a copper cell cooled to 4.2 K by an external liquid helium bath. The cell is filled with cold buffer gas (helium). The molecules of choice (ammonia) are injected through a narrow tube in the middle of the cell. The cold molecules leave the cell through a 1 millimeter hole. Two versions of pulsing techniques have been employed: a shutter blade which covers the source hole and opens it only for short moments, and a chopper that modulates the beam further downstream. Both produced pulse lengths around 1 millisecond. The source is tested in an experiment in which the emerging molecules are focused and detected. Time of flight technique is used to measure the kinetic energies. Two detectors have been employed: a microwave cavity to analyze the state of the molecules in the beam, and a mass spectrometer to measure the number density of the particles. The molecules coming out of the source hole are formed into a beam by an electrostatic quadrupole state selector. The quantum mechanical aspects and the elements of electrodynamics involved in the focusing are described. A computer simulation program is presented, which helped

  11. Molecular beam epitaxy of graphene on mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Mehr, W.; Lupina, G.; Herziger, F.; Maultzsch, J.; Baringhaus, J.; Tegenkamp, C.; Lemme, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Realization of graphene devices is often hindered by the fact that the known layer growth methods do not meet the requirements of the device fabrication in silicon mainstream technology. For example, the relatively straightforward method of decomposition of hexagonal SiC is not CMOS-compatible due to the high-thermal budget it requires [Moon et al., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 260 (2010)]. Techniques based on layer transfer are restricted because of the uncertainty of residual metal contaminants, particles, and structural defects. Of interest is thus a method that would allow one to grow a graphene film directly in the device area where graphene is needed. Production of large area graphene is not necessarily required in this case, but high quality of the film and metal-free growth on an insulating substrate at temperatures below 1000 C are important requirements. We demonstrate direct growth of defect-free graphene on insulators at moderate temperatures by molecular beam epitaxy. The quality of the graphene was probed by high-resolution Raman spectroscopy, indicating a negligible density of defects. The spectra are compared with those from graphene flakes mechanically exfoliated from native graphite onto mica. These results are combined with insights from density functional theory calculations. A model of graphene growth on mica and similar substrates is proposed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1991-03-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation

  13. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation.

  14. Monitoring the beam flux in molecular beam epitaxy using laser multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, R.; Sogard, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe a method using laser nonresonant multiphoton ionization to measure beam flux in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) systems. The results were obtained in a test chamber where a focused excimer laser beam was used to photoionize a small fraction of the atomic and molecular beams. The constituents of the beams were identified by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ion signal strength was found to be directly correlated to the temperature of the atomic beam oven. Good stability and sensitivity on gallium, aluminum, and silicon atomic beams was demonstrated. Arsenic was also detected. We demonstrated very sensitive detection of contaminant atomic and molecular constituents of our system. We have also detected the presence of short-term fluctuations in the gallium flux from an effusion source. These fluctuations, previously suspected, can be in excess of ±10%

  15. Molecular beam studies of adsorption dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumainayagam, C.R.; McMaster, M.C.; Madix, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the trapping dynamics of C 1 -C 3 alkanes and Xe on Pt(111) using supersonic molecular beams and a direct technique to measure trapping probabilities. We have extended a one-dimensional model based on classical mechanics to include trapping and have found semiquantitative agreement with experimental results for the dependence of the initial trapping probability on incident translational energy at normal incidence. Our measurements of the initial trapping probability as a function of incident translational energy at normal incidence are in agreement with previous mean translational energy measurements for Xe and CH 4 desorbing near the surface normal, in accordance with detailed balance. However, the angular dependence of the initial trapping probability shows deviations from normal energy scaling, demonstrating the importance of parallel momentum in the trapping process and the inadequacy of one-dimensional models. The dependence of the initial trapping probability of Xe on incident translational energy and angle is quite well fit by three-dimensional stochastic classical trajectory calculations utilizing a Morse potential. Angular distributions of the scattered molecules indicate that the trapping probability is not a sensitive function of surface temperature. The trapping probability increases with surface coverage in quantitative agreement with a modified Kisliuk model which incorporates enhanced trapping onto the monolayer. We have also used the direct technique to study trapping onto a saturated monolayer state to investigate the dynamics of extrinsic precursor adsorption and find that the initial trapping probability onto the monolayer is higher than on the clean surface. The initial trapping probability onto the monolayer scales with total energy, indicating a highly corrugated interaction potential

  16. Probing gas-surface interactions with a molecular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruit, M.E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of direct scattering, trapping and sticking in molecular beam scattering is probed. The O 2 /Ag interaction was chosen, using the close-packed (111) plane of Ag as target surface. 170 refs.; 22 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayich, Andrew; Chen, Gary; Long, Xueping; Wang, Anna; Campbell, Wesley

    2014-05-01

    A significant impediment to generating ultracold molecules is slowing a molecular beam to velocities where the molecules can be cooled and trapped. We report on progress toward addressing this issue with a general optical deceleration technique for molecular and atomic beams. We propose addressing the molecular beam with a pump and dump pulse sequence from a mode-locked laser. The pump pulse counter-propagates with respect to the beam and drives the molecules to the excited state. The dump pulse co-propagates and stimulates emission, driving the molecules back to the ground state. This cycle transfers 2 ℏk of momentum and can generate very large optical forces, not limited by the spontaneous emission lifetime of the molecule or atom. Importantly, avoiding spontaneous emission limits the branching to dark states. This technique can later be augmented with cooling and trapping. We are working towards demonstrating this optical force by accelerating a cold atomic sample.

  18. Supersonic molecular beam experiments on surface chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Michio

    2014-10-01

    The interaction of a molecule and a surface is important in various fields, and in particular in complex systems like biomaterials and their related chemistry. However, the detailed understanding of the elementary steps in the surface chemistry, for example, stereodynamics, is still insufficient even for simple model systems. In this Personal Account, I review our recent studies of chemical reactions on single-crystalline Cu and Si surfaces induced by hyperthermal oxygen molecular beams and by oriented molecular beams, respectively. Studies of oxide formation on Cu induced by hyperthermal molecular beams demonstrate a significant role of the translational energy of the incident molecules. The use of hyperthermal molecular beams enables us to open up new chemical reaction paths specific for the hyperthermal energy region, and to develop new methods for the fabrication of thin films. On the other hand, oriented molecular beams also demonstrate the possibility of understanding surface chemical reactions in detail by varying the orientation of the incident molecules. The steric effects found on Si surfaces hint at new ways of material fabrication on Si surfaces. Controlling the initial conditions of incoming molecules is a powerful tool for finely monitoring the elementary step of the surface chemical reactions and creating new materials on surfaces. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Molecular-beam studies of primary photochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.

    1982-12-01

    Application of the method of molecular-beam photofragmentation translational spectroscopy to the investigation of primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules is described. Examples will be given to illustrate how information concerning the energetics, dynamics, and mechanism of dissociation processes can be obtained from the precise measurements of angular and velocity distributions of products in an experiment in which a well-defined beam of molecules is crossed with a laser

  20. Ionic molecular films. Applications. 3. Electron beam stimulated enhanced adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G; Montereali, R M; Scavarda do Carmo, L C

    1989-11-01

    This paper reports on the advantages of the use of the technique of electron beam lithography to imprint enhanced sensitive patterns on ionic molecular substrates (bulk crystals or films). With this technique, localized superficial defects are produced which change the chemical properties of surfaces. Sensitized surfaces react with absorbates providing enhanced adherence of such substances. The use of spacially controlled electron beams allows the construction of small (sub-micron) feature chemical and very localized enhanced adherence of absorbates.

  1. Molecular-beam studies of primary photochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.T.

    1982-12-01

    Application of the method of molecular-beam photofragmentation translational spectroscopy to the investigation of primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules is described. Examples will be given to illustrate how information concerning the energetics, dynamics, and mechanism of dissociation processes can be obtained from the precise measurements of angular and velocity distributions of products in an experiment in which a well-defined beam of molecules is crossed with a laser.

  2. Use of molecular ion beams from a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibis, A.; Goldring, G.; Hass, M.; Kaim, R.; Plesser, I.; Vager, Z.

    1981-01-01

    A large variety of positive molecular ion beams can be produced by gaseous charge exchange in the terminal of a tandem accelerator. After acceleration the molecules are usually dissociated by passage through a thin foil. Measurements of the break-up products provide a way to study both the structure of incident ions and the effects of electronic potentials on the internuclear interaction inside the foil. Beam intensities of a few picoamperes are quite adequate for these measurements, and the relatively high energy obtained by use of a tandem accelerator has the advantage of minimizing multiple scattering effects in the foil. The main difficulty in using the molecular beams lies in the large magnetic rigidity of singly-charged heavy molecular ions

  3. Molecular beam sampling of a hollow cathode arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuws, P.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the description of the process of molecular beam sampling of a Hollow Cathode Arc. The aim of the study is twofold, i.e. investigation of the applicability of molecular beam sampling as a plasma diagnostic and the use of a Hollow Cathode Arc as a high intensity beam source for ground state atoms and metastable state atoms in the superthermal energy range. Suitable models are introduced, describing the process of molecular beam sampling of both ground state atoms and metastable state atoms. Fast ground state atoms produced by ion-atom collisions. The experimental facilities, i.e. the Hollow Cathode Arc, the time-of-flight machine and the dye laser system are described. And an alternative detection scheme for ground state atoms is presented and experimental results on the molecular beam sampling of a low density plasma (densities 10 19 -10 20 m -3 ) in the long arc configuration are reported. The results on the short arc configuration (densities 10 21 -10 22 m -3 ) are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Electron beam irradiation effect on nanostructured molecular sieve catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhongyong; Zhou Wuzong; Parvulescu, Viorica; Su Baolian

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact can induce chemical changes on particle surfaces of zeolites and molecular sieve catalysts. Some experimental observations of electron irradiation effect on molecular sieve catalysts are presented, e.g., electron-beam-induced growth of bare silver nanowires from zeolite crystallites, formation of vesicles in calcium phosphate, migration of microdomains in iron-oxide doped mesoporous silicas, structural transformation from mesostructured MCM-41 to microporous ZSM-5, etc. The formation mechanisms of the surface structures are discussed

  5. Molecular beam studies of ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented in which an attempt is made to highlight some of the areas in which molecular beam techniques contribute to the understanding of ion--molecule reaction dynamics. Included are reactant kinetic energy range and resolution, internal state selection and analysis, and new chemical systems and phenomena. 35 references

  6. Atmospheric processes on ice nanoparticles in molecular beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fárník, Michal; Poterya, Viktoriya

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2014 (2014), s. 4 ISSN 2296-2646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0422; GA ČR GAP208/11/0161 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : molecular beams * photodissociation * water clusters Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  7. Organic-based molecular switches for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Noelia; Martín-Lasanta, Ana; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Ribagorda, Maria; Parra, Andres; Cuerva, Juan M

    2011-10-05

    In a general sense, molecular electronics (ME) is the branch of nanotechnology which studies the application of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic components. Among the different types of molecules, organic compounds have been revealed as promising candidates for ME, due to the easy access, great structural diversity and suitable electronic and mechanical properties. Thanks to these useful capabilities, organic molecules have been used to emulate electronic devices at the nanoscopic scale. In this feature article, we present the diverse strategies used to develop organic switches towards ME with special attention to non-volatile systems.

  8. Diagnosis for the interaction of supersonic molecular beam with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Feng Beibing; Feng Zhen; Luo Junlin; Dong Jiafu; Yan Longwen; Hong Wenyu

    2001-01-01

    Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) is a new fuelling method for Tokamaks and has recently been improved to enhance the flux of the beam and to make a survey of the cluster effect within the beam. There are a series of new phenomena, which implicate the interaction of the beam (including clusters) with the toroidal plasma of HL-1M Tokamak. The H α signals from the edge show a regular variation around the torus. Around the injection port, the edge H α signals are positive rectangular wave, which is consistent with that of the injection beam pulses. The edge electron temperature, measured with movable Langmuir probes, decreases by an order of magnitude and the density increases by an order of magnitude. H α emission at the beam injection port, measured with CCD camera at an angle of 13.4 degrees to the SMBI line, shows many separate peaks within the contour plot. These peaks may show the strong emission produced by the interaction of the hydrogen clusters with the plasma. Hydrogen clusters may be produced in the beam according to the empirical scaling (Hagena) law of clustering onset, Γ* = kd 0.85 P 0 /T 0 2.29 , here d is the nozzle diameter in μm, P 0 the stagnation pressure in mbar, T 0 the source temperature in K, and k is a constant related to the gas species. If Γ* > 100, clusters will be formed. In present experiment Γ* is about 127

  9. PROJECTED MOLECULAR BEAM RESEARCH AT THE APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fristrom, R. M.

    1963-05-15

    An apparatus is described that is used in the study of elementary chemical reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used as a detector and the velocity and angular distributions of the scattered species are measured directly. Schematic representation of the scope detector and the results of H + O/sub 2/ yields OH + O are given. (R.E.U.)

  10. Molecular depth profiling of trehalose using a C{sub 60} cluster ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wucher, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)], E-mail: andreas.wucher@uni-due.de; Cheng Juan; Winograd, Nicholas [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Molecular depth profiling of organic overlayers was performed using a mass selected fullerene ion beam in conjunction with time-of-flight (TOF-SIMS) mass spectrometry. The characteristics of depth profiles acquired on a 300-nm trehalose film on Si were studied as a function of the impact kinetic energy and charge state of the C{sub 60} projectile ions. We find that the achieved depth resolution depends only weakly upon energy.

  11. Control of chemical bonding of the ZnO surface grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, K.; Komuro, T.; Hama, K.; Koike, K.; Sasa, S.; Inoue, M.; Yano, M.

    2004-01-01

    Toward the fabrication of enzyme modified field effect transistors (EnFETs) as one of organic/inorganic hybridized structures, surface bonding of the ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy was controlled by ex situ treatments. Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement revealed that O-H bonds exist at the surface of ZnO. It was found that the number of O-H bond could be changed with reversibility using plasma and thermal treatments

  12. Experimental investigation of molecular beam injection in HL-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Diao Guangyao; Wang Zhanhe; Deng Huichen; Luo Junlin; Duan Xuru; Cui Zhengying

    1993-07-01

    A new method of gas puffing is presented. The molecular beam, formed by high pressure deuterium gas through Larval nozzle and skimmer slit, is injected into the HL-1 vacuum vessel. The deuterium molecular current from the nozzle passing through the skimmer is about 3 x 10 20 /s. At the line average electron density of 5.2 x 10 19 m -3 , the beam velocity is about 100 m/s. As the plasma density and temperature increasing, the influxes of deuterium particles attenuate quickly. When the molecular beam injection (MBI) just returned to normal gas puffing, the D α emission rapidly decreases, meanwhile, the particles move toward plasma center, the electron density is continuously peaking. The line average electron density rising lasts 45 ms. The thermal energy of plasma and confinement time for particles and energy are also increasing. the MBI is a direct and efficient gas fuelling mode, and the injected particles can reach to inside about 8 cm of plasma and q ≅ 2 confinement region. Its efficiency of injection is about 50%. After the MBI, the particle recycling coefficient R on the wall is 0.6 which is 10% lower than that of normal gas puffing

  13. MOLECULAR BEAM STUDIES OF IR LASER INDUCED MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION AND VIBRATIONAL PREDISSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuan T.; Shen, Y. Ron

    1980-06-01

    The advancement of crossed molecular beam methods, modern spectroscopy and laser technology allows us to observe chemical reactions on atomic and molecular levels in great detail. After a brief history of crossed molecular beams studies, the author describes and discusses the universal molecular beam apparatus and gives examples of crossed molecular beam studies. The crossed beam technique is compared to other techniques used to provide microscopic information on reaction dynamics. Application of crossed laser and molecular beam studies to the problem of IR multiphoton dissociation of polyatomic molecules is discussed. Study of vibrational predissociation of hydrogen-bonded and van der Waals molecular clusters are discussed. Future cases that the author considers worth pursuing that could benefit from the collisionless environment of molecular beams are enumerated.

  14. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  15. Molecular beam studies with a time-of-flight machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study concerns the development of the time-of-flight method for the velocity analysis of molecular beams and its application to the measurement of the velocity dependence of the total cross-section of the noble gases. It reviews the elastic scattering theory, both in the framework of classical mechanics and in the quantum mechanical description. Attention is paid to the semiclassical correspondence of classical particle trajectories with the partial waves of the quantum mechanical solution. The total cross-section and the small angle differential cross-section are discussed with special emphasis on their relation. The results of this chapter are used later to derive the correction on the measured total cross-section due to the finite angular resolution of the apparatus. Reviewed also is the available information on the intermolecular potential of the Ar-Ar system. Then a discussion of the measurement of total cross-sections with the molecular beam method and the time-of-flight method is compared to other methods used. It is shown that the single burst time-of-flight method can be developed into a reliable and well-calibrated method for the analysis of the velocity distribution of molecular beams. A comparison of the single burst time-of-flight method with the cross-correlation time-of-flight method shows that the two methods are complementary and that the specific experimental circumstances determine which method is to be preferred. Molecular beam sources are discussed. The peaking factor formalism is introduced and helps to compare the performance of different types of sources. The effusive and the supersonic source are treated and recent experimental results are given. The multichannel source is treated in more detail. For the opaque mode, an experimental investigation of the velocity distribution and the angular distribution of the flow pattern is presented. Comparison of these results with Monte Carlo calculations for free molecular flow in a cylindrical

  16. Molecular characterization of organic electronic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLongchamp, Dean M; Kline, R Joseph; Fischer, Daniel A; Richter, Lee J; Toney, Michael F

    2011-01-18

    Organic electronics have emerged as a viable competitor to amorphous silicon for the active layer in low-cost electronics. The critical performance of organic electronic materials is closely related to their morphology and molecular packing. Unlike their inorganic counterparts, polymers combine complex repeat unit structure and crystalline disorder. This combination prevents any single technique from being able to uniquely solve the packing arrangement of the molecules. Here, a general methodology for combining multiple, complementary techniques that provide accurate unit cell dimensions and molecular orientation is described. The combination of measurements results in a nearly complete picture of the organic film morphology. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Crossed molecular beam studies of unimolecular reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    The study of seven radical-molecule reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique with supersonic nozzle beams is reported. Product angular and velocity distributions were obtained and compared with statistical calculations in order to identify dynamical features of the reactions. In the reaction of chlorine and fluorine atoms with vinyl bromide, the product energy distributions are found to deviate from predictions of the statistical model. A similar effect is observed in the reaction of chlorine atoms with 1, 2 and 3-bromopropene. The reaction of oxygen atoms with ICl and CF 3 I has been used to obtain an improved value of the IO bond energy, 55.0 +- 2.0 kcal mol -1 . In all reactions studied, the product energy and angular distributions are found to be coupled, and this is attributed to a kinematic effect of the conservation of angular momentum

  18. Controlling Molecular Doping in Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ian E; Moulé, Adam J

    2017-11-01

    The field of organic electronics thrives on the hope of enabling low-cost, solution-processed electronic devices with mechanical, optoelectronic, and chemical properties not available from inorganic semiconductors. A key to the success of these aspirations is the ability to controllably dope organic semiconductors with high spatial resolution. Here, recent progress in molecular doping of organic semiconductors is summarized, with an emphasis on solution-processed p-type doped polymeric semiconductors. Highlighted topics include how solution-processing techniques can control the distribution, diffusion, and density of dopants within the organic semiconductor, and, in turn, affect the electronic properties of the material. Research in these areas has recently intensified, thanks to advances in chemical synthesis, improved understanding of charged states in organic materials, and a focus on relating fabrication techniques to morphology. Significant disorder in these systems, along with complex interactions between doping and film morphology, is often responsible for charge trapping and low doping efficiency. However, the strong coupling between doping, solubility, and morphology can be harnessed to control crystallinity, create doping gradients, and pattern polymers. These breakthroughs suggest a role for molecular doping not only in device function but also in fabrication-applications beyond those directly analogous to inorganic doping. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A novel design for electric field deflectometry on extended molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, André; Berninger, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the optimal shape of a beam deflector with applications in electric susceptibility measurements on wide molecular beams. In contrast to the well-established 'two-wire' concept, which is optimized for beams with a small lateral extension, our design realizes a compact element that provides a high and homogeneous force field at moderate voltage for molecular beams with a large extension in the direction of deflection

  20. A molecular beam/quadrupole mass spectrometer system with synchronized beam modulation and digital waveform analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, G. L.; Adams, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    A performance evaluation is conducted for a molecular beam/mass spectrometer (MB/MS) system, as applied to a 1-30 torr microwave-discharge flow reactor (MWFR) used in the formation of the methylperoxy radical and a study of its subsequent destruction in the presence or absence of NO(x). The modulated MB/MS system is four-staged and differentially pumped. The results obtained by the MWFR study is illustrative of overall system performance, including digital waveform analysis; significant improvements over previous designs are noted in attainable S/N ratio, detection limit, and accuracy.

  1. A study of molecular effects in beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Veje, E.

    1979-01-01

    Relative populations of ns + nd levels in hydrogen as functions of the principal quantum number n have been measured with beams of H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + impinging on thin carbon foils at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu. Enhancements of 20% and 45% for dimer and trimer clusters are observed uniformly for all levels. A possible explanation in terms of screening of the Coulomb repulsion between the protons inside the foil, thus reducing the effective thickness of the foil, is given. All relative populations closely follow an nsup(P) power law with p = -4.0 and -3.7 at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu, respectively, in perfect analogy with atomic collision experiments. O + /O 2 + -foil excitations at 100 keV and 155 keV show a simular molecular effect, but in reverse with a larger mean charge produced by the dimer. (Auth.)

  2. Molecular beam epitaxy of LiMnAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Vít; Cukr, Miroslav; Šobáň, Zbyněk; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Martí, X.; Holý, V.; Horodyská, P.; Němec, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 323, č. 1 (2011), s. 348-350 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08087 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet; European Commission(XE) 214499 - NAMASTE Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : crystal structure * molecular beam epitaxy * lithium compounds * magnetic semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2011

  3. Atmospheric processes on ice nanoparticles in molecular beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eFárník

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes some recent experiments with ice nanoparticles (large water clusters in molecular beams and outlines their atmospheric relevance: (1 Investigation of mixed water–nitric acid particles by means of the electron ionization and sodium doping combined with photoionization revealed the prominent role of HNO3 molecule as the condensation nuclei. (2 The uptake of atmospheric molecules by water ice nanoparticles has been studied, and the pickup cross sections for some molecules exceed significantly the geometrical sizes of the ice nanoparticles. (3 Photodissociation of hydrogen halides on water ice particles has been shown to proceed via excitation of acidically dissociated ion pair and subsequent biradical generation and H3O dissociation. The photodissociation of CF2Cl2 molecule in clusters is also mentioned. Possible atmospheric consequences of all these results are briefly discussed.

  4. Supersonic Molecular Beam Optical Stark Spectroscopy of MnH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengler, Jamie; Ma, Tongmei; Harrison, Jeremy; Steimle, Timothy

    2006-03-01

    The large moment of inertia, large magnetic moment, and possible large permanent electric dipole moment of manganese monohydride, MnH, makes it a prime candidate for ultra-cold molecule production via Stark deceleration and magnetic trapping. Here we report the first molecular beam production of MnH and the analysis of the Stark effect in the (0,0) A^7 π -- X^ 7σ^+ band. The sample was prepared by laser ablation of solid Mn in an H2 supersonic expansion. The low rotational temperature (MnH and the analysis of T.D. Varberg, J.A. Gray, R.W. Field, and A.J. Merer, J. Mol. Spec. 156, 296-318 (1992). I.E. Gordon, D.R.T. Appadoo, A. Shayesteh, K.A. Walker, and P.F. Bernath, J. Mol. Spec., 229, 145-149 (2005).

  5. Self-consistent expansion for the molecular beam epitaxy equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Eytan

    2002-03-01

    Motivated by a controversy over the correct results derived from the dynamic renormalization group (DRG) analysis of the nonlinear molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equation, a self-consistent expansion for the nonlinear MBE theory is considered. The scaling exponents are obtained for spatially correlated noise of the general form D(r-r('),t-t('))=2D(0)[r-->-r(')](2rho-d)delta(t-t(')). I find a lower critical dimension d(c)(rho)=4+2rho, above which the linear MBE solution appears. Below the lower critical dimension a rho-dependent strong-coupling solution is found. These results help to resolve the controversy over the correct exponents that describe nonlinear MBE, using a reliable method that proved itself in the past by giving reasonable results for the strong-coupling regime of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang system (for d>1), where DRG failed to do so.

  6. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O( 3 P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O( 1 D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O( 3 P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively

  7. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O(/sup 3/P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O(/sup 1/D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O(/sup 3/P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively.

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy of single crystal colossal magnetoresistive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, J.N.; Bozovic, I.; Rzchowski, M.; O'Donnell, J.; Hinaus, B.; Onellion, M.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have grown films of (LaSr)MnO 3 (LSMO) and (LaCa)MnO 3 (LCMO) using atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE). Depending on growth conditions, substrate lattice constant and the exact cation stoichiometry, the films are either pseudomorphic or strain relaxed. The pseudomorphic films show atomically flat surfaces, with a unit cell terrace structure that is a replica of that observed on the slightly vicinal substrates, while the strain relaxed films show bumpy surfaces correlated with a dislocation network. All films show tetragonal structure and exhibit anisotropic magnetoresistance, with a low field response, (1/R)(dR/dH) as large as 5 T -1

  9. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Aviv; Gordin, Alexander; Poliak, Marina; Fialkov, Alexander B

    2008-02-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with supersonic molecular beams (SMBs) (also named Supersonic GC-MS) is based on GC and MS interface with SMBs and on the electron ionization (EI) of vibrationally cold analytes in the SMBs (cold EI) in a fly-through ion source. This ion source is inherently inert and further characterized by fast response and vacuum background filtration capability. The same ion source offers three modes of ionization including cold EI, classical EI and cluster chemical ionization (CI). Cold EI, as a main mode, provides enhanced molecular ions combined with an effective library sample identification, which is supplemented and complemented by a powerful isotope abundance analysis method and software. The range of low-volatility and thermally labile compounds amenable for analysis is significantly increased owing to the use of the contact-free, fly-through ion source and the ability to lower sample elution temperatures through the use of high column carrier gas flow rates. Effective, fast GC-MS is enabled particularly owing to the possible use of high column flow rates and improved system selectivity in view of the enhancement of the molecular ion. This fast GC-MS with SMB can be further improved via the added selectivity of MS-MS, which by itself benefits from the enhancement of the molecular ion, the most suitable parent ion for MS-MS. Supersonic GC-MS is characterized by low limits of detection (LOD), and its sensitivity is superior to that of standard GC-MS, particularly for samples that are hard for analysis. The GC separation of the Supersonic GC-MS can be improved with pulsed flow modulation (PFM) GC x GC-MS. Electron ionization LC-MS with SMB can also be combined with the Supersonic GC-MS, with fast and easy switching between these two modes of operation. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Molecular beam photoionization and gas-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyer, S.T.

    1979-09-01

    The energetics of the ethylene ion-molecule reactions was investigated in more detail than previously possible in two body collision experiments by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals ethylene dimer. The stability of the (C 2 H 4 ) + C 2 H 4 ion-molecule collision complex has been determined to be 18.2 +- 0.5 kcal. The highest potential barriers along the reaction coordinate for decomposition of this collision complex into C 4 H 7 + + H and C 3 H 5 + + CH 3 have been determined to be 0 +- 1.5 and 8.7 +- 1.5 kcal. In a similar manner, the energetics of the solvated ethylene dimer ion was investigated by the photoionization of the ethylene trimer. The absolute proton affinity of NH 3 (203.6 +- 1.3 kcal/mole) and the proton solvation energies by more than one NH 3 have been determined by molecular beam photoionization. In addition, the NH 3 + -NH 3 interaction energy (0.79 +- 0.05 eV) was measured by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals dimer. These experiments have shown that photoionization of van der Waals clusters is a very powerful method of determining the energetics of gas phase proton solvation. The scattering of helium atomic beams from a high Miller index platinum surface that exhibits ordered, periodic steps on the atomic scale to probe the effect of atomic steps on the scattering distribution is explored. Rainbow scattering is observed when the step edges are perpendicular to the incident helium atoms. The design, construction and operation of a beam-surface scattering apparatus are described. The first data obtained in this apparatus are presented and the interesting dynamical aspects of the oxidation of D, D 2 and CO are discussed. 75 references

  11. Molecular beam scattering from clean surfaces of alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Molecular beam scattering of light gases from in situ cleaved alkali halide surfaces has been studied as a means of developing molecular beam scattering as a surface characterization tool and as a means of obtaining information about the gas atom-solid surface potential interaction. For 4 He scattering from LiF carried out under improved resolution the main results are: (1) there are four bound states in the surface potential well, as energies of -5.8, -2.2, -0.6 and -0.1 MeV. (2) Most of the structure designated as ''fine structure'' is due either to transitions to these four levels via various small reciprocal lattice vectors or to the opening of diffraction channels. (3) The transitions involving the (01) and (0 anti 1) reciprocal lattice vectors (i.e., the ones nearly perpendicular to the incident wavevector) are strong; as much as 85 percent of the specular intensity may be removed. Transitions via the other small reciprocal lattice vectors are much weaker. (4) The widths of the lines are consistent with the velocity distribution, which has a half-width of about 2 percent. (5) The observed energies agree fairly well with those calculated for a zeta-function potential, but are not consistent with a Morse potential. The preliminary results for 4 He/NaF scattering are that there are three bound-states in the surface potential well and are quite similar to the LiF results. These energies are -5.0, -1.9, and -0.5 MeV. 4 He/NaF selective adsorption also shows ''fine structure'' and a more detailed analysis is called for here

  12. Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of selected compounds in a molecular beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.

    1979-03-01

    Photoionization efficiency curves have been measured at moderate to high resolution for several species produced in supersonic molecular beams of acetone, acetone-d/sub 6/ and CS/sub 2/. The molecular beam photoionization mass spectrometer which has been assembled for this work is described. The performance of this instrument has been characterized by a number of experiments and calculations.

  13. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the

  14. Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of selected compounds in a molecular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, W.M.

    1979-03-01

    Photoionization efficiency curves have been measured at moderate to high resolution for several species produced in supersonic molecular beams of acetone, acetone-d 6 and CS 2 . The molecular beam photoionization mass spectrometer which has been assembled for this work is described. The performance of this instrument has been characterized by a number of experiments and calculations

  15. Combinatorial screening of halide perovskite thin films and solar cells by mask-defined IR laser molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yuji; Annayev, Orazmuhammet; Toyokura, Nobuo; Takahashi, Ryota; Lippmaa, Mikk; Itaka, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Matsuki, Nobuyuki; Koinuma, Hideomi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As an extension of combinatorial molecular layer epitaxy via ablation of perovskite oxides by a pulsed excimer laser, we have developed a laser molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system for parallel integration of nano-scaled thin films of organic?inorganic hybrid materials. A pulsed infrared (IR) semiconductor laser was adopted for thermal evaporation of organic halide (A-site: CH3NH3I) and inorganic halide (B-site: PbI2) powder targets to deposit repeated A/B bilayer films where the thic...

  16. Molecular beam sampling from a rocket-motor combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseman, John; Young, W.S.

    1974-01-01

    A molecular-beam mass-spectrometer sampling apparatus has been developed to study the reactive species concentrations as a function of position in a rocket-motor combustion chamber. Unique design features of the sampling system include (a) the use of a multiple-nozzle end plate for preserving the nonuniform properties of the flow field inside the combustion chamber, (b) the use of a water-injection heat shield, and (c) the use of a 300 CFM mechanical pump for the first vacuum stage (eliminating the use of a huge conventional oil booster pump). Preliminary rocket-motor tests have been performed using the highly reactive propellants nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine (N 2 O 4 /N 2 H 4 ) at an oxidizer/fuel ratio of 1.2 by weight. The combustion-chamber pressure is approximately 60psig. Qualitative results on unreacted oxidizer/fuel ratio, relative abundance of oxidizer and fuel fragments, and HN 3 distribution across the chamber are presented

  17. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Sr_n_+_1Ti_nO_3_n_+_1 (Sr_5Ti_4O_1_3) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO_2 layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO_2 layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO_3 perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  18. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman, E-mail: rue2@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (Sr{sub 5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 13}) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN nanowires on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Laskar, Masihhur R.; May, Brelon J.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on a systematic growth study of the nucleation process of InN nanowires on Si(1 1 1) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Samples are grown with various substrate temperatures and III/V ratios. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence are carried out to map out the variation in structural and optical properties versus growth conditions. Statistical averages of areal density, height, and radius are mapped as a function of substrate temperature and III/V ratio. Three different morphological phases are identified on the growth surface: InN, α-In and β-In. Based on SEM image analysis of samples grown at different conditions, the formation mechanism of these phases is proposed. Finally, the growth phase diagram of PAMBE grown InN on Si under N-rich condition is presented, and tapered versus non-tapered growth conditions are identified. It is found that high growth temperature and low III/V ratio plays a critical role in the growth of non-tapered InN nanowires.

  20. Contorted Organic Semiconductors for Molecular Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu

    This thesis focuses on the synthesis, properties and applications of two types of contorted organic molecules: contorted molecular ribbons and conjugated corrals. We utilized the power of reaction chemistry to writing information into conjugated molecules with contorted structures and studied "structure-property" relationships. The unique properties of the molecules were expressed in electronic and optoelectronic devices such as field-effect transistors, solar cells, photodetectors, etc. In Chapter 2, I describe the design and synthesis of a new graphene ribbon architecture that consists of perylenediimide (PDI) subunits fused together by ethylene bridges. We created a prototype series of oligomers consisting of the dimer, trimer, and tetramer. The steric congestion at the fusion point between the PDI units creates helical junctions, and longer oligomers form helical ribbons. Thin films of these oligomers form the active layer in n-type field effect transistors. UV-vis spectroscopy reveals the emergence of an intense long-wavelength transition in the tetramer. From DFT calculations, we find that the HOMO-2 to LUMO transition is isoenergetic with the HOMO to LUMO transition in the tetramer. We probe these transitions directly using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The HOMO-2 to LUMO transition electronically connects the PDI subunits with the ethylene bridges, and its energy depends on the length of the oligomer. In Chapter 3, I describe an efficiency of 6.1% for a solution processed non-fullerene solar cell using a helical PDI dimer as the electron acceptor. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy revealed both electron and hole transfer processes at the donor-acceptor interfaces, indicating that charge carriers are created from photogenerated excitons in both the electron donor and acceptor phases. Light-intensity-dependent current?voltage measurements suggested different recombination rates under short-circuit and open-circuit conditions. In

  1. Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrano, Matteo

    2015-07-15

    The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through

  2. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ruoyu

    The exponential growth of Si-based technology has finally reached its limit, and a new generation of devices must be developed to continue scaling. A unique class of materials, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), have attracted great attention due to their remarkable optical and electronic properties at the atomic thickness scale. Over the past decade, enormous efforts have been put into TMD research for application in low-power devices. Among these studies, a high-quality TMD synthesis method is essential. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) can enable high-quality TMD growth by combining high purity elemental sources and an ultra-high vacuum growth environment, together with the back-end-of-line compatible growth temperatures. Although many TMD candidates have been grown by MBE with promising microstructure, the limited grain size (improvement in grain size was achieved through this study. Results from both experiment and simulation showed that reducing the growth rate, enabled by high growth temperature and low metal flux, is vital to nucleation density control. Meanwhile, providing a chalcogen-rich growth environment will promote larger grain lateral growth by suppressing vertical growth. Applying the knowledge learned from the nucleation study, we sucessfully integrated the MBE-grown WSe2 into Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible field-effect transistors (FETs). Excellent transport properties, such as field effect hole mobilities (40 cm 2/V·s) with orders of magnitude improvement over the reported values of MBE-grown TMDs, are shown. These studies provide a comprehensive understanding of the MBE synthesis of TMDs and devices, indicating the great potential of integrating TMDs into CMOS process flows for the future electronics.

  3. Mg doping of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieten, R R; Buchowicz, G; Dubon, O; Motsnyi, V; Zhang, L; Cheng, K; Leys, M; Degroote, S; Borghs, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study on the influence of growth conditions on the incorporation and activation of Mg in GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We show that high quality p-type GaN layers can be obtained on GaN-on-silicon templates. The Mg incorporation and the electrical properties have been investigated as a function of growth temperature, Ga : N flux ratio and Mg : Ga flux ratio. It was found that the incorporation of Mg and the electrical properties are highly sensitive to the Ga : N flux ratio. The highest hole mobility and lowest resistivity were achieved for slightly Ga-rich conditions. In addition to an optimal Ga : N ratio, an optimum Mg : Ga flux ratio was also observed at around 1%. We observed a clear Mg flux window for p-type doping of GaN : 0.31% 17 cm -3 and a mobility of 15 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicate an acceptor depth in these samples of 100 meV for a hole concentration of 5.5 x 10 17 cm -3 . The corresponding Mg concentration is 5 x 10 19 cm -3 , indicating approximately 1% activation at room temperature. In addition to continuous growth of Mg-doped GaN layers we also investigated different modulated growth procedures. We show that a modulated growth procedure has only limited influence on Mg doping at a growth temperature of 800 deg. or higher. This result is thus in contrast to previously reported GaN : Mg doping at much lower growth temperatures of 500 deg. C.

  4. Electron beam treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds and dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2006-01-01

    Considerations of wastes based on the reduction, reuse and recycle in daily life are primary measures to conserve our environment, but the control technology is necessary to support these measures. The electron beam (EB) process is promising as an advanced purification process having advantages such as a quick treatment of big volume gas, applicability even for very low concentration pollutants as the further purification at the downstream of existing process, and decomposition of pollutants into non-toxic substances by one process. The EB technology has been developed for treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ventilation gas and dioxins in solid waste incineration flue gas. (author)

  5. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Congsen [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Janssen, Maurice H. M. [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  6. A new crossed molecular beam apparatus using time-sliced ion velocity imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guorong; Zhang Weiqing; Pan Huilin; Shuai Quan; Jiang Bo; Dai Dongxu; Yang Xueming

    2008-01-01

    A new crossed molecular beam apparatus has been constructed for investigating polyatomic chemical reactions using the time-sliced ion velocity map imaging technique. A unique design is adopted for one of the two beam sources and allows us to set up the molecular beam source either horizontally or vertically. This can be conveniently used to produce versatile atomic or radical beams from photodissociation and as well as electric discharge. Intensive H-atom beam source with high speed ratio was produced by photodissociation of the HI molecule and was reacted with the CD 4 molecule. Vibrational-state resolved HD product distribution was measured by detecting the CD 3 product. Preliminary results were also reported on the F+SiH 4 reaction using the discharged F atom beam. These results demonstrate that this new instrument is a powerful tool for investigating chemical dynamics of polyatomic reactions.

  7. Nanosecond and femtosecond mass spectroscopic analysis of a molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hidenori; Kamikado, Toshiya; Okuno, Yoshishige; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The spray-jet molecular beam apparatus enabled us to produce a molecular beam of non-volatile molecules under high vacuum from a sprayed mist of sample solutions. The apparatus has been used in spectroscopic studies and as a means of molecular beam deposition. We analyzed the molecular beam, consisting of non-volatile, solvent, and carrier-gas molecules, by using femtosecond- and nanosecond- laser mass spectroscopy. The information thus obtained provided insight into the molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

  8. Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Gas Cluster Ion Beam Prepared GaSb Substrates: Towards Improved Surfaces and Interfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnaswami, Kannan; Vangala, Shivashankar R; Dauplaise, Helen M; Allen, Lisa P; Dallas, Gordon; Bakken, Daniel; Bliss, David F; Goodhue, WIlliam D

    2007-01-01

    ... at temperatures ranging 530 degrees C to 560 degrees C. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of molecular beam epitaxy grown GaSb/AlGaSb layers showed that the HBr-GCIB surface produced a smooth dislocation-free substrate-to-epi transition...

  9. Gas cluster ion beam for the characterization of organic materials in submarine basalts as Mars analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Naoko; Barlow, Anders J.; Cumpson, Peter J.; Purvis, Graham W. H.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Gray, Neil N. D.

    2016-01-01

    The solar system contains large quantities of organic compounds that can form complex molecular structures. The processing of organic compounds by biological systems leads to molecules with distinctive structural characteristics; thus, the detection and characterization of organic materials could lead to a high degree of confidence in the existence of extra-terrestrial life. Given the nature of the surface of most planetary bodies in the solar system, evidence of life is more likely to be found in the subsurface where conditions are more hospitable. Basalt is a common rock throughout the solar system and the primary rock type on Mars and Earth. Basalt is therefore a rock type that subsurface life might exploit and as such a suitable material for the study of methods required to detect and analyze organic material in rock. Telluric basalts from Earth represent an analog for extra-terrestrial rocks where the indigenous organic matter could be analyzed for molecular biosignatures. This study focuses on organic matter in the basalt with the use of surface analysis techniques utilizing Ar gas cluster ion beams (GCIB); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to characterize organic molecules. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was also used to support the data obtained using the surface analysis techniques. The authors demonstrate that organic molecules were found to be heterogeneously distributed within rock textures. A positive correlation was observed to exist between the presence of microtubule textures in the basalt and the organic compounds detected. From the results herein, the authors propose that ToF-SIMS with an Ar GCIB is effective at detecting organic materials in such geological samples, and ToF-SIMS combined with XPS and TMAH thermochemolysis may be a useful approach in the study of extra-terrestrial organic material and life.

  10. Gas cluster ion beam for the characterization of organic materials in submarine basalts as Mars analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Naoko, E-mail: naoko.sano@ncl.ac.uk; Barlow, Anders J.; Cumpson, Peter J. [National EPSRC XPS Users' Service (NEXUS), School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Stephenson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Purvis, Graham W. H.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Gray, Neil N. D. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The solar system contains large quantities of organic compounds that can form complex molecular structures. The processing of organic compounds by biological systems leads to molecules with distinctive structural characteristics; thus, the detection and characterization of organic materials could lead to a high degree of confidence in the existence of extra-terrestrial life. Given the nature of the surface of most planetary bodies in the solar system, evidence of life is more likely to be found in the subsurface where conditions are more hospitable. Basalt is a common rock throughout the solar system and the primary rock type on Mars and Earth. Basalt is therefore a rock type that subsurface life might exploit and as such a suitable material for the study of methods required to detect and analyze organic material in rock. Telluric basalts from Earth represent an analog for extra-terrestrial rocks where the indigenous organic matter could be analyzed for molecular biosignatures. This study focuses on organic matter in the basalt with the use of surface analysis techniques utilizing Ar gas cluster ion beams (GCIB); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to characterize organic molecules. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was also used to support the data obtained using the surface analysis techniques. The authors demonstrate that organic molecules were found to be heterogeneously distributed within rock textures. A positive correlation was observed to exist between the presence of microtubule textures in the basalt and the organic compounds detected. From the results herein, the authors propose that ToF-SIMS with an Ar GCIB is effective at detecting organic materials in such geological samples, and ToF-SIMS combined with XPS and TMAH thermochemolysis may be a useful approach in the study of extra-terrestrial organic material and life.

  11. Manipulation and analysis of atomic and molecular beams using transmission gratings and Fresnel zone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisenti, R.E.

    2000-06-01

    In this thesis experimental results on the diffraction of rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) and molecular (D{sub 2}) beams by a 100 nm period transmission grating and on the focusing of a helium atom beam through a Fresnel zone plate have been reported. (orig.)

  12. Multisample matrix-assisted laser desorption source for molecular beams of neutral peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupulescu, C.; Abd El Rahim, M.; Antoine, R.; Barbaire, M.; Broyer, M.; Dagany, X.; Maurelli, J.; Rayane, D.; Dugourd, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    We developed and tested a multisample laser desorption source for producing stable molecular beams of neutral peptides. Our apparatus is based on matrix-assisted laser desorption technique. The source consists of 96 different targets which may be scanned by a software control procedure. Examples of molecular beams of neutral peptides are presented, as well as the influence of the different source parameters on the jet

  13. Cellular and molecular radiobiology of heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Roots, R.J.; Yang, T.C.H.; Chang, P.Y.; Lommel, L.; Craise, L.M.; Yezzi, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Accelerated heavy particles are candidates for use in cancer radiotherapy, and the major goal of our program has been to characterize the biological potential of Bevalac beams for this purpose. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) properties of monoenergetic carbon, neon, and argon beams with initial energies of several hundred MeV/u have been measured as a function of residual range. Bevalac beams with Bragg peaks modified to encompass tumors of various sizes have also been studied using cultured cells in vitro

  14. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer/Metal Organic Framework Based Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes recent advances in the concept of molecular imprinting using metal organic frameworks (MOF for development of chemical sensors. Two main strategies regarding the fabrication, performance and applications of recent sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers associated with MOF are presented: molecularly imprinted MOF films and molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles using MOF as core. The associated transduction modes are also discussed. A brief conclusion and future expectations are described herein.

  15. Recent advances in biological effect and molecular mechanism of arabidopsis thaliana irradiated by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dali; Hou Suiwen; Li Wenjian

    2008-01-01

    Newly research progresses were summarized in effect of ion beams on seed surface, biological effect, growth, development, gravitropism and so on. Furthermore, mutation molecular mechanism of Arabidopsis thaliana was discussed, for example, alteration of DNA bases, DNA damage, chromosomal recombination, characteristics of mutant transmissibility, etc. Meanwhile, the achievements of transfer- ring extraneous gene to Arabidopsis thaliana by ion beams were reviewed in the paper. At last, the future prospective are also discussed here in mutation molecular mechanism and the potential application of biological effect of heavy ion beams. (authors)

  16. Electron beam and mechanical lithographies as enabling factors for organic-based device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visconti, P.; Pisignano, D.; Della Torre, A.; Persano, L.; Maruccio, G.; Biasco, A.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Organic-based photonics and molecular electronics are attracting an increasing interest in modern science. The realization of high-resolution master structures by electron beam lithography (EBL) and their transfer to different organic functional materials by mechanical lithographies allow to fully exploit the wide flexibility of molecular systems for opto- and nanoelectronic devices. Planar nanojunctions, consisting of two metallic electrodes separated by an insulating medium, permit to test the molecular conduction properties. Since the typical size of a biomolecule is of the order of a few nanometer, hybrid molecular electronic (HME) devices need metallic electrodes separated by a nanometer-scale channel. Conversely, photonic applications often require 100 nm to 1 μm features on large areas. In this work, we report on the fabrication of both large-area periodic master structures with resolution down to 200 nm, and planar metallic electrodes with sub-10 nm separation obtained by EBL followed by metal electroplating deposition. The fabricated 3-terminal bio-nanodevices show a transistor-like behaviour with a maximum voltage gain of 0.76. Moreover, we developed a number of mechanical patterning methods, including soft hot embossing, rapid prototyping, sub-micrometer fluidics, high- and room-temperature nanoimprinting, to fabricate planar nanostructures on both biomolecular and organic materials. These allowed us a high-fidelity pattern transfer up to 100-nm scale resolution, without reducing the emission yields of light-emitting organics, thus opening the way to the one-step realization of organic-based confined optoelectronic devices

  17. Progresses in organic field-effect transistors and molecular electronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Weiping; Xu Wei; Hu Wenping; Liu Yunqi; Zhu Daoben

    2006-01-01

    In the past years,organic semiconductors have been extensively investigated as electronic materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs).In this review,we briefly summarize the current status of organic field-effect transistors including materials design,device physics,molecular electronics and the applications of carbon nanotubes in molecular electronics.Future prospects and investigations required to improve the OFET performance are also involved.

  18. Dynamics of infrared multiphonon dissociation of SF6 by molecular beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, E.R.; Coggiola, M.J.; Lee, Y.T.; Schulz, P.A.; Shen, Y.R.

    1977-01-01

    A crossed molecular beam apparatus has been adapted to study the dynamics of excitation and dissociation of polyatomic molecules in intense IR laser fields. Initial experiments have involved the study of the dissociation of SF 6 by CO 2 laser radiation at 10.6 μm. A molecular beam of SF 6 was formed by supersonic expansion using three stages of differential pumping. A grating tuned pulsed CO 2 TEA laser was used as the excitation source. The laser beam was focused by a 25 cm focal length ZnSe lens, and crossed the molecular beam near its focal point. The fragments produced by multiphonon dissociation of SF 6 within the small interaction region were detected as a function of recoil angle and velocity. (Auth.)

  19. Analysis of the Alkali Metal Diatomic Spectra; Using molecular beams and ultracold molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Tae

    2014-12-01

    This ebook illustrates the complementarity of molecular beam (MB) spectra and ultracold molecule (UM) spectra in unraveling the complex electronic spectra of diatomic alkali metal molecules, using KRb as a prime example. Researchers interested in molecular spectroscopy, whether physicist, chemist, or engineer, may find this ebook helpful and may be able to apply similar ideas to their molecules of interest.

  20. Electron beam deposition system causing little damage to organic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Minoru [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Business Incubation Department, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-Chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka 551-0022 (Japan); Matsumura, Michio, E-mail: matsu@chem.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Maeda, Yasuhiro [Business Incubation Department, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-Chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka 551-0022 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Conditions for deposition of an aluminum (Al) layer on an organic light-emitting layer with an electron beam (EB) deposition system were optimized with respect to deposition rate and damage to organic layers. The damage to the organic layers was found to be mostly caused by X-rays emitted from a target bombarded with accelerated electrons. In order to decrease the X-ray intensity while maintaining a high deposition rate, we used an EB source which emits high-density EB at low acceleration voltage. In addition, we inserted a heat reflector and a sintered-carbon liner between the Al target and copper crucible to improve heat insulation. As a result, the voltage needed for the deposition of Al electrodes at a rate of about 8 nm/s was lowered from normal voltages of 2.0 kV or higher to as low as 1.5 kV. To reduce the number of electrons hitting the substrate, we set pole pieces near the target and an electron trap in the chamber. The devices on which Al electrodes were deposited with the EB system showed almost the same properties as those of devices on which the Al electrodes were deposited by a resistive-heating method.

  1. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    ISOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10{sup 11} ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computational techniques have been used.

  2. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703149; Kröll, Thorsten

    SOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10^11 ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computanional techniques have been used.

  3. Use of molecular beams to support microspheres during plasma coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.; Smith, R.D.; Johnson, W.L.; Jordan, C.W.; Letts, S.A.; Korbel, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical targets can be levitated on beams of Ar or other gas atoms. This is an especially useful technique for supporting microspheres during plasma coating and processing. Measurements of gas flow and pressure indicate that the levitation device operates in the regime of Knudsen's flow. This device is currently being used in the development of future generation laser targets

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fractional no. d. measurements for a radiofrequency plasma needle operating at atm. pressure were obtained using a mol. beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atm. plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes

  5. Interfacial polarization phenomena in organic molecular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic phenomena occurring at the interface between metal/organic and organic/organic materials are discussed from the viewpoint of dielectrics physics. Focusing on two important origins of surface polarization phenomena, orientational ordering of polar molecules and displacement of excess charges at the interface, surface polarization phenomena of organic thin films are discussed. To define the orientational order of polar molecules, orientational order parameters are introduced, and surface polarization due to the alignment of dipoles is expressed. The generation of Maxwell displacement current (MDC) and optical second harmonic generation (SHG) that are specific for surface organic monomolecular films are discussed, and some experimental evidence are shown. As an extension of the concept of surface Fermi level introduced to discuss the electrostatic phenomena due to electron transfer at the interface between metal-organic insulators, the surface Fermi level is extended to the discussion on the electrostatic phenomena of organic semiconductor materials on metals. In this paper, some experimental evidence of surface polarization originating from polar molecules and displacement of excess charges are shown. After that, with consideration of these surface phenomena, single electron tunneling of organic films are briefly discussed in association with surface polarization phenomena

  6. Dual beam organic depth profiling using large argon cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzweber, M; Shard, AG; Jungnickel, H; Luch, A; Unger, WES

    2014-01-01

    Argon cluster sputtering of an organic multilayer reference material consisting of two organic components, 4,4′-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl- amino]-biphenyl (NPB) and aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) (Alq3), materials commonly used in organic light-emitting diodes industry, was carried out using time-of-flight SIMS in dual beam mode. The sample used in this study consists of a ∽400-nm-thick NPB matrix with 3-nm marker layers of Alq3 at depth of ∽50, 100, 200 and 300 nm. Argon cluster sputtering provides a constant sputter yield throughout the depth profiles, and the sputter yield volumes and depth resolution are presented for Ar-cluster sizes of 630, 820, 1000, 1250 and 1660 atoms at a kinetic energy of 2.5 keV. The effect of cluster size in this material and over this range is shown to be negligible. © 2014 The Authors. Surface and Interface Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25892830

  7. Measurement and Analysis of Rotational Energy of Nitrogen Molecular Beam by REMPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kataoka, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Ide, K.; Niimi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular beams are powerful tools for diagnoses of solid surfaces and gas-surface interaction tests. Unfortunately, there are very few reports about experimental analysis of internal energy distribution (e.g. rotational energy) of molecular beams of diatomic or polyatomic molecules, because measurement of internal energy distribution is very difficult. Spectroscopic measurement techniques based on resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is very powerful for measurement in highly rarefied gas flows. In this study, the REMPI method is applied to measurement of rotational energy distribution of nitrogen molecular beams. The REMPI spectrum of the molecular beam indicates the rotational temperature higher than the translational temperature of 7.2 K estimated by assuming isentropic flows. The O and P branches of the REMPI spectrum correspond to the rotational temperature of 30 K, but the S branch of the spectrum deviates from that at 30 K. It seems to be because the non-equilibrium rotational energy distribution of the molecular beam deviates from the Boltzmann distribution.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Electron Beam Damage in Organic Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Leijten, Zino J. W. A.; Keizer, Arthur D. A.; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    In transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the interaction of an electron beam with polymers such as P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic nanocomposites results in electron beam damage, which is the most important factor limiting acquisition of structural or chemical data at high spatial resolution. Beam effects can vary depending on parameters such as electron dose rate, temperature during imaging, and the presence of water and oxygen in the sample. Furthermore, beam damage will occur at different length s...

  9. Organically bound sulphur in coal: A molecular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1992-01-01

    A critical review of literature concerning the molecular characterization of low and high molecular weight organosulphur constitutents present in coal as well as a detailed analysis of organic sulphur compounds present in flash evaporates and pyrolysates of a suite of coals ranging in sulphur

  10. Recent work with fast molecular-ion beams at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooney, P.J.; Gemmell, D.S.; Groeneveld, K.O.; Kanter, E.P.; Pietsch, W.J.; Vager, Z.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Research in these areas during 1979 is summarized: (a) studies of molecular-ion dissociation in gaseous targets, (b) developing an understanding of the origins of central peaks and of the two phenomena of the transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foil targets and of the production of neutral fragments from collision-induced dissociation of fast molecular projectiles, (c) studies exploring the extent to which high-resolution measurements on dissociation fragments can be used to determine the stereochemical structures of the molecular ions in the incident beam, (d) extensive modifications to the beam-line and apparatus at the 4-MV Dynamitron so as to permit a wide variety of coincidence measurements on fragments from collision-induced molecular-ion dissociation

  11. Determining the stereochemical structures of molecular ions by ''Coulomb-explosion'' techniques with fast (MeV) molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies on the dissociation of fast (MeV) molecular ion beams in thin foils suggest a novel alternative approach to the determination of molecular ion structures. In this article we review some recent high-resolution studies on the interactions of fast molecular ion beams with solid and gaseous targets and indicate how such studies may be applied to the problem of determining molecular ion structures. The main features of the Coulomb explosion of fast-moving molecular ion projectiles and the manner in which Coulomb-explosion techniques may be applied to the problem (difficult to attack by more conventional means) of determining the stereochemical structures of molecular ions has been described in this paper. Examples have been given of early experiments designed to elicit structure information. The techniques are still in their infancy, and it is to be expected that as both the technology and the analysis are refined, the method will make valuable contributions to the determination of molecular ion structures

  12. Molecular beams research in the chemistry department of the Complutense university: progress over a decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Urena, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress made over nearly a decade (1980-1990) by the Molecular Beam Group in the Complutense University of Madrid. After the author's stay in the United States as Prof. R.B Bernstein's post doc everything here had to be done from scratch. Designing the apparatus; importing all the equipment; overcoming huge bureaucracy: buying screws, welding, plumbing, etc. Essentially the following experimental techniques were set up: crossed-beam techniques to measure total and differential reaction cross-section for ground and/or excited species. Reaction Energy threshold and excitation functions for elementary chemical reactions. Molecular Beam chemiluminescence either in crossed-beam and beam-gas conditions. Laser-induced fluorescence and laser-induced charge transfer processes in beams and crossed-beam conditions, respectively. The chemiionization technique in crossed-beams was also set up. Our group pioneered: (a) the measurement of high resolution threshold energies and total reaction cross-section (also in absolute units) for many reactions; (b) the production of highly intense pulsed beams of electronically excited atoms; (c) the measurement under high resolution of the crossed-beam dynamics of excited species; (d) the measurement of the role of alkyl groups in the dynamics (stereodynamics) of chemical reactions; (e) the measurement of the spin-orbit effects in laser-induced charge transfer processes; (f) the developing of a novel technique, using the time-of-flight method under crossed-beam conditions, that is able to measure existing quantum effects in the total reaction cross-section; (g) the measurement of dissociation energies of radicals with less than 1% of experimental error. (Author) 76 refs. 32 fig

  13. Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Helen; Hundt, P. Morten; van Reijzen, Maarten E.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D.

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.

  14. Interface Engineering for Organic Electronics; Manufacturing of Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Molecular Crystal Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Veen, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are at the basis of Organic Electronics. Objective of this dissertation is “to fabricate high-quality organic molecular single-crystal devices”, to explore the intrinsic properties of organic semiconductors. To achieve this, the in situ fabrication of complete field-effect

  15. Design strategies for organic semiconductors beyond the molecular formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Zachary B; Müllen, Klaus; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-09-01

    Organic semiconducting materials based on polymers and molecular systems containing an electronically delocalized structure are the basis of emerging optoelectronic technologies such as plastic solar cells and flexible transistors. For isolated molecules, guidelines exist that rely on the molecular formula to tailor the frontier (highest occupied or lowest unoccupied) molecular orbital energy levels and optical absorption profiles. Much less control can be achieved over relevant properties, however, as one makes the transition to the ensemble behaviour characteristic of the solid state. Polymeric materials are also challenging owing to the statistical description of the average number of repeat units. Here we draw attention to the limitations of molecular formulae as predictive tools for achieving properties relevant to device performances. Illustrative examples highlight the relevance of organization across multiple length scales, and how device performances--although relevant for practical applications--poorly reflect the success of molecular design.

  16. STATUS REPORT ON DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-SPEED HIGH-INTENSITY MOLECULAR BEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Eldon L.

    1963-07-15

    Status of a high-speed high-intensity molecular beam under development is described. Bases for designs of the several components are presented. Using an arc-heated source and a hypersonic jet, molecular energies exceeding 1 ev and beam intensities of the order of 10/sup 16/ molecules/ cm/sup 2/ sec are anticipated. A two-disk beam chopper and speed selector provides a means for analyzing the speed distribution in the generated beam, for chopping the beam into bursts of nearly monoenergetic molecules suitable for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique, and for modulating the beam in order to facilitate detection. A through-flow ionization detector possesses the versatility required for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique. A sorption pump and a turbo pump serve as central components of alternative pumping systems for the collimating chamber. Using the arc-heated source, the converging nozzle, the conduction-radiation-cooled skimmer, the turbo pump (turning at 3400 rpm), the chopperselector (acting only as a chopper), and the detector, an arc-heated beam is generated and detected. (auth)

  17. Modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry: A generalized expression for the ''reaction product vector'' for linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.; Weinberg, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized expression is developed that relates the ''reaction product vector'', epsilon exp(-iphi), to the kinetic parameters of a linear system. The formalism is appropriate for the analysis of modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry data and facilitates the correlation of experimental results to (proposed) linear models. A study of stability criteria appropriate for modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry experiments is also presented. This investigation has led to interesting inherent limitations which have not heretofore been emphasized, as well as a delineation of the conditions under which stable chemical oscillations may occur in the reacting system

  18. Molecular beam studies of hot atom chemical reactions: Reactive scattering of energetic deuterium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Balko, B.A.; Lee, Y.T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H 2 /minus/> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C 2 H 2 /minus/> C 2 HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible. 18 refs., 9 figs

  19. Molecular Beam Studies of Hot Atom Chemical Reactions: Reactive Scattering of Energetic Deuterium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H{sub 2} -> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} -> C{sub 2}HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible.

  20. High temperature and high resolution uv photoelectron spectroscopy using supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng; Reutt-Robey, J.E.; Niu, B.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    A high temperature molecular beam source with electron bombardment heating has been built for high resolution photoelectron spectroscopic studies of high temperature species and clusters. This source has the advantages of: producing an intense, continuous, seeded molecular beam, eliminating the interference of the heating mechanism from the photoelectron measurement. Coupling the source with our hemispherical electron energy analyzer, we can obtain very high resolution HeIα (584 angstrom) photoelectron spectra of high temperature species. Vibrationally-resolved photoelectron spectra of PbSe, As 2 , As 4 , and ZnCl 2 are shown to demonstrate the performance of the new source. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Constructing oxide interfaces and heterostructures by atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Qingyu; Golalikhani, Maryam; Davidson, Bruce A.; Liu, Guozhen; Schlom, D. G.; Qiao, Qiao; Zhu, Yimei; Chandrasena, Ravini U.; Yang, Weibing; Gray, Alexander X.; Arenholz, Elke; Farrar, Andrew K.; Tenne, Dmitri A.; Hu, Minhui; Guo, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale engineering of oxide interfaces and heterostructures have led to discoveries of emergent phenomena and new artificial materials. Combining the strengths of reactive molecular-beam epitaxy and pulsed-laser deposition, we show here, with examples of Sr1+xTi1-xO3+delta, Ruddlesden-Popper phase Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 4), and LaAl1+yO3(1+0.5y)/SrTiO3 interfaces, that atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular-beam epitaxy (ALL-Laser MBE) significantly advances the state of the art...

  2. Use of molecular beams to support microspheres during plasma coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.; Smith, R.D.; Johnson, W.L.; Letts, S.A.; Korbel, G.R.; Krenick, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical laser fusion targets can be levitated on beams of Ar or other gas atoms. This is an especially useful and reliable technique for supporting microspheres during plasma coating or plasma etching. The reliability of this technique is principally the result of two things: the success of a special centering device which provides a lateral, stabilizing force on the levitated microspheres; and a gas handling system which is capable of controlling levitation gas flow in the microtorr liter/sec range. We have determined that the operational regime of this device is that of Knudsen's flow. This knowledge of the flow characteristics has been important in developing this device

  3. Peculiarities of fullerenes condensation from molecular beam in vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neluba P. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There was investigated С60 fullerenes condensation in vacuum on unheated Si, GaAs, isinglass stone substrates. There were used atomic-force microscopy, Raman scattering and measurement of mechanical stresses in films. It is established that the С60 molecule can decay on the substrates with the formation of other carbon structures in the condensate without supplementary physical effects on the sublimated beam in «evaporator — substrate» space. The possibility was found to increase the grain size and reduce the mechanical stresses in the condensate.

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  5. Molecular orientation and electronic structure at organic heterojunction interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shu [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Zhong, Jian Qiang; Wee, Andrew T.S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Chen, Wei, E-mail: phycw@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute, Suzhou (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Molecular orientation at the organic heterojunction interfaces. • Energy level alignments at the organic heterojunction interfaces. • Gap-states mediated interfacial energy level alignment. - Abstract: Due to the highly anisotropic nature of π-conjugated molecules, the molecular orientation in organic thin films can significantly affect light absorption, charge transport, energy level alignment (ELA) and hence device performance. Synchrotron-based near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy represents a powerful technique for probing molecular orientation. The aim of this review paper is to provide a balanced assessment on the investigation of molecular orientation at the organic–organic heterojunction (OOH) interface by NEXAFS, as well as the gap-states mediated orientation dependent energy level alignment at OOH interfaces. We highlight recent progress in elucidating molecular orientation at OOH interfaces dominated by various interfacial interactions, gap-states controlled orientation dependent energy level alignments at OOH interfaces, and the manipulations of molecular orientation and ELA in OOH.

  6. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  7. Hyperthermal K--TeF6 molecular beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.F.; Young, C.E.; Pobo, L.G.; Wexler, S.

    1982-01-01

    Angular distributions of K + product ions from collisions of a beam of hyperthermal K atoms with a cross beam of thermal TeF 6 molecules were determined at 13.7 and 23.7 eV (lab). The angular yields of K atom products from the same system were too low to permit measurement of angular distributions. From the integrated yields, the K + ion/K atom branching ratio was determined to be greater than 10 3 . In addition to the extremely large branching ratio, the differential cross sections exhibited several other unusual characteristics: (a) the lack of small angle scattering, corresponding to virtual absence of covalent scattering, (b) two peaks in the differential cross section with an outer rainbow feature at very large scattering angles (approx.275 eV deg). The observations are unexpected from previous experimental and theoretical studies of electron transfer reactions and from the electronic and structural properties of TeF 6 and TeF - 6 . A simplified dynamics model based on formation of electronically excited TeF - 6 in the initial electron transfer, followed by inner crossings leading to formation of electronically and vibrationally unexcited TeF - 6 or dissociation to TeF - 5 and other ionic products, has been developed which accounts for the experimental results. The model suggests that the observed two peaks in the differential cross section are due to the production of TeF - 6 (inner peak) or TeF - 5 and other ionic dissociation products (outer peak). The model also suggests that the observed branching ratio requires a vertical electron affinity of < or =1.9 eV, much lower than its adiabatic electron affinity of 3.3 eV

  8. The molecular spin filter constructed from 1D organic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Ning; Wang, Baolin; Bian, Baoan

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a molecular spin filter, which is constructed from the 1D metallic organic chain (Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n ). The spin-polarized transport properties of the molecular spin filter are explored by combining density functional theory with nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Theoretical results reveal that Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain exhibits robust spin filtering effect, and only the spin-down electrons can transmit through the molecular chain. At the given bias voltage window [−1 eV,1 eV], the calculated spin filter efficiency is close to 100% in the case of n≥3. We find that the effect of spin polarization origin from both Fe n+1 and (C 6 H 4 ) n . In addition, negative difference resistance behavior appears in Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain. The results can help us understand the spin transport properties of organic molecular chain. - Highlights: • Theoretical results reveal that Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain exhibits robust spin filtering effect. • The effect of spin polarization origin from both of Fe n+1 and (C 6 H 4 ) n . • Negative difference resistance behavior appears in Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain

  9. Collision dynamics of methyl radicals and highly vibrationally excited molecules using crossed molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.M.Y.

    1991-10-01

    The vibrational to translational (V→T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V→T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH 3 production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam

  10. Ion Flux Measurements in Electron Beam Produced Plasmas in Atomic and Molecular Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, S. G.; Leonhardt, D.; Blackwell, D. D.; Murphy, D. P.; Fernsler, R. F.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, mass- and time-resolved measurements of ion fluxes sampled from pulsed, electron beam-generated plasmas will be discussed. Previous works have shown that energetic electron beams are efficient at producing high-density plasmas (10^10-10^12 cm-3) with low electron temperatures (Te < 1.0 eV) over the volume of the beam. Outside the beam, the plasma density and electron temperature vary due, in part, to ion-neutral and electron-ion interactions. In molecular gases, electron-ion recombination plays a significant role while in atomic gases, ion-neutral interactions are important. These interactions also determine the temporal variations in the electron temperature and plasma density when the electron beam is pulsed. Temporally resolved ion flux and energy distributions at a grounded electrode surface located adjacent to pulsed plasmas in pure Ar, N_2, O_2, and their mixtures are discussed. Measurements are presented as a function of operating pressure, mixture ratio, and electron beam-electrode separation. The differences in the results for atomic and molecular gases will also be discussed and related to their respective gas-phase kinetics.

  11. The molecular nature of photovoltage losses in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-01-01

    Since the inception of heterojunction organic photovoltaic research the organic/organic interface has been thought to play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of the open-circuit voltage. Yet, the task of defining the molecular properties dictating the photovoltage delivered by these devices, that employ mixed or neat layers of different organic molecules to convert incident photons to electricity, is still an active area of research. This will likely be a key step in designing the new materials required for improving future device efficiencies. With the intent to underscore the importance of considering both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, this article highlights recent progress in elucidating molecular characteristics dictating photovoltage losses in heterojunction organic photovoltaics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Origin of Spontaneous Core-Shell AIGaAs Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Shtrom, I. V.; Reznik, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies, we unravel the origin of spontaneous core shell AlGaAs nanowires grown by gold-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Our AlGaAs nanowires have a cylindrical core...

  13. Mn2Au: Body-centered-tetragonal bimetallic antiferromagnets grown by molecular beam epitataxy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, H.C.; Liao, Z.M.; Sofin, R.G.S.; Feng, G.; Ma, X.M.; Shick, Alexander; Mryasov, O. N.; Shvets, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 47 (2012), s. 6374-6379 ISSN 0935-9648 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : antiferromagnets * antiferromagnetic spintronics * exchange bias * molecular beam epitaxy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 14.829, year: 2012

  14. Heterogeneous chemical kinetics by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry: limitations of technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of modulated molecular beam, mass spectrometry as applied to the study of heterogeneous chemical kinetics are reviewed. The process of deducing a model of the surface reaction from experimental data is illustrated by analysis of the hydrogen reduction of uranium dioxide

  15. A study of oscillation amplitude settling transients in a molecular beam maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrere, P.R.; Laine, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of oscillation amplitude build-up from noise has been studied in a molecular beam maser (MBM). The three forms of growth curve, predicted theoretically, namely exponential, aperiodic and damped periodic have been observed with their associated 'times of silence'. (Auth.)

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of InSb1−xBix thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Wang, Shumin; Saha Roy, Ivy

    2013-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy growth for InSb1−xBix thin films on (100) GaAs substrates is reported. Successful Bi incorporation for 2% is achieved, and up to 70% of the incorporated Bi atoms are at substitutional sites. The effects of growth parameters on Bi incorporation and surface morphology are stu...

  17. Construction and calibration of a fast superconducting bolometer for molecular beams detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallinaro, G.; Varone, R.

    1975-01-01

    A tin bolometer evaporated on an anodized aluminum block is described. The noise equivalent power of the bolometer is of 10 -13 watt Hzsup(-1/2) and the time constant is 3μ sec. The bolometer is a suitable fast molecular beam detector

  18. Molecular-beam epitaxy growth and characterization of 5-μm quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamutin, V V; Ustinov, V M; Ilyinskaya, N D; Baydakova, M V; Ber, B Ya; Kasantsev, D Yu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular-beam epitaxy growth of 5 μm emitting strain-compensated quantum semiconductor laser (QCL) is reported. The QCL structure is characterized by complementary techniques: high-resolution X-ray diffraction and dynamical secondary-ion mass-spectrometry, that reveal the high quality of QCL structure and in-depth distribution of chemical composition, respectively.

  19. Electron collisions and internal excitation in stored molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhr, H.

    2006-01-01

    In storage ring experiments the role, which the initial internal excitation of a molecular ion can play in electron collisions, and the effect of these collisions on the internal excitation are investigated. Dissociative recombination (DR) and inelastic and super-elastic collisions are studied in the system of He + 2 . The DR rate coefficient at low energies depends strongly on the initial vibrational excitation in this system. Therefore changes in the DR rate coefficient are a very sensitive probe for changes in the vibrational excitation in He + 2 , which is used to investigate the effects of collisions with electrons and residual gas species. The low-energy DR of HD + is rich with resonances from the indirect DR process, when certain initial rotational levels in the molecular ion are coupled to levels in neutral Rydberg states lying below the ion state. Using new procedures for high-resolution electron-ion collision spectroscopy developed here, these resonances in the DR cross section can be measured with high energy sensitivity. This allows a detailed comparison with results of a MQDT calculation in an effort to assign some or all of the resonances to certain intermediate Rydberg levels. (orig.)

  20. Electron collisions and internal excitation in stored molecular ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhr, H.

    2006-07-26

    In storage ring experiments the role, which the initial internal excitation of a molecular ion can play in electron collisions, and the effect of these collisions on the internal excitation are investigated. Dissociative recombination (DR) and inelastic and super-elastic collisions are studied in the system of He{sup +}{sub 2}. The DR rate coefficient at low energies depends strongly on the initial vibrational excitation in this system. Therefore changes in the DR rate coefficient are a very sensitive probe for changes in the vibrational excitation in He{sup +}{sub 2}, which is used to investigate the effects of collisions with electrons and residual gas species. The low-energy DR of HD{sup +} is rich with resonances from the indirect DR process, when certain initial rotational levels in the molecular ion are coupled to levels in neutral Rydberg states lying below the ion state. Using new procedures for high-resolution electron-ion collision spectroscopy developed here, these resonances in the DR cross section can be measured with high energy sensitivity. This allows a detailed comparison with results of a MQDT calculation in an effort to assign some or all of the resonances to certain intermediate Rydberg levels. (orig.)

  1. Molecular evolution, intracellular organization, and the quinary structure of proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    McConkey, E H

    1982-01-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that at least half of 370 denatured polypeptides from hamster cells and human cells are indistinguishable in terms of isoelectric points and molecular weights. Molecular evolution may have been more conservative for this set of proteins than sequence studies on soluble proteins have implied. This may be a consequence of complexities of intracellular organization and the numerous macromolecular interactions in which most ...

  2. Next Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH- 14-1-0192 TITLE: Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue

  3. Molecular beam studies of oxide reduction by atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    The graphite and oxide internals of a CTR are susceptible to chemical corrosion as well as to physical degradation by high-energy particles. Reactions of thermal atomic hydrogen with oxides are being studied. The hydrogen used is at thermal energy (0.22 eV). Typical data are reported for the H/UO 2 system. The reaction probability is plotted as a function of solid temperature at fixed beam intensity and moculation frequency. The reaction probability increases from low temperature to a high-temperature plateau at about 1300 0 C. Here the reaction rate is limited solely by the sticking probability of H on the surface; about one in seven of the incident atoms is chemisorbed by the surface and ultimately returns to the gas phase as water vapor. A reaction model comprising sticking, recombination to H 2 , solution and diffusion of H in the bulk of the UO 2 , surface reaction of adsorbed H with lattice oxygen atoms to produce the hydroxyl radical, and production of water is constructed. The rate constants for the elementary steps in the mechanism are tabulated. 2 figures, 2 tables

  4. Microjet burners for molecular-beam sources and combustion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, Wolfgang; Fenn, John B.

    1988-09-01

    A novel microjet burner is described in which combustion is stabilized by a hot wall. The scale is so small that the entire burner flow can be passed through a nozzle only 0.2 mm or less in diameter into an evacuated chamber to form a supersonic free jet with expansion so rapid that all collisional processes in the jet gas are frozen in a microsecond or less. This burner can be used to provide high-temperature source gas for free jet expansion to produce intense beams of internally hot molecules. A more immediate use would seem to be in the analysis of combustion products and perhaps intermediates by various kinds of spectroscopies without some of the perturbation effects encountered in probe sampling of flames and other types of combustion devices. As an example of the latter application of this new tool, we present infrared emission spectra for jet gas obtained from the combustion of oxygen-hydrocarbon mixtures both fuel-rich and fuel-lean operation. In addition, we show results obtained by mass spectrometric analysis of the combustion products.

  5. Ion-beam-induced aggregation in polystyrene: The influence of the molecular parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, O.; Licciardello, A.; Calcagno, L.; Foti, G.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of an insoluble gel under ion-beam bombardment is governed by ion-beam parameters and target parameters. Here reported is a study of the influence of the target molecular parameters on the sol--gel transition of ion-bombarded polystyrene with particular emphasis for the number-average molecular weight M-bar/sub n/. It is shown that the main parameter is the number of macromolcules of the film so that by adopting a ''corrected'' fluence F/n (ions per macromolecule), the different curves of the various polymers collapse in only one universal curve. The importance of the ''corrected'' fluence is shown also at molecular level and the MWD of the various polymers is similar at equal F/n values. An experimental model is outlined which explains the sol--gel transition on the basis of transition from an isolated-track regime to an overlap regime where the formation of insoluble giant macromolecules occurs

  6. A photoionization study of hydrogen-bound clusters in a supersonic molecular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.D.; Jones, G.G.; Taylor, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding of methanol, methanol-d, ethanol, and trifluoroethanol is investigated with a supersonic molecular beam as a sampling system for a photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometer. Monochromatized vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used as the ionizing source. Cluster ions belonging to the series (ROH)sub(n)H + are detected when sampling up to 100-torr alcohol vapor with the molecular beam. No parent cluster molecular ions are detected. Experiments are described which exclude ion-molecule reactions in the mass spectrometer ion source as a possible origin of the cluster ions. Experimental evidence shows that nozzle temperature primarily influences the equilibrium distribution of clusters present in the nozzle source. From the dependences of relative cluster ion intensities on nozzle source temperature, the heats of formation of oligomers of the alcohols are estimated. Cooperative hydrogen bonding is not detected, expect for trifluoroethanol, where the trimer is found to be the most stable cluster. (orig.)

  7. Fundamental Study of Antimonide Nanostructures by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    PATHUMWAN BANGKOK, 10330 TH 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...their quantum nanostructure, they could be operated at high temperature and are more stable with temperature change. Sb based QDs can be type II...stable at either 450°C or 300°C , As shutter is closed until the background pressure reaches 10-9 Torr. Sb cracker cell working at 700°C for stable

  8. Unraveling the mechanism of molecular doping in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityashin, Alexander; Olivier, Yoann; Van Regemorter, Tanguy; Rolin, Cedric; Verlaak, Stijn; Martinelli, Nicolas G; Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jérôme; Genoe, Jan; Heremans, Paul

    2012-03-22

    The mechanism by which molecular dopants donate free charge carriers to the host organic semiconductor is investigated and is found to be quite different from the one in inorganic semiconductors. In organics, a strong correlation between the doping concentration and its charge donation efficiency is demonstrated. Moreover, there is a threshold doping level below which doping simply has no electrical effect. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams. Proceedings of workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory, August 20-21, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Workshop on Physics with Fast Molecular-Ion Beams was held in the Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory on August 20 and 21, 1979. The meeting brought together representatives from several groups studying the interactions of fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams with matter. By keeping the Workshop program sharply focussed on current work related to the interactions of fast molecular ions, it was made possible for the participants to engage in vigorous and detailed discussions concerning such specialized topics as molecular-ion dissociation and transmission, wake effects, ionic charge states, cluster stopping powers, beam-foil spectroscopy, electron-emissions studies with molecular-ion beams, and molecular-ion structure determinations

  10. Molecular materials for organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T

    2008-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors are important applications of thin films of molecular materials. A variety of materials have been explored for improving the performance of organic transistors. The materials are conventionally classified as p-channel and n-channel, but not only the performance but also even the carrier polarity is greatly dependent on the combinations of organic semiconductors and electrode materials. In this review, particular emphasis is laid on multi-sulfur compounds such as tetrathiafulvalenes and metal dithiolates. These compounds are components of highly conducting materials such as organic superconductors, but are also used in organic transistors. The charge-transfer complexes are used in organic transistors as active layers as well as electrodes. (topical review)

  11. Molecular fingerprints in the electronic properties of crystalline organic semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciuchi, S.; Hatch, R.C.; Höchst, H.

    2012-01-01

    bands can be achieved in organic semiconductors provided that one properly accounts for the coupling to molecular vibrational modes and the presence of disorder. Our findings rationalize the growing experimental evidence that even the best band structure theories based on a many-body treatment...... of electronic interactions cannot reproduce the experimental photoemission data in this important class of materials....

  12. Electron, ion and atomic beams interaction with solid high-molecular dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyavskij, V V; Skvortsov, V A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High Energy Density Research Center

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model was constructed and numerical investigation performed of the interaction between intense electron, ion and atomic beams and solid high-molecular dielectrics under various boundary conditions. The model is based on equations of the mechanics of continuum, electrodynamics and kinetics, describing the accumulation and relaxation of space charge and shock-wave processes, as well as the evolution of electric field in the sample. A semi-empirical procedure is proposed for the calculation of energy deposition by electron beam in a target in the presence of a non-uniform electric field. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  13. Effect of molecular weight distribution on e-beam exposure properties of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Ripon Kumar; Cui Bo

    2013-01-01

    Polystyrene is a negative electron beam resist whose exposure properties can be tuned simply by using different molecular weights (Mw). Most previous studies have used monodisperse polystyrene with a polydispersity index (PDI) of less than 1.1 in order to avoid any uncertainties. Here we show that despite the fact that polystyrene’s sensitivity is inversely proportional to its Mw, no noticeable effect of very broad molecular weight distribution on sensitivity, contrast and achievable resolution is observed. It is thus unnecessary to use the costly monodisperse polystyrene for electron beam lithography. Since the polydispersity is unknown for general purpose polystyrene, we simulated a high PDI polystyrene by mixing in a 1:1 weight ratio two polystyrene samples with Mw of 170 and 900 kg mol −1 for the high Mw range, and 2.5 and 13 kg mol −1 for the low Mw range. The exposure property of the mixture resembles that of a monodisperse polystyrene with similar number averaged molecular weight (Mn)-bar, which indicates that it is (Mn)-bar rather than (Mw)-bar (weight averaged molecular weight) that dominates the exposure properties of polystyrene resist. This also implies that polystyrene of a certain molecular weight can be simulated by a mixture of two polystyrenes having different molecular weights. (paper)

  14. Comparison of fan beam, slit-slat and multi-pinhole collimators for molecular breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Jarno; Beekman, Freek J; Goorden, Marlies C

    2018-05-16

    Recently, we proposed and optimized dedicated multi-pinhole molecular breast tomosynthesis (MBT) that images a lightly compressed breast. As MBT may also be performed with other types of collimators, the aim of this paper is to optimize MBT with fan beam and slit-slat collimators and to compare its performance to that of multi-pinhole MBT to arrive at a truly optimized design. Using analytical expressions, we first optimized fan beam and slit-slat collimator parameters to reach maximum sensitivity at a series of given system resolutions. Additionally, we performed full system simulations of a breast phantom containing several tumours for the optimized designs. We found that at equal system resolution the maximum achievable sensitivity increases from pinhole to slit-slat to fan beam collimation with fan beam and slit-slat MBT having on average a 48% and 20% higher sensitivity than multi-pinhole MBT. Furthermore, by inspecting simulated images and applying a tumour-to-background contrast-to-noise (TB-CNR) analysis, we found that slit-slat collimators underperform with respect to the other collimator types. The fan beam collimators obtained a similar TB-CNR as the pinhole collimators, but the optimum was reached at different system resolutions. For fan beam collimators, a 6-8 mm system resolution was optimal in terms of TB-CNR, while with pinhole collimation highest TB-CNR was reached in the 7-10 mm range.

  15. Engineered Molecular Layers For Organic Electronic Applications: A Confocal Scanning Raman Spectroscopy (CSRS) Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez-Sierra, Beynor-Antonio; Kolotovska, Viktoriia; Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio

    2011-01-01

    We present CSRS maps of magnetically modified vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) thin films forming conduction channels in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). The VOPc films with a nominal thickness of about 100 nm were produced by organic molecular beam deposition in high vacuum. During the growth conditions the substrates were exposed to a magnetic field (B) from a bar magnet. The CSRS maps revealed significant changes of the organic fields upon preparation conditions. The highest field effect mobility, electrical current and anisotropy of the CSRS-topography is achieved in layers grown with B parallel to the substrate plane, while intermediate and lowest values are achieved in devices grown with B perpendicular to the substrate and without, respectively.

  16. Laser Beam delivering and shaping device for transfer of organic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kangin; Kwon, Jin Hyuk; Yi, Jonghoon

    2008-01-01

    The laser based organic material transfer methods are developed by several groups for OLED (organic light emitting diode)fabrication. Well developed laser based methods are LITI (Laser Induced Thermal Imaging)and LIPS (Laser Induced Pattern wise Sublimation). These methods are proved to be suitable for large OLED panel fabrication. At an early stage of development, TEM"00"mode Nd:YAG laser was used for pattering organic material. The focused focused Nd:YAG laser beam generated heat in the film and the heat caused expansion of organic material coated layer. The organic film on the layer is transferred to the display panel due to pressure exerted on the display panel by the layer. Recently developed system prefers to employ a diode laser with wavelength of 800nm. Diode laser is cheaper and smaller photon source compared with the Nd:YAG laser. In this work, we use Nd doped fiber laser (wavelength=1070nm, power=10W)because the laser has stable output and well defined Gaussian beam profile compared with diode laser. We also employed fiber coupled diode laser (808nm)because it also has well defined beam distribution. In laser methods, spatially shaped beam is required for clean and sharp transfer. There are several methods for the beam shaping such as aspheric lens, diffractive optical elements, and micro lens array etc. We found that Gaussian beam can be shaped to a square hat like beam just by using simple commercial spherical lens set

  17. Hydrothermally stable molecular separation membranes from organically linked silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A; Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    A highly hydrothermally stable microporous network material has been developed that can be applied in energy-efficient molecular sieving. The material was synthesized by employing organically bridged monomers in acid-catalysed sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation, and is composed of covalently bonded organic and inorganic moieties. Due to its hybrid nature, it withstands higher temperatures than organic polymers and exhibits high solvolytical and acid stability. A thin film membrane that was prepared with the hybrid material was found to be stable in the dehydration of n-butanol at 150C for almost two years. This membrane is the first that combines a high resistance against water at elevated temperatures with a high separation factor and permeance. It therefore has high potential for energy-efficient molecular separation under industrial conditions, including the dehydration of organic solvents. The organically bridged monomers induce increased toughness in the thin film layer. This suppresses hydrolysis of Si-O-Si network bonds and results in a high resistance towards stress-induced cracking. The large non-hydrolysable units thus remain well incorporated in the surrounding matrix such that the material combines high (pore) structural and mechanical stability. The sol mean particle size was found to be a viable parameter to tune the thickness of the membrane layer and thus optimize the separation performance. We anticipate that other hybrid organosilicas can be made in a similar fashion, to yield a whole new class of materials with superior molecular sieving properties and high hydrothermal stability.

  18. Determination of molecular-ion structures through the use of accelerated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this talk we report on recent research on molecular-ion structures using fast molecular-ion beams provided by Argonne's 5-MV Dynamitron accelerator. The method has become known as the ''Coulomb-explosion'' technique. When molecular-ion projectiles travelling at velocities of a few percent of the velocity of light strike a foil, the electrons that bind the molecular projectiles are almost always totally stripped off within the first few Angstroms of penetration into the solid target. This leaves a cluster of bare (or nearly bare) nuclei which separate rapidly as a result of their mutual Coulomb repulsion. This violent dissociation process in which the initial electrostatic potential energy is converted into kinetic energy of relative motion in the center-of-mass, has been termed a ''Coulomb explosion.'' 4 refs., 2 figs

  19. Molecular dynamic simulations of the sputtering of multilayer organic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Postawa, Z; Piaskowy, J; Krantzman, K; Winograd, N; Garrison, B J

    2003-01-01

    Sputtering of organic overlayers has been modeled using molecular dynamics computer simulations. The investigated systems are composed of benzene molecules condensed into one, two and three layers on an Ag left brace 1 1 1 right brace surface. The formed organic overlayers were bombarded with 4 keV Ar projectiles at normal incidence. The development of the collision cascade in the organic overlayer was investigated. The sputtering yield, mass, internal and kinetic energy distributions of ejected particles have been analyzed as a function of the thickness of the organic layer. The results show that all emission characteristics are sensitive to the variation of layer thickness. Although most of the ejected intact benzene molecules originate from the topmost layer, the emission of particles located initially in second and third layers is significant. The analysis indicates that the metallic substrate plays a dominant role in the ejection of intact organic molecules.

  20. Experimental study on electrostatic guiding of supersonic D2O molecular beam with two charged wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yaling; Xia Yong; Chen Haibo; Yin Jianping

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the guiding of a supersonic heavy-water (D 2 O) molecular beam using a hollow electrostatic field generated by the combination of two parallel charged-wires and two grounded metal-plates, and report some new and preliminary experimental results. In the experiment, we detect the guiding signals by using the method of time-of-flight mass spectrum and study the dependence of the relative transmission of the beam guide on the guiding voltage. Our study shows that the relative transmission of the beam guide is increased linearly with increasing guiding voltage V guid , and the number of the guided D 2 O molecules is at least increased by 89.4% when the guiding voltage is +20.0 kV. Finally, some potential applications of our guiding scheme in the molecule optics are briefly discussed. (authors)

  1. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams and demonstration with Rb atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xueping; Jayich, Andrew; Campbell, Wesley

    2017-04-01

    Ultracold samples of molecules are desirable for a variety of applications, such as many-body physics, precision measurement and quantum information science. However, the pursuit of ultracold molecules has achieved limited success: spontaneous emission into many different dark states makes it hard to optically decelerate molecules to trappable speed. We propose to address this problem with a general optical deceleration technique that exploits a pump-dump pulse pair from a mode-locked laser. A molecular beam is first excited by a counter-propagating ``pump'' pulse. The molecular beam is then driven back to the initial ground state by a co-propagating ``dump'' pulse via stimulated emission. The delay between the pump and dump pulse is set to be shorter than the excited state lifetimes in order to limit decays to dark states. We report progress benchmarking this stimulated force by accelerating a cold sample of neutral Rb atoms.

  2. Gas Source Techniques for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Highly Mismatched Ge Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A. Stephenson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ge and its alloys are attractive candidates for a laser compatible with silicon integrated circuits. Dilute germanium carbide (Ge1−xCx offers a particularly interesting prospect. By using a precursor gas with a Ge4C core, C can be preferentially incorporated in substitutional sites, suppressing interstitial and C cluster defects. We present a method of reproducible and upscalable gas synthesis of tetrakis(germylmethane, or (H3Ge4C, followed by the design of a hybrid gas/solid-source molecular beam epitaxy system and subsequent growth of defect-free Ge1−xCx by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and contactless electroreflectance confirm the presence of carbon with very high crystal quality resulting in a decrease in the direct bandgap energy. This technique has broad applicability to growth of highly mismatched alloys by MBE.

  3. Ion-beam doping of GaAs with low-energy (100 eV) C + using combined ion-beam and molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tsutomu; Makita, Yunosuke; Kimura, Shinji; Winter, Stefan; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul; Uekusa, Shin-ichiro

    1995-01-01

    A combined ion-beam and molecular-beam-epitaxy (CIBMBE) system has been developed. This system consists of an ion implanter capable of producing ions in the energy range of 30 eV-30 keV and conventional solid-source MBE. As a successful application of CIBMBE, low-energy (100 eV) carbon ion (C+) irradiation during MBE growth of GaAs was carried out at substrate temperatures Tg between 500 and 590 °C. C+-doped layers were characterized by low-temperature (2 K) photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering, and van der Pauw measurements. PL spectra of undoped GaAs grown by CIBMBE revealed that unintentional impurity incorporation into the epilayer is extremely small and precise doping effects are observable. CAs acceptor-related emissions such as ``g,'' [g-g], and [g-g]β are observed and their spectra are significantly changed with increasing C+ beam current density Ic. PL measurements showed that C atoms were efficiently incorporated during MBE growth by CIBMBE and were optically well activated as an acceptor in the as-grown condition even for Tg as low as 500 °C. Raman measurement showed negligible lattice damage of the epilayer bombarded with 100 eV C+ with no subsequent heat treatment. These results indicate that contamination- and damage-free impurity doping without postgrowth annealing can be achieved by the CIBMBE method.

  4. Ion-beam doping of GaAs with low-energy (100 eV) C(+) using combined ion-beam and molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lida, Tsutomu; Makita, Yunosuke; Kimura, Shinji; Winter, Stefan; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul; Uekusa, Shin-Ichiro

    1995-01-01

    A combined ion-beam and molecular-beam-epitaxy (CIBMBE) system has been developed. This system consists of an ion implanter capable of producing ions in the energy range of 30 eV - 30 keV and conventional solid-source MBE. As a successful application of CIBMBE, low-energy (100 eV) carbon ion (C(+)) irradiation during MBE growth of GaAs was carried out at substrate temperatures T(sub g) between 500 and 590 C. C(+)-doped layers were characterized by low-temperature (2 K) photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering, and van der Pauw measurements. PL spectra of undoped GaAs grown by CIBMBE revealed that unintentional impurity incorporation into the epilayer is extremely small and precise doping effects are observable. C(sub As) acceptor-related emissions such as 'g', (g-g), and (g-g)(sub beta) are observed and their spectra are significantly changed with increasing C(+) beam current density I(sub c). PL measurements showed that C atoms were efficiently incorporated during MBE growth by CIBMBE and were optically well activated as an acceptor in the as-grown condition even for T(sub g) as low as 500 C. Raman measurement showed negligible lattice damage of the epilayer bombarded with 100 eV C(+) with no subsequent heat treatment. These results indicate that contamination- and damage-free impurity doping without postgrowth annealing can be achieved by the CIBMBE method.

  5. High-precision laser and rf spectroscopy of atomic, molecular, and slow ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.J.; Steimle, T.C.; Sen, A.; Azuma, Y.

    1988-01-01

    We have obtained extensive new structural information on the light diatomic radical ScO since the last report in this series. The new studies complete our systematic investigation of the fine and hyperfine structure (hfs) of the group IIIa monoxides LaO, YO, and ScO. The studies of the molecular X 2 Σ + electronic ground state were carried out using the molecular-beam laser-rf double-resonance method, and the excited electronic state information was obtained by complementing this data with Doppler-free laser fluorescence studies

  6. Molecular beams entwined with quantum theory: a bouquet for Max Planck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschbach, D.

    2001-01-01

    In an era when the fledgling quantum theory was ''uncertain and even gave contradictory answers,'' Otto Stern undertook to employ molecular beams to test directly fundamental aspects of the theory. During 1921-1935, this led to five decisive experiments reviewed here, resulting in the discovery or demonstration of space quantization, de Broglie matter waves, anomalous magnetic moments of the proton and neutron, recoil of an atom on emission of a photon, and the limitation of scattering cross-sections for molecular collisions imposed by the uncertainty principle. (orig.)

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of molecular flow in a neutral-beam injector and comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Gabriel, T.A.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Santoro, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to obtain estimates of the background gas pressure and molecular number density as a function of position in the PDX-prototype neutral beam injector which has undergone testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Estimates of these quantities together with the transient and steady-state energy deposition and molecular capture rates on the cryopanels of the cryocondensation pumps and the molecular escape rate from the injector were obtained utilizing a detailed geometric model of the neutral beam injector. The molecular flow calculations were performed using an existing Monte Carlo radiation transport code which was modified slightly to monitor the energy of the background gas molecules. The credibility of these calculations is demonstrated by the excellent agreement between the calculated and experimentally measured background gas pressure in front of the beamline calorimeter located in the downstream drift region of the injector. The usefulness of the calculational method as a design tool is illustrated by a comparison of the integrated beamline molecular density over the drift region of the injector for three modes of cryopump operation

  8. Dynamical x-ray diffraction studies of interfacial strain in superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hamm, R.A.; Panish, M.B.; Ritter, D.; Mancrander, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on dynamical X-ray diffraction studies that have been carried out for lattice-matched InGaAs/InP superlattices grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. The (400) X-ray satellite pattern, which is predominantly affected by the strain modulation, was analyzed. The strain and thickness of the actual layers including the presence of strained interfacial regions were determined

  9. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of GaAs on (631) Oriented Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Hernandez, Esteban; Rojas Ramirez, Juan-Salvador; Contreras Hernandez, Rocio; Lopez Lopez, Maximo; Pulzara Mora, Alvaro; Mendez Garcia, Victor H.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we report the study of the homoepitaxial growth of GaAs on (631) oriented substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observed the spontaneous formation of a high density of large scale features on the surface. The hilly like features are elongated towards the [-5, 9, 3] direction. We show the dependence of these structures with the growth conditions and we present the possibility of to create quantum wires structures on this surface

  10. Suppressing molecular vibrations in organic semiconductors by inducing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takayoshi; Häusermann, Roger; Tsurumi, Junto; Soeda, Junshi; Okada, Yugo; Yamashita, Yu; Akamatsu, Norihisa; Shishido, Atsushi; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun

    2016-04-04

    Organic molecular semiconductors are solution processable, enabling the growth of large-area single-crystal semiconductors. Improving the performance of organic semiconductor devices by increasing the charge mobility is an ongoing quest, which calls for novel molecular and material design, and improved processing conditions. Here we show a method to increase the charge mobility in organic single-crystal field-effect transistors, by taking advantage of the inherent softness of organic semiconductors. We compress the crystal lattice uniaxially by bending the flexible devices, leading to an improved charge transport. The mobility increases from 9.7 to 16.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) by 70% under 3% strain. In-depth analysis indicates that compressing the crystal structure directly restricts the vibration of the molecules, thus suppresses dynamic disorder, a unique mechanism in organic semiconductors. Since strain can be easily induced during the fabrication process, we expect our method to be exploited to build high-performance organic devices.

  11. Germanium growth on electron beam lithography patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subhendu Sinha; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Sarkar, Arijit; Dhar, Achintya; Rudra, Arun; Khatri, Ravinder K.; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    It is important to investigate the growth dynamics of Ge adatoms under different surface stress regimes of the patterned dielectric to control the selective growth of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on silicon. In the present work, we have studied the growth of Ge by molecular beam epitaxy on nanometer scale patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrates generated using electron beam lithography. The pitch of the patterns has been varied to investigate its effect on the growth of Ge in comparison to un-patterned Si3N4. For the patterned Si3N4 film, Ge did not desorbed completely from the Si3N4 film and hence no site selective growth pattern is observed. Instead, depending upon the pitch, Ge growth has occurred in different growth modes around the openings in the Si3N4. For the un-patterned substrate, the morphology exhibits the occurrence of uniform 3D clustering of Ge adatoms on Si3N4 film. This variation in the growth modes of Ge is attributed to the variation of residual stress in the Si3N4 film for different pitch of holes, which has been confirmed theoretically through Comsol Multiphysics simulation. The variation in stress for different pitches resulted in modulation of surface energy of the Si3N4 film leading to the different growth modes of Ge.

  12. Reduction of organic solvent emission by industrial use of electron-beam curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haering, E.

    1982-01-01

    Most industrial finishing processes operate by the use of liquid organic coating materials drying by solvent evaporation and subsequent chemical crosslinking reactions, in many cases also releasing cleavage products. These organic emissions contribute to air pollution and therefore many countries have issued restrictions in order to protect the environment. Complementary to other modern methods for reducing this problem, radiation chemistry enables an approach by radical chain polymerization which can be induced by exposure to electron radiation. This procedure is known as electron-beam curing of coatings or the EBC process. It utilizes well-developed accelerator equipment with voltages of 150 to 400kV at a minimum energy consumption. There is no necessity to use irradiation facilities based on the decay of radioisotopes. Free radical polymerization requires unsaturated resins as pain binders and polymerizable liquid compounds (monomers) as reactive diluents. Their crosslinking yields a high molecular network, the coating, without any emission of organic solvents or cleavage products. Moreover, the radiochemical formation of the paint film occurs extremely rapidly. The technical application of EBC coatings began by coating automotive plastic parts; a little later the finishing of wood products gained more industrial use as a non-polluting and energy-saving coating technology. Application methods in coating plastic foils in combination with vacuum metallizing and the production of decorative laminating papers for furniture followed. In 1981 new EBC pilot lines were installed for curing top coats on PVC foil and also for the coating of prefinished steel wheels for automobiles. In comparison with conventional solvent-based methods the industrial EBC process results in a nearly complete reduction of organic solvent emission avoiding air pollution and saving valuable petrochemical raw materials. This paper reviews the development of EBC during the last decade. (author)

  13. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  14. Organization of a radioisotope based molecular biology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the application of molecular techniques to medicine. Together with other molecular biology techniques it is being increasingly applied to human health for identifying prognostic markers and drug resistant profiles, developing diagnostic tests and genotyping systems and for treatment follow-up of certain diseases in developed countries. Developing Member States have expressed their need to also benefit from the dissemination of molecular advances. The use of radioisotopes, as a step in the detection process or for increased sensitivity and specificity is well established, making it ideally suitable for technology transfer. Many molecular based projects using isotopes for detecting and studying micro organisms, hereditary and neoplastic diseases are received for approval every year. In keeping with the IAEA's programme, several training activities and seminars have been organized to enhance the capabilities of developing Member States to employ in vitro nuclear medicine technologies for managing their important health problems and for undertaking related basic and clinical research. The background material for this publication was collected at training activities and from feedback received from participants at research and coordination meetings. In addition, a consultants' meeting was held in June 2004 to compile the first draft of this report. Previous IAEA TECDOCS, namely IAEA-TECDOC-748 and IAEA-TECDOC-1001, focused on molecular techniques and their application to medicine while the present publication provides information on organization of the laboratory, quality assurance and radio-safety. The technology has specific requirements of the way the laboratory is organized (e.g. for avoiding contamination and false positives in PCR) and of quality assurance in order to provide accurate information to decision makers. In addition while users of the technology accept the scientific rationale of using radio

  15. Reactions of modulated molecular beams with pyrolytic graphite IV. Water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.; Acharya, T.R.; Ullman, A.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction of water vapor with the prism plane face of anneal pyrolytic graphite was investigated by modulated molecular beam--mass spectrometry methods. The equivalent water vapor pressure of the beam was approx.2 x 10 -5 Torr and the graphite temperature was varied from 300 to 2500 0 K. The mechanism was deduced from three types of experiments: isotope exchange utilizing modulated H 2 O and steady D 2 O beams; measurements of the phase difference between H 2 O and neon reflected from the surface from a mixed primary beam of these species; and reaction of a modulated H 2 O beam to produce CO and H 2 . Based upon the isotope exchange experiments chemisorption of water on graphite was found to be dissociative and reversible. Incident water molecules chemisorbed with a sticking probability of 0.15 +- 0.02 to form the complexes C--OH and C--H. Recombination of the surface complexes reverses the adsorption step and is responsible for the isotope exchange properties of the graphite surface. This process is unactivated. Reaction to produce CO and H 2 also results from collisions of the primary surface complexes, but this step has an activation energy of 170 kJ/mole. This reaction yields bound complexes tentatively identified as C--O and H--C--H, which then decompose to produce the stable reaction products. All of the above steps exhibit characteristic times on the order of milliseconds, and are therefore detectable by the modulated beam method. All surface intermediates are strongly affected by solution and diffusion in the bulk of the solid

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of graphoepitaxy of organic semiconductors, sexithiophene, and pentacene: Molecular-scale mechanisms of organic graphoepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the organic semiconductors α-sexithiophene (6T) and pentacene were carried out to clarify the mechanism of organic graphoepitaxy at the molecular level. First, the models of the grooved substrates were made and the surfaces of the inside of the grooves were modified with -OH or -OSi(CH3)3, making the surfaces hydrophilic or hydrophobic. By the MD simulations of 6T, it was found that three stable azimuthal directions exist (0, ˜45, and 90° the angle that the c-axis makes with the groove), being consistent with experimental results. MD simulations of deposition processes of 6T and pentacene were also carried out, and pentacene molecules showed the spontaneous formation of herringbone packing during deposition. Some pentacene molecules stood on the surface and formed a cluster whose a-axis was parallel to the groove. It is expected that a deep understanding of the molecular-scale mechanisms will lead graphoepitaxy to practical applications, improving the performance of organic devices.

  17. Organic Cocrystals: New Strategy for Molecular Collaborative Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Weigang; Dong, Huanli; Zhang, Xiaotao; Li, Rongjin; Hu, Wenping

    2016-12-01

    Organic cocrystals that are composed of two or more components usually exhibit novel, unpredictable, and even unique properties rather than a simple combination of the properties of their components, such as white-light emission, ambipolar charge transport, nonlinear optics, and ferroelectricity. Since cocrystal engineering represents a novel strategy for synthesizing multifunctional materials, which opens the door for molecular collaborative innovation, it has aroused much attention in recent years. However, as it is also a relatively new research field, it is only in its early stages of development. In order to provide readers with an understanding of the future design of cocrystals for potential applications, a brief review of organic cocrystals is presented here, including an introduction to organic cocrystals as well as discussions of cocrystal preparation, methods and techniques of characterization, and multifunctional applications of cocrystals. Moreover, the outlook for further studies and applications of cocrystal engineering is considered.

  18. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-01-01

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  19. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-10-28

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  20. Redundant Sb condensation on GaSb epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy during cooling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpapay, B.; Şahin, S.; Arıkan, B.; Serincan, U.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of four different cooling receipts on the surface morphologies of unintentionally-doped GaSb epilayers on GaSb (100) substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Those receipts include three different Sb beam equivalent pressure (BEP) levels and two different termination temperatures. Surface morphologies of epilayers were examined by wet etching, surface profiler, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that during the cooling period, a Sb BEP of 4.00 × 10 −4 Pa at a termination temperature of 400 °C induces a smooth surface without Sb condensation whereas same Sb BEP at a termination temperature of 350 °C forms a 300 nm thick Sb layer on the surface. In addition, it is revealed that by applying a wet etching procedure and using a surface profiler it is possible to identify this condensed layer from the two-sloped feature of mesa profile. - Highlights: • Sb beam flux termination temperature is crucial for redundant Sb condensation. • Sb beam flux level has a role on the thickness of redundant condensed Sb layer. • Redundant Sb layer thickness can be measured by two-sloped mesa structure

  1. Formation and reactions of free radicals in the radiolysis of organic materials by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, H.

    2000-01-01

    High-energy heavy ions deposit energy along ion tracks with high density. Chemical effects of the heavy ions may hence differ from that of γ-rays and fast electrons. We can utilize these effects for material modification and fabrication of microstructure. It is necessary to know the dependence of the effects on ion beams and the variation of the effects on materials for developing new application of ion beams. We then studied radical formation in organic solids of alanine and of adipic acid by ion beams irradiation. (author)

  2. Molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors for applications in photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhardt, G.

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on molecular as well as polymeric semiconductors were investigated and characterized. The organic materials presented here exhibit the advantages of low price, low processing costs and the possibility of tuning their optical properties. The photovoltaic properties were investigated by photocurrent action spectroscopy and I/V-characterization and the electric field distribution in each layer by electroabsorption spectroscopy. Single layer devices of molecular semiconductors and semiconducting polymers like methyl-substituted polyparaphenylene, CN-Ether-PPV, copper-phthalocyanine, the terryleneimide DOTer, the perylene derivatives BBP-perylene and polyBBP-perylene show low photocurrents as well as a small photovoltaic effect in their pristine form. One way to enhance the performance is to blend the active layer with molecular dopands like a soluble form of titaniumoxophthalocyanine or the aromatic macromolecule RS19 or to combine two organic semiconductors in heterostructure devices. The motivation for these experiments was the optimization of either charge transfer or energy transfer from one molecule to its neighbor molecule. A model based on the internal filter effect was used for fitting the photoresponse of single layer devices. For optimising heterostructure solar cells a more sophisticated theoretical model taking into account interference effects was used. (author)

  3. Self-regulated growth of LaVO3 thin films by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Dedon, Liv R.; Martin, Lane W.

    2015-01-01

    LaVO 3 thin films were grown on SrTiO 3 (001) by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. A volatile metalorganic precursor, vanadium oxytriisopropoxide (VTIP), and elemental La were co-supplied in the presence of a molecular oxygen flux. By keeping the La flux fixed and varying the VTIP flux, stoichiometric LaVO 3 films were obtained for a range of cation flux ratios, indicating the presence of a self-regulated growth window. Films grown under stoichiometric conditions were found to have the largest lattice parameter, which decreased monotonically with increasing amounts of excess La or V. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering measurements were carried out to confirm film compositions. Stoichiometric growth of complex vanadate thin films independent of cation flux ratios expands upon the previously reported self-regulated growth of perovskite titanates using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy, thus demonstrating the general applicability of this growth approach to other complex oxide materials, where a precise control over film stoichiometry is demanded by the application

  4. YCo5±x thin films with perpendicular anisotropy grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Hildebrandt, E.; Sharath, S. U.; Radulov, I.; Alff, L.

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis conditions of buffer-free (00l) oriented YCo5 and Y2Co17 thin films onto Al2O3 (0001) substrates have been explored by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The manipulation of the ratio of individual atomic beams of Yttrium, Y and Cobalt, Co, as well as growth rate variations allows establishing a thin film phase diagram. Highly textured YCo5±x thin films were stabilized with saturation magnetization of 517 emu/cm3 (0.517 MA/m), coercivity of 4 kOe (0.4 T), and anisotropy constant, K1, equal to 5.34 ×106 erg/cm3 (0.53 MJ/m3). These magnetic parameters and the perpendicular anisotropy obtained without additional underlayers make the material system interesting for application in magnetic recording devices.

  5. Cross-correlation time-of-flight analysis of molecular beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowikow, C.V.; Grice, R.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of the cross-correlation method of time-of-flight analysis is presented in a form which highlights its formal similarity to the conventional method. A time-of-flight system for the analysis of crossed molecular beam scattering is described, which is based on a minicomputer interface and can operate in both the cross-correlation and conventional modes. The interface maintains the synchronisation of chopper disc rotation and channel advance indefinitely in the cross-correlation method and can acquire data in phase with the beam modulation in both methods. The shutter function of the cross-correlation method is determined and the deconvolution analysis of the data is discussed. (author)

  6. Quantitative Determination of Organic Semiconductor Microstructure from the Molecular to Device Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Miller, Chad E.; Salleo, Alberto; Toney, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate quantitative determination of organic semiconductor microstructure from the molecular to device scale. The quantitative determination of organic semiconductor microstructure from the molecular to device scale

  7. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Dong, Xinglong; Wang, Hao; Ma, Dingxuan; Tan, Kui; Jensen, Stephanie; Deibert, Benjamin J; Butler, Joseph; Cure, Jeremy; Shi, Zhan; Thonhauser, Timo; Chabal, Yves J; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2017-09-07

    Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH 3 I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag 0 @MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

  8. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan

    2017-09-01

    Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH3I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag0@MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

  9. Organic ice resists for 3D electron-beam processing: Instrumentation and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Beleggia, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Organic vapors condensed into thin layers of ice on the surface of a cold substrate are exposed with an electron beam to create resist patterns for lithography applications. The entire spin- and development-free lithography process requires a single custom instrument. We report the design, material...... choice, implementation and operation of this apparatus. It is based on a scanning electron microscope fitted with an electron beam control system that is normally used for electron beam lithography in a multi-user open-access laboratory. The microscope was also equipped with a gas injection system......, a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostage, a temperature control system, and a load-lock. Three steps are required to initialize the apparatus for organic ice resist processing, and two steps are required to restore the apparatus for routine multi-user operations. Five steps are needed to create organic ice...

  10. A modified time-of-flight method for precise determination of high speed ratios in molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Palau, A.; Eder, S. D., E-mail: sabrina.eder@uib.no; Kaltenbacher, T.; Samelin, B.; Holst, B. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Bracco, G. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); CNR-IMEM, Department of Physics, University of Genova, V. Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Time-of-flight (TOF) is a standard experimental technique for determining, among others, the speed ratio S (velocity spread) of a molecular beam. The speed ratio is a measure for the monochromaticity of the beam and an accurate determination of S is crucial for various applications, for example, for characterising chromatic aberrations in focussing experiments related to helium microscopy or for precise measurements of surface phonons and surface structures in molecular beam scattering experiments. For both of these applications, it is desirable to have as high a speed ratio as possible. Molecular beam TOF measurements are typically performed by chopping the beam using a rotating chopper with one or more slit openings. The TOF spectra are evaluated using a standard deconvolution method. However, for higher speed ratios, this method is very sensitive to errors related to the determination of the slit width and the beam diameter. The exact sensitivity depends on the beam diameter, the number of slits, the chopper radius, and the chopper rotation frequency. We present a modified method suitable for the evaluation of TOF measurements of high speed ratio beams. The modified method is based on a systematic variation of the chopper convolution parameters so that a set of independent measurements that can be fitted with an appropriate function are obtained. We show that with this modified method, it is possible to reduce the error by typically one order of magnitude compared to the standard method.

  11. Three-dimensional ordering of cold ion beams in a storage ring: A molecular-dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuri, Yosuke, E-mail: yuri.yosuke@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 Japan (Japan)

    2015-06-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) ordering of a charged-particle beams circulating in a storage ring is systematically studied with a molecular-dynamics simulation code. An ion beam can exhibit a 3D ordered configuration at ultralow temperature as a result of powerful 3D laser cooling. Various unique characteristics of the ordered beams, different from those of crystalline beams, are revealed in detail, such as the single-particle motion in the transverse and longitudinal directions, and the dependence of the tune depression and the Coulomb coupling constant on the operating points.

  12. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  13. Langmuir-Blodgett films of molecular organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talham, Daniel R; Yamamoto, Takashi; Meisel, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett methods are perhaps the original approach for achieving controlled deposition of organic thin films. Molecules are first organized into a monolayer array on the surface of water before transfer as a monolayer onto solid supports. Molecular monolayers, multilayers, and multilayered heterostructures can be achieved. The capability of exercising such control over thin film assemblies has attracted materials chemists and physicists to develop Langmuir-Blodgett films for studies on organic conductors, magnets, non-linear optics, rectifiers, and intermolecular electron transfer. This article reviews objectives in each of these areas and selects some specific examples from the literature to highlight the state of the art, mostly from the point of view of the chemical systems that are studied. Mixed organic/inorganic hybrid films represent a new direction for Langmuir-Blodgett films in materials science, combining conventional inorganic solid-state phenomena with the properties of the organic networks, and recent examples, taken principally from the authors' work, are highlighted

  14. Molecular beams with extremely narrow velocity spreads from free jet expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, U.; Dueker, M.; Pauly, H.; Pust, D.

    1974-01-01

    Velocity distributions in molecular beams from free jets of light gases (He, H 2 and mixtures of 1% Xe in H 2 ) were studied as a function of the source Knudsen number. They were found to be narrower than what would be expected from previous studies. Mach numbers of 50 were observed for helium at a source temperature of T=85 deg K. The speed ratio for sources at room temperature was found to be S=29 for pure H 2 and 35 for a 1% Xe-99% H 2 mixture

  15. Growth of CrTe thin films by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, M.G.; Hou, X.J.; Teo, K.L.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Liew, T.; Chong, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    We report the growth of Cr 1-δ Te films on (100) GaAs substrates using ZnTe buffer layers by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxial technique. RHEED patterns indicate a clear structural change during the initial stages of deposition. Temperature-dependent magnetization results reveal that different NiAs-related phases of Cr 1-δ Te can be obtained at different substrate temperatures. By varying the film thickness, a metastable zinc blende structure of CrTe could be obtained at lower substrate temperature

  16. Epitaxial growth and new phase of single crystal Dy by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kai-Yueh; Homma, Hitoshi; Schuller, I.K.

    1987-09-01

    We have grown two novel epitaxial phases of dysprosium (Dy) on vanadium (V) by molecular beam epitaxy technique. Surface and bulk structures are studied by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and x-ray diffraction techniques. The new hcp phases are ∼4% expanded uniformly in-plane (0001), and ∼9% and ∼4% expanded out of plane along the c-axes for non-interrupted and interrupted deposition case, respectively. We also observed (2 x 2), (3 x 3), and (4 x 4) Dy surface reconstruction patterns and a series of transitions as the Dy film thickness increases. 12 refs., 3 figs

  17. Demonstration of molecular beam epitaxy and a semiconducting band structure for I-Mn-V compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungwirth, T.; Novak, V.; Cukr, M.; Zemek, J.; Marti, X.; Horodyska, P.; Nemec, P.; Holy, V.; Maca, F.; Shick, A. B.; Masek, J.; Kuzel, P.; Nemec, I.; Gallagher, B. L.; Campion, R. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2011-01-01

    Our ab initio theory calculations predict a semiconducting band structure of I-Mn-V compounds. We demonstrate on LiMnAs that high-quality materials with group-I alkali metals in the crystal structure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Optical measurements on the LiMnAs epilayers are consistent with the theoretical electronic structure. Our calculations also reproduce earlier reports of high antiferromagnetic ordering temperature and predict large, spin-orbit-coupling-induced magnetic anisotropy effects. We propose a strategy for employing antiferromagnetic semiconductors in high-temperature semiconductor spintronics.

  18. Plasma behavior with molecular beam injection in the HL-1m tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Tang Nianyi; Cui Zhengying; Xu Deming; Deng Zhongchao; Ding Xuantong; Luo Junlin; Dong Jiafu; Guo Gancheng; Yang Shikun; Cui Chenghe; Xiao Zhenggui; Liu Dequan; Chen Xiaoping; Yan Longwen; Yan Donghai; Wang Enyao; Deng Xiwen

    1999-01-01

    The authors report effect of the new fueling method of high speed molecular beam injection on Tokamak confinement improvement. The present method is an improvement of conventional gas puffing, with performance comparable to the small pellet injection in HL-1M and also to the slow pellet in ASDEX. The fact that a shallower fueling can lead to similar confinement improvement as a deep one suggests that there may exist a critical position in a Tokamak plasma such that any kind of fueling will have a better confinement as long as it can give rise to density peaking at the critical position

  19. Molecular beam and pulsed laser deposition of ZnS:Cr for intermediate band solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Yang, Xiaodong; Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Ghadyani, Zahra; Kildemo, Morten; Gibson, Ursula; Reenaas, Turid Worren

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the structural and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cr) thin films (0–7.5 at.% Cr) for use in intermediate band solar cells. The films were grown on Si(100) in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) equipments. Introducing Cr into ZnS resulted in Cr related subbandgap absorption, but also reduced the grain size. The sub-bandgap absorption increased with increasing Cr content, and with increasing growth temperature, but did not depend on the ...

  20. Origin of green luminescence in ZnO thin film grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Y.W.; Norton, D.P.; Pearton, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    The properties of ZnO films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are reported. The primary focus was on understanding the origin of deep-level luminescence. A shift in deep-level emission from green to yellow is observed with reduced Zn pressure during the growth. Photoluminescence and Hall measurements were employed to study correlations between deep-level/near-band-edge emission and carrier density. With these results, we suggest that the green emission is related to donor-deep acceptor (Zn vacancy V Zn - ) and the yellow to donor-deep acceptor (oxygen vacancy, O i - )

  1. Reaction mechanism of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons by the crossed molecular beams method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, R.J.; Baseman, R.J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y.T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  2. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonks, James P., E-mail: james.tonks@awe.co.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Galloway, Ewan C., E-mail: ewan.galloway@awe.co.uk; King, Martin O. [AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Kerherve, Gwilherm [VACGEN Ltd, St. Leonards-On-Sea, East Sussex TN38 9NN (United Kingdom); Watts, John F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  3. Near-bandgap optical properties of pseudomorphic GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Costa, Vijay Richard, E-mail: vdcosta@asu.edu; Wang, Wei; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: eleyeoyc@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-08-14

    We investigated the compositional dependence of the near-bandgap dielectric function and the E{sub 0} critical point in pseudomorphic Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} alloys grown on Ge (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The complex dielectric functions were obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.5 to 4.5 eV at room temperature. Analogous to the E{sub 1} and E{sub 1}+Δ{sub 1} transitions, a model consisting of the compositional dependence of relaxed alloys along with the strain contribution predicted by the deformation potential theory fully accounts for the observed compositional dependence in pseudomorphic alloys.

  4. Low defect densities in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs achieved by isoelectronic In doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, P. K.; Dhar, S.; Berger, P.; Juang, F.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of adding small amounts of In (0.2-1.2 pct) to GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The density of four electron traps decreases in concentration by an order of magnitude, and the peak intensities of prominent emissions in the excitonic spectra are reduced with increase in In content. Based on the higher surface migration rate of In, compared to Ga, at the growth temperatures it is apparent that the traps and the excitonic transitions are related to point defects. This agrees with earlier observations by Briones and Collins (1982) and Skromme et al. (1985).

  5. Growth of Gold-assisted Gallium Arsenide Nanowires on Silicon Substrates via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon M. delos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide nanowires were grown on silicon (100 substrates by what is called the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth mechanism using a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE system. Good quality nanowires with surface density of approximately 108 nanowires per square centimeter were produced by utilizing gold nanoparticles, with density of 1011 nanoparticles per square centimeter, as catalysts for nanowire growth. X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the nanowires are epitaxially grown on the silicon substrates, are oriented along the [111] direction and have cubic zincblende structure.

  6. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  7. Perspective: Extremely fine tuning of doping enabled by combinatorial molecular-beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical doping provides an effective method to control the electric properties of complex oxides. However, the state-of-art accuracy in controlling doping is limited to about 1%. This hampers elucidation of the precise doping dependences of physical properties and phenomena of interest, such as quantum phase transitions. Using the combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy, we improve the accuracy in tuning the doping level by two orders of magnitude. We illustrate this novel method by two examples: a systematic investigation of the doping dependence of interface superconductivity, and a study of the competing ground states in the vicinity of the insulator-to-superconductor transition.

  8. Measuring the Density of a Molecular Cluster Injector via Visible Emission from an Electron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. M.; Stotler, D. P.

    2010-06-28

    A method to measure the density distribution of a dense hydrogen gas jet is pre- sented. A Mach 5.5 nozzle is cooled to 80K to form a flow capable of molecular cluster formation. A 250V, 10mA electron beam collides with the jet and produces Hα emission that is viewed by a fast camera. The high density of the jet, several 1016cm-3, results in substantial electron depletion, which attenuates the Hα emission. The attenuated emission measurement, combined with a simplified electron-molecule collision model, allows us to determine the molecular density profile via a simple iterative calculation.

  9. Low-dimensional organization of angular momentum during walking on a narrow beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovetto, Enrico; Huber, Meghan E; Sternad, Dagmar; Giese, Martin A

    2018-01-08

    Walking on a beam is a challenging motor skill that requires the regulation of upright balance and stability. The difficulty in beam walking results from the reduced base of support compared to that afforded by flat ground. One strategy to maintain stability and hence avoid falling off the beam is to rotate the limb segments to control the body's angular momentum. The aim of this study was to examine the coordination of the angular momentum variations during beam walking. We recorded movement kinematics of participants walking on a narrow beam and computed the angular momentum contributions of the body segments with respect to three different axes. Results showed that, despite considerable variability in the movement kinematics, the angular momentum was characterized by a low-dimensional organization based on a small number of segmental coordination patterns. When the angular momentum was computed with respect to the beam axis, the largest fraction of its variation was accounted for by the trunk segment. This simple organization was robust and invariant across all participants. These findings support the hypothesis that control strategies for complex balancing tasks might be easier to understand by investigating angular momentum instead of the segmental kinematics.

  10. Electron ionization LC-MS with supersonic molecular beams--the new concept, benefits and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Boaz; Alon, Tal; Tsizin, Svetlana; Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2015-11-01

    A new type of electron ionization LC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (EI-LC-MS with SMB) is described. This system and its operational methods are based on pneumatic spray formation of the LC liquid flow in a heated spray vaporization chamber, full sample thermal vaporization and subsequent electron ionization of vibrationally cold molecules in supersonic molecular beams. The vaporized sample compounds are transferred into a supersonic nozzle via a flow restrictor capillary. Consequently, while the pneumatic spray is formed and vaporized at above atmospheric pressure the supersonic nozzle backing pressure is about 0.15 Bar for the formation of supersonic molecular beams with vibrationally cold sample molecules without cluster formation with the solvent vapor. The sample compounds are ionized in a fly-though EI ion source as vibrationally cold molecules in the SMB, resulting in 'Cold EI' (EI of vibrationally cold molecules) mass spectra that exhibit the standard EI fragments combined with enhanced molecular ions. We evaluated the EI-LC-MS with SMB system and demonstrated its effectiveness in NIST library sample identification which is complemented with the availability of enhanced molecular ions. The EI-LC-MS with SMB system is characterized by linear response of five orders of magnitude and uniform compound independent response including for non-polar compounds. This feature improves sample quantitation that can be approximated without compound specific calibration. Cold EI, like EI, is free from ion suppression and/or enhancement effects (that plague ESI and/or APCI) which facilitate faster LC separation because full separation is not essential. The absence of ion suppression effects enables the exploration of fast flow injection MS-MS as an alternative to lengthy LC-MS analysis. These features are demonstrated in a few examples, and the analysis of the main ingredients of Cannabis on a few Cannabis flower extracts is demonstrated. Finally, the advantages of

  11. Polarizable Atomic Multipole-based Molecular Mechanics for Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Pengyu; Wu, Chuanjie; Ponder, Jay W

    2011-10-11

    An empirical potential based on permanent atomic multipoles and atomic induced dipoles is reported for alkanes, alcohols, amines, sulfides, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amides, aromatics and other small organic molecules. Permanent atomic multipole moments through quadrupole moments have been derived from gas phase ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The van der Waals parameters are obtained by fitting to gas phase homodimer QM energies and structures, as well as experimental densities and heats of vaporization of neat liquids. As a validation, the hydrogen bonding energies and structures of gas phase heterodimers with water are evaluated using the resulting potential. For 32 homo- and heterodimers, the association energy agrees with ab initio results to within 0.4 kcal/mol. The RMS deviation of hydrogen bond distance from QM optimized geometry is less than 0.06 Å. In addition, liquid self-diffusion and static dielectric constants computed from molecular dynamics simulation are consistent with experimental values. The force field is also used to compute the solvation free energy of 27 compounds not included in the parameterization process, with a RMS error of 0.69 kcal/mol. The results obtained in this study suggest the AMOEBA force field performs well across different environments and phases. The key algorithms involved in the electrostatic model and a protocol for developing parameters are detailed to facilitate extension to additional molecular systems.

  12. Molecular Determinants of Dissolved Organic Matter Reactivity in Lake Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mostovaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lakes in the boreal region have been recognized as the biogeochemical hotspots, yet many questions regarding the regulators of organic matter processing in these systems remain open. Molecular composition can be an important determinant of dissolved organic matter (DOM fate in freshwater systems, but many aspects of this relationship remain unclear due to the complexity of DOM and its interactions in the natural environment. Here, we combine ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS with kinetic modeling of decay of >1,300 individual DOM molecular formulae identified by mass spectrometry, to evaluate the role of specific molecular characteristics in decomposition of lake water DOM. Our data is derived from a 4 months microbial decomposition experiment, carried out on water from three Swedish lakes, with the set-up including natural lake water, as well as the lake water pretreated with UV light. The relative decay rate of every molecular formula was estimated by fitting a single exponential model to the change in FT-ICR-MS signal intensities over decomposition time. We found a continuous range of exponential decay coefficients (kexp within different groups of compounds and show that for highly unsaturated and phenolic compounds the distribution of kexp was shifted toward the lowest values. Contrary to this general trend, plant-derived polyphenols and polycondensed aromatics were on average more reactive than compounds with an intermediate aromaticity. The decay rate of aromatic compounds increased with increasing nominal oxidation state of carbon, and molecular mass in some cases showed an inverse relationship with kexp in the UV-manipulated treatment. Further, we observe an increase in formulae-specific kexp as a result of the UV pretreatment. General trends in reactivity identified among major compound groups emphasize the importance of the intrinsic controllers of lake water DOM decay. However, we additionally indicate that each

  13. Molecular Understanding of Organic Solar Cells: The Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2009-11-17

    (Figure presented) Our objective in this Account is 3-fold. First, we provide an overview of the optical and electronic processes that take place in a solid-state organic solar cell, which we define as a cell in which the semiconducting materials between the electrodes are organic, be them polymers, oligomers, or small molecules; this discussion is also meant to set the conceptual framework in which many of the contributions to this Special Issue on Photovoltaics can We viewed. We successively turn our attention to (i) optical absorption and exciton formation, (ii) exciton migration to the donor - acceptor interface, (iii) exciton dissociation into charge carriers, resulting in the appearance of holes in the donor and electrons in the acceptor, (iv) charge-carrier mobility, and (v) charge collection at the electrodes. For each of these processes, we also describe the theoretical challenges that need to be overcome to gain a comprehensive understanding at the molecular level. Finally, we highlight recent theoretical advances, in particular regarding the determination of the energetics and dynamics at organic - organic interfaces, and underline that the right balance needs to be found for the optimization of material parameters that often result in opposite effects on the photovoltaic performance. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Acquiring beam data for a flattening-filter free linear accelerator using organic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierholm, A.R.; Behrens, C.F.; Hoffmann, L.; Andersen, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Fibre-coupled organic scintillators have been proven a credible alternative to clinically implemented methods for radiotherapy dosimetry, primarily due to their water equivalence and good spatial resolution. Furthermore, the fast response of the scintillators can be exploited to perform time-resolved dosimetry on a highly detailed level. In this study, we present beam data for a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator, which is capable of delivering flattening-filter free (FFF 1 ) clinical X-ray beams. The beam data have been acquired using an in-house developed dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators. The presented data exhibit high accuracy and precision when compared with data obtained using commercial dosimetry methods, and agree well with results published in the literature. -- Highlights: •A dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators is presented. •The system is used for radiotherapy beams with and without flattening filter. •Measurements show good agreement with various commercial dosimeters

  15. Kinetic methods for measuring the temperature of clusters and nanoparticles in molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Grigorii N

    2011-01-01

    The temperature (internal energy) of clusters and nanoparticles is an important physical parameter which affects many of their properties and the character of processes they are involved in. At the same time, determining the temperature of free clusters and nanoparticles in molecular beams is a rather complicated problem because the temperature of small particles depends on their size. In this paper, recently developed kinetic methods for measuring the temperature of clusters and nanoparticles in molecular beams are reviewed. The definition of temperature in the present context is given, and how the temperature affects the properties of and the processes involving the particles is discussed. The temperature behavior of clusters and nanoparticles near a phase transition point is analyzed. Early methods for measuring the temperature of large clusters are briefly described. It is shown that, compared to other methods, new kinetic methods are more universal and applicable for determining the temperature of clusters and nanoparticles of practically any size and composition. The future development and applications of these methods are outlined. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong, E-mail: hhong@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tung, I. C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  17. Investigation of the silicon ion density during molecular beam epitaxy growth

    CERN Document Server

    Eifler, G; Ashurov, K; Morozov, S

    2002-01-01

    Ions impinging on a surface during molecular beam epitaxy influence the growth and the properties of the growing layer, for example, suppression of dopant segregation and the generation of crystal defects. The silicon electron gun in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equipment is used as a source for silicon ions. To use the effect of ion bombardment the mechanism of generation and distribution of ions was investigated. A monitoring system was developed and attached at the substrate position in the MBE growth chamber to measure the ion and electron densities towards the substrate. A negative voltage was applied to the substrate to modify the ion energy and density. Furthermore the current caused by charge carriers impinging on the substrate was measured and compared with the results of the monitoring system. The electron and ion densities were measured by varying the emission current of the e-gun achieving silicon growth rates between 0.07 and 0.45 nm/s and by changing the voltage applied to the substrate betw...

  18. ESCA and electron diffraction studies of InP surface heated under As molecular beam exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Shibukawa, Atsushi

    1983-01-01

    Chemical composition of InP substrate surface heattreated under As molecular beam exposure in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber was studied with ESCA, and surface reconstruction of the substrate was examined by in-situ electron diffraction. The InP substrate heated under the exposure of As molecular beam has mirror surface up to 590 0 C while the surface of InP heated above 400 0 C in vacuum is roughened. The ESCA study shows that thin InAs layer (thickness 0 C under the exposure of As. The electron diffraction study indicates that the InP is cleaned at about 500 0 C in As pressures of 10 -7 - 10 -5 Torr. The InP surface is prevented from thermally decomposing by the coverage of the InAs layer, which may be formed through the following process: 2InPO 4 + As 4 → 2InAs + P 2 O 5 + As 2 O 3 . (author)

  19. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong; Tung, I. C.; Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques

  20. Raman investigation of GaP–Si interfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondi, A.; Cornet, C.; Boyer, S.; Nguyen Thanh, T.; Létoublon, A.; Pedesseau, L.; Durand, O. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, F-35708 Rennes (France); Moreac, A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR-CNRS n°6251, Université Rennes1, Campus de Beaulieu — 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Ponchet, A. [CEMES, UPR CNRS 8011, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Le Corre, A. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, F-35708 Rennes (France); Even, J., E-mail: jacky.even@insa.rennes.fr [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, F-35708 Rennes (France)

    2013-08-31

    Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the residual strain in thin GaP layers deposited on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Different growth conditions were used to obtain a clean GaP–Si interface, including migration enhanced epitaxy. The strain induced Raman shifts of the longitudinal and the transverse optical GaP lattice modes were analyzed. The effects of crystalline defects are discussed, supported by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering studies. Finally, Raman Spectroscopy reveals the presence of disorder (or surface)-activated optical phonons. This result is discussed in the light of surface morphology analyses. - Highlights: ► GaP thin layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. ► Strain-induced Raman shifts of the optical GaP modes are analyzed. ► Simulation of optical GaP modes by density functional perturbation theory. ► Comparison with X-ray diffraction and electron and scanning probe microscopy data.

  1. Growth of GaSb1-xBix by molecular beam epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Wang, Shumin; Roy, Ivy Saha

    2012-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy for GaSb1-xBix is investigated in this article. The growth window for incorporation of Bi in GaSb was found. Strategies of avoiding formation of Bi droplets and enhancing Bi incorporation were studied. The Bi incorporation was confirmed by SIMS and RBS measurements. The Bi ......As substrates were compared and no apparent difference for Bi incorporation was found.......Molecular beam epitaxy for GaSb1-xBix is investigated in this article. The growth window for incorporation of Bi in GaSb was found. Strategies of avoiding formation of Bi droplets and enhancing Bi incorporation were studied. The Bi incorporation was confirmed by SIMS and RBS measurements. The Bi...... concentration in the samples was found to increase with increasing growth temperature and Bi flux. The position of GaSb1-xBix layer peak in XRD rocking curves is found to be correlated to Bi composition. Surface and structural properties of the samples were also investigated. Samples grown on GaSb and Ga...

  2. Effects of substrate material on carbon films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Xu, X.Y.; Man, B.Y.; Kong, D.M.; Xu, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared tri-layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) on sapphire substrate. ► We found that the formation of the graphene film has a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. ► The different carbon film formation mechanism of the buffer layers can affect the morphology of the film. - Abstract: The carbon thin films were grown on different substrates with different buffer layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) with a high purity graphite carbon target. A UV pulsed KrF excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm was used as laser source. The structure, surface morphology and other properties of the carbon thin films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the properties of the carbon thin films and the formation of the graphene film have a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. The substrate with a hexagonal wurtzite structure which is similar to the hexagonal honeycomb structure of the carbon atoms arranged in the graphene is more beneficial for the formation of the graphene thin film. In our experiment conditions, the carbon films grown on sapphire substrates with different buffer layers have an ordered structure and a smooth surface, and form high quality tri-layer graphene films.

  3. Characterizing a pulse-resolved dosimetry system for complex radiotherapy beams using organic scintillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Ottosson, Rickard; Lindvold, Lars René

    2011-01-01

    A fast-readout dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators has been developed for the purpose of conducting point measurements of absorbed dose in radiotherapy beams involving high spatial and temporal dose gradients. The system measures the dose for each linac radiation pulse w...... and quality assurance of complex radiotherapy treatments.......A fast-readout dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators has been developed for the purpose of conducting point measurements of absorbed dose in radiotherapy beams involving high spatial and temporal dose gradients. The system measures the dose for each linac radiation pulse....... No significant differences between measurements and simulations were observed. The temporal resolution of the system was demonstrated by measuring dose per pulse, beam start-up transients and the quality factor for 6 MV. The precision of dose per pulse measurements was within 2.7% (1 SD) for a 10 cm × 10 cm...

  4. Molecular depth profiling of organic and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, John S. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: John.Fletcher@manchester.ac.uk; Conlan, Xavier A. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Lockyer, Nicholas P. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Vickerman, John C. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-30

    Atomic depth profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, is common in the field micro-electronics; however, the generation of molecular information as a function of sample depth is difficult due to the accumulation of damage both on and beneath the sample surface. The introduction of polyatomic ion beams such as SF{sub 5} and C{sub 60} have raised the possibility of overcoming this problem as they deposit the majority of their energy in the upper surface of the sample resulting in increased sputter yields but with a complimentary reduction in sub-surface damage accumulation. In this paper we report the depth profile analysis of the bio-polymer polycaprolactone, PCL, using the polyatomic ions Au{sub 3}{sup +} and C{sub 60}{sup +} and the monoatomic Au{sup +}. Results are compared to recent analysis of a similar sample using SF{sub 5}{sup +}. C{sub 60}{sup +} depth profiling of cellulose is also demonstrated, an experiment that has been reported as unsuccessful when attempted with SF{sub 5}{sup +} implications for biological analysis are discussed.

  5. Influence of Molecular Shape on Molecular Orientation and Stability of Vapor-Deposited Organic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Diane M.; Johnson, Noah D.; Ediger, M. D.

    Physical vapor deposition is commonly used to prepare active layers in organic electronics. Recently, it has been shown that molecular orientation and packing can be tuned by changing the substrate temperature during deposition, while still producing macroscopically homogeneous films. These amorphous materials can be highly anisotropic when prepared with low substrate temperatures, and they can exhibit exceptional kinetic stability; films retain their favorable packing when heated to high temperatures. Here, we study the influence of molecular shape on molecular orientation and stability. We investigate disc-shaped molecules, such as TCTA and m-MTDATA, nearly spherical molecules, such as Alq3, and linear molecules covering a broad range of aspect ratios, such as p-TTP and BSB-Cz. Disc-shaped molecules have preferential horizontal orientation when deposited at low substrate temperatures, and their orientation can be tuned by changing the substrate temperature. Alq3 forms stable, amorphous films that are optically isotropic when vapor deposited over a broad range of substrate temperatures. This work may guide the choice of material and deposition conditions for vapor-deposited films used in organic electronics and allow for more efficient devices to be fabricated.

  6. Investigation of the silicon ion density during molecular beam epitaxy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, G.; Kasper, E.; Ashurov, Kh.; Morozov, S.

    2002-05-01

    Ions impinging on a surface during molecular beam epitaxy influence the growth and the properties of the growing layer, for example, suppression of dopant segregation and the generation of crystal defects. The silicon electron gun in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equipment is used as a source for silicon ions. To use the effect of ion bombardment the mechanism of generation and distribution of ions was investigated. A monitoring system was developed and attached at the substrate position in the MBE growth chamber to measure the ion and electron densities towards the substrate. A negative voltage was applied to the substrate to modify the ion energy and density. Furthermore the current caused by charge carriers impinging on the substrate was measured and compared with the results of the monitoring system. The electron and ion densities were measured by varying the emission current of the e-gun achieving silicon growth rates between 0.07 and 0.45 nm/s and by changing the voltage applied to the substrate between 0 to -1000 V. The dependencies of ion and electron densities were shown and discussed within the framework of a simple model. The charged carrier densities measured with the monitoring system enable to separate the ion part of the substrate current and show its correlation to the generation rate. Comparing the ion density on the whole substrate and in the center gives a hint to the ion beam focusing effect. The maximum ion and electron current densities obtained were 0.40 and 0.61 μA/cm2, respectively.

  7. Removal of chlorinated organic compounds from gas phase using electron beam technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; Bulka, S.; Zimek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Chmielewski, A. G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Selected chlorinated organic compounds (Cl-HC), which are emitted from coal fired power plants, waste incinerators, chemical industry etc., are very harmful to the environment and human’s health. Some of them are listed as carcinogenic compounds by USA EPA. Recent studies show that some chlorinated organic compounds are suspected to be precursors for dioxins formation. Chlorinated organic compounds decomposition in air in an electron beam (EB) generated plasma reactor technology was studied. We selected cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), 1,4-dichlorobenznene(1,4-DCB), 1-chloronaphthalene as studied objects. It is found that chlorinated organic compounds can be decomposed in an electron beam generated plasma reactor. The order of decomposition efficiency of these compounds are: cis-DCE > 1,4-DCB> 1-chloronaphthalene. (author)

  8. Crossed molecular beam study of the reactions of methyl bromide with potassium and rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, H.F.; Wu, K.T; Bernstein, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Using the crossed molecular beam method, the yields of the alkali halide product MBr from the exoergic reactions CH 3 Br+M→MBr+CH 3 (MequivalentK, Rb) have been measured as a function of relative translational energy up to 0.9 and 1.3 eV for K and Rb, respectively. Supersonic seeded beams of CH 3 Br are crossed with thermal alkali beams and the in-plane angular distribution of MBr measured at different average relative translational energies E-bar/sub tr/. The reactions are found to have appreciable energy thresholds, 0.24 +- 0.06 and 0.20 +- 0.06 eV for the K and Rb-reactions, respectively. The product yields increase monotonically with E-bar/sub tr/ above threshold. The postthreshold energy dependence of the cross sections has been obtained by deconvoluting these data from the crossed beam velocity distributions. The MBr angular distributions are characteristic of a direct, rebound mechanism, with a large fraction of the available energy going into product translation. The average recoil energy E-bar'/sub tr/ of the product MBr increases linearly with E-bar/sub tr/ (dE-bar'/sub tr//dE-bar/sub tr/approx. =0.73). The present data for the M+CH 3 Br systems are compared with previous results for the analogous CH 3 I reactions and with predictions of several theoretical models. The significantly higher activation barriers for the CH 3 Br reactions account for their smaller thermal reaction rate constants relative to the analogous CH 3 I reactions

  9. Surface chemistry and growth mechanisms studies of homo epitaxial (1 0 0) GaAs by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dawei; Wu Weidong; Zhang Hong; Wang Xuemin; Zhang Hongliang; Zhang Weibin; Xiong Zhengwei; Wang Yuying; Shen Changle; Peng Liping; Han Shangjun; Zhou Minjie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, GaAs thin film has been deposited on thermally desorbed (1 0 0) GaAs substrate using laser molecular beam epitaxy. Scanning electron microscopy, in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are applied for evaluation of the surface morphology and chemistry during growth process. The results show that a high density of pits is formed on the surface of GaAs substrate after thermal treatment and the epitaxial thin film heals itself by a step flow growth, resulting in a smoother surface morphology. Moreover, it is found that the incorporation of As species into GaAs epilayer is more efficient in laser molecular beam epitaxy than conventional molecular beam epitaxy. We suggest the growth process is impacted by surface chemistry and morphology of GaAs substrate after thermal treatment and the growth mechanisms are discussed in details.

  10. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    drug targets, to treat, for example, type II diabetes by mimicking food intake by potent agonists or positive allosteric modulators. The ligand-receptor interactions of the promiscuous receptors of organic nutrients thus remain an interesting subject of emerging functional importance....... in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. These receptors thus hold the potential to act as sensors of food intake, regulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue....... The promiscuous tendency in ligand recognition of these receptors is in contrast to the typical specific interaction with one physiological agonist seen for most receptors, which challenges the classic "lock-and-key" concept. We here review the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing of the calcium...

  11. Measurement of incident molecular temperature in the formation of organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Matsubara, Ryosuke; Hayakawa, Munetaka; Shimoyama, Akifumi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsuji, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Kubono, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of incident molecular temperature on organic-thin-film growth by vacuum evaporation, quantitative analysis of molecular temperature is required. In this study, we propose a method of determining molecular temperature based on the heat exchange between a platinum filament and molecular vapor. Molecular temperature is estimated from filament temperature, which remains unchanged even under molecular vapor supply. The results indicate that our method has sufficient sensitivity to evaluate the molecular temperature under the typical growth rate used for fabrication of functional organic thin films.

  12. Position sensitive detection coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Imaging for molecular beam deflection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahim, M.; Antoine, R.; Arnaud, L.; Barbaire, M.; Broyer, M.; Clavier, Ch.; Compagnon, I.; Dugourd, Ph.; Maurelli, J.; Rayane, D.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed and tested a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a position sensitive detector for molecular beam deflection experiments. The major achievement of this new spectrometer is to provide a three-dimensional imaging (X and Y positions and time-of-flight) of the ion packet on the detector, with a high acquisition rate and a high resolution on both the mass and the position. The calibration of the experimental setup and its application to molecular beam deflection experiments are discussed

  13. Recent contributions of flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry to a fundamental understanding of combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Nils [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Cool, Terrill A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Westmoreland, Phillip R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry of premixed, laminar, low-pressure flat flames has been demonstrated to be an efficient tool to study combustion chemistry. In this technique, flame gases are sampled through a small opening in a quartz probe, and after formation of a molecular beam, all flame species are separated using mass spectrometry. The present review focuses on critical aspects of the experimental approach including probe sampling effects, different ionization processes, and mass separation procedures. The capability for isomer-resolved flame species measurements, achievable by employing tunable vacuum-ultraviolet radiation for single-photon ionization, has greatly benefited flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry. This review also offers an overview of recent combustion chemistry studies of flames fueled by hydrocarbons and oxygenates. The identity of a variety of intermediates in hydrocarbon flames, including resonantly stabilized radicals and closed-shell intermediates, is described, thus establishing a more detailed understanding of the fundamentals of molecular-weight growth processes. Finally, molecular-beam mass-spectrometric studies of reaction paths in flames of alcohols, ethers, and esters, which have been performed to support the development and validation of kinetic models for bio-derived alternative fuels, are reviewed. (author)

  14. Mathematical model for predicting molecular-beam epitaxy growth rates for wafer production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, B.Q.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical mathematical model for predicting molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth rates is reported. The mathematical model solves the mass-conservation equation for liquid sources in conical crucibles and predicts the growth rate by taking into account the effect of growth source depletion on the growth rate. Assumptions made for deducing the analytical model are discussed. The model derived contains only one unknown parameter, the value of which can be determined by using data readily available to MBE growers. Procedures are outlined for implementing the model in MBE production of III-V compound semiconductor device wafers. Results from use of the model to obtain targeted layer compositions and thickness of InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistor wafers are presented

  15. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martínez, A., E-mail: alm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx, E-mail: alastras@gmail.com; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guevara-Macías, L. E.; Nuñez-Olvera, O.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F. [Instituto de Investigación en Comunicación Optica, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Alvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78000 (Mexico); Lastras-Montaño, L. A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Lastras-Montaño, M. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD) spectroscopy of GaAs(001) grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  16. P-N junction solar cell grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazrati Fard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth of GaAs epilayers by Molecular Beam Epitaxy was accomplished for the first time in Iran. The layers were grown on GaAs (001) substrates (p+ wafer) with Si impurity for p n junction solar cell fabrication at a rate of nearly one micron per hour and 0.25 micron per quarter. Crystalline quality of grown layers had been monitored during growth by Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction system. Doping profile and layer thickness was assessed by electrochemical C-V profiling method. Then Hall measurements were conducted on small samples both in room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature so giving average carrier concentration and compensation ratio. The results as like: V oc , I sc , F F, η were comparable with other laboratory reports. information for obtaining good and repeatable growths was collected. Therefore, the conditions of repeatable quality growth p n junction solar cells onto GaAs (001) substrates were determined

  17. Crossed molecular beam study of the reaction O(3P) + allene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoltner, A. M.; Huang, S. Y.; Brudzynski, R. J.; Chu, P. M.; Lee, Y. T.

    1993-08-01

    The reaction between ground state (3P) oxygen atoms and allene was studied under single collision conditions using the crossed molecular beams method. Product angular distributions and the translational energy distribution were determined for each channel. Two major reaction channels could be identified unambiguously: the formation of carbon monoxide and ethylene following oxygen atom attack on the central carbon atom, and the formation of allenyloxy (formyl-vinyl) radical and hydrogen atom following oxygen atom attack on the terminal carbon atom. In addition, at least one other reaction channel, which could be identified as the production of vinyl and formyl radicals, occurs. This channel involves the decomposition of acrolein which is formed by the addition of oxygen to the terminal carbon atom, followed by 1,2-hydrogen migration.

  18. Cyan laser diode grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Wolny, P.; Cywiński, G.; Grzanka, S.; Sawicka, M.; Perlin, P.; Skierbiszewski, C.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate AlGaN-cladding-free laser diodes (LDs), operating in continuous wave (CW) mode at 482 nm grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The maximum CW output power was 230 mW. LDs were grown on c-plane GaN substrates obtained by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The PAMBE process was carried out in metal-rich conditions, supplying high nitrogen flux (Φ N ) during quantum wells (QWs) growth. We found that high Φ N improves quality of high In content InGaN QWs. The role of nitrogen in the growth of InGaN on (0001) GaN surface as well as the influence of LDs design on threshold current density are discussed

  19. Recent Advances on p-Type III-Nitride Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrui Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available p-Type doping represents a key step towards III-nitride (InN, GaN, AlN optoelectronic devices. In the past, tremendous efforts have been devoted to obtaining high quality p-type III-nitrides, and extraordinary progress has been made in both materials and device aspects. In this article, we intend to discuss a small portion of these processes, focusing on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown p-type InN and AlN—two bottleneck material systems that limit the development of III-nitride near-infrared and deep ultraviolet (UV optoelectronic devices. We will show that by using MBE-grown nanowire structures, the long-lasting p-type doping challenges of InN and AlN can be largely addressed. New aspects of MBE growth of III-nitride nanostructures are also discussed.

  20. Reclamation of a molecular beam epitaxy system and conversion for oxide epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, Alexander G.; Henderson, Walter; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    An early 1980s vintage molecular beam epitaxy system, a Varian Gen II system, originally used for HgCdTe epitaxy, was converted into a system capable of growing thin-film complex metal oxides. The nature of some of the alternative oxides requires a thorough cleaning and, in some cases, complete replacement of system components. Details are provided regarding the chemistry of the etchants used, safety requirements for properly handling, and disposal of large quantities of etchants and etch by-products, and components that can be reused versus components that require replacement are given. Following the given procedures, an ultimate base pressure of 2x10 -10 Torr was obtained. Films grown in the system after reclamation contained no evidence of previously present materials down to the detection limit of secondary ion mass spectrometry

  1. Thermoelectric Properties of Nanograined Si-Ge-Au Thin Films Grown by Molecular Beam Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Shunsuke; Ekino, Satoshi; Inukai, Manabu; Omprakash, Muthusamy; Adachi, Masahiro; Kiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2018-06-01

    Conditions to achieve extremely large Seebeck coefficient and extremely small thermal conductivity in Si-Ge-Au thin films formed of nanosized grains precipitated in amorphous matrix have been investigated. We employed molecular beam deposition to prepare Si1- x Ge x Au y thin films on sapphire substrate. The deposited films were annealed under nitrogen gas atmosphere at 300°C to 500°C for 15 min to 30 min. Nanocrystals dispersed in amorphous matrix were clearly observed by transmission electron microscopy. We did not observe anomalously large Seebeck coefficient, but very low thermal conductivity of nearly 1.0 W K-1 m-1 was found at around 0.2 Si-Ge bulk material for which dimensionless figure of merit of ZT ≈ 1 was reported at high temperature.

  2. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and characterization of quaternary III-nitride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy, E.; Gogneau, N.; Enjalbert, F.; Fossard, F.; Jalabert, D.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Dang, Le Si; Daudin, B.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the controlled growth and characterization of quaternary AlGaInN compounds by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Two-dimensional growth is achieved with a monolayer of In segregating at the growth front. In incorporation is hindered by increasing growth temperature and Al mole fraction, which is explained by the lower binding energy of InN compared to GaN and AlN. The mosaicity of the layers is determined by the substrate quality, whereas the alloy disorder increases with the Al content, independent of the In mole fraction. Room temperature photoluminescence is dominated by a narrow band-edge emission, whose Stokes shift and activation energy increase with the In content. This behavior is interpreted in terms of carrier localization in self-formed alloy inhomogeneities. An In-related band bowing parameter of 2.5 eV has been estimated

  3. Molecular beam epitaxy of three-dimensional Dirac material Sr3PbO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, D.; Nakamura, H.; Takagi, H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of anti-perovskites including Sr3PbO are recently predicted to be a three-dimensional Dirac material with a small mass gap, which may be a topological crystalline insulator. Here, we report the epitaxial growth of Sr3PbO thin films on LaAlO3 using molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction indicates (001) growth of Sr3PbO, where [110] of Sr3PbO matches [100] of LaAlO3. Measurements of the Sr3PbO films with parylene/Al capping layers reveal a metallic conduction with p-type carrier density of ˜1020 cm-3. The successful growth of high quality Sr3PbO film is an important step for the exploration of its unique topological properties.

  4. Growth of conductive HfO{sub 2-x} thin films by reactive molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Kleebe, Hans-Joachim [Institut fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Thin films of oxygen deficient hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal c-cut and r-cut sapphire substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The oxidation conditions during growth were varied within a wide range using RF-activated oxygen. Hafnium oxide thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, resistivity measurements ({rho}-T) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show a dramatic increase in conductivity of the deposited oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films with decreasing oxidation conditions during growth. The electrical properties of deficient hafnium oxide thin films varied from insulating over semiconducting to conducting. X-ray diffraction data as well as TEM data rule out the possibility of conductivity due to metallic hafnium.

  5. CeCo5 thin films with perpendicular anisotropy grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Hildebrandt, E.; Major, M.; Komissinskiy, P.; Radulov, I.; Alff, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buffer-free, highly textured (0 0 1) oriented CeCo5 thin films showing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were synthesized on (0 0 1) Al2O3 substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Ce exists in a mixture of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The first anisotropy constant, K1, as measured by torque magnetometry was 0.82 MJ/m3 (8.2 ×106erg /cm3) . A maximum coercivity of 5.16 kOe with a negative temperature coefficient of -0.304%K-1 and a magnetization of 527.30 emu/cm3 was measured perpendicular to the film plane at 5 K. In addition, a large anisotropy of the magnetic moment of 15.5% was observed. These magnetic parameters make CeCo5 a potential candidate material for spintronic and magnetic recording applications.

  6. Thin film phase diagram of iron nitrides grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölden, D.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L.

    2017-01-01

    A low-temperature thin film phase diagram of the iron nitride system is established for the case of thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and nitrided by a nitrogen radical source. A fine-tuning of the nitridation conditions allows for growth of α ‧ -Fe8Nx with increasing c / a -ratio and magnetic anisotropy with increasing x until almost phase pure α ‧ -Fe8N1 thin films are obtained. A further increase of nitrogen content below the phase decomposition temperature of α ‧ -Fe8N (180 °C) leads to a mixture of several phases that is also affected by the choice of substrate material and symmetry. At higher temperatures (350 °C), phase pure γ ‧ -Fe4N is the most stable phase.

  7. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lastras-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD spectroscopy of GaAs(001 grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  8. Unusual strain in homoepitaxial CdTe(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinke, H.; Waag, A.; Moeller, M.O.; Regnet, M.M.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    For homoepitaxial CdTe(001) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto CdTe(001) substrates, a difference between the lattice constants of the substrate and the layer was systematically observed using high resolution X-ray diffraction. Reciprocal space maps point out an unusual strain state of such layers which is indicated by the position of their reciprocal lattice points. They lie in a section of reciprocal space which is usually forbidden by elasticity theory. The strain is laterally anisotropic leading to a monoclinic symmetry of the thin films. The lateral strain is depth dependent. Possible reasons for the formation of the unusual strain are discussed, and a correlation of the unusual strain with the growth conditions is attempted

  9. Microstructure of InxGa1−xN nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, R F; Soundararajah, Q Y; Griffiths, I J; Cherns, D; Novikov, S V; Foxon, C T

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the structure and composition of In x Ga 1−x N nanorods grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The results confirm a core–shell structure with an In-rich core and In-poor shell resulting from axial and lateral growth sectors respectively. Atomic resolution mapping by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and high angle annular dark field imaging show that both the core and the shell are decomposed into Ga-rich and In-rich platelets parallel to their respective growth surfaces. It is argued that platelet formation occurs at the surfaces, through the lateral expansion of surface steps. Studies of nanorods with graded composition show that decomposition ceases for x ≥ 0.8 and the ratio of growth rates, shell:core, decreases with increasing In concentration. (paper)

  10. High quality atomically thin PtSe2 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingzhe; Wang, Eryin; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Guangqi; Zhang, Hongyun; Zhang, Kenan; Yao, Wei; Lu, Nianpeng; Yang, Shuzhen; Wu, Shilong; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Wu, Yang; Yu, Pu; Duan, Wenhui; Zhou, Shuyun

    2017-12-01

    Atomically thin PtSe2 films have attracted extensive research interests for potential applications in high-speed electronics, spintronics and photodetectors. Obtaining high quality thin films with large size and controlled thickness is critical. Here we report the first successful epitaxial growth of high quality PtSe2 films by molecular beam epitaxy. Atomically thin films from 1 ML to 22 ML have been grown and characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Moreover, a systematic thickness dependent study of the electronic structure is revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and helical spin texture is revealed by spin-ARPES. Our work provides new opportunities for growing large size single crystalline films to investigate the physical properties and potential applications of PtSe2.

  11. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  12. Characterization of InGaGdN layers prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, Siti Nooraya Mohd [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihagaoka, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan); Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tun Hussein Onn University of Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat Johor (Malaysia); Kakimi, Rina; Krishnamurthy, Daivasigamani; Emura, Shuichi; Tambo, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shigehiko; Asahi, Hajime [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihagaoka, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Gd-doped InGaN layers were prepared by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy in search of new functional diluted magnetic semiconductors for their potential use in spintronics. The local structure around the Gd atoms was examined by the Gd L{sub III}-edge of X-ray absorption fine structure. It was found that the majority of Gd atoms substitutionally occupied the cation sites in the InGaGdN layers. Clear hysteresis and saturation magnetization were observed from the magnetization versus field curves examined by means of a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer at low and room temperatures. In addition, the incorporation of extra shallow donors by co-doping InGaN with both Gd and Si showed higher magnetization than the undoped InGaGdN. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Si Incorporation in InP Nanowires Grown by Au-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Rigutti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the growth, structural characterization, and conductivity studies of Si-doped InP nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that Si doping reduces the mean diffusion length of adatoms on the lateral nanowire surface and consequently reduces the nanowire growth rate and promotes lateral growth. A resistivity as low as 5.1±0.3×10−5 Ω⋅cm is measured for highly doped nanowires. Two dopant incorporation mechanisms are discussed: incorporation via catalyst particle and direct incorporation on the nanowire sidewalls. The first mechanism is shown to be less efficient than the second one, resulting in inhomogeneous radial dopant distribution.

  14. Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Kim, H.J.; Hul'ko, O.; Xie, Y.H.; Sahni, S.; Bandaru, P.; Yablonovitch, E.

    2004-01-01

    Ge thin films are grown on Si(001) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy at 370 deg. C. The low-temperature epitaxial growth is compatible with the back-end thermal budget of current generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which is restricted to less than 450 deg. C. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows that single-crystal Ge thin films with smooth surfaces could be achieved below 450 deg. C. Double-axis x-ray θ/2θ scans also show that the epitaxial Ge films are almost fully strain-relaxed. As expected, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows a network of dislocations at the interface. Hydrogen and oxide desorption techniques are proved to be necessary for improving the quality of the Ge films, which is reflected in improved minority carrier diffusion lengths and exceptionally low leakage currents

  15. Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, J.; Oehme, M.; Werner, J.

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge to obtain a convergence of classical Si-based microelectronics and optoelectronics is the manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits integrable into classical Si-based integrated circuits. This integration would be greatly enhanced if similar facilities and technologies could be used. Therefore one approach is the development of optoelectronic components and devices made from group-IV-based materials such as SiGe, Ge or Ge:Sn. In this paper the optoelectronic performances of a pin diode made from a Ge/Si heterostructure pin layer sequence grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed. After a detailed description of the layer sequence growth and the device manufacturing process it will be shown that – depending on the chosen operating point and device design – the diode serves as a broadband high speed photo detector, Franz–Keldysh effect modulator or light emitting diode.

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J., E-mail: schulze@iht.uni-stuttgart.de; Oehme, M.; Werner, J.

    2012-02-01

    A key challenge to obtain a convergence of classical Si-based microelectronics and optoelectronics is the manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits integrable into classical Si-based integrated circuits. This integration would be greatly enhanced if similar facilities and technologies could be used. Therefore one approach is the development of optoelectronic components and devices made from group-IV-based materials such as SiGe, Ge or Ge:Sn. In this paper the optoelectronic performances of a pin diode made from a Ge/Si heterostructure pin layer sequence grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed. After a detailed description of the layer sequence growth and the device manufacturing process it will be shown that - depending on the chosen operating point and device design - the diode serves as a broadband high speed photo detector, Franz-Keldysh effect modulator or light emitting diode.

  17. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiMnO3 films by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ke, X.; Misra, R.; Schiffer, P.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Mei, Z. G.; Liu, Z. K.; Xu, X. S.; Musfeldt, J. L.; Heeg, T.; Schlom, D. G.; Roeckerath, M.; Schubert, J.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed the means to grow BiMnO 3 thin films with unparalleled structural perfection by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy and determined its band gap. Film growth occurs in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. Within this growth window bounded by oxygen pressure and substrate temperature at a fixed bismuth overpressure, single-phase films of the metastable perovskite BiMnO 3 may be grown by epitaxial stabilization. X-ray diffraction reveals phase-pure and epitaxial films with ω rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 11 arc sec (0.003 deg. ). Optical absorption measurements reveal that BiMnO 3 has a direct band gap of 1.1±0.1 eV.

  18. Growth of semiconductor alloy InGaPBi on InP by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K; Wang, P; Pan, W W; Wu, X Y; Yue, L; Gong, Q; Wang, S M

    2015-01-01

    We report the first successful growth of InGaPBi single crystals on InP substrate with Bi concentration far beyond the doping level by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The InGaPBi thin films reveal excellent surface and structural qualities, making it a promising new III–V compound family member for heterostructures. The strain can be tuned between tensile and compressive by adjusting Ga and Bi compositions. The maximum achieved Bi concentration is 2.2 ± 0.4% confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Room temperature photoluminescence shows strong and broad light emission at energy levels much smaller than the InP bandgap. (paper)

  19. SIMS studies of CI- doped Zn Se epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gard, F.S.; Riley, J.D.; Lekey, R.; Usher, B.F.; Prine, K.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorine is one of the most used species to produce n-type zinc selenium epilayers. In this paper, we present secondary ion mass spectrometry profiles of a series of chlorine-doped zinc selenium samples, which were grown in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber. These profiles have been used to examine the limitation of secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of narrow chlorine-delta layers. In order to covert secondary ion mass spectrometry raw data to quantified data, the depth profile from a chlorine-implanted standard sample has been used to estimate the u seful ion yield o f chlorine and thus the instrument sensitivity for chlorine in a zinc selenium matrix. The u seful ion yield a nd detection limit of chlorine in the zinc selenium host matrix were calculated to be 4.7 X 10 -17 atoms/ cm 3 , respectively

  20. High electron mobility in Ga(In)NAs films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Monirul Islam, Muhammad; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inagaki, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    We report the highest mobility values above 2000 cm 2 /Vs in Si doped GaNAs film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To understand the feature of the origin which limits the electron mobility in GaNAs, temperature dependences of mobility were measured for high mobility GaNAs and referential low mobility GaInNAs. Temperature dependent mobility for high mobility GaNAs is similar to the GaAs case, while that for low mobility GaInNAs shows large decrease in lower temperature region. The electron mobility of high quality GaNAs can be explained by intrinsic limiting factor of random alloy scattering and extrinsic factor of ionized impurity scattering.

  1. Photoluminescence characteristics of Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy grown ZnSe crystal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yoh; Kuronuma, Ryoichi; Inoue, Masanori; Sasaki, Shoichiro; Miyamoto, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic green photoluminescence emission and related phenomena in Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE)-grown ZnSe crystal layers were investigated to explore the nature of the center responsible for the green emission. The intensity of the green emission showed a distinct nonlinear dependence on excitation intensity. Pb-diffused polycrystalline ZnSe was similarly examined for comparison. The characteristic green emission has been observed only in MBE-grown ZnSe crystal layers with moderate Pb doping. The results of the investigations on the growth conditions, luminescence, and related properties of the ZnSe crystal layers suggest that the green emission is due to isolated Pb replacing Zn and surrounded with regular ZnSe lattice with a high perfection

  2. A combined crossed molecular beams and theoretical study of the reaction CN + C2H4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Petrucci, Raffaele; Wang, Xingan; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Gargano, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    The CN + C2H4 reaction has been investigated experimentally, in crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments at the collision energy of 33.4 kJ/mol, and theoretically, by electronic structure calculations of the relevant potential energy surface and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) estimates of the product branching ratio. Differently from previous CMB experiments at lower collision energies, but similarly to a high energy study, we have some indication that a second reaction channel is open at this collision energy, the characteristics of which are consistent with the channel leading to CH2CHNC + H. The RRKM estimates using M06L electronic structure calculations qualitatively support the experimental observation of C2H3NC formation at this and at the higher collision energy of 42.7 kJ/mol of previous experiments.

  3. Vapor-solid-solid grown Ge nanowires at integrated circuit compatible temperature by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongyunshen; Song, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhenpu; Sun, Hao; Han, Yi; Li, Yaoyao; Zhang, Liyao; Xue, Zhongying; Di, Zengfeng; Wang, Shumin

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate Au-assisted vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth of Ge nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy at the substrate temperature of ˜180 °C, which is compatible with the temperature window for Si-based integrated circuit. Low temperature grown Ge NWs hold a smaller size, similar uniformity, and better fit with Au tips in diameter, in contrast to Ge NWs grown at around or above the eutectic temperature of Au-Ge alloy in the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Six ⟨110⟩ growth orientations were observed on Ge (110) by the VSS growth at ˜180 °C, differing from only one vertical growth direction of Ge NWs by the VLS growth at a high temperature. The evolution of NWs dimension and morphology from the VLS growth to the VSS growth is qualitatively explained by analyzing the mechanism of the two growth modes.

  4. Structural evolution of dilute magnetic (Sn,Mn)Se films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzyuba, Vasily; Dong, Sining; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Xiang; Rouvimov, Sergei; Okuno, Hanako; Mariette, Henri; Zhang, Xueqiang; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Tracy, Brian D.; Smith, David J.; Dobrowolska, Margaret; Furdyna, Jacek K.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the structural evolution of dilute magnetic (Sn,Mn)Se films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (111) substrates, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When the Mn concentration is increased, the lattice of the ternary (Sn,Mn)Se films evolves quasi-coherently from a SnSe2 two-dimensional (2D) crystal structure into a more complex quasi-2D lattice rearrangement, ultimately transforming into the magnetically concentrated antiferromagnetic MnSe 3D rock-salt structure as Mn approaches 50 at. % of this material. These structural transformations are expected to underlie the evolution of magnetic properties of this ternary system reported earlier in the literature.

  5. Tin-Assisted Synthesis of ɛ -Ga2O3 by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, M.; Karg, A.; Schörmann, J.; Weinhold, M.; Zink, D.; Michel, F.; Rohnke, M.; Schowalter, M.; Gerken, B.; Rosenauer, A.; Klar, P. J.; Janek, J.; Eickhoff, M.

    2017-11-01

    The synthesis of ɛ -Ga2O3 and β -Ga2O3 by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on (001 )Al2O3 substrates is studied. The growth window of β -Ga2O3 in the Ga-rich regime, usually limited by the formation of volatile gallium suboxide, is expanded due to the presence of tin during the growth process, which stabilizes the formation of gallium oxides. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy are used to analyze the influence of tin on the layer formation. We demonstrate that it allows the synthesis of phase-pure ɛ -Ga2O3 . A growth model based on the oxidation of gallium suboxide by reduction of an intermediate sacrificial tin oxide is suggested.

  6. High efficiency thin film solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy (HEFTY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, N.B.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Ballard, I.M.; Zhang, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-04

    The project sought to show the UK as a world leader in the field of thin film crystalline solar cells. A premise was that the cell design be suitable for large-scale manufacturing and provide a basis for industrial exploitation. The study demonstrated (1) that silicon films grown at temperatures suitable for deposition on glass by Gas Phase Molecular Beam Epitaxy gives better PV cells than does Ultra Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition; (2) a conversion energy of 15 per cent was achieved - the project target was 18 per cent and (3) one of the highest reported conversion efficiencies for a 15 micrometre silicon film was achieved. The study was carried out by BP Solar Limited under contract to the DTI.

  7. High-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} grown by oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Santosh; Schumann, Timo; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Jack Y.; Cain, Tyler A.; Stemmer, Susanne, E-mail: stemmer@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility perovskite BaSnO{sub 3} films are of significant interest as new wide bandgap semiconductors for power electronics, transparent conductors, and as high mobility channels for epitaxial integration with functional perovskites. Despite promising results for single crystals, high-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} films have been challenging to grow. Here, we demonstrate a modified oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach, which supplies pre-oxidized SnO{sub x}. This technique addresses issues in the MBE of ternary stannates related to volatile SnO formation and enables growth of epitaxial, stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}. We demonstrate room temperature electron mobilities of 150 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in films grown on PrScO{sub 3}. The results open up a wide range of opportunities for future electronic devices.

  8. InAs/GaAs(001) molecular beam epitaxial growth in a scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiman, F; Cullis, A G; Hopkinson, M

    2010-01-01

    The growth on InAs on GaAs(001) has attracted great interest and investigation over the past few decades primarily due to the opto-electronic properties of the self-assembled quantum dot (QD) arrays formed. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been extensively employed to investigate the complicated and spontaneous mechanism of QD growth via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Classically, combined MBE-STM requires quenching the sample after growth and transferring it to an arsenic-free high vacuum chamber which houses the STM system. However, without access to the phenomenon as a dynamic process a basic understanding remains elusive. In order to access surface dynamics, MBE and STM must be combined into a single element. The system herein discussed allows the operation of MBE sources in an STM system relating to InAs/GaAs(001) surfaces.

  9. Polarizabilities of Ba and Ba2: Comparison of molecular beam experiments with relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Sascha; Mehring, Max; Schaefer, Rolf; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The dielectric response to an inhomogeneous electric field has been investigated for Ba and Ba 2 within a molecular beam experiment. The ratio of the polarizabilities per atom of Ba 2 and Ba is determined to be 1.30±0.13. The experimental result is compared to a high level ab initio quantum chemical coupled cluster calculation with an energy-consistent scalar relativistic small-core pseudopotential for Ba. For the barium atom a polarizability of 40.82 A 3 is obtained and the isotropic value of the polarizability calculated for Ba 2 is 97.88 A 3 , which is in good agreement with the experimental results, demonstrating that a quantitative understanding of the interaction between two closed-shell heavy element metal atoms has been achieved

  10. Copper-coated laser-fusion targets using molecular-beam levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocke, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of diagnostic experiments at the Shiva laser fusion facility required targets of glass microspheres coated with 1.5 to 3.0 μm of copper. Previous batch coating efforts using vibration techniques gave poor results due to microsphere sticking and vacuum welding. Molecular Beam Levitation (MBL) represented a noncontact method to produce a sputtered copper coating on a single glassmicrosphere. The coating specifications that were achieved resulted in a copper layer up to 3 μm thick with the allowance of a maximum variation of 10 nm in surface finish and thickness. These techniques developed with the MBL may be applied to sputter coat many soft metals for fusion target applications

  11. Asymmetric interfaces in Fe/Ag and Ag/Fe bilayers prepared by molecular beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunyogi, A. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: tunyogi@rmki.kfki.hu; Paszti, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Osvath, Z. [MTA Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Tancziko, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Major, M. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-08-15

    Single layers of Fe and Ag, as well as Fe/Ag (iron deposited first) and Ag/Fe bilayers were prepared by molecular beam evaporation onto Si. The samples were investigated with backscattering spectrometry (BS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). BS spectra of Fe/Ag and Ag/Fe indicate a significant difference at the interface. In the case of Fe/Ag the Ag peak has a long tail at the interface, while for Ag/Fe the interface is abrupt. The tail in the Fe/Ag spectrum is too large to be caused by double or plural scattering. According to AFM, the effect of surface roughness is also negligible. In spite of the fact that Fe and Ag are completely immiscible in equilibrium, this tail, however, suggests that some Ag is located in the Fe layer. After annealing, both samples show mixing between the two layers; this is much larger again for Fe/Ag.

  12. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  13. Demonstration of molecular beam epitaxy and a semiconducting band structure for I-Mn-V compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Novák, Vít; Martí, X.; Cukr, Miroslav; Máca, František; Shick, Alexander; Mašek, Jan; Horodyská, P.; Němec, P.; Holý, V.; Zemek, Josef; Kužel, Petr; Němec, I.; Gallagher, B. L.; Campion, R. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2011), , , "035321-1"-"035321-6" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08087 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet; European Commission(XE) 214499 - NAMASTE; European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : antiferromagnetic semiconductors * spintronics * molecular beam epitaxy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  14. Nickel enhanced graphene growth directly on dielectric substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofford, Joseph M., E-mail: joewofford@gmail.com, E-mail: lopes@pdi-berlin.de; Lopes, Joao Marcelo J., E-mail: joewofford@gmail.com, E-mail: lopes@pdi-berlin.de; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Speck, Florian; Seyller, Thomas [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-07-28

    The efficacy of Ni as a surfactant to improve the crystalline quality of graphene grown directly on dielectric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is examined. Simultaneously exposing the substrate to a Ni flux throughout C deposition at 950 °C led to improved charge carrier mobility and a Raman spectrum indicating less structural disorder in the resulting nanocrystalline graphene film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that no residual Ni could be detected in the film and showed a decrease in the intensity of the defect-related component of the C1s level. Similar improvements were not observed when a lower substrate temperature (850 °C) was used. A close examination of the Raman spectra suggests that Ni reduces the concentration of lattice vacancies in the film, possibly by catalytically assisting adatom incorporation.

  15. Group III nitride-arsenide long wavelength lasers grown by elemental source molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldren, C. W.; Spruytte, S. G.; Harris, J. S.; Larson, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Elemental source molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow InGaNAs quantum well samples, edge-emitting laser diodes, and vertical-cavity laser diodes on GaAs substrates. The quantum well samples exhibited an as-grown room temperature photoluminescence peak beyond 1310 nm which both increased dramatically in intensity and blueshifted with thermal annealing. Edge emitting laser diodes had threshold current densities as low as 450 and 750 A/cm 2 for single and triple quantum well active regions, respectively, and emitted light at 1220-1250 nm. The vertical cavity laser diodes emitted light at 1200 nm and had threshold current densities of 3 kA/cm 2 and efficiencies of 0.066 W/A. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society

  16. Reactive molecular beam epitaxial growth and in situ photoemission spectroscopy study of iridate superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality (001-oriented perovskite [(SrIrO3m/(SrTiO3] superlattices (m=1/2, 1, 2, 3 and ∞ films have been grown on SrTiO3(001 epitaxially using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Compared to previously reported superlattices synthesized by pulsed laser deposition, our superlattices exhibit superior crystalline, interface and surface structure, which have been confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The transport measurements confirm a novel insulator-metal transition with the change of dimensionality in these superlattices, and our first systematic in situ photoemission spectroscopy study indicates that the increasing strength of effective correlations induced by reducing dimensionality would be the dominating origin of this transition.

  17. Molecular beam studies of energy transfer in scattering from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    The translational energy distributions and angular distributions of D 2 O produced from the reaction of incident D 2 and O 2 on a (111) platinum single crystal surface have been measured through the use of a molecular beam-surface scattering apparatus equipped with a time-of-flight spectrometer. The translation energies were measured over the surface temperature range T/sub s/ = 664 K - 913 K and at scattering angles of 7 0 and 40 0 from the surface normal. The D 2 O translational energy, , was found to be approximately half the equilibrium value over the temperature range examined, with /2k varying from 280 K to 480 K. These results are discussed in terms of a non-equilibrium desorption model. The two-photon ionization spectrometer was built to investigate the internal rotational and vibrational energy distributions of NO scattered from Pt(111) surfaces. The rotational energy distributions were measured over the crystal temperature range of T/sub s/ = 400 K - 1200 K. The translational energy distributions and angular distributions were measured using the time-of-flight spectrometer over the crystal temperature range of 400 K - 110 K and for beam translational energies of 0.046 eV, 0.11 eV and 0.24 eV, so that complete energy exchange information for translation, rotation and vibration is available for this gas-surface system. Significant energy transfer was observed in all three modes

  18. Positron annihilation studies of defects in molecular beam epitaxy grown III-V layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umlor, M.T.; Keeble, D.J.; Cooke, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A summary of recent positron annihilation experiments on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown III-V layers is Presented. Variable energy positron beam measurements on Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 As undoped and Si doped have been completed. Positron trapping at a open volume defect in Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 :Si for temperatures from 300 to 25 K in the dark was observed. The positron trap was lost after 1.3 eV illumination at 25K. These results indicate an open volume defect is associated with the local structure of the deep donor state of the DX center. Stability of MBE GaAs to thermal annealing war, investigated over the temperature range of 230 to 700 degrees C, Proximity wafer furnace anneals in flowing argon were used, Samples grown above 450 degrees C were shown to be stable but for sample below this temperature an anneal induced vacancy related defect was produced for anneals between 400 and 500 degrees C. The nature of the defect was shown to be different for material grown at 350 and 230 degrees C. Activation energies of 2.5 eV to 2.3 eV were obtained from isochronal anneal experiments for samples grown at 350 and 230 degrees C, respectively

  19. State-to-state inelastic and reactive molecular beam scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykke, K.R.; Kay, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) laser spectroscopic and molecular beam-surface scattering techniques are coupled to study inelastic and reactive gas-surface scattering with state-to-state specificity. Rotational, vibrational, translational and angular distributions have been measured for the inelastic scattering of HCI and N 2 from Au(111). In both cases the scattering is direct-inelastic in nature and exhibits interesting dynamical features such as rotational rainbow scattering. In an effort to elucidate the dynamics of chemical reactions occurring on surfaces we have extended our quantum-resolved scattering studies to include the reactive scattering of a beam of gas phase H-atoms from a chlorinated metal surface M-CI. The nascent rotational and vibrational distributions of the HCI product are determined using REMPI. The thermochemistry for this reaction on Au indicates that the product formation proceeding through chemisorbed H-atoms is slightly endothermic while direct reaction of a has phase H-atom with M-CI is highly exothermic (ca. 50 kcal/mole). Details of the experimental techniques, results and implications regarding the scattering dynamics are discussed. 55 ref., 8 fig

  20. New simultaneous thermogravimetry and modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry apparatus for quantitative thermal decomposition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of instrument has been designed and constructed to measure quantitatively the gas phase species evolving during thermal decompositions. These measurements can be used for understanding the kinetics of thermal decomposition, determining the heats of formation and vaporization of high-temperature materials, and analyzing sample contaminants. The new design allows measurements to be made on the same time scale as the rates of the reactions being studied, provides a universal detection technique to study a wide range of compounds, gives quantitative measurements of decomposition products, and minimizes interference from the instrument on the measurements. The instrument design is based on a unique combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and modulated beam mass spectroscopy (MBMS) which are brought together into a symbiotic relationship through the use of differentially pumped vacuum systems, modulated molecular beam techniques, and computer control and data-acquisition systems. A data analysis technique that calculates partial pressures in the reaction cell from the simultaneous microbalance force measurements and the modulated mass spectrometry measurements has been developed. This eliminates the need to know the ionization cross section, the ion dissociation channels, the quadrupole transmission, and the ion detector sensitivity for each thermal decomposition product prior to quantifying the mass spectral data. The operation of the instrument and the data analysis technique are illustrated with the thermal decomposition of contaminants from a precipitated palladium powder

  1. Molecular carbon nitride ion beams for enhanced corrosion resistance of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, A.; Kennedy, J.

    2017-10-01

    A novel approach is presented for molecular carbon nitride beams to coat stainless surfaces steel using conventional safe feeder gases and electrically conductive sputter targets for surface engineering with ion implantation technology. GNS Science's Penning type ion sources take advantage of the breaking up of ion species in the plasma to assemble novel combinations of ion species. To test this phenomenon for carbon nitride, mixtures of gases and sputter targets were used to probe for CN+ ions for simultaneous implantation into stainless steel. Results from mass analysed ion beams show that CN+ and a variety of other ion species such as CNH+ can be produced successfully. Preliminary measurements show that the corrosion resistance of stainless steel surfaces increased sharply when implanting CN+ at 30 keV compared to reference samples, which is interesting from an application point of view in which improved corrosion resistance, surface engineering and short processing time of stainless steel is required. The results are also interesting for novel research in carbon-based mesoporous materials for energy storage applications and as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost.

  2. High performance experiments on high pressure supersonic molecular beam injection in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Dong Jiafu; Zhou Yan; Feng Beibing; Cao Jianyong; Li Wei; Feng Zhen; Zhang Jiquan; Hong Wenyu; Cui Zhengying; Wang Enyao; Liu Yong

    2004-01-01

    Supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) was first proposed and demonstrated on the HL-1 tokamak and was successfully developed and used on HL-1M. Recently, new results of SMBI experiments were obtained by increasing the gas pressure from 0.5 to over 1.0 MPa. A stair-shaped density increment was obtained with high-pressure multi-pulse SMBI that was similar to the density evolution behaviour during multi-pellet injection. This demonstrated the effectiveness of SMBI as a promising fuelling tool for steady-state operation. The penetration depth and injection speed of the high-pressure SMBI were roughly measured from the contour plot of the Hα emission intensity. It was shown that injected particles could penetrate into the core region of the plasma. The penetration speed of high-pressure SMBI particles in the plasma was estimated to be about 1200 m s -1 . In addition, clusters within the beam may play an important role in the deeper injection. (author)

  3. A combined crossed molecular beams and theoretical study of the reaction CN + C2H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Petrucci, Raffaele; Wang, Xingan; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Gargano, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The CN + C 2 H 4 reaction was investigated in crossed beam experiments. • Electronic structure calculations of the potential energy surface were performed. • RRKM estimates qualitatively reproduce the experimental C 2 H 3 NC yield. - Abstract: The CN + C 2 H 4 reaction has been investigated experimentally, in crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments at the collision energy of 33.4 kJ/mol, and theoretically, by electronic structure calculations of the relevant potential energy surface and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) estimates of the product branching ratio. Differently from previous CMB experiments at lower collision energies, but similarly to a high energy study, we have some indication that a second reaction channel is open at this collision energy, the characteristics of which are consistent with the channel leading to CH 2 CHNC + H. The RRKM estimates using M06L electronic structure calculations qualitatively support the experimental observation of C 2 H 3 NC formation at this and at the higher collision energy of 42.7 kJ/mol of previous experiments

  4. Anisotropic etching of polycrystalline silicon with a hot Cl2 molecular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Hiraoka, S.; Nishimatsu, S.

    1988-01-01

    A hot Cl 2 molecular (Cl/sup */ 2 ) beam was successfully applied to achieve highly anisotropic, highly selective, and almost damage-free etching of polycrystalline Si. The anisotropy, the ratio of etch rates in vertical and horizontal directions, was larger than 25. The selectivity, the ratio of polycrystalline Si and SiO 2 etch rates, was larger than 1000. The Cl/sup */ 2 beam was produced by free jet expansion of a Cl 2 gas heated in a graphite furnace. The furnace temperature was 830 0 C. The substrate temperature was 180 0 C. The average total energy (0.38 eV) of a Cl/sup */ 2 molecule impinging on a substrate surface is much lower than the critical energy (approximately 10 eV) to displace the atoms of the etched material and to cause surface damage. This is the essential reason why this highly selective and almost damage-free etching has been achieved. The highly anisotropic etching mechanism is explained by a model taking into account the directional incidence of Cl/sup */ 2 molecules to the surface, and the deactivation process of the Cl/sup */ 2 molecules on a cold surface

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy of CdSe epilayers and quantum wells on ZnTe substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.M.; Andre, R.; Kasprzak, J.; Dang, Le Si; Bellet-Amalric, E.

    2007-01-01

    We have grown zinc-blende cadmium selenide (CdSe) epilayers on ZnTe-(0 0 1) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). By controlling the substrate temperature and beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio, of Se to Cd, we determined the most suitable growth condition based on reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) pattern. At a substrate temperature of 280 deg. C and a BEP ratio of 3.6, the RHEED pattern showed a V-like feature, indicating a rough surface with facets. As the substrate temperature was increased to 360 deg. C at the same BEP ratio, a V-like RHEED pattern moved to a clear streaky pattern. Moreover when the BEP ratio was increased to 4.8 at 360 deg. C of substrate temperature, a clear (2 x 1) reconstruction of the CdSe layer was observed. A CdSe/CdMgSe single quantum well structure was also grown on ZnTe-(0 0 1) substrate by MBE. The RHEED pattern showed a clear (2 x 1) surface reconstruction during the growth. By photoluminescence measurement, a good optical property of the structure was obtained

  6. Laser molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO thin films and heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opel, Matthias; Geprägs, Stephan; Althammer, Matthias; Brenninger, Thomas; Gross, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We report on the growth of epitaxial ZnO thin films and ZnO-based heterostructures on sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We first discuss some recent developments in laser-MBE such as flexible ultraviolet laser beam optics, infrared laser heating systems or the use of atomic oxygen and nitrogen sources, and describe the technical realization of our advanced laser-MBE system. Then we describe the optimization of the deposition parameters for ZnO films such as laser fluence and substrate temperature and the use of buffer layers. The detailed structural characterization by x-ray analysis and transmission electron microscopy shows that epitaxial ZnO thin films with high structural quality can be achieved, as demonstrated by a small out-of-plane and in-plane mosaic spread as well as the absence of rotational domains. We also demonstrate the heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO-based multilayers as a prerequisite for spin transport experiments and the realization of spintronic devices. As an example, we show that TiN/Co/ZnO/Ni/Au multilayer stacks can be grown on (0 0 0 1)-oriented sapphire with good structural quality of all layers and well defined in-plane epitaxial relations. (paper)

  7. Disorder and defect formation mechanisms in molecular-beam-epitaxy grown silicon epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari-Sharbaf, Arash; Baribeau, Jean-Marc; Wu, Xiaohua; Lockwood, David J.; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of disorder, stress and crystallite size in determining the density of defects in disordered and partially ordered silicon thin films deposited at low or moderate temperatures by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the paramagnetic defect density measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) is strongly dependent on the growth temperature of the films, decreasing from ∼ 2 · 10 19 cm −3 at 98 °C to ∼ 1 · 10 18 cm −3 at 572 °C. The physical nature of the defects is strongly dependent on the range of order in the films: ESR spectra consistent with dangling bonds in an amorphous phase are observed at the lowest temperatures, while the ESR signal gradually becomes more anisotropic as medium-range order improves and the stress level (measured both by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy) is released in more crystalline films. Anisotropic ESR spectra consistent with paramagnetic defects embedded in an epitaxial phase are observed at the highest growth temperature (572 °C). - Highlights: ► Disordered Si epilayers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. ► Growth has been carried out at temperatures T = 98 °C–514 °C. ► A correlation between defect density and disorder in the films has been found. ► Lack of medium range order and stress cause the formation of defects at low T. ► At high T, defects are associated to grain boundaries and oriented stacking faults

  8. Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Lo, Ikai; Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69″ to 59.43″ for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 × 5 μm 2 with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: ► The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. ► The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. ► The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.

  9. Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Liang [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lo, Ikai, E-mail: ikailo@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jenn-Kai [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yun-Lin County 63208, Taiwan, ROC (China); Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel [Institute of Applied Physics/DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69 Double-Prime to 59.43 Double-Prime for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 {mu}m{sup 2} with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.

  10. Magnetism of iron, cobalt and nickel clusters studied in molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billas, I.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic properties of iron, cobalt and nickel clusters in a molecular beam have been studied in a magnetic Stern-Gerlach deflection experiment. The molecular beam apparatus consists of a laser vaporization cluster source with high intensity and stability and a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the deflection measurements. Several novel experimental features have been developed in this work, like a nozzle which can be heated up to 1000 K and a chopper to measure the dwell times of the clusters in the source and their corresponding velocities. These new developments have allowed the measurement and the control of the temperature of the free clusters. The Stern-Gerlach deflection experiments have been performed on Fe, Co and Ni clusters in the mass range from 20 to 700 atoms. All clusters show single-sided deflection toward increasing field. This observation indicates that a spin relaxation process occurs within the isolated clusters. The participation of both the cluster rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom to the spin relaxation has been experimentally demonstrated. The cluster magnetization has been determined as a function of applied magnetic field B and as a function of dwell times of the clusters in the source before the supersonic expansion into vacuum. Superparamagnetic behavior has been observed when the cluster rotational speed is much larger than the Larmor frequency of the cluster magnetic moment μ in the field B. In particular, for μB<< kT, the cluster magnetization depends on B/T. For lower rotational speeds, reduced values of the magnetization have been observed. The magnetic moments of the superparamagnetic Fe, Co and Ni clusters have been measured as a) a function of cluster size N at low temperature and b) as a function of cluster temperature T for various size ranges. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  11. Applications of free-jet, molecular beam, mass spectrometric sampling: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    Over the past 35 years, the study of die behavior and uses of free-jet expansions for laboratory experiments has greatly expanded and matured. Not the least of these uses of free-jet expansions, is that of extractive sampling from high temperature, reactive systems. The conversion of the free-jet expanded gases to molecular flow for direct introduction into the ion source of a mass spectrometer offers several advantages, to be illustrated in these pages. Two meetings on this subject were held in 1965 and 1972 in Missouri, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and Midwest Research Institute. At these meetings rarefied gas dynamicists came together with scientists using free-jet sampling for analytical purposes. After much too long a time, this workshop was convened to bring together modem practitioners of FJMBS (Free-jet, Molecular-beam, mass spectrometry) and long time students of the free-jet process itself, to assess the current state of the art and to forge a community that can foster the development of this novel analytical approach. This proceedings is comprised of 38 individually submitted papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Data Base.

  12. Diffusion-driven growth of nanowires by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda-Fonseca, P.; Orrù, M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Bellet-Amalric, E.; Robin, E. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Den Hertog, M.; Genuist, Y.; André, R.; Tatarenko, S.; Cibert, J., E-mail: joel.cibert@neel.cnrs.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-04-28

    With ZnTe as an example, we use two different methods to unravel the characteristics of the growth of nanowires (NWs) by gold-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature. In the first approach, CdTe insertions have been used as markers, and the nanowires have been characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, including geometrical phase analysis and energy dispersive electron spectrometry; the second approach uses scanning electron microscopy and the statistics of the relationship between the length of the tapered nanowires and their base diameter. Axial and radial growth are quantified using a diffusion-limited model adapted to the growth conditions; analytical expressions describe well the relationship between the NW length and the total molecular flux (taking into account the orientation of the effusion cells), and the catalyst-nanowire contact area. A long incubation time is observed. This analysis allows us to assess the evolution of the diffusion lengths on the substrate and along the nanowire sidewalls, as a function of temperature and deviation from stoichiometric flux.

  13. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating material using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jaeseung; Kim, Seongeun; Kim, Byounggak; Lee, Jongchan; Park, Jihyun; Lee, Byeongcheol

    2011-01-01

    Recently, silver nano materials have gained a lot of attentions in a variety of applications due to the unique biological, optical, and electrical properties. Especially, the antifouling property of these material is considered to be an important character for biomedical field, marine coatings industry, biosensor, and drug delivery. In this study, we design and synthesize the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating materials. Silver nano materials having antifouling property with different shapes are prepared by control the electron beam irradiation conditions. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer was synthesized and characterized. → Morphology and size controlled nano materials are prepared using electron beam irradiation. → Silver nano materials having various shapes can be used for antifouling material

  14. Analysis of volatile organic compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples following electron beam irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Shim, Sung-Lye; Lee, Sun-Im; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2012-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and electron-beam irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy were isolated through simultaneous distillation extractions and analyzed using gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. A total of 53 volatile organic compounds were characterized in 0 and 1 kGy irradiated samples, whereas two more compounds related to ketone and terpenoid group were identified in 0.5 kGy irradiated samples. The contents of volatile compounds were 24.33, 36.49, and 35.28 mg/kg in 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The major compounds identified were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol in all samples. The relative content of alcohol increased after 30 days of storage in all samples, whereas that of aldehyde decreased. Although the contents of some volatile compounds were changed by electron-beam irradiation, the total yield and major flavor compounds of irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples were similar to, or even greater than, those of the control. Therefore, the application of e-beam irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of ‘Fuji’ apples is an acceptable method as it does not bring about any major quantitative changes of volatile organic compounds. - Highlights: ► We analyzed the volatile organic compounds of electron beam irradiated Fuji apples. ► The major compounds of samples were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol. ► The contents of major flavor compounds of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were similar.

  15. Self-assembled InAs quantum dots formed by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and postgrowth annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhan, H.H.; Nötzel, R.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots are grown at low temperature (LT) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs substrates. The growth is in situ monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and ex situ evaluated by atomic force microscopy for the morphological properties, and by

  16. Molecular-beam epitaxy on shallow mesa gratings patterned on GaAs(311)A and (100) substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Q.; Nötzel, R.; Schönherr, H.-P.; Ploog, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the morphology and properties of the surface formed by molecular-beam epitaxy on shallow mesa gratings on patterned GaAs(311)A and GaAs(100). On GaAs(311)A substrates, the corrugated surface formed after GaAs growth on shallow mesa gratings along [011] is composed of monolayer high

  17. Study of molecular-beam epitaxy growth on patterned GaAs (311)A substrates with different mesa height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Q.; Nötzel, R.; Schönherr, H.-P.; Ploog, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the evolution of the growth front during molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (3 1 1)A substrates stripe patterned along the [ ] direction as a function of the mesa height. During growth (1 0 0) and (2 1 1)A facets are formed and expand at the corners near the two opposite lying ( )A and (1 1

  18. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of InSb1-xBix thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuxin Song; Shumin Wang; Saha Roy, Ivy

    2013-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy growth for InSb1-xBix thin films on (100) GaAs substrates is reported. Successful Bi incorporation for 2% is achieved, and up to 70% of the incorporated Bi atoms are at substitutional sites. The effects of growth parameters on Bi incorporation and surface morphology are stu...

  19. Particle size dependence of biogenic secondary organic aerosol molecular composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Peijun; Johnston, Murray V.

    2017-06-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is initiated by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase whose products subsequently partition to the particle phase. Non-volatile molecules have a negligible evaporation rate and grow particles at their condensation rate. Semi-volatile molecules have a significant evaporation rate and grow particles at a much slower rate than their condensation rate. Particle phase chemistry may enhance particle growth if it transforms partitioned semi-volatile molecules into non-volatile products. In principle, changes in molecular composition as a function of particle size allow non-volatile molecules that have condensed from the gas phase (a surface-limited process) to be distinguished from those produced by particle phase reaction (a volume-limited process). In this work, SOA was produced by β-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor. Aerosol exiting the reactor was size-selected with a differential mobility analyzer, and individual particle sizes between 35 and 110 nm in diameter were characterized by on- and offline mass spectrometry. Both the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratio and carbon oxidation state (OSc) were found to decrease with increasing particle size, while the relative signal intensity of oligomers increased with increasing particle size. These results are consistent with oligomer formation primarily in the particle phase (accretion reactions, which become more favored as the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the particle increases). Analysis of a series of polydisperse SOA samples showed similar dependencies: as the mass loading increased (and average volume-to-surface-area ratio increased), the average O / C ratio and OSc decreased, while the relative intensity of oligomer ions increased. The results illustrate the potential impact that particle phase chemistry can have on biogenic SOA formation and the particle size range where this chemistry becomes important.

  20. Particle size dependence of biogenic secondary organic aerosol molecular composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA is initiated by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the gas phase whose products subsequently partition to the particle phase. Non-volatile molecules have a negligible evaporation rate and grow particles at their condensation rate. Semi-volatile molecules have a significant evaporation rate and grow particles at a much slower rate than their condensation rate. Particle phase chemistry may enhance particle growth if it transforms partitioned semi-volatile molecules into non-volatile products. In principle, changes in molecular composition as a function of particle size allow non-volatile molecules that have condensed from the gas phase (a surface-limited process to be distinguished from those produced by particle phase reaction (a volume-limited process. In this work, SOA was produced by β-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor. Aerosol exiting the reactor was size-selected with a differential mobility analyzer, and individual particle sizes between 35 and 110 nm in diameter were characterized by on- and offline mass spectrometry. Both the average oxygen-to-carbon (O ∕ C ratio and carbon oxidation state (OSc were found to decrease with increasing particle size, while the relative signal intensity of oligomers increased with increasing particle size. These results are consistent with oligomer formation primarily in the particle phase (accretion reactions, which become more favored as the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the particle increases. Analysis of a series of polydisperse SOA samples showed similar dependencies: as the mass loading increased (and average volume-to-surface-area ratio increased, the average O ∕ C ratio and OSc decreased, while the relative intensity of oligomer ions increased. The results illustrate the potential impact that particle phase chemistry can have on biogenic SOA formation and the particle size range where this chemistry becomes

  1. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM): a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Advances in water chemistry in the last decade have improved our knowledge about the genesis, composition, and structure of dissolved organic matter, and its effect on the environment. Improvements in analytical technology, for example Fourier-transform ion cyclotron (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS), homo and hetero-correlated multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and excitation emission matrix fluorimetry (EEMF) with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis for UV-fluorescence spectroscopy have resulted in these advances. Improved purification methods, for example ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, have enabled facile desalting and concentration of freshly collected DOM samples, thereby complementing the analytical process. Although its molecular weight (MW) remains undefined, DOM is described as a complex mixture of low-MW substances and larger-MW biomolecules, for example proteins, polysaccharides, and exocellular macromolecules. There is a general consensus that marine DOM originates from terrestrial and marine sources. A combination of diagenetic and microbial processes contributes to its origin, resulting in refractory organic matter which acts as carbon sink in the ocean. Ocean DOM is derived partially from humified products of plants decay dissolved in fresh water and transported to the ocean, and partially from proteinaceous and polysaccharide material from phytoplankton metabolism, which undergoes in-situ microbial processes, becoming refractory. Some of the DOM interacts with radiation and is, therefore, defined as chromophoric DOM (CDOM). CDOM is classified as terrestrial, marine, anthropogenic, or mixed, depending on its origin. Terrestrial CDOM reaches the oceans via estuaries, whereas autochthonous CDOM is formed in sea water by microbial activity; anthropogenic CDOM is a result of human activity. CDOM also affects the quality of water, by shielding it from solar radiation, and constitutes a carbon sink pool. Evidence in support

  2. Classical electron ionization mass spectra in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Alexander; Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-09-01

    A major benefit of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) interface and its fly-through ion source is the ability to obtain electron ionization of vibrationally cold molecules (cold EI), which show enhanced molecular ions. However, GC/MS with an SMB also has the flexibility to perform 'classical EI' mode of operation which provides mass spectra to mimic those in commercial 70 eV electron ionization MS libraries. Classical EI in SMB is obtained through simple reduction of the helium make-up gas flow rate, which reduces the SMB cooling efficiency; hence the vibrational temperatures of the molecules are similar to those in traditional EI ion sources. In classical EI-SMB mode, the relative abundance of the molecular ion can be tuned and, as a result, excellent identification probabilities and very good matching factors to the NIST MS library are obtained. Classical EI-SMB with the fly-through dual cage ion source has analyte sensitivity similar to that of the standard EI ion source of a basic GC/MS system. The fly-through EI ion source in combination with the SMB interface can serve for cold EI, classical EI-SMB, and cluster chemical ionization (CCI) modes of operation, all easily exchangeable through a simple and quick change (not involving hardware). Furthermore, the fly-through ion source eliminates sample scattering from the walls of the ion source, and thus it offers full sample inertness, tailing-free operation, and no ion-molecule reaction interferences. It is also robust and enables increased column flow rate capability without affecting the sensitivity.

  3. Initial clinical evaluation of PET-based ion beam therapy monitoring under consideration of organ motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christopher; Bauer, Julia; Unholtz, Daniel; Richter, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-02-01

    Intrafractional organ motion imposes considerable challenges to scanned ion beam therapy and demands for a thorough verification of the applied treatment. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), the scanned ion beam delivery is verified by means of postirradiation positron-emission-tomography (PET) imaging. This work presents a first clinical evaluation of PET-based treatment monitoring in ion beam therapy under consideration of target motion. Three patients with mobile liver lesions underwent scanned carbon ion irradiation at HIT and postirradiation PET/CT (x-ray-computed-tomography) imaging with a commercial scanner. Respiratory motion was recorded during irradiation and subsequent image acquisition. This enabled a time-resolved (4D) calculation of the expected irradiation-induced activity pattern and, for one patient where an additional 4D CT was acquired at the PET/CT scanner after treatment, a motion-compensated PET image reconstruction. For the other patients, PET data were reconstructed statically. To verify the treatment, calculated prediction and reconstructed measurement were compared with a focus on the ion beam range. Results in the current three patients suggest that for motion amplitudes in the order of 2 mm there is no benefit from incorporating respiratory motion information into PET-based treatment monitoring. For a target motion in the order of 10 mm, motion-related effects become more severe and a time-resolved modeling of the expected activity distribution can lead to an improved data interpretation if a sufficient number of true coincidences is detected. Benefits from motion-compensated PET image reconstruction could not be shown conclusively at the current stage. The feasibility of clinical PET-based treatment verification under consideration of organ motion has been shown for the first time. Improvements in noise-robust 4D PET image reconstruction are deemed necessary to enhance the clinical potential.

  4. Initial clinical evaluation of PET-based ion beam therapy monitoring under consideration of organ motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, Christopher; Bauer, Julia; Unholtz, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Richter, Daniel; Parodi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Intrafractional organ motion imposes considerable challenges to scanned ion beam therapy and demands for a thorough verification of the applied treatment. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), the scanned ion beam delivery is verified by means of postirradiation positron-emission-tomography (PET) imaging. This work presents a first clinical evaluation of PET-based treatment monitoring in ion beam therapy under consideration of target motion. Methods: Three patients with mobile liver lesions underwent scanned carbon ion irradiation at HIT and postirradiation PET/CT (x-ray-computed-tomography) imaging with a commercial scanner. Respiratory motion was recorded during irradiation and subsequent image acquisition. This enabled a time-resolved (4D) calculation of the expected irradiation-induced activity pattern and, for one patient where an additional 4D CT was acquired at the PET/CT scanner after treatment, a motion-compensated PET image reconstruction. For the other patients, PET data were reconstructed statically. To verify the treatment, calculated prediction and reconstructed measurement were compared with a focus on the ion beam range. Results: Results in the current three patients suggest that for motion amplitudes in the order of 2 mm there is no benefit from incorporating respiratory motion information into PET-based treatment monitoring. For a target motion in the order of 10 mm, motion-related effects become more severe and a time-resolved modeling of the expected activity distribution can lead to an improved data interpretation if a sufficient number of true coincidences is detected. Benefits from motion-compensated PET image reconstruction could not be shown conclusively at the current stage. Conclusions: The feasibility of clinical PET-based treatment verification under consideration of organ motion has been shown for the first time. Improvements in noise-robust 4D PET image reconstruction are deemed necessary to enhance the

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN layers on Sapphire, GaN and indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, Christian; Landgraf, Boris; Schuhmann, Henning; Malindretos, Joerg; Seibt, Michael; Rizzi, Angela [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Gomez-Gomez, Maribel; Cantarero, Andres [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, Paterna (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Among the group-III nitrides semiconductors, InN is the one with the narrowest gap (0.67 eV), lowest effective electron mass and highest peak drift velocity. It is therefore a very interesting material for several applications, in particular semiconductor solar cells. Furthermore, the high electron affinity makes it suitable also as electrode material for organic solar cells. InN layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MOCVD GaN templates, on bare c-plane sapphire and on polycrystalline indium tin oxide. On all substrates the III-V ratio as well as the substrate temperature was varied. A RHEED analysis of InN growth on GaN showed a relatively sharp transition from N-rich and columnar growth to In-rich growth with droplet formation by increasing the In flux impinging on the surface. The InN layers on single crystalline substrates were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, PL and Raman. The InN layers on ITO were mainly analyzed with respect to the surface morphology with SEM. HRTEM in cross section gives insight into the structure of the interface to the ITO substrate.

  6. Study on Size-Dependent Young’s Modulus of a Silicon Nano beam by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, W.W.; Lei, S.Y.; Huang, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Young’s modulus of a silicon nano beam with a rectangular cross-section is studied by molecular dynamics method. Dynamic simulations are performed for doubly clamped silicon nano beams with lengths ranging from 4.888 to 12.491 nm and cross-sections ranging from 1.22 nm ×1.22 nm to 3.39 nm × 3.39 nm. The results show that Young’s moduli of such small silicon nano beams are much higher than the value of Young’s modulus for bulk silicon. Moreover, the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus of the Si nano beam are strongly dependent not only on the size of the nano beam but also on surface effects. Young’s modulus increases significantly with the decreasing of the thickness of the silicon nano beam. This result qualitatively agrees with one of the conclusions based on a semi continuum model, in which the surface relaxation and the surface tension were taken into consideration. The impacts of the surface reconstruction with (2 ×1) dimmers on the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus are studied in this paper too. It is shown that the surface reconstruction makes the silicon nano beam stiffer than the one without the surface reconstruction, resulting in a higher resonant frequency and a larger Young’s modulus

  7. Nitrogen mineralization in a simulated rhizosphere as influenced by low molecular weight organic substances

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Shamim Ara; Kader, MD Abdul; Sleutel, Steven; De Neve, Stefaan

    2012-01-01

    Rhizodeposits consist of over 200 organic compounds, mainly low-molecular-weight organic substances (LMWOS) such as amino acids (AA), carbohydrates (CH) and carboxylic acids (CA), lipids and phenols. Those LMWOS influence nutrient turnover, particularly N turnover. However, the exact influence of these organic substances on nitrogen mineralization is yet unknown. Therefore, the stimulatory effects of low molecular weight organic substances on nitrogen mineralization in the rhizosphere of a si...

  8. Supersonic molecular beam electric resonance spectroscopy and van der Waals molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luftman, H.S.

    1982-09-01

    A supersonic molecular beam electric resonance (MBER) spectrometer was built to study the radiofrequency spectra of weakly bound gas phase van der Waals molecules. The instrument and its operating characteristics are described in detail. Sample mass spectra of Ar-ClF gas mixtures are also presented as an illustration of the synthesis of van der Waals molecules. The Stark focusing process for linear polar molecules is discussed and computer-simulated using both second order perturbation and variational methods. Experimental refocusing spectra of OCS and ClF are studied and compared with these trajectory calculations. Though quantitative fitting is poor, there are strong qualitative indicators that the central part of a supersonic beam consists of molecules with a significantly greater population in the lowest energy rotational states than generally assumed. Flop in as opposed to flop out resonance signals for OCS are also numerically predicted and observed. The theoretical properties of the MBER spectrum for linear molecules are elaborated upon with special emphasis on line shape considerations. MBER spectra of OCS and ClF under a variety of conditions are presented and discussed in context to these predictions. There is some uncertainty expressed both in our own modeling and in the manner complex MBER spectra have been analyzed in the past. Finally, an electrostatic potential model is used to quantitatively describe the class of van der Waals molecules Ar-MX, where MX is an alkali halide. Energetics and equilibrium geometries are calculated. The validity of using an electrostatic model to predict van der Waals bond properties is critically discussed

  9. Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, F.; Ziberi, B.; Schindler, A.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2008-01-01

    Low-energy ion-beam sputtering, i.e. the removal of atoms from a surface due to the impact of energetic ions or atoms, is an inherent part of numerous surface processing techniques. Besides the actual removal of material, this surface erosion process often results in a pronounced alteration of the surface topography. Under certain conditions, sputtering results in the formation of well-ordered patterns. This self-organized pattern formation is related to a surface instability between curvature-dependent sputtering that roughens the surface and smoothing by different surface relaxation mechanisms. If the evolution of surface topography is dominated by relaxation mechanisms, surface smoothing can occur. In this presentation the current status of self-organized pattern formation and surface smoothing by low-energy ion-beam erosion of Si and Ge is summarized. In detail it will be shown that a multitude of patterns as well as ultra-smooth surfaces can develop, particularly on Si surfaces. Additionally, the most important experimental parameters that control these processes are discussed. Finally, examples are given for the application of low-energy ion beams as a novel approach for passive optical device engineering for many advanced optical applications. (orig.)

  10. Study of molecular movements in some organic crystals by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.

    1971-01-01

    After a discussion on molecular crystals (generalities, movements within molecular solids, study of movements, complexes by charge transfer) and some specific ones (molecular complexes of trinitrobenzene or TNB), this research thesis reports the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study molecular movements: generalities on broadband NMR, spin relaxation and strong field network, observation of the absorption signal and measurement of the second moment. The last part reports and discusses experimental results obtained on TNB-naphthalene, on TNB-azulene, on TNB-benzothiophene, and on TNB-indole

  11. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-09-01

    A number of highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized within the last few years. It is noteworthy that many of these receptors are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids and are expressed in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. These receptors thus hold the potential to act as sensors of food intake, regulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue. The promiscuous tendency in ligand recognition of these receptors is in contrast to the typical specific interaction with one physiological agonist seen for most receptors, which challenges the classic "lock-and-key" concept. We here review the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing of the calcium-sensing receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A), and the taste1 receptor T1R1/T1R3, which are sensing L-alpha-amino acids, the carbohydrate-sensing T1R2/T1R3 receptor, the proteolytic degradation product sensor GPR93 (also termed GPR92), and the free fatty acid (FFA) sensing receptors FFA1, FFA2, FFA3, GPR84, and GPR120. The involvement of the individual receptors in sensing of food intake has been validated to different degrees because of limited availability of specific pharmacological tools and/or receptor knockout mice. However, as a group, the receptors represent potential drug targets, to treat, for example, type II diabetes by mimicking food intake by potent agonists or positive allosteric modulators. The ligand-receptor interactions of the promiscuous receptors of organic nutrients thus remain an interesting subject of emerging functional importance.

  12. Molecular Electron Density Theory: A Modern View of Reactivity in Organic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Luis R. Domingo

    2016-01-01

    A new theory for the study of the reactivity in Organic Chemistry, named Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT), is proposed herein. MEDT is based on the idea that while the electron density distribution at the ground state is responsible for physical and chemical molecular properties, as proposed by the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the capability for changes in electron density is responsible for molecular reactivity. Within MEDT, the reactivity in Organic Chemistry is studied through ...

  13. Electronic properties of organic monolayers and molecular devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These devices exhibit a marked current–voltage rectification behavior due to resonant transport between the Si conduction band and the molecule highest occupied molecular orbital of the molecule. We discuss the role of metal Fermi level pinning in the current–voltage behavior of these molecular junctions. We also ...

  14. Water interactions with condensed organic phases: a combined experimental and theoretical study of molecular-level processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sofia M.; Kong, Xiangrui; Thomson, Erik S.; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Lovrić, Josip; Toubin, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake on aerosol particles modifies their chemistry and microphysics with important implications for air quality and climate. A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol consists of organic aerosol particles or inorganic particles with condensed organic components. Here, we combine laboratory studies using the environmental molecular beam (EMB) method1 with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize water interactions with organic surfaces in detail. The over-arching aim is to characterize the mechanisms that govern water uptake, in order to guide the development of physics-based models to be used in atmospheric modelling. The EMB method enables molecular level studies of interactions between gases and volatile surfaces at near ambient pressure,1 and the technique may provide information about collision dynamics, surface and bulk accommodation, desorption and diffusion kinetics. Molecular dynamics simulations provide complementary information about the collision dynamics and initial interactions between gas molecules and the condensed phase. Here, we focus on water interactions with condensed alcohol phases that serve as highly simplified proxies for systems in the environment. Gas-surface collisions are in general found to be highly inelastic and result in efficient surface accommodation of water molecules. As a consequence, surface accommodation of water can be safely assumed to be close to unity under typical ambient conditions. Bulk accommodation is inefficient on solid alcohol and the condensed materials appear to produce hydrophobic surface structures, with limited opportunities for adsorbed water to form hydrogen bonds with surface molecules. Accommodation is significantly more efficient on the dynamic liquid alcohol surfaces. The results for n-butanol (BuOH) are particularly intriguing where substantial changes in water accommodation taking place over a 10 K interval below and above the BuOH melting point.2 The governing mechanisms for the

  15. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of graphene and ridge-structure networks of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Fumihiko; Hibino, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    By gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using cracked ethanol, we grew graphene at substrate temperatures between 600 and 915 °C on graphene formed on SiC(0 0 0 1) by thermal decomposition. To investigate the substrate temperature dependence of graphene growth we analysed the MBE-grown graphene by Raman spectroscopy and in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and observed it by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analyses using the G-band peak and the peak intensity ratio between D- and G-band peaks in the Raman spectra revealed that growth at higher temperatures improved the crystallinity and increased the domain size. Although the growth rate decreased at higher temperatures, as revealed by XPS, these results indicated that growth at a higher temperature is effective in obtaining graphene of higher quality. Furthermore, the AFM and TEM observations revealed a network of fin-like ridge structures of graphene sticking out from the surface. The presence of these 'graphene nanofins' indicated that two-dimensional islands of graphene are surrounded by the nanofins, and the island size was estimated to be 67 nm using the average distance between the nanofins.

  16. Application of molecular beam mass spectrometry to chemical vapor deposition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, W.L.; Tung, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    A molecular beam mass spectrometer system has been designed and constructed for the specific purpose of measuring the gaseous composition of the vapor environment during chemical vapor deposition of diamond. By the intrinsic nature of mass analysis, this type of design is adaptable to a broad range of other applications that rely either on thermal- or plasma-induced chemical kinetics. When gas is sampled at a relatively high process pressure (∼2700 Pa for our case), supersonic gas expansion at the sampling orifice can cause the detected signals to have a complicated dependence on the operating conditions. A comprehensive discussion is given on the effect of gas expansion on mass discrimination and signal scaling with sampling pressure and temperature, and how these obstacles can be overcome. This paper demonstrates that radical species can be detected with a sensitivity better than 10 ppm by the use of threshold ionization. A detailed procedure is described whereby one can achieve quantitative analysis of the detected species with an accuracy of ±20%. This paper ends with an example on the detection of H, H 2 , CH 3 , CH 4 , and C 2 H 2 during diamond growth

  17. Molecular dynamics and experimental studies on deposition mechanisms of ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.-H.; Chang, W.-J.; Lin, C.-M.; Lien, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and experimental methods are used to study the deposition mechanism of ionic beam sputtering (IBS), including the effects of incident energy, incident angle and deposition temperature on the growth process of nickel nanofilms. According to the simulation, the results showed that increasing the temperature of substrate decreases the surface roughness, average grain size and density. Increasing the incident angle increases the surface roughness and the average grain size of thin film, while decreasing its density. In addition, increasing the incident energy decreases the surface roughness and the average grain size of thin film, while increasing its density. For the cases of simulation, with the substrate temperature of 500 K, normal incident angle and 14.6 x 10 -17 J are appropriate, in order to obtain a smoother surface, a small grain size and a higher density of thin film. From the experimental results, the surface roughness of thin film deposited on the substrates of Si(1 0 0) and indium tin oxide (ITO) decreases with the increasing sputtering power, while the thickness of thin film shows an approximately linear increase with the increase of sputtering power

  18. Multiferroic fluoride BaCoF4 Thin Films Grown Via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent; García-Castro, Camilo; Kc, Amit; Schrecongost, Dustin; Cen, Cheng; Romero, Aldo; Lederman, David

    Multiferroic materials exhibit exciting physics related to the simultaneous presence of multiple long-range orders, in many cases consisting of antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferroelectric (FE) orderings. In order to provide a new, promising route for fluoride-based multiferroic material engineering, we grew multiferroic fluoride BaCoF4 in thin film form on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The films grow with the orthorhombic b-axis out-of-plane and with three in-plane structural twin domains along the polar c-axis directions. The FE ordering in thin films was verified by FE remanent hysteresis loops measurements at T = 14 K and by room temperature piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). An AF behavior was found below Neel temperature TN ~ 80 K, which is in agreement with the bulk properties. At lower temperatures two additional magnetic phase transitions at 19 K and 41 K were found. First-principles calculations demonstrated that the growth strain applied to the bulk BaCoF4 indeed favors two canted spin orders, along the b- and a-axes, respectively, in addition to the main AF spin order along the c-axis. Supported by FAME (Contract 2013-MA-2382), WV Research Challenge Grant (HEPC.dsr.12.29), and DMREF-NSF 1434897.

  19. Growth of layered superconductor β-PdBi{sub 2} films using molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, N.V., E-mail: denisov@iacp.dvo.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Matetskiy, A.V.; Tupkalo, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zotov, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Electronics, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, 690600 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Saranin, A.A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} is layered material with advanced properties of topological superconductor. • We present a method for growing β-PdBi{sub 2} films of a desired thickness. • Method utilizes MBE growth of β-PdBi{sub 2}, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. • Electronic and superconducting properties of the films are similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2}. - Abstract: Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} layered material exhibits advanced properties and is supposed to be probable topological superconductor. We present a method based on molecular beam epitaxy that allows us to grow β-PdBi{sub 2} films from a single β-PdBi{sub 2} triple layer up to the dozens of triple layers, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. The grown films demonstrate structural, electronic and superconducting properties similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} crystals. Ability to grow the β-PdBi{sub 2} films of desired thickness opens the promising possibilities to explore fascinating properties of this advanced material.

  20. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of High Crystalline Quality LiNbO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Shank, Joshua C.; Goorsky, Mark S.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2016-12-01

    Lithium niobate is a multi-functional material with wide reaching applications in acoustics, optics, and electronics. Commercial applications for lithium niobate require high crystalline quality currently limited to bulk and ion sliced material. Thin film lithium niobate is an attractive option for a variety of integrated devices, but the research effort has been stagnant due to poor material quality. Both lattice matched and mismatched lithium niobate are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and studied to understand the role of substrate and temperature on nucleation conditions and material quality. Growth on sapphire produces partially coalesced columnar grains with atomically flat plateaus and no twin planes. A symmetric rocking curve shows a narrow linewidth with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 8.6 arcsec (0.0024°), which is comparable to the 5.8 arcsec rocking curve FWHM of the substrate, while the film asymmetric rocking curve is 510 arcsec FWHM. These values indicate that the individual grains are relatively free of long-range disorder detectable by x-ray diffraction with minimal measurable tilt and twist and represents the highest structural quality epitaxial material grown on lattice mismatched sapphire without twin planes. Lithium niobate is also grown on lithium tantalate producing high quality coalesced material without twin planes and with a symmetric rocking curve of 193 arcsec, which is nearly equal to the substrate rocking curve of 194 arcsec. The surface morphology of lithium niobate on lithium tantalate is shown to be atomically flat by atomic force microscopy.

  1. Hybrid molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Abhinav, E-mail: praka019@umn.edu; Dewey, John; Yun, Hwanhui; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Jalan, Bharat, E-mail: bjalan@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Owing to its high room-temperature electron mobility and wide bandgap, BaSnO{sub 3} has recently become of significant interest for potential room-temperature oxide electronics. A hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach for the growth of high-quality BaSnO{sub 3} films is developed in this work. This approach employs hexamethylditin as a chemical precursor for tin, an effusion cell for barium, and a radio frequency plasma source for oxygen. BaSnO{sub 3} films were thus grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and LaAlO{sub 3} (001) substrates. Growth conditions for stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3} were identified. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations, characteristic of a layer-by-layer growth mode were observed. A critical thickness of ∼1 nm for strain relaxation was determined for films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} using in situ RHEED. Scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed the cube-on-cube epitaxy and composition. The importance of precursor chemistry is discussed in the context of the MBE growth of BaSnO{sub 3}.

  2. Dynamic grazing incidence fast atom diffraction during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, P., E-mail: atkinson@insp.jussieu.fr; Eddrief, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Etgens, V. H. [CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); VeDeCom-Université Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Versailles (France); Khemliche, H., E-mail: hocine.khemliche@u-psud.fr; Debiossac, M.; Mulier, M.; Lalmi, B.; Roncin, P. [ISMO UMR8214 CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91400 (France); Momeni, A. [ISMO UMR8214 CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91400 (France); Univ. Cergy Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy (France)

    2014-07-14

    A Grazing Incidence Fast Atom Diffraction (GIFAD) system has been mounted on a commercial molecular beam epitaxy chamber and used to monitor GaAs growth in real-time. In contrast to the conventionally used Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction, all the GIFAD diffraction orders oscillate in phase, with the change in intensity related to diffuse scattering at step edges. We show that the scattered intensity integrated over the Laue circle is a robust method to monitor the periodic change in surface roughness during layer-by-layer growth, with oscillation phase and amplitude independent of incidence angle and crystal orientation. When there is a change in surface reconstruction at the start of growth, GIFAD intensity oscillations show that there is a corresponding delay in the onset of layer-by-layer growth. In addition, changes in the relative intensity of different diffraction orders have been observed during growth showing that GIFAD has the potential to provide insight into the preferential adatom attachment sites on the surface reconstruction during growth.

  3. Growth of HfO{sub x} thin films by reactive molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Thin films of hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal r-cut and c-cut sapphire by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The conditions for the growth of single oriented hafnium oxide thin films have been established. Hafnium oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and optical absorption measurements. It was found that hafnium oxide thin films grown on r-cut sapphire were (00l) oriented whereas, on c-cut sapphire, hafnium oxide films showed different orientations depending on the growth temperature and oxidation conditions. The hafnium oxide films grown at higher temperature and under strong oxidation conditions yielded (001) oriented films on c-cut sapphire whereas slightly weaker oxidation condition leads to (111) oriented hafnium oxide films. The bandgap deducted from optical absorption measurement carried out on hafnium oxide films grown under optimized conditions agreed well with the values reported in literature. A range of oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide were also grown on single crystal sapphire substrates in order to investigate the effect of oxygen vacancies on dielectric properties of hafnium oxide. The oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide show a decrease in bandgap with increase in oxygen deficiency.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy of Cd3As2 on a III-V substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Schumann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial, strain-engineered Dirac semimetal heterostructures promise tuning of the unique properties of these materials. In this study, we investigate the growth of thin films of the recently discovered Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that epitaxial Cd3As2 layers can be grown at low temperatures (110 °C–220 °C, in situ, on (111 GaSb buffer layers deposited on (111 GaAs substrates. The orientation relationship is described by ( 112 Cd 3 As 2 || (111 GaSb and [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] Cd 3 As 2 || [ 1 ¯ 01 ] GaSb . The films are shown to grow in the low-temperature, vacancy ordered, tetragonal Dirac semimetal phase. They exhibit high room temperature mobilities of up to 19300 cm2/Vs, despite a three-dimensional surface morphology indicative of island growth and the presence of twin variants. The results indicate that epitaxial growth on more closely lattice matched buffer layers, such as InGaSb or InAlSb, which allow for imposing different degrees of epitaxial coherency strains, should be possible.

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy of iodine-doped CdTe and (CdMg)Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Waag, A.; Litz, Th.; Scholl, S.; Schmitt, M.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstofforschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The n-type doping of CdTe and (CdMg)Te by the use of the solid dopant source material ZnI[sub 2] is reported. Doping levels as high as 7x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] have been obtained in CdTe with carrier mobilities around 500 cm[sup 2]/V[center dot]s at room temperature. For a dopant incorporation higher than 1x10[sup 19] cm[sup -3] the free carrier concentration decreases, indicating the onset of a compensation mechanism, which is observed in the case of chlorine and bromine doping, too. Preliminary experiments show that with increasing Mg concentration the free carrier concentration decreases. Nevertheless, CdMgTe with a magnesium concentration x=0.37 (band gap 2.2 eV at room temperature) can be doped up to 2x10[sup 17] cm[sup -3]. The existence of deep donor levels in this CdTe based ternary is not supposed to be the only reason for the reduction of the free carrier concentration. For high Mg support during molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of wide gap (CdMg)Te layers, the ZnI[sub 2] incorporation is reduced, leading to low doping levels, too

  6. Polarized infrared reflectance study of free standing cubic GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.C.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N.; Novikov, S.V.; Foxon, C.T.; Kent, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties of free standing cubic gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy system are investigated by a polarized infrared (IR) reflectance technique. A strong reststrahlen band, which reveals the bulk-like optical phonon frequencies, is observed. Meanwhile, continuous oscillation fringes, which indicate the sample consists of two homogeneous layers with different dielectric constants, are observed in the non-reststrahlen region. By obtaining the first derivative of polarized IR reflectance spectra measured at higher angles of incidence, extra phonon resonances are identified at the edges of the reststrahlen band. The observations are verified with the theoretical results simulated based on a multi-oscillator model. - Highlights: • First time experimental studies of IR optical phonons in bulk like, cubic GaN layer. • Detection of extra phonon modes of cubic GaN by polarized IR reflectance technique. • Revelation of IR multiphonon modes of cubic GaN by first derivative numerical method. • Observation of multiphonon modes requires very high angle of incidence. • Resonance splitting effect induced by third phonon mode is a qualitative indicator

  7. Single orientation graphene synthesized on iridium thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangwal Pandey, A., E-mail: arti.pandey@desy.de; Grånäs, E.; Shayduk, R.; Noei, H.; Vonk, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Krausert, K.; Franz, D.; Müller, P.; Keller, T. F.; Stierle, A., E-mail: andreas.stierle@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Universität Hamburg, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-08-21

    Heteroepitaxial iridium thin films were deposited on (0001) sapphire substrates by means of molecular beam epitaxy, and subsequently, one monolayer of graphene was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The influence of the growth parameters on the quality of the Ir films, as well as of graphene, was investigated systematically by means of low energy electron diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Our study reveals (111) oriented iridium films with high crystalline quality and extremely low surface roughness, on which the formation of large-area epitaxial graphene is achieved. The presence of defects, like dislocations, twins, and 30° rotated domains in the iridium films is also discussed. The coverage of graphene was found to be influenced by the presence of 30° rotated domains in the Ir films. Low iridium deposition rates suppress these rotated domains and an almost complete coverage of graphene was obtained. This synthesis route yields inexpensive, air-stable, and large-area graphene with a well-defined orientation, making it accessible to a wider community of researchers for numerous experiments or applications, including those which use destructive analysis techniques or irreversible processes. Moreover, this approach can be used to tune the structural quality of graphene, allowing a systematic study of the influence of defects in various processes like intercalation below graphene.

  8. Comparison between gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in plasma density feedback experiments in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiahong; Ding, Rui; Cao, Bin; Wu, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    To achieve desirable plasma density control, a supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) feedback control system has been developed recently for the EAST tokamak. The performance of the SMBI and gas puffing (GP) feedback systems were used and compared. The performance of pulse width mode is better than that of pulse amplitude mode when GP was used for density feedback control. During one-day experiments, the variation of gas input and wall retention can be clarified into two stages. In the first stage the retention ratio is as high as 80–90%, and the gas input is about an order of 10 22 D 2 . However, in the second stage, the retention ratio is at a range of 50–70%. The gas input of a single discharge is small and the net wall retention grows slowly. The results of the SMBI feedback control experiment was analyzed. The shorter delay time of SMBI makes it faster at feeding back control the plasma density. The result showed that, compared with GP, the gas input of SMBI was decreased ∼30% and the wall retention was reduced ∼40%. This shows SMBI's advantage for the long pulse high density discharges in EAST. (paper)

  9. Hollow-anode plasma source for molecular beam epitaxy of gallium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Newman, N.; Rubin, M.; Dickinson, M.; Jones, E.; Phatak, P.; Gassmann, A.

    1996-01-01

    GaN films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a hollow-anode nitrogen plasma source. The source was developed to minimize defect formation as a result of contamination and ion damage. The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge with very small anode area. A positive anode voltage drop of 30 endash 40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness leads to ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Driven by the pressure gradient, the open-quote open-quote anode close-quote close-quote plasma forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity towards the substrate. Films of GaN have been grown on (0001) SiC and (0001) Al 2 O 3 at 600 endash 800 degree C. The films were investigated by photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, and particle-induced x-ray emission. The film with the highest structural quality had a rocking curve width of 5 arcmin, the lowest reported value for MBE growth to date. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Radical-source molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadofiev, Sergey

    2009-10-27

    This work focuses on the development of the novel growth approaches for the fabrication of Group II-oxide materials in the form of epitaxial films and heterostructures. It is shown that molecular-beam epitaxial growth far from thermal equilibrium allows one to overcome the standard solubility limit and to alloy ZnO with MgO or CdO in strict wurtzite phase up to mole fractions of several 10 %. In this way, a band-gap range from 2.2 to 4.4 eV can be covered. A clear layer-by-layer growth mode controlled by oscillations in reflection high-energy electron diffraction makes it possible to fabricate atomically smooth heterointerfaces and well-defined quantum well structures exhibiting prominent band-gap related light emission in the whole composition range. On appropriately designed structures, laser action from the ultraviolet down to green wavelengths and up to room temperature is achieved. The properties and potential of the ''state-of-the-art'' materials are discussed in relation to the advantages for their applications in various optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  11. Growth, structural, and electrical properties of germanium-on-silicon heterostructure by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aheli Ghosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth, morphological, and electrical properties of thin-film Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si using a two-step growth process were investigated. High-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated ∼0.10% tensile-strained Ge epilayer, owing to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Ge and Si, and negligible epilayer lattice tilt. Micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis corroborated the strain-state of the Ge thin-film. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of 90  ° Lomer dislocation network at Ge/Si heterointerface, suggesting the rapid and complete relaxation of Ge epilayer during growth. Atomic force micrographs exhibited smooth surface morphology with surface roughness < 2 nm. Temperature dependent Hall mobility measurements and the modelling thereof indicated that ionized impurity scattering limited carrier mobility in Ge layer. Capacitance- and conductance-voltage measurements were performed to determine the effect of epilayer dislocation density on interfacial defect states (Dit and their energy distribution. Finally, extracted Dit values were benchmarked against published Dit data for Ge MOS devices, as a function of threading dislocation density within the Ge layer. The results obtained were comparable with Ge MOS devices integrated on Si via alternative buffer schemes. This comprehensive study of directly-grown epitaxial Ge-on-Si provides a pathway for the development of Ge-based electronic devices on Si.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy for high-performance Ga-face GaN electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaun, Stephen W; Speck, James S; Wong, Man Hoi; Mishra, Umesh K

    2013-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has emerged as a powerful technique for growing GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epistructures. Over the past decade, HEMT performance steadily improved, mainly through the optimization of device fabrication processes. Soon, HEMT performance will be limited by the crystalline quality of the epistructure. MBE offers heterostructure growth with highly abrupt interfaces, low point defect concentrations, and very low carbon and hydrogen impurity concentrations. Minimizing parasitic leakage pathways and resistances is essential in the growth of HEMTs for high-frequency and high-power applications. Through growth on native substrates with very low threading dislocation density, low-leakage HEMTs with very low on-resistance can be realized. Ga-rich plasma-assisted MBE (PAMBE) has been studied extensively, and it is clear that this technique has inherent limitations, including a high density of leakage pathways and a very small growth parameter space. Relatively new MBE growth techniques—high-temperature N-rich PAMBE and ammonia-based MBE—are being developed to circumvent the shortcomings of Ga-rich PAMBE. (invited review)

  13. Ellipsometric study of GaN/AIN/Si(111) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, M. A. U.; Ashfaq, A.; Arshad, M. I.; Ali, A.; Mahmood, K.; Hasan, M. A.; Asghar, M.

    2013-01-01

    GaN and related structures attracted a great interest in the recent years for electronic and optoelectronic applications due to their promising properties. GaN is grown popularly on foreign substrates like sapphire and SiC. However, silicon due to its favourable properties attended the great attention of material scientists and researchers to utilize as substrate for heteroepitaxy of GaN based structures and devices. Silicon substrates are low cost, available in large diameters and have well characterized thermal and electrical properties. In this study, GaN/AlN/Si(111) heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We performed x-ray diffraction spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry on these samples to study their structural and optical properties. XRD measurements performed on these samples revealed the presence of high quality GaN films as well as the presence of AlN buffer layer with the following miller indices: GaN (002), GaN (004), GaN (006) and GaN (110) along with Si peak of phase (111). The ellipsometric data obtained were used to characterize the GaN/Si samples as a function of film thickness. Refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant were calculated by the measured data. (author)

  14. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga 2 O 3 , In 2 O 3 , and SnO 2 on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga 2 O, In 2 O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO 2 , somewhat lower for In 2 O 3 , and the lowest for Ga 2 O 3 . Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides

  15. Growth, structural, and electrical properties of germanium-on-silicon heterostructure by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aheli; Clavel, Michael B.; Nguyen, Peter D.; Meeker, Michael A.; Khodaparast, Giti A.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Hudait, Mantu K.

    2017-09-01

    The growth, morphological, and electrical properties of thin-film Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si using a two-step growth process were investigated. High-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated ˜0.10% tensile-strained Ge epilayer, owing to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Ge and Si, and negligible epilayer lattice tilt. Micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis corroborated the strain-state of the Ge thin-film. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of 90° Lomer dislocation network at Ge/Si heterointerface, suggesting the rapid and complete relaxation of Ge epilayer during growth. Atomic force micrographs exhibited smooth surface morphology with surface roughness published Dit data for Ge MOS devices, as a function of threading dislocation density within the Ge layer. The results obtained were comparable with Ge MOS devices integrated on Si via alternative buffer schemes. This comprehensive study of directly-grown epitaxial Ge-on-Si provides a pathway for the development of Ge-based electronic devices on Si.

  16. Effects of film polarities on InN growth by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the film polarity on InN growth were investigated in molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). It was found that N-polarity InN could be grown at higher temperatures than In-polarity one. For the In-polarity films, which were grown on Ga-polar GaN template, the highest growth temperature was limited below 500 deg. C, and the surface morphology and crystal quality tended to be poor mainly because of the tolerated low growth temperature. While for the N-polarity InN films, which were grown on MBE-grown N-polar GaN, the growth temperature could be as high as 600 deg. C. The step-flow-like growth morphology was achieved for the InN films grown with N polarity at 580 deg. C. The resulting full widths of half maximum of x-ray rocking curve around InN (002) and (102) reflections were about 200-250 and 950-1100 arc sec, respectively. The photoluminescence of the InN films peaked at 0.697 eV. The recording Hall mobility of InN film grown in N polarity is 1400 cm 2 /V s with a background carrier concentration of 1.56x10 18 cm -3 at room temperature. For both-polarity films, we found N-rich condition was necessary for the stable InN growth

  17. Effects of magnesium contents in ZnMgO ternary alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Sheng-Yao, E-mail: shenghu2729@yahoo.com [Department of Digital Technology Design, Tungfang Design Institute, Hunei, Kaohsiung 82941, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Weng, Yu-Hsiang [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • ZnMgO alloys with different Mg contents have been produced by MBE. • Optical and structural properties have been measured and investigated. • Stress is tensile and is increased as the increasing of Mg contents. • The asymmetric behavior of the Raman mode was influenced due to the Mg contents. - Abstract: Ternary alloys of ZnMgO samples with different magnesium contents have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on the sapphire substrates. Room temperature photoluminescence energy of ZnMgO shifted as high as 3.677 eV by increasing Mg contents corresponding to the higher Urbach average localization energy which indicates more randomness in the alloys with higher Mg contents. XRD results are also verified that the c-axis length decreases as the increasing Mg contents linking to the increased tensile stress produced by the Mg atoms. Raman spectra analyzed by the spatial correlation model to describe that the linewidth Γ is decreased but the correlation length L is increased as the increasing of Mg contents.

  18. Effects of magnesium contents in ZnMgO ternary alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Sheng-Yao; Chou, Wu-Ching; Weng, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnMgO alloys with different Mg contents have been produced by MBE. • Optical and structural properties have been measured and investigated. • Stress is tensile and is increased as the increasing of Mg contents. • The asymmetric behavior of the Raman mode was influenced due to the Mg contents. - Abstract: Ternary alloys of ZnMgO samples with different magnesium contents have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on the sapphire substrates. Room temperature photoluminescence energy of ZnMgO shifted as high as 3.677 eV by increasing Mg contents corresponding to the higher Urbach average localization energy which indicates more randomness in the alloys with higher Mg contents. XRD results are also verified that the c-axis length decreases as the increasing Mg contents linking to the increased tensile stress produced by the Mg atoms. Raman spectra analyzed by the spatial correlation model to describe that the linewidth Γ is decreased but the correlation length L is increased as the increasing of Mg contents

  19. Numerical approximations for the molecular beam epitaxial growth model based on the invariant energy quadratization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xfyang@math.sc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Zhao, Jia, E-mail: zhao62@math.sc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Wang, Qi, E-mail: qwang@math.sc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2017-03-15

    The Molecular Beam Epitaxial model is derived from the variation of a free energy, that consists of either a fourth order Ginzburg–Landau double well potential or a nonlinear logarithmic potential in terms of the gradient of a height function. One challenge in solving the MBE model numerically is how to develop proper temporal discretization for the nonlinear terms in order to preserve energy stability at the time-discrete level. In this paper, we resolve this issue by developing a first and second order time-stepping scheme based on the “Invariant Energy Quadratization” (IEQ) method. The novelty is that all nonlinear terms are treated semi-explicitly, and the resulted semi-discrete equations form a linear system at each time step. Moreover, the linear operator is symmetric positive definite and thus can be solved efficiently. We then prove that all proposed schemes are unconditionally energy stable. The semi-discrete schemes are further discretized in space using finite difference methods and implemented on GPUs for high-performance computing. Various 2D and 3D numerical examples are presented to demonstrate stability and accuracy of the proposed schemes.

  20. Temperature conditions for GaAs nanowire formation by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchernycheva, M; Harmand, J C; Patriarche, G; Travers, L; Cirlin, G E

    2006-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs nanowires using Au particles as a catalyst was investigated. Prior to the growth during annealing, Au alloyed with Ga coming from the GaAs substrate, and melted. Phase transitions of the resulting particles were observed in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The temperature domain in which GaAs nanowire growth is possible was determined. The lower limit of this domain (320 deg. C) is close to the observed catalyst solidification temperature. Below this temperature, the catalyst is buried by GaAs growth. Above the higher limit (620 deg. C), the catalyst segregates on the surface with no significant nanowire formation. Inside this domain, the influence of growth temperature on the nanowire morphology and crystalline structure was investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The correlation of the nanowire morphology with the RHEED patterns observed during the growth was established. Wurtzite GaAs was found to be the dominant crystal structure of the wires

  1. Thin film growth of CaFe2As2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, T; Fujimoto, R; Nakamura, I; Mori, Y; Ikuta, H; Kawaguchi, T; Harada, S; Ujihara, T

    2016-01-01

    Film growth of CaFe 2 As 2 was realized by molecular beam epitaxy on six different substrates that have a wide variation in the lattice mismatch to the target compound. By carefully adjusting the Ca-to-Fe flux ratio, we obtained single-phase thin films for most of the substrates. Interestingly, an expansion of the CaFe 2 As 2 lattice to the out-of-plane direction was observed for all films, even when an opposite strain was expected. A detailed microstructure observation of the thin film grown on MgO by transmission electron microscope revealed that it consists of cube-on-cube and 45°-rotated domains. The latter domains were compressively strained in plane, which caused a stretching along the c-axis direction. Because the domains were well connected across the boundary with no appreciable discontinuity, we think that the out-of-plane expansion in the 45°-rotated domains exerted a tensile stress on the other domains, resulting in the unexpectedly large c-axis lattice parameter, despite the apparently opposite lattice mismatch. (paper)

  2. Thin film growth of CaFe2As2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Nakamura, I.; Mori, Y.; Harada, S.; Ujihara, T.; Ikuta, H.

    2016-01-01

    Film growth of CaFe2As2 was realized by molecular beam epitaxy on six different substrates that have a wide variation in the lattice mismatch to the target compound. By carefully adjusting the Ca-to-Fe flux ratio, we obtained single-phase thin films for most of the substrates. Interestingly, an expansion of the CaFe2As2 lattice to the out-of-plane direction was observed for all films, even when an opposite strain was expected. A detailed microstructure observation of the thin film grown on MgO by transmission electron microscope revealed that it consists of cube-on-cube and 45°-rotated domains. The latter domains were compressively strained in plane, which caused a stretching along the c-axis direction. Because the domains were well connected across the boundary with no appreciable discontinuity, we think that the out-of-plane expansion in the 45°-rotated domains exerted a tensile stress on the other domains, resulting in the unexpectedly large c-axis lattice parameter, despite the apparently opposite lattice mismatch.

  3. Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of (11-22)-oriented 3-nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahourcade, L.

    2009-10-01

    This work reports on the molecular-beam epitaxial growth of (1122)-oriented semi-polar nitride semiconductors using m-sapphire substrates. The (1122) crystallographic orientation is predefined by AlN deposition on m-sapphire under N excess. On top of this AlN buffer layer, undoped or Si-doped two-dimensional GaN(1122) films are formed under Ga-rich conditions, with a stabilized Ga-excess ad-layer of about 1.05±0.10 ML. In contrast, Mg tends to segregate on the GaN surface, inhibiting the self-regulated Ga excess film. Nevertheless, uniform Mg incorporation can be obtained, and p-type conductivity was achieved. GaN/AlN quantum wells are synthesized by deposition of the binary compounds under the above-described conditions. In the case of GaN/AlN quantum dots, the three-dimensional transition is induced by a growth interruption under vacuum. The reduction of the internal electric field in GaN/AlN nano-structures is confirmed by the blue shift of the photoluminescence spectrum and by the short photoluminescence decay times measured at low temperature. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations of the electronic structure. (author)

  4. Molecular-beam epitaxy growth of high-performance midinfrared diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.W.; Choi, H.K.; Calawa, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in the performance of GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well diode lasers have been directly related to improvements in the quality of the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown epitaxial layers. These improvements have been based on careful measurement and control of lattice matching and intentional strain, changes in shutter sequencing at interfaces, and a generally better understanding of the growth of Sb-based epitaxial materials. By using this improved MBE-grown material, significantly enhanced performance has been obtained for midinfrared lasers. These lasers, which are capable of ∼2-μm emission at room temperature, presently exhibit threshold current densities of 143 A/cm 2 , continuous wave powers of 1.3 W, and diffraction-limited powers of 120 mW. Such high-performance midinfrared diode lasers are of interest for a wide variety of applications, including eye-safe laser radar, remote sensing of atmospheric contaminants and wind turbulence, laser surgery, and pumping of solid-state laser media. 12 refs., 3 figs

  5. Quasiclassical trajectory study of the molecular beam kinetics of the deuterium atom--hydrogen halide exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, L.M.; Suzukawa, H.H. Jr.; Thompson, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Unadjusted quasiclassical trajectory computations have been carried out to simulate the molecular beam scattering of thermal D atom beams at 2800 degreeK crossed with beams of HCl and HI at 250 degreeK. Total reaction cross sections, energy partitioning distributions, and differential scattering cross sections have been computed for the exchange reactions D+HCl → DCl+H and D+HI → DI+H while total reaction cross sections are reported for the corresponding abstractions, i.e., D+HCl → HD+Cl and D+HI → HD+I. For the exchange reactions, the computed reaction cross sections are within the range estimated from the crossed beam experiments. The calculated average energy partitioned into relative translational motion of products is in near quantitative agreement with the beam results, and the predicted differential scattering cross sections appear to be in qualitative accord with the beam experiments. The over-all agreement between theory and experiment indicates that previously computed values for the thermal rate coefficients for the exchange reactions are of the right order and that a systematic error exists in the interpretation of photolysis data in the hydrogen--hydrogen halide systems

  6. Editorial: Molecular Organization of Membranes: Where Biology Meets Biophysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cebecauer, Marek; Holowka, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 113 (2017), s. 1-3 ISSN 2296-634X Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanodomains * membrane properties * cell membrane Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  7. Self-corrected sensors based on atomic absorption spectroscopy for atom flux measurements in molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Y.; Liyu, A. V.; Droubay, T. C.; Chambers, S. A.; Li, G.

    2014-01-01

    A high sensitivity atom flux sensor based on atomic absorption spectroscopy has been designed and implemented to control electron beam evaporators and effusion cells in a molecular beam epitaxy system. Using a high-resolution spectrometer and a two-dimensional charge coupled device detector in a double-beam configuration, we employ either a non-resonant line or a resonant line with low cross section from the same hollow cathode lamp as the reference for nearly perfect background correction and baseline drift removal. This setup also significantly shortens the warm-up time needed compared to other sensor technologies and drastically reduces the noise coming from the surrounding environment. In addition, the high-resolution spectrometer allows the most sensitive resonant line to be isolated and used to provide excellent signal-to-noise ratio

  8. Defect distribution in low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy grown Si/Si(100), improved depth profiling with monoenergetic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeles, C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Gossmann, H.; Unterwald, F.C.; Boone, T.

    1995-01-01

    The depth distribution of open-volume defects has been studied in Si(100) crystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 300 degree C by the variable-energy monoenergetic positron beam technique combined with well-controlled chemical etching. This procedure gave a 10 nm depth resolution which is a significant improvement over the inherent depth resolving power of the positron beam technique. The epitaxial layer was found to grow defect-free up to 80 nm, from the interface, where small vacancy clusters, larger than divacancies, appear. The defect density then sharply increases toward the film surface. The result clearly shows that the nucleation of small open-volume defects is a precursor state to the breakdown of epitaxy and to the evolution of an amorphous film

  9. Structural disorder of natural BimSen superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springholz, G.; Wimmer, S.; Groiss, H.; Albu, M.; Hofer, F.; Caha, O.; Kriegner, D.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Holý, V.

    2018-05-01

    The structure and morphology of BimSen epitaxial layers with compositions ranging from Bi2Se3 to the Bi1Se1 grown by molecular beam epitaxy with different flux compositions are investigated by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the lattice structure changes significantly as a function of the beam flux composition, i.e., Se/BiSe flux ratio that determines the stoichiometry of the layers. A perfect Bi2Se3 phase is formed only with a sufficiently high additional Se flux, whereas Bi1Se1 is obtained when only a BiSe compound source without additional Se is used. For intermediate values of the excess Se flux during growth, Bi2Se3 -δ layers are obtained with the Se deficit δ varying between 0 and 1. This Se deficit is accommodated by incorporation of additional Bi-Bi double layers into the Bi2Se3 structure that otherwise exclusively consists of Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. While a periodic insertion of such Bi double layers would result in the formation of natural BimSen superlattices, we find that this Bi double-layer insertion is rather stochastic with a high degree of disorder depending on the film composition. Therefore, the structure of such epilayers is better described by a one-dimensional paracrystal model, consisting of disordered sequences of quintuple and double layers rather than by strictly periodic natural superlattices. From detailed analysis of the x-ray diffraction data, we determine the dependence of the lattice parameters a and c and distances of the individual (0001) planes dj as a function of composition, evidencing that only the in-plane lattice parameter a shows a linear dependence on composition. The simulation of the diffraction curves with the random stacking paracrystal model yields an excellent agreement with the experimental data and it brings quantitative information on the randomness of the stacking sequence, which is compared to growth modeling using Monte

  10. Effect of electron beam radiation on the structure and mechanical properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shujun; Sun Weijun; Liu Xiuju; Gao Yongzhong; Li Huisheng

    1998-01-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers have been crosslinked by electron beam. The structure and mechanical properties of them have been investigated in different irradiation atmospheres. The obtained results show that the gel content and crosslinking density increase with the increase of dose, the swelling ratio and average molecular weight of crosslinked net decrease with the increase of dose, the tensile strength and failure elongation decrease with the increase of dose, the tensile modulus increases with the increase of dose. When the samples are irradiated in air, vacuum and acetylene atmospheres, the effect of irradiation in acetylene atmosphere is best

  11. Radiation from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Molecular Medium due to Parametric Pumping by a Strong Electromagnetic Wave,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS 4WJD ASTRONOMY COLLG PAM A 2 3i 81 4 30) 235. RADIATION FROM A .ELATIVISTIC_§LECTRON BEAM IN AZOLECULAR...A MOLECULAR MEDIUM DUE TO PARAMETRIC PUMPING BY A STRONG ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE L. Stenflo Department of Plasma Physics Umel University S-90187 Umel...GUteborg, Sweden and Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742 Physics Publication Number 81

  12. Cu-doped AlN: A possible spinaligner at room-temperature grown by molecular beam epitaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, P. R.; Schaadt, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Cu-doped AlN was prepared by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on C-plane sapphire substrates. The growth conditions were investigated for different Cu to Al flux ratios from 1.0% to 4.0%. The formation of Cu-Al alloys on the surface was observed for all doping level. In contrast to Cu-doped GaN, all samples showed diamagnetic behavior determined by SQUID measurements.

  13. Molecular beam epitaxy of alternating-strain ZnSe-based multilayer heterostructures for blue-green lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.V.; Toropov, A.A.; Sorokin, S.V.; Shubina, T.V.; Il'inskaya, N.D.; Lebedev, A.V.; Sedova, I.V.; Kop'ev, P.S.; Alferov, Zh.I.; Lugauer, H.-J.; Reuscher, G.; Keim, M.; Fischer, F.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.

    1998-01-01

    High-quality ZnSe-based heterostructures are grown by uninterrupted molecular beam epitaxy using the concept of strain compensation and alternating-strain multilayers. To verify the advantages of this technique, optically pumped ZnSSe/ZnCdSe laser structures containing short-period superlattices or multiple quantum wells have been grown and studied. A room-temperature injection laser diode with a BeZnSe/ZnSe superlattice waveguide is described

  14. Comparison of Cherenkov excited fluorescence and phosphorescence molecular sensing from tissue with external beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huiyun; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gunn, Jason R; Esipova, Tatiana V; Vinogradov, Sergei; Gladstone, David J; Jarvis, Lesley A; Pogue, Brian W

    2016-05-21

    Ionizing radiation delivered by a medical linear accelerator (LINAC) generates Cherenkov emission within the treated tissue. A fraction of this light, in the 600-900 nm wavelength region, propagates through centimeters of tissue and can be used to excite optical probes in vivo, enabling molecular sensing of tissue analytes. The success of isolating the emission signal from this Cherenkov excitation background is dependent on key factors such as: (i) the Stokes shift of the probe spectra; (ii) the excited state lifetime; (iii) the probe concentration; (iv) the depth below the tissue surface; and (v) the radiation dose used. Previous studies have exclusively focused on imaging phosphorescent dyes, rather than fluorescent dyes. However there are only a few biologically important phosphorescent dyes and yet in comparison there are thousands of biologically relevant fluorescent dyes. So in this study the focus was a study of efficacy of Cherenkov-excited luminescence using fluorescent commercial near-infrared probes, IRDye 680RD, IRDye 700DX, and IRDye 800CW, and comparing them to the well characterized phosphorescent probe Oxyphor PtG4, an oxygen sensitive dye. Each probe was excited by Cherenkov light from a 6 MV external radiation beam, and measured in continuous wave or time-gated modes. The detection was performed by spectrally resolving the luminescence signals, and measuring them with spectrometer-based separation on an ICCD detector. The results demonstrate that IRDye 700DX and PtG4 allowed for the maximal signal to noise ratio. In the case of the phosphorescent probe, PtG4, with emission decays on the microsecond (μs) time scale, time-gated acquisition was possible, and it allowed for higher efficacy in terms of the probe concentration and detection depth. Phantoms containing the probe at 5 mm depth could be detected at concentrations down to the nanoMolar range, and at depths into the tissue simulating phantom near 3 cm. In vivo studies showed that 5

  15. Electron beam treatment of organic pollutants contained in gaseous streams. 1. RCM report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted in different processes, mostly combustion-based ones applied in power, chemical and metallurgical industries, municipal wastes incineration, etc. Many of them are persistent in environment, so called Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). They are responsible for ozone layer depletion, ground level and photochemical smog formation, contribute to the greenhouse effect, most of them being carcinogenic or/and mutagenic. Some tests performed in different countries have shown that electron beam technology can be a promising technique in these applications. Good removing efficiency for chlorohydrocarbons, dioxins and PAH was demonstrated in the laboratory scale. Different hybrid techniques like eb/absorption or eb/catalysis were studied as well. However, due to the different product formation, this technique should be studied carefully further concerning process mechanism, analyses of products and possible technical solution applications. The present CRP aiming at development of laboratory and pilot plant methodologies for comparative evaluation of degradation effects of organic pollutants in gaseous phase. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the mechanisms of the processes are part of the research work. Limitation of formation of toxic byproducts, modification of physical and chemical properties, application of hybrid processes (eb/catalytist) are important topics for further development under the CRP. The CRP has been launched with the objectives of developing analytical techniques for better understanding of degradation effects of organic pollutants in gaseous phase and technologies (processing conditions) to control these emissions. It is anticipated that through collaborative and cooperative research efforts of the participants, new analytical methods to study the process and strategies to apply electron beam to address these emissions will be developed. The executive summary

  16. Electron beam treatment of organic pollutants contained in gaseous streams. 1. RCM report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted in different processes, mostly combustion-based ones applied in power, chemical and metallurgical industries, municipal wastes incineration, etc. Many of them are persistent in environment, so called Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). They are responsible for ozone layer depletion, ground level and photochemical smog formation, contribute to the greenhouse effect, most of them being carcinogenic or/and mutagenic. Some tests performed in different countries have shown that electron beam technology can be a promising technique in these applications. Good removing efficiency for chlorohydrocarbons, dioxins and PAH was demonstrated in the laboratory scale. Different hybrid techniques like eb/absorption or eb/catalysis were studied as well. However, due to the different product formation, this technique should be studied carefully further concerning process mechanism, analyses of products and possible technical solution applications. The present CRP aiming at development of laboratory and pilot plant methodologies for comparative evaluation of degradation effects of organic pollutants in gaseous phase. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the mechanisms of the processes are part of the research work. Limitation of formation of toxic byproducts, modification of physical and chemical properties, application of hybrid processes (eb/catalytist) are important topics for further development under the CRP. The CRP has been launched with the objectives of developing analytical techniques for better understanding of degradation effects of organic pollutants in gaseous phase and technologies (processing conditions) to control these emissions. It is anticipated that through collaborative and cooperative research efforts of the participants, new analytical methods to study the process and strategies to apply electron beam to address these emissions will be developed. The executive summary

  17. Spectroscopic studies of organic-inorganic composite film cured by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathir Mohamed; Dahlan Mohd; Ibrahim Abdullah; Eda Yuhana Ariffin

    2009-01-01

    Liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) film was reinforced with silica particles formed in-situ via sol gel process. Combination of these two components produces organic-inorganic composites. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as precursor material for silica generation. Sol gel reactions was carried out at different concentrations of TEOS i.e. between 10 and 50 phr. The compounds that contain silica were crosslinked by electron beam. Structural properties studies were carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). It was found that miscibility between organic and inorganic components improved with the presence of silanol groups (Si-OH) and polar solvent i.e. THF, via hydrogen bonding formation between siloxane and LENRA. Morphology study by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed in-situ generated silica particles were homogenous and well dispersed at any concentrations of TEOS. (author)

  18. Impact of extended defects on recombination in CdTe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kuciauskas, Darius; Dippo, Pat; Barnes, Teresa M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Swartz, Craig H.; Edirisooriya, Madhavie; Ogedengbe, Olanrewaju S.; Sohal, Sandeep; Hancock, Bobby L.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth G.; Jayathilaka, Pathiraja A. R. D.; Myers, Thomas H. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Heterostructures with CdTe and CdTe{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} (x ∼ 0.01) absorbers between two wider-band-gap Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te barriers (x ∼ 0.25–0.3) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to study carrier generation and recombination in bulk materials with passivated interfaces. Using a combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and low-temperature PL emission spectroscopy, two extended defect types were identified and the impact of these defects on charge-carrier recombination was analyzed. The dominant defects identified by confocal PL were dislocations in samples grown on (211)B CdTe substrates and crystallographic twinning-related defects in samples on (100)-oriented InSb substrates. Low-temperature PL shows that twin-related defects have a zero-phonon energy of 1.460 eV and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.50, while dislocation-dominated samples have a 1.473-eV zero-phonon energy and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.22. The charge carrier diffusion length near both types of defects is ∼6 μm, suggesting that recombination is limited by diffusion dynamics. For heterostructures with a low concentration of extended defects, the bulk lifetime was determined to be 2.2 μs with an interface recombination velocity of 160 cm/s and an estimated radiative lifetime of 91 μs.

  19. Realisation and crossed molecular beams study of H2/O chemical reactions at several excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Jacqueline

    1986-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the reactive collision O + H 2 OH + H in a crossed beam experiment. This process including several channels taken a part in the chemistry of the upper atmosphere as well as in the combustion of hydrogen. According to the electronic or vibrational state of the reactants, the OH radical is produced in its ground electronic state OH (X 2 π) or in its first excited state OH (A 2 Σ + ). When the reactants are in their ground state, the reaction is endothermic in the conditions of the experiment (center of mass kinetic energy ≅ 0.12 eV). The following reactions have been obtained: O( 1 D) +H 2 (v=O) → OH (X 2 π) +H( 2 S) and O( 1 D) +H 2 (v≥5) → OH (A 2 Σ + ) +H( 2 S). The atomic oxygen is produced in its excited state O( 1 D) in a radio-frequency discharge which dissociates the molecular oxygen seeded in a carrier gas (He or Ar) and the hydrogen molecules are excited vibrationally by electron bombardment. The first reaction is studied by time-of-flight measurements. In this way, it has been possible to observe the different vibrational levels on which the OH radical is produced. The analysis of this vibrational distribution shows the competition between the abstraction and insertion-dissociation mechanisms. In the second reaction, the analysis of the spontaneous fluorescence of OH (A 2 Σ + ) reveals a very hot and non-Boltzmann rotational excitation. (author) [fr

  20. Computational simulation of electron and ion beams interaction with solid high-molecular dielectrics and inorganic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyavskiy, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    Numerical investigation of interaction of electron beams (with the energy within the limits 100 keV--20 MeV) and ion beams (with the energy over the range 1 keV--50 MeV) with solid high-molecular dielectrics and inorganic glasses is performed. Note that the problem of interaction of electron beams with glass optical covers is especially interesting in connection with the problem of radiation protection of solar power elements on cosmic satellites and stations. For computational simulation of the above-mentioned processes a mathematical model was developed, describing the propagation of particle beams through the sample thickness, the accumulation and relaxation of volume charge and shock-wave processes, as well as the evolution of electric field in the sample. The calculation of energy deposition by electron beam in a target in the presence of nonuniform electric field was calculated with the assistance of the semiempirical procedure, formerly proposed by author of this work. Propagation of the low energy ions through the sample thickness was simulated using Pearson IV distribution. Damage distribution, ionization distribution and range distribution was taken into account. Propagation of high energy ions was calculated in the approximation of continuous deceleration. For description of hydrodynamic processes the system of equations of continuum mechanics in elastic-plastic approximation and the wide-range equation of state were used

  1. Biological response to radiation. Studies of model organism, C. elegans, with micro-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashitani, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    Described are mainly author's studies on radiation response and its biological significance in a nematode, C. elegans, particularly focusing its germ cells. The model organism is bisexual and the mature one is suitable to observe the development, differentiation and concomitant chromosome dynamics of male and female germ cells, and accordingly, the responses occurring in those cells at different stages post irradiation of the whole worm. Authors have shown in the organism irradiated by 100 Gy X-ray that pachytene cells in meiosis have high radio-resistance due to their increased expression of enzymes related with homologous recombination. They have also presented the apoptotic cascade in germ cells triggered by radiation by comparison of wild type and ab1-1-gene-deleted worms. Micro-beam of 12 C 5+ ion in Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) has been used to irradiate the body parts of the worm to study the bystander effects, which has revealed that germ cells are shielded from the effect in the worm. It is thought important to use the micro-beam, with which the irradiation area can be precisely controllable, for studying the bystander effect in a body of higher animals like a mouse as well as in worm somatic cells. (T.I.)

  2. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  3. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.

    2010-01-01

    markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...... was the topic of a recent European plant breeding workshop. The participants evaluated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use of molecular markers and we formalized their inputs into breeder’s perspectives and perspectives seen from the organic sector’s standpoint. Clear strengths were...

  4. Multi-scale calculation of the electric properties of organic-based devices from the molecular structure

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Haoyuan; Qiu, Yong; Duan, Lian

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed to calculate the electric properties of organic-based devices from the molecular structure. The charge transfer rate is obtained using non-adiabatic molecular dynamics. The organic film in the device is modeled using

  5. Molecular approaches to detect and study the organisms causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review will summarise the molecular approaches used to detect and analyse the genomes of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma marginale which cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. These tick borne diseases are widely distributed in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central and South America and for ...

  6. Selective Adsorption of Nano-bio materials and nanostructure fabrication on Molecular Resists Modified by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S. M.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this research is the fabrication of nanostructures on silicon substrate using proton beam and selectively adsorption of bio-nano materials on the patterned substrate. Recently, the miniaturization of the integrated devices with fine functional structures was intensively investigated, based on combination of nanotechnology (NT), biotechnology (BT) and information technology (IT). Because of the inherent limitation in optical lithography, large variety of novel patterning technologies were evolved to construct nano-structures onto a substrate. Atomic force microscope-based nanolithography has readily formed sub-50 nm patterns by the local modification of a substrate using a probe with a curvature of 10 nm. The surface property was regarded as one of the most important factors for AFM-based nanolithography as well as for other novel nanolithographies. The molecular thin films such as a self-assembled monolayer or a polymer resist layer have been used as an alternative to modifying the surface property. Although proton or ion beam irradiation has been used as an efficient tool to modify the physical, chemical and electrical properties of a surface, the nano-patterning on the substrate or the molecular film modified with the beam irradiation has hardly been studied at both home and abroad. The selective adsorption of nano-bio materials such as carbon nanotubes and proteins on the patterns would contribute to developing the integrated devices. The polystyrene nanoparticles (400 nm) were arrayed on al silicon surface using nanosphere lithography and the various nanopatterns were fabricated by proton beam irradiation on the polystyrene nanoparticles arrayed silicon surface. We obtained the two different nanopatterns such as polymer nanoring patterns and silicon oxide patterns on the same silicon substrate. The polymer nanoring patterns formed by the crosslinkage of polystyrene when proton beam was irradiated at the triangular void spaces that are enclosed by

  7. Intensities and cross sections of Ne, H2, N2, NO and O2 clusters in a molecular beam, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van; Reuss, J.

    1976-01-01

    Molecular beams of Ne, H 2 , N 2 , NO, and O 2 clusters have been investigated. The temperature and pressure dependence of the ion signals have been measured for masses up to three times the monomer mass. (Auth.)

  8. Effect of the selective adsorption on the reactive scattering process of molecular beams from stepped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, N.

    1977-01-01

    An indicative proposal which may explain the diffusion of incident atomic beams scattered by a crystal surface is made in terms of the selective adsorption mechanism. In this sense, the stepped metallic surfaces present characteristics which enhance the displacements and the lifetimes of the beams on the surface. This may be important for increasing the exchange reactive scattering of molecules from crystal surfaces

  9. Direct coupling of a dense (supercritical) gas chromatograph to a mass spectrometer using a supersonic molecular beam interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, L.G.; Wahrhaftig, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detecting mass spectrometer has been successfully coupled to a dense gas (supercritical fluid) chromatograph to produce an instrument (DGC/MS) that may be an alternative to high performance liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer instruments (HPLC/MS) and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer instruments (GC/MS) for analysis of involatile and/or thermally labile compounds. The mobile phase in DGC is a gas held at temperatures above the critical temperature and at pressures sufficient to obtain nearly liquid-like densities. DGC combines advantages of GC and HPLC: rapid separations, moderate operating temperatures, and analysis of involatile compounds. An advantage unique to DGC is the solvent power dependence upon pressure. While several groups have studied DGC, its development has been limited by the lack of a sensitive and selective detector. Hence, work has been directed towards the design and construction of a DGC/MS resulting in a trial instrument capable of chromatographic pressures of at least 300 atm and temperatures from 10 0 to 60 0 C. The DGC/MS coupling has been accomplished by the use of a supersonic molecular beam interface. This application of molecular beam formation appears to be unique in its requirements of a large pressure ratio (approx.10 8 ), low flow rates, and low final pressures. The authors outline characteristics of supersonic jets and molecular beams pertinent to the design of such an instrument. The interface which uses pumping speeds of 2400 and 1200 l/s in the beam forming chambers is described in detail, while the other components: the detecting mass spectrometer, the dense gas supply, and the DGC: are briefly described. Preliminary work with this instrument has established the feasibility of DGC/MS as an analytical technique and further development is recommended

  10. Enhanced light trapping by focused ion beam (FIB) induced self-organized nanoripples on germanium (100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaliya, Bhaveshkumar; Mote, Rakesh G.; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate enhanced light trapping by self-organized nanoripples on the germanium surface. The enhanced light trapping leading to high absorption of light is confirmed by the experimental studies as well as the numerical simulations using the finite-difference time-domain method. We used gallium ion (Ga+) focused ion beam to enable the formation of the self-organized nanoripples on the germanium (100) surface. During the fabrication, the overlap of the scanning beam is varied from zero to negative value and found to influence the orientation of the nanoripples. Evolution of nanostructures with the variation of beam overlap is investigated. Parallel, perpendicular, and randomly aligned nanoripples with respect to the scanning direction are obtained via manipulation of the scanning beam overlap. 95% broadband absorptance is measured in the visible electromagnetic region for the nanorippled germanium surface. The reported light absorption enhancement can significantly improve the efficiency of germanium-silicon based photovoltaic systems.

  11. New organic semiconductors with imide/amide-containing molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Cai, Zhengxu; Chen, Xin; Luo, Hewei; Li, Yonghai; Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Deqing

    2014-10-29

    Due to their high electron affinities, chemical and thermal stabilities, π-conjugated molecules with imide/amide frameworks have received considerable attentions as promising candidates for high-performance optoelectronic materials, particularly for organic semiconductors with high carrier mobilities. The purpose of this Research News is to give an overview of recent advances in development of high performance imide/amide based organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors. It covers naphthalene diimide-, perylene diimide- and amide-based conjugated molecules and polymers for organic semiconductors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Towards bridging the gap from molecular forces to the movement of organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Muscles are responsible for generating the forces required for the movement of multicellular organisms. Microscopically, these forces arise as a consequence of motor proteins (myosin) pulling and sliding along actin filaments. Current knowledge states that the molecular forces between actin...

  13. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  14. Studies of network organization and dynamics of e-beam crosslinked PVPs: From macro to nano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.; Grimaldi, N.; Sabatino, M.-A.; Todaro, S.; Bulone, D.; Giacomazza, D.; Przybytniak, G.; Alessi, S.; Spadaro, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the influence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) concentration in water on the organization and dynamics of the corresponding macro-/nanogel networks has been systematically investigated. Irradiation has been performed at the same irradiation dose (within the sterilization dose range) and dose rate. In the selected irradiation conditions, the transition between macroscopic gelation and micro-/nanogels formation is observed just below the critical overlap concentration (∼1 wt%), whereas the net prevalence of intra-molecular over inter-molecular crosslinking occurs at a lower polymer concentration (below 0.25 wt%). Dynamic–mechanical spectroscopy has been applied as a classical methodology to estimate the network mesh size for macrogels in their swollen state, while 13 C NMR spin–lattice relaxation spectroscopy has been applied on both the macrogel and nanogel freeze dried residues to withdraw interesting information of the network spatial organization in the passage of scale from macro to nano. - Highlights: ► Aqueous solutions of commercial PVP were irradiated using linear electron accelerator. ► By varying polymer concentration it is possible to obtain information from macro to nano networks. ► Spin–lattice relaxation times are associated to the mobility of molecular segments. ► 1 H– 13 C-NMR proton relaxation time represents a junction between macro/nano world.

  15. Hybrid organic semiconductor lasers for bio-molecular sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Anne-Marie; Foucher, Caroline; Guilhabert, Benoit; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Skabara, Peter J; Burley, Glenn; Dawson, Martin D; Laurand, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Bio-functionalised luminescent organic semiconductors are attractive for biophotonics because they can act as efficient laser materials while simultaneously interacting with molecules. In this paper, we present and discuss a laser biosensor platform that utilises a gain layer made of such an organic semiconductor material. The simple structure of the sensor and its operation principle are described. Nanolayer detection is shown experimentally and analysed theoretically in order to assess the potential and the limits of the biosensor. The advantage conferred by the organic semiconductor is explained, and comparisons to laser sensors using alternative dye-doped materials are made. Specific biomolecular sensing is demonstrated, and routes to functionalisation with nucleic acid probes, and future developments opened up by this achievement, are highlighted. Finally, attractive formats for sensing applications are mentioned, as well as colloidal quantum dots, which in the future could be used in conjunction with organic semiconductors.

  16. Synchrotron based mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular properties of mineral-organic associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Suet Yi; Kleber, Markus; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Nico, Peter; Keiluweit, Marco; Ahmed, Musahid

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) is important because its decay drives life processes in the biosphere. Analysis of organic compounds in geological systems is difficult because of their intimate association with mineral surfaces. To date there is no procedure capable of quantitatively separating organic from mineral phases without creating artifacts or mass loss. Therefore, analytical techniques that can (a) generate information about both organic and mineral phases simultaneously and (b) allow the examination of predetermined high-interest regions of the sample as opposed to conventional bulk analytical techniques are valuable. Laser Desorption Synchrotron Postionization (synchrotron-LDPI) mass spectrometry is introduced as a novel analytical tool to characterize the molecular properties of organic compounds in mineral-organic samples from terrestrial systems, and it is demonstrated that when combined with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), can provide complementary information on mineral composition. Mass spectrometry along a decomposition gradient in density fractions, verifies the consistency of our results with bulk analytical techniques. We further demonstrate that by changing laser and photoionization energies, variations in molecular stability of organic compounds associated with mineral surfaces can be determined. The combination of synchrotron-LDPI and SIMS shows that the energetic conditions involved in desorption and ionization of organic matter may be a greater determinant of mass spectral signatures than the inherent molecular structure of the organic compounds investigated. The latter has implications for molecular models of natural organic matter that are based on mass spectrometric information.

  17. Effect of polar surfaces on organic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharia, Onise; Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Kuklja, Maija; University of Maryland College Park Team

    Polar oxide materials reveal intriguing opportunities in the field of electronics, superconductivity and nanotechnology. While behavior of polar surfaces has been widely studied on oxide materials and oxide-oxide interfaces, manifestations and properties of polar surfaces in molecular crystals are still poorly understood. Here we discover that the polar catastrophe phenomenon, known on oxides, also takes place in molecular materials as illustrated with an example of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) crystals. We show that the surface charge separation is a feasible compensation mechanism to counterbalance the macroscopic dipole moment and remove the electrostatic instability. We discuss the role of surface charge on degradation of polar surfaces, electrical conductivity, optical band-gap closure and surface metallization. Research is supported by the US ONR (Grants N00014-16-1-2069 and N00014-16-1-2346) and NSF. We used NERSC, XSEDE and MARCC computational resources.

  18. Ultrasonic Studies of Molecular Interactions in Organic Binary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thirumaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for the mixtures of 1-alkanols such as 1-propanol and 1-butanol with N-N dimethylformamide (DMF at 303 K. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustical parameters namely adiabatic compressibility (β, free length (Lf, free volume (Vf and internal pressure (πi. The excess values of the above parameters are also evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the mixtures. It is obvious that there is a formation of hydrogen bonding between DMF and 1-alkanols. Further, the addition of DMF causes dissociation of hydrogen bonded structure of 1-alkanols. The evaluated excess values confirm that the molecular association is more pronounced in system-II comparing to the system-I.

  19. Halogen doping of II-VI semiconductors during molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, A.; Litz, Th.; Fischer, F.; Heinke, H.; Scholl, S.; Hommel, D.; Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-04-14

    Results on the halogen doping of CdTe, (CdMn)Te as well as (CdMg)Te thin films and quantum well structures are reported. The structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The samples have been investigated by Van der Pauw, photoconductivity, X-ray diffraction, XPS and SIMS measurements. ZnCl[sub 2] and ZnBr[sub 2] have been used as dopant sources. Free carrier concentrations at room temperature above 10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] can easily be achieved for CdTe for a wide range of Cd/Te flux ratios and substrate temperatures. In the ternary alloys, the free carrier concentration decreases drastically with increasing x-values, despite a constant incorporation of the dopant species. In addition, persistent photoconductivity has been observed in n-type doped ternary thin films at low temperatures. The decrease of the free carrier concentration with x-value is common to other wide-gap ternary alloys, and the reason for it is discussed in the frame of DX-like deep donor impurities in ternary II-VI compounds. In first experiments on planar halogen doping of CdTe, a doping level of 5x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] could be reached in the doped regions, the highest value ever reported for CdTe. A clear influence of dopant incorporation on the structural quality of CdTe thin films has been seen even for dopant concentrations of as low as 10[sup 18] cm[sup -3]. The FWHM of the rocking curves decreased by a factor of 2 with increasing dopant incorporation. SIMS as well as XPS measurements demonstrate that the Cl/Zn and Br/Zn ratio in the doped films is 2/1, but no chemical shift corresponding to Zn-Cl or Zn-Br bonds could be detected. A model for the incorporation of the halogens is proposed on the basis of these results

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of two-six materials for visible semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linfei

    This thesis proposes the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth and characterization of a new Znsb{x}Cdsb{y}Mgsb{(1-x-y)}Se based semiconductor materials system on InP substrates for visible light emitting diodes (LED) and lasers. The growth conditions for lattice-matched Znsb{x}Cdsb{y}Mgsb{(1-x-y)}Se layers with the desired bandgap have been established and optimized. A chemical etching technique to measure the defect density of Znsb{x}Cdsb{y}Mgsb{(1-x-y)}Se materials has been established. The accuracy of this method for revealing stacking faults and dislocations was verified by plan-view TEM. Using the techniques such as III-V buffer layer, Zn-irradiation, low-temperature growth, ZnCdSe interfacial layer and growth interruption to improve the quality of the interface of III-V and II-VI, the material quality of Znsb{x}Cdsb{y}Mgsb{(1-x-y)}Se has been improved dramatically. Defect density has been reduced from 10sp{10}\\ cmsp{-2} to {˜}5×10sp4\\ cmsp{-2}. The properties of this material system such as the quality and strain state in the epilayer, the dependence of bandgap on temperature, and the band offset have been studied by using double crystal x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and capacitance voltage measurements. The ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe based quantum well (QW) structures have been grown and studied. Optically pumped lasing with emission range from red to blue has been obtained from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe based separate-confinement single QW laser structures. The results demonstrate the potential for these materials as integrated full color display devices. Preliminary studies of the degradation behavior of ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe QW were performed. No dark line defects (DLDs) were observed during the degradation. A very strong room temperature differential negative resistance behavior was observed from Al/Znsb{0.61}Cdsb{0.39}Se/nsp+-InP devices, which is useful in millimeter-wave applications. We also found that these devices can be set to either in highly conductive or

  1. Molecular Beam Epitaxy-Grown InGaN Nanowires and Nanomushrooms for Solid State Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Gasim, Anwar A.

    2012-05-01

    InGaN is a promising semiconductor for solid state lighting thanks to its bandgap which spans the entire visible regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. InGaN is grown heteroepitaxially due to the absence of a native substrate; however, this results in a strained film and a high dislocation density—two effects that have been associated with efficiency droop, which is the disastrous drop in efficiency of a light-emitting diode (LED) as the input current increases. Heteroepitaxially grown nanowires have recently attracted great interest due to their property of eliminating the detrimental effects of the lattice mismatch and the corollary efficiency droop. In this study, InGaN nanowires were grown on a low-cost Si (111) substrate via molecular beam epitaxy. Unique nanostructures, taking the form of mushrooms, have been observed in localized regions on the samples. These nanomushrooms consist of a nanowire body with a wide cap on top. Photoluminescence characterization revealed that the nanowires emit violet-blue, whilst the nanomushrooms emit a broad yellow-orange-red luminescence. The simultaneous emission from the nanowires and nanomushrooms forms white light. Structural characterization of a single nanomushroom via transmission electron microscopy revealed a simultaneous increase in indium and decrease in gallium at the interface between the body and the cap. Furthermore, the cap itself was found to be indium-rich, confirming it as the source of the longer wavelength yellow-orange-red luminescence. It is believed that the nanomushroom cap formed as a consequence of the saturation of growth on the c-plane of the nanowire. It is proposed that the formation of an indium droplet on the tip of the nanowire saturated growth on the c-plane, forcing the indium and gallium adatoms to incorporate on the sidewall m-planes instead, but only at the nanowire tip. This resulted in the formation of a mushroom-like cap on the tip. How and why the indium droplets formed is not

  2. Molecular beam (1-50eV) production by duoplasmatron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, M.; Gautherin, G.; Lejeune, C.

    1974-01-01

    The duoplasmatron discharge is commonly used to produce intense ion beams. A theoretical model of this discharge has been previously developed. The analysis of charge exchange processes between ions and neutral within the discharge shows that the source is able to deliver intense neutral beams (10 16 part s -1 ), the energy being in the range 1-50 eV. The intensity and energy distribution may be controlled from the discharge parameter variations. An experimental device has been realized in order to separate the neutral beam and the flux of charged particles; these latter are injected axially in a toroidal magnetic field configuration [fr

  3. Molecular analysis of the replication program in unicellular model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotes have long been reported to show temporal programs of replication, different portions of the genome being replicated at different times in S phase, with the added possibility of developmentally regulated changes in this pattern depending on species and cell type. Unicellular model organisms, primarily the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been central to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of replication origins and the temporal program of replication in particular. But what exactly is a temporal program of replication, and how might it arise? In this article, we explore this question, drawing again on the wealth of experimental information in unicellular model organisms.

  4. Cone beam CT for organs motion evaluation in pediatric abdominal neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazmy, Mohamed Soliman; Khafaga, Yasser; Mousa, Amr; Khalil, Ehab

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: To quantify the organ motion relative to bone in different breathing states in pediatric neuroblastoma using cone beam CT (CBCT) for better definition of the planning margins during abdominal IMRT. Methods and materials: Forty-two datasets of kV CBCT for 9 pediatric patients with abdominal neuroblastoma treated with IMRT were evaluated. Organs positions on planning CT scan were considered the reference position against which organs and target motions were evaluated. The position of the kidneys and the liver was assessed in all scans. The target movement was evaluated in four patients who were treated for gross residual disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 4.1 ± 1.6 years. The range of target movement in the craniocaudal direction (CC) was 5 mm. In the CC direction, the range of movement was 10 mm for the right kidney, and 8 mm for the left kidney. Similarly, the liver upper edge range of motion was 11 mm while the lower edge range of motion was 13 mm. Conclusions: With the use of daily CBCT we may be able to reduce the PTV margin. If CBCT is not used daily, a wider margin is needed.

  5. Pulsed molecular beams: A lower limit on pulse duration for fully developed supersonic expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    We derive an expression for Δt/sub min/, the mimimum pulse duration (''valve open time'') required if a pulsed nozzle is to produce a supersonic beam comparably ''cold'' to that obtained from a continuous source

  6. A molecular beam machine for the measurement of the scattering of polar diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everdij, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis describes an experimental method to determine the long range, angular dependent part of the intermolecular potential between a polar diatomic molecule and a spherical symmetric partner. The method contains the study of the scattering behaviour of the molecules in a crossed beam experiment. The primary beam consisting of polar diatomic molecules at thermal velocities (approximately 0.1 eV), is selected in a specified rotational state by means of an electrostatic, inhomogeneous field before the scattering center, where it crosses the (supersonic) secondary beam under an angle of 90 0 . By means of a second state selector, followed by a velocity selector and a particle detector, the consequences are studied of the scattering process on the primary beam, i.e. the behaviour of the total and differential elastic cross sections plus the transition probability of a collision induced transition to another rotational state. (Auth.)

  7. Molecular Understanding of Organic Solar Cells: The Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Bré das, Jean-Luc; Norton, Joseph E.; Cornil, Jé rô me; Coropceanu, Veaceslav

    2009-01-01

    (Figure presented) Our objective in this Account is 3-fold. First, we provide an overview of the optical and electronic processes that take place in a solid-state organic solar cell, which we define as a cell in which the semiconducting materials

  8. Molecular catalysis and high-volume organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khidekel, M L; Vasserberg, V E

    1977-01-01

    The field of catalysis is very wide. The properties of catalysts are briefly reviewed and compared with the properties of enzymes. Various uses of enxymes in industry (sugar from corn, cellulose breakdown, etc.) are pointed out. The types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for use in organic synthesis are discussed. 48 refs. (SJR)

  9. Application of molecular spectroscopy to the determination of organic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicknam, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Some brief accounts are presented followed by a discussion about various physico-chemical techniques: Raman spectrometry, infrared spectrometry, resonance Raman spectrometry, conformational analysis and polarized Rayleigh diffusion. Applications of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to nucleotide structure in aqueous solution are described as well as some applications of neutron scattering to the study of organic structures [fr

  10. The molecular nature of photovoltage losses in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    dictating the photovoltage delivered by these devices, that employ mixed or neat layers of different organic molecules to convert incident photons to electricity, is still an active area of research. This will likely be a key step in designing the new

  11. Molecular physiology of weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which weak organic acid (WOA) preservatives inhibit growth of microorganisms may differ between different WOAs and these differences are not well understood. The aim of this thesis has been to obtain a better understanding of the mode of action of these preservatives by which they

  12. Molecular Phylogenetic: Organism Taxonomy Method Based on Evolution History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic is described as taxonomy classification of an organism based on its evolution history namely its phylogeny and as a part of systematic science that has objective to determine phylogeny of organism according to its characteristic. Phylogenetic analysis from amino acid and protein usually became important area in sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to follow the rapid change of a species such as virus. The phylogenetic evolution tree is a two dimensional of a species graphic that shows relationship among organisms or particularly among their gene sequences. The sequence separation are referred as taxa (singular taxon that is defined as phylogenetically distinct units on the tree. The tree consists of outer branches or leaves that represents taxa and nodes and branch represent correlation among taxa. When the nucleotide sequence from two different organism are similar, they were inferred to be descended from common ancestor. There were three methods which were used in phylogenetic, namely (1 Maximum parsimony, (2 Distance, and (3 Maximum likehoood. Those methods generally are applied to construct the evolutionary tree or the best tree for determine sequence variation in group. Every method is usually used for different analysis and data.

  13. Molecular transport behaviour of organic solvents through halloysite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Micro and Nano Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technical ... The transport behaviour of three organic solvents (benzene, toluene and xylene) through halloysite nan- ... ena play important roles in different areas of engineering and ... their blends by an equilibrium swelling method has been.

  14. Effects of fuelling by using high-pressure supersonic molecular beam in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Feng Beibin; Feng Zhen; Dong Jiafu; Li Wenzhong; Xu Deming; Hong Wenyu

    2002-01-01

    Supersonic molecular beam (SMB), as a new fuelling method, has been successfully developed and used in HL-1M tokamak and HT-7 superconducting tokamak. The hydrogen clusters have been found in the beam produced by high working-gas pressure in recent experiments. With a penetration depth of hydrogen particles greater than 17 cm, the rate of increase of electron density for SMB injection, dn e -bar/dt, approaches that of the small ice pellet injection. The plasma density increases step by step after multi-pulse SMB injection, just as multi-pellet fuelling. Comparison of fuelling effects was made between SMB and ice pellet injection on the same shot of ohmic discharge in HL-1M

  15. A new parallel molecular dynamics algorithm for organic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Heffelfinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    A new parallel algorithm for simulating bonded molecular systems such as polymers and proteins by molecular dynamics (MD) is presented. In contrast to methods that extract parallelism by breaking the spatial domain into sub-pieces, the new method does not require regular geometries or uniform particle densities to achieve high parallel efficiency. For very large, regular systems spatial methods are often the best choice, but in practice the new method is faster for systems with tens-of-thousands of atoms simulated on large numbers of processors. It is also several times faster than the techniques commonly used for parallelizing bonded MD that assign a subset of atoms to each processor and require all-to-all communication. Implementation of the algorithm in a CHARMm-like MD model with many body forces and constraint dynamics is discussed and timings on the Intel Delta and Paragon machines are given. Example calculations using the algorithm in simulations of polymers and liquid-crystal molecules will also be briefly discussed

  16. A sense of time: how molecular clocks organize metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsaka, Akira; Bass, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of an internal temporal clockwork that coordinates behavior and metabolism according to the rising and setting of the sun was first revealed in flies and plants. However, in the past decade, a molecular transcription-translation feedback loop with similar properties has also been identified in mammals. In mammals, this transcriptional oscillator programs 24-hour cycles in sleep, activity and feeding within the master pacemaker neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. More recent studies have shown that the core transcription mechanism is also present in other locations within the brain, in addition to many peripheral tissues. Processes ranging from glucose transport to gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, adipogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are controlled through overlapping transcription networks that are tied to the clock and are thus time sensitive. Because disruption of tissue timing occurs when food intake, activity and sleep are altered, understanding how these many tissue clocks are synchronized to tick at the same time each day, and determining how each tissue 'senses time' set by these molecular clocks might open new insight into human disease, including disorders of sleep, circadian disruption, diabetes and obesity.

  17. Molecular Electron Density Theory: A Modern View of Reactivity in Organic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domingo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new theory for the study of the reactivity in Organic Chemistry, named Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT, is proposed herein. MEDT is based on the idea that while the electron density distribution at the ground state is responsible for physical and chemical molecular properties, as proposed by the Density Functional Theory (DFT, the capability for changes in electron density is responsible for molecular reactivity. Within MEDT, the reactivity in Organic Chemistry is studied through a rigorous quantum chemical analysis of the changes of the electron density as well as the energies associated with these changes along the reaction path in order to understand experimental outcomes. Studies performed using MEDT allow establishing a modern rationalisation and to gain insight into molecular mechanisms and reactivity in Organic Chemistry.

  18. Molecular Electron Density Theory: A Modern View of Reactivity in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Luis R

    2016-09-30

    A new theory for the study of the reactivity in Organic Chemistry, named Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT), is proposed herein. MEDT is based on the idea that while the electron density distribution at the ground state is responsible for physical and chemical molecular properties, as proposed by the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the capability for changes in electron density is responsible for molecular reactivity. Within MEDT, the reactivity in Organic Chemistry is studied through a rigorous quantum chemical analysis of the changes of the electron density as well as the energies associated with these changes along the reaction path in order to understand experimental outcomes. Studies performed using MEDT allow establishing a modern rationalisation and to gain insight into molecular mechanisms and reactivity in Organic Chemistry.

  19. Molecular motions of non-crystalline poly(aryl ether-ether-ketone) PEEK and influence of electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical relaxation of non-crystalline poly(aryl ether-ether-ketone) PEEK and the one irradiated with electron beam were studied. The three distinct γ, β, α' relaxation maxima were observed in unirradiated PEEK from low to high temperature. It was revealed from the study on the irradiation effects that three different molecular processes are overlapped in γ relaxation peak, i.e., molecular motion of water bound to main chain, local motion of main chain, and local mode of the aligned and/or oriented moiety. The β relaxation connected with the glass transition occurred at 150 deg C and it shifted to higher temperature by irradiation. The α' relaxation which can be attributed to rearrangement of molecular chain due to crystallization was observed in unirradiated PEEK approx. 180 deg C and its magnitude decreased with the increase in irradiation dose. This effect indicates the formation of structures inhibiting crystallization such as crosslinking and/or short branching during irradiation. A new relaxation, β', appeared in the temperature range of 40 deg to 100 deg C by irradiation and its magnitude increased with dose. This relaxation was attributed to rearrangement of molecular chain from loosened packing around chain ends, which were introduced into the non-crystalline region by chain scission under irradiation, to more rigid molecular packing. (author)

  20. Role of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Device Properties of Organic Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    important implications for long-Term reliability, manufacturing, and future applications of electronic organic thin films. In this work, we show that the molecular weight rr-P3HT in organic solar cells can also significantly change the internal cohesion

  1. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F.C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schloegl, R.

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000 deg. C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100 μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10 ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20 ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N 2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N 2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250 deg. C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH 3 · radicals is successfully demonstrated

  2. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F. C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schlögl, R.

    2006-05-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000°C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250°C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH3• radicals is successfully demonstrated.

  3. An overview of molecular acceptors for organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudhomme Piétrick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic solar cells (OSCs have gained serious attention during the last decade and are now considered as one of the future photovoltaic technologies for low-cost power production. The first dream of attaining 10% of power coefficient efficiency has now become a reality thanks to the development of new materials and an impressive work achieved to understand, control and optimize structure and morphology of the device. But most of the effort devoted to the development of new materials concerned the optimization of the donor material, with less attention for acceptors which to date remain dominated by fullerenes and their derivatives. This short review presents the progress in the use of non-fullerene small molecules and fullerene-based acceptors with the aim of evaluating the challenge for the next generation of acceptors in organic photovoltaics.

  4. Molecular analysis of the replication program in unicellular model organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotes have long been reported to show temporal programs of replication, different portions of the genome being replicated at different times in S phase, with the added possibility of developmentally regulated changes in this pattern depending on species and cell type. Unicellular model organisms, primarily the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been central to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of replication origins and the temporal program o...

  5. The Structural, Functional and Molecular Organization of the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eNieuwenhuys

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Wilhelm His (1891, 1893 the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature. Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this ‘four-functional-zones’ concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1 the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2 the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centres (superior and inferior olives. Nevertheless the ‘functional zonal model’ has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioural profiles, as ‘local hypertrophies’ of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units.

  6. Inhomogeneous Si-doping of gold-seeded InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, Chloe; Coinon, Christophe; Wallart, Xavier; Leturcq, Renaud [Institute of Electronics Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, UMR CNRS 8520, ISEN Department, Avenue Poincare, CS60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Caroff, Philippe [Institute of Electronics Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, UMR CNRS 8520, ISEN Department, Avenue Poincare, CS60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-06-03

    We have investigated in situ Si doping of InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy from gold seeds. The effectiveness of n-type doping is confirmed by electrical measurements showing an increase of the electron density with the Si flux. We also observe an increase of the electron density along the nanowires from the tip to the base, attributed to the dopant incorporation on the nanowire facets whereas no detectable incorporation occurs through the seed. Furthermore, the Si incorporation strongly influences the lateral growth of the nanowires without giving rise to significant tapering, revealing the complex interplay between axial and lateral growth.

  7. Raman Scattering analysis of InGaAs and AlGaAs superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, N.; Bahceli, S.

    2010-01-01

    InGaAs/GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated by X-ray diffraction and micro Raman spectroscopy. Phonon modes are investigated in backscattering from (001) surface. In the measured micro Raman spectrum for both structure, phonon peaks can be resolved for GaAs. These are longitudinal optical (LO) mode at 293 cm - 1 and 294 cm - 1 for InGaAs and AlGaAs, respectively.

  8. Improving stability of photoluminescence of ZnSe thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy by incorporating Cl dopant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J. S.; Shen, J. L.; Chen, W. J.; Tsai, Y. H.; Wang, H. H.; Yang, C. S.; Chen, R. H.; Tsai, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation studies the effect of chlorine (Cl) dopant in ZnSe thin films that were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on their photoluminescence (PL) and the stability thereof. Free excitonic emission was observed at room-temperature in the Cl-doped sample. Photon irradiation with a wavelength of 404 nm and a power density of 9.1 W/cm 2 has a much stronger effect on PL degradation than does thermal heating to a temperature of 150 deg. C. Additionally, this study shows that the generation of nonradiative centers by both photon irradiation and thermal heating can be greatly inhibited by incorporating Cl dopant.

  9. Physical properties and band structure of reactive molecular beam epitaxy grown oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2{+-}x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted a detailed thin film growth structure of oxygen engineered monoclinic HfO{sub 2{+-}x} grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The oxidation conditions induce a switching between (111) and (002) texture of hafnium oxide. The band gap of oxygen deficient hafnia decreases with increasing amount of oxygen vacancies by more than 1 eV. For high oxygen vacancy concentrations, defect bands form inside the band gap that induce optical transitions and p-type conductivity. The resistivity changes by several orders of magnitude as a function of oxidation conditions. Oxygen vacancies do not give rise to ferromagnetic behavior.

  10. Growth kinetics and properties of ZnO/ZnMgO heterostructures grown by radical-source molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, S.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya Street 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); El-Shaer, A.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Shubina, T.V.; Listoshin, S.B. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya Street 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    A phenomenological approach to quantitative description of Zn(Mg)O growth by radical-source molecular beam epitaxy, based on the experimental studies of RHEED intensity oscillations, has been developed. It allows a precise control of growth rate, composition and stoichiometry at any growth temperature, Along with optimization of a growth initiation procedure on a c-sapphire, it is necessary condition for fabrication of high quality ZnO epilayers and ZnO/ZnMgO heterostructures in a wide Mg composition range. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Chirped-pulse manipulated carrier dynamics in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chao-Kuei; Lin, Yuan-Yao; Lin, Sung-Hui; Lin, Gong-Ru; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Chirped pulse controlled carrier dynamics in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAs are investigated by degenerate pump-probe technique. Varying the chirped condition of excited pulse from negative to positive increases the carrier relaxation time so as to modify the dispersion and reshape current pulse in time domain. The spectral dependence of carrier dynamics is analytically derived and explained by Shockley-Read Hall model. This observation enables the new feasibility of controlling carrier dynamics in ultrafast optical devices via the chirped pulse excitations

  12. Polarized infrared reflectance studies for wurtzite InN epilayers on Si(111) grown by molecular beam expitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, P.K.; Lee, S.C.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, Z.; Abu Hassan, H.; Chen, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Room temperature polarized infrared reflectance technique is employed to study the optical properties of wurtzite InN epilayers on Si(111) grown by molecular beam expitaxy. The reflection spectra are compared to the calculated spectra generated based on the anisotropic dielectric function model. Good agreement between the measured and calculated spectra is obtained. From the fit of the experimental curve, the reststrahlen parameters at the center of Brillouin zone, the carrier concentration and mobility as well as the epilayers thicknesses are determined. The values of the carrier concentration and mobility are in good agreement with the results obtained from the Hall effects measurements.

  13. Emission control of InGaN nanocolumns grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Lefebvre, P.; Jahn, U.; Trampert, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the effect of the growth temperature on the morphology and emission characteristics of self-assembled InGaN nanocolumns grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Morphology changes are assessed by scanning electron microscopy, while emission is measured by photoluminescence. Within the growth temperature range of 750 to 650 deg. C, an increase in In incorporation for decreasing temperature is observed. This effect allows tailoring the InGaN nanocolumns emission line shape by using temperature gradients during growth. Depending on the gradient rate, span, and sign, broad emission line shapes are obtained, covering the yellow to green range, even yielding white emission.

  14. Abstracts of 4. International Workshop on Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Vapour Phase Epitaxy Growth Physics and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    4. International Workshop on Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Vapour Phase Epitaxy Growth Physics and Technology is the periodically held forum for discussion the problems connected with manufacturing of different nanostructures (thin films, quantum wells, quantum dots) needed in microelectronics. Preparation of such materials with desirable optical, electrical and magnetic properties being determined by their chemical composition and crystal structure has been discussed in detail during the workshop sessions. Optimization of crystal growth methods such as VPE and MBE from the view point of obtained material properties has also been extensively discussed

  15. InAs nanocrystals on SiO2/Si by molecular beam epitaxy for memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocevar, Moiera; Regreny, Philippe; Descamps, Armel; Albertini, David; Saint-Girons, Guillaume; Souifi, Abdelkader; Gendry, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    We studied a memory structure based on InAs nanocrystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy directly on thermal SiO 2 on silicon. Both nanocrystal diameter and density can be controlled by growth parameters. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows high crystallinity and low size dispersion. In an electrical test structure with a 3.5 nm tunnel oxide, we observed that 80% of the initial injected electrons remain stored in the InAs nanocrystals after 3 months and that the retention time for electrons in InAs nanocrystals is four orders of magnitude higher than in silicon nanocrystals

  16. Enhanced growth of highly lattice-mismatched CdSe on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jyh-Shyang; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Hsiao-Hua; Ke, Han-Xiang; Tong, Shih-Chang; Yang, Chu-Shou; Wu, Chih-Hung; Shen, Ji-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates the improvement of the molecular beam epitaxial growth of zinc-blende CdSe on (0 0 1) GaAs substrate with a large lattice mismatch by introducing a small amount of Te atoms. Exposing the growing surface to Te atoms changes the reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern from spotty to streaky together with (2 × 1) surface reconstruction, and greatly reduces the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curve and increases the integral intensity of room-temperature photoluminescence by a factor of about nine.

  17. Epitaxial growth and characterization of CuGa2O4 films by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Hongling Wei; Zhengwei Chen; Zhenping Wu; Wei Cui; Yuanqi Huang; Weihua Tang

    2017-01-01

    Ga2O3 with a wide bandgap of ∼ 4.9 eV can crystalize in five crystalline phases. Among those phases, the most stable monoclinic β-Ga2O3 has been studied most, however, it is hard to find materials lattice matching with β-Ga2O3 to grown epitaxial thin films for optoelectronic applications. In this work, CuGa2O4 bulk were prepared by solid state reaction as target, and the films were deposited on sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) at different substrate temperatures. Th...

  18. Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 thin film on Si by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X. Y.; Miao, J.; Dai, J. Y.; Chan, H. L. W.; Choy, C. L.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.

    2007-01-01

    SrTiO 3 thin films have been deposited on Si (001) wafers by laser molecular beam epitaxy using an ultrathin Sr layer as the template. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that SrTiO 3 was well crystallized and epitaxially aligned with Si. Cross-sectional observations in a transmission electron microscope revealed that the SrTiO 3 /Si interface was sharp, smooth, and fully crystallized. The thickness of the Sr template was found to be a critical factor that influenced the quality of SrTiO 3 and the interfacial structure. Electrical measurements revealed that the SrTiO 3 film was highly resistive

  19. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S; Schulten, Hans-Rolf

    2005-08-01

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na+ or Ca2+ were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal-humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na+, Ca2+ was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca2+. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  20. Non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taioli, Simone [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Garberoglio, Giovanni [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Simonucci, Stefano [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Beccara, Silvio a [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Aversa, Lucrezia [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Nardi, Marco [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Verucchi, Roberto [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, FBK-CNR, Trento (Italy); Iannotta, Salvatore [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Parma (Italy); Dapor, Maurizio [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova (Italy); and others

    2013-01-28

    In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C{sub 60} collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C{sub 60} impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.

  1. Epitaxial growth of ZnO layers on (111) GaAs substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jian; Zhang Di; Konomi, Takaharu; Saito, Katsuhiko; Guo Qixin

    2012-01-01

    ZnO layers were grown on (111) GaAs substrates by laser molecular epitaxy at substrate temperatures between 200 and 550 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that c-axis of ZnO epilayer with a wurtzite structure is perpendicular to the substrate surface. X-ray rocking curves and Raman spectroscopy showed that the crystal quality of ZnO epilayers depends on the substrate temperature during the growth. Strong near-band-edge emission in the UV region without any deep-level emissions was observed from the ZnO epilayers at room temperature. The results indicate that laser molecular beam epitaxy is a promising growth method for obtaining high-quality ZnO layers on (111) GaAs substrates.

  2. SU-E-T-163: Thin-Film Organic Photocell (OPV) Properties in MV and KV Beams for Dosimetry Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S K; Hesser, J; Zhang, H; Gowrisanker, S; Yakushevich, S; Shulhevich, Y; Abkai, C; Wack, L; Zygmanski, P

    2012-06-01

    To characterize dosimetric properties of low-cost thin film organic-based photovoltaic (OPV) cells to kV and MV x-ray beams for their usage as large area dosimeter for QA and patient safety monitoring device. A series of thin film OPV cells of various areas and thicknesses were irradiated with MV beams to evaluate the stability and reproducibility of their response, linearity and sensitivity to absorbed dose. The OPV response to x-rays of various linac energies were also characterized. Furthermore the practical (clinical) sensitivity of the cells was determined using IMRT sweeping gap test generated with various gap sizes. To evaluate their potential usage in the development of low cost kV imaging device, the OPV cells were irradiated with kV beam (60-120 kVp) from a fluoroscopy unit. Photocell response to the absorbed dose was characterized as a function of the organic thin film thickness and size, beam energy and exposure for kV beams as well. In addition, photocell response was determined with and without thin plastic scintillator. Response of the OPV cells to the absorbed dose from kV and MV beams are stable and reproducible. The photocell response was linearly proportional to the size and about slightly decreasing with the thickness of the organic thin film, which agrees with the general performance of the photocells in visible light. The photocell response increases as a linear function of absorbed dose and x-ray energy. The sweeping gap tests performed showed that OPV cells have sufficient practical sensitivity to measured MV x-ray delivery with gap size as small as 1 mm. With proper calibration, the OPV cells could be used for online radiation dose measurement for quality assurance and patient safety purposes. Their response to kV beam show promising potential in development of low cost kV radiation detection devices. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Molecular Organization Induced Anisotropic Properties of Perylene - Silica Hybrid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramulu, Deepa; Turaga, Shuvan Prashant; Bettiol, Andrew Anthony; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2017-08-10

    Optically active silica nanoparticles are interesting owing to high stability and easy accessibility. Unlike previous reports on dye loaded silica particles, here we address an important question on how optical properties are dependent on the aggregation-induced segregation of perylene molecules inside and outside the silica nanoparticles. Three differentially functionalized fluorescent perylene - silica hybrid nanoparticles are prepared from appropriate ratios of perylene derivatives and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and investigated the structure property correlation (P-ST, P-NP and P-SF). The particles differ from each other on the distribution, organization and intermolecular interaction of perylene inside or outside the silica matrix. Structure and morphology of all hybrid nanoparticles were characterized using a range of techniques such as electron microscope, optical spectroscopic measurements and thermal analysis. The organizations of perylene in three different silica nanoparticles were explored using steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy, lifetime measurements and solid state polarized spectroscopic studies. The interactions and changes in optical properties of the silica nanoparticles in presence of different amines were tested and quantified both in solution and in vapor phase using fluorescence quenching studies. The synthesized materials can be regenerated after washing with water and reused for sensing of amines.

  4. Control of mobility in molecular organic semiconductors by dendrimer generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, J. M.; Samuel, I. D.; Beavington, R.; Frampton, M. J.; Burn, P. L.; Bässler, H.

    2001-04-01

    Conjugated dendrimers are of interest as novel materials for light-emitting diodes. They consist of a luminescent chromophore at the core with highly branched conjugated dendron sidegroups. In these materials, light emission occurs from the core and is independent of generation. The dendron branching controls the separation between the chromophores. We present here a family of conjugated dendrimers and investigate the effect of dendron branching on light emission and charge transport. We apply a number of transport measurement techniques to thin films of a conjugated dendrimer in a light-emitting diode configuration to determine the effect of chromophore spacing on charge transport. We find that the mobility is reduced by two orders of magnitude as the size of the molecule doubles with increased branching or dendrimer generation. The degree of branching allows a unique control of mobility by molecular structure. An increase in chromophore separation also results in a reduction of intermolecular interactions, which reduces the red emission tail in film photoluminescence. We find that the steady-state charge transport is well described by a simple device model incorporating the effect of generation, and use the materials to shed light on the interpretation of transient electroluminescence data. We demonstrate the significance of the ability to tune the mobility in bilayer devices, where a more balanced charge transport can be achieved.

  5. Determination of photoionization cross-sections of different organic molecules using gas chromatography coupled to single-photon ionization (SPI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) with an electron-beam-pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL): influence of molecular structure and analytical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschner, Markus S; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    This work describes a fast and reliable method for determination of photoionization cross-sections (PICS) by means of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (SPI-MS). Photoionization efficiency (PIE) data for 69 substances was obtained at a photon energy of 9.8 ± 0.4 eV using an innovative electron-beam-pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL) filled with argon. The investigated analytes comprise 12 alkylbenzenes as well as 11 other substituted benzenes, 23 n-alkanes, ten polyaromatic hydrocarbons, seven aromatic heterocycles, and six polyaromatic heterocycles. Absolute PICS for each substance at 9.8 eV are calculated from the relative photoionization efficiencies of the compounds with respect to benzene, whose photoionization cross-section data is well known. Furthermore, a direct correlation between the type of benzene substituents and their absolute PICS is presented and discussed in depth. Finally, comparison of previously measured photoionization cross-sections for 20 substances shows good agreement with the data of the present work.

  6. Nonlinear ultrafast optical response in organic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talat S.; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2012-02-01

    We analyze possible nonlinear excitonic effects in the organic molecule crystals by using a combined time-dependent DFT and many-body approach. In particular, we analyze possible effects of the time-dependent (retarded)interaction between different types of excitations, Frenkel excitons, charge transfer excitons and excimers, on the electric and the optical response of the system. We pay special attention to the case of constant electric field and ultrafast pulses, including that of four-wave mixing experiments. As a specific application we examine the optical excitations of pentacene nanocrystals and compare the results with available experimental data.[1] Our results demostrate that the nonlinear effects can play an important role in the optical response of these systems. [1] A. Kabakchiev, ``Scanning Tunneling Luminescence of Pentacene Nanocrystals'', PhD Thesis (EPFL, Lausanne, 2010).

  7. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN on a patterned GaN-on-silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Hu, Fangren; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We report here the lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN on a patterned GaN-on-silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth with radio frequency nitrogen plasma as a gas source. Two kinds of GaN nanostructures are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on a GaN substrate by fast atom beam etching. The epitaxial growth of GaN by MBE is performed on the prepared GaN template, and the selective growth of GaN takes place with the assistance of GaN nanostructures. The LEO of GaN produces novel GaN epitaxial structures which are dependent on the shape and the size of the processed GaN nanostructures. Periodic GaN hexagonal pyramids are generated inside the air holes, and GaN epitaxial strips with triangular section are formed in the grating region. This work provides a promising way for producing novel GaN-based devices by the LEO of GaN using the MBE technique

  8. Intensities and cross-sections of Ar clusters in a molecular beam, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van; Lumig, A. van; Reuss, J.

    1976-01-01

    Ar-cluster beams were produced by supersonic expansion under various source conditions. The experimental intensities have been scaled such that universal curves are obtained, up to moderate source pressures. The ratio of dimer/monomer cross-sections has been determined. (Auth.)

  9. Field-effect transistors based on self-organized molecular nanostripes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavallini, M.; Stoliare, P.; Moulin, J.-F.

    2005-01-01

    Charge transport properties in organic semiconductors depend strongly on molecular order. Here we demonstrate field-effect transistors where drain current flows through a precisely defined array of nanostripes made of crystalline and highly ordered molecules. The molecular stripes are fabricated ...... by the menisci once the critical concentration is reached and self-organizes into molecularly ordered stripes 100-200 nm wide and a few monolayers high. The charge mobility measured along the stripes is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the values measured for spin-coated thin films....... across the channel of the transistor by a stamp-assisted deposition of the molecular semiconductors from a solution. As the solvent evaporates, the capillary forces drive the solution to form menisci under the stamp protrusions. The solute precipitates only in the regions where the solution is confined...

  10. Accompanying growth and room-temperature ferromagnetism of η-Mn3N2 thin films by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Fengmei; Liu, Yajing; Yang, Mei; Wu, Shuxiang; Zhou, Wenqi; Li, Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    η-phase manganese nitride films have been grown on LaAlO 3 (100) and LaSrAlO 4 (001) substrates by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. On the basis of reflective high energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, it is confirmed that two types of η-Mn 3 N 2 with different lattice constants coexist in the films due to the lattice mismatches between the Mn 3 N 2 films and the substrates. Magnetic properties of the films were characterized by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer at room temperature. The Mn 3 N 2 films on LaAlO 3 substrate were found to have room-temperature ferromagnetism. Two potential interaction mechanisms are proposed regarding the origin of the observed ferromagnetism. - Highlights: ► The films of two types of η-Mn 3 N 2 have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. ► Mn 3 N 2 A and Mn 3 N 2 B coexisted in the films on LaAlO 3 and LaSrAlO 4 . ► The room-temperature ferromagnetism of the Mn 3 N 2 films on LaAlO 3 was obtained

  11. Interfacial self-organization of bolaamphiphiles bearing mesogenic groups: relationships between the molecular structures and their self-organized morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Liu, Guanqing; Xu, Rui; Yin, Shouchun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi

    2008-04-15

    This article discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of bolaamphiphiles bearing mesogenic groups and their interfacial self-organized morphology. On the basis of the molecular structures of bolaamphiphiles, we designed and synthesized a series of molecules with different hydrophobic alkyl chain lengths, hydrophilic headgroups, mesogenic groups, and connectors between the alkyl chains and the mesogenic group. Through investigating their interfacial self-organization behavior, some experiential rules are summarized: (1) An appropriate alkyl chain length is necessary to form stable surface micelles; (2) different categories of headgroups have a great effect on the interfacial self-organized morphology; (3) different types of mesogenic groups have little effect on the structure of the interfacial assembly when it is changed from biphenyl to azobenzene or stilbene; (4) the orientation of the ester linker between the mesogenic group and alkyl chain can greatly influence the interfacial self-organization behavior. It is anticipated that this line of research may be helpful for the molecular engineering of bolaamphiphiles to form tailor-made morphologies.

  12. High power ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on GaN/AlGaN quantum wells produced by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalu, J. S.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Thomidis, C.; Friel, I.; Moustakas, T. D.; Collins, C. J.; Komninou, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the growth by molecular beam epitaxy and fabrication of high power nitride-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes emitting in the spectral range between 340 and 350 nm. The devices were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth of the light emitting diode (LED) structures was preceded by detailed materials studies of the bottom n-AlGaN contact layer, as well as the GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) active region. Specifically, kinetic conditions were identified for the growth of the thick n-AlGaN films to be both smooth and to have fewer defects at the surface. Transmission-electron microscopy studies on identical GaN/AlGaN MQWs showed good quality and well-defined interfaces between wells and barriers. Large area mesa devices (800x800 μm 2 ) were fabricated and were designed for backside light extraction. The LEDs were flip-chip bonded onto a Si submount for better heat sinking. For devices emitting at 340 nm, the measured differential on-series resistance is 3 Ω with electroluminescence spectrum full width at half maximum of 18 nm. The output power under dc bias saturates at 0.5 mW, while under pulsed operation it saturates at approximately 700 mA to a value of 3 mW, suggesting that thermal heating limits the efficiency of these devices. The output power of the investigated devices was found to be equivalent with those produced by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and hydride vapor-phase epitaxy methods. The devices emitting at 350 nm were investigated under dc operation and the output power saturates at 4.5 mW under 200 mA drive current

  13. All-organic microelectromechanical systems integrating specific molecular recognition--a new generation of chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayela, Cédric; Dubourg, Georges; Pellet, Claude; Haupt, Karsten

    2014-09-03

    Cantilever-type all-organic microelectromechanical systems based on molecularly imprinted polymers for specific analyte recognition are used as chemical sensors. They are produced by a simple spray-coating-shadow-masking process. Analyte binding to the cantilever generates a measurable change in its resonance frequency. This allows label-free detection by direct mass sensing of low-molecular-weight analytes at nanomolar concentrations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Self-organized patterns of macroscopic quantum tunneling in molecular magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garanin, D A; Chudnovsky, E M

    2009-03-06

    We study low temperature resonant spin tunneling in molecular magnets induced by a field sweep with account of dipole-dipole interactions. Numerical simulations uncovered formation of self-organized patterns of the magnetization and of the ensuing dipolar field that provide resonant conditions inside a finite volume of the crystal. This effect is robust with respect to disorder and should be relevant to the dynamics of the magnetization steps observed in molecular magnets.

  15. Biogenic, urban, and wildfire influences on the molecular composition of dissolved organic compounds in cloud water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ryan D.; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Peng, Zhuoyu; Boone, Eric; Chu, Rosalie K.; Dukett, James E.; Gunsch, Matthew J.; Zhang, Wuliang; Tolic, Nikola; Laskin, Alexander; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosol formation and transformation occurs within aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the composition of high molecular weight organic compounds in cloud water. Cloud water samples collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, during August-September 2014 were analyzed by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon, with a focus on sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Organic molecular composition was evaluated in the context of cloud water inorganic ion concentrations, pH, and total organic carbon concentrations to gain insights into the sources and aqueous-phase processes of the observed high molecular weight organic compounds. Cloud water acidity was positively correlated with the average oxygen : carbon ratio of the organic constituents, suggesting the possibility for aqueous acid-catalyzed (prior to cloud droplet activation or during/after cloud droplet evaporation) and/or radical (within cloud droplets) oxidation processes. Many tracer compounds recently identified in laboratory studies of bulk aqueous-phase reactions were identified in the cloud water. Organosulfate compounds, with both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound precursors, were detected for cloud water samples influenced by air masses that had traveled over forested and populated areas. Oxidation products of long-chain (C10-12) alkane precursors were detected during urban influence. Influence of Canadian wildfires resulted in increased numbers of identified sulfur-containing compounds and oligomeric species, including those formed through aqueous-phase reactions involving methylglyoxal. Light-absorbing aqueous-phase products of syringol and guaiacol oxidation were observed in the wildfire-influenced samples, and dinitroaromatic compounds were observed in all cloud water samples (wildfire, biogenic, and urban-influenced). Overall, the cloud water molecular composition depended on

  16. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher; Miller, Nichole C.; McGehee, Michael D.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2013-01-01

    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2013-01-17

    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Implantation of organic matter through water onto solid substrates by a laser induced molecular jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Organic molecular dots were successfully produced by means of a nano second pulsed dye laser on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, with sizes of several hundred nanometres. The method involves the transfer of organic molecules from the source Coumarin 6 (C6) and poly [2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-venylene] (MEH-PPV) films onto a target material through a water filled space-gap using a laser induced molecular jet (LIMJ). In this way, the organic dots of Coumarin 6 and MEH-PPV molecules were successfully implanted onto the glass and ITO targets. The present results demonstrate the possibility to significantly improve photo electronic or photoelectric devices such as novel photonic crystal and molecular device sensors, and so on

  19. Quantitative Determination of Organic Semiconductor Microstructure from the Molecular to Device Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2012-10-10

    A study was conducted to demonstrate quantitative determination of organic semiconductor microstructure from the molecular to device scale. The quantitative determination of organic semiconductor microstructure from the molecular to device scale was key to obtaining precise description of the molecular structure and microstructure of the materials of interest. This information combined with electrical characterization and modeling allowed for the establishment of general design rules to guide future rational design of materials and devices. Investigations revealed that a number and variety of defects were the largest contributors to the existence of disorder within a lattice, as organic semiconductor crystals were dominated by weak van der Waals bonding. Crystallite size, texture, and variations in structure due to spatial confinement and interfaces were also found to be relevant for transport of free charge carriers and bound excitonic species over distances that were important for device operation.

  20. Tissue organization by cadherin adhesion molecules: dynamic molecular and cellular mechanisms of morphogenetic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Carien M.; Leckband, Deborah; Yap, Alpha S.

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cadherin-based tissue morphogenesis. Tissue physiology is profoundly influenced by the distinctive organizations of cells in organs and tissues. In metazoa, adhesion receptors of the classical cadherin family play important roles in establishing and maintaining such tissue organization. Indeed, it is apparent that cadherins participate in a range of morphogenetic events that range from support of tissue integrity to dynamic cellular rearrangements. A comprehensive understanding of cadherin-based morphogenesis must then define the molecular and cellular mechanisms that support these distinct cadherin biologies. Here we focus on four key mechanistic elements: the molecular basis for adhesion through cadherin ectodomains; the regulation of cadherin expression at the cell surface; cooperation between cadherins and the actin cytoskeleton; and regulation by cell signaling. We discuss current progress and outline issues for further research in these fields. PMID:21527735

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R.M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50–70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application. - Highlights: • Use of electron beam irradiation for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. • Irradiation at 4.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of bacterial infection. • Irradiation at 14.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of helminth infection. • Electron beam technology is not effective for controlling volatile organic compounds. • Electron beam treatment of sludge is less expensive than traditional techniques

  2. Supramolecular chemistry: from molecular information towards self-organization and complex matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Molecular chemistry has developed a wide range of very powerful procedures for constructing ever more sophisticated molecules from atoms linked by covalent bonds. Beyond molecular chemistry lies supramolecular chemistry, which aims at developing highly complex chemical systems from components interacting via non-covalent intermolecular forces. By the appropriate manipulation of these interactions, supramolecular chemistry became progressively the chemistry of molecular information, involving the storage of information at the molecular level, in the structural features, and its retrieval, transfer, and processing at the supramolecular level, through molecular recognition processes operating via specific interactional algorithms. This has paved the way towards apprehending chemistry also as an information science. Numerous receptors capable of recognizing, i.e. selectively binding, specific substrates have been developed, based on the molecular information stored in the interacting species. Suitably functionalized receptors may perform supramolecular catalysis and selective transport processes. In combination with polymolecular organization, recognition opens ways towards the design of molecular and supramolecular devices based on functional (photoactive, electroactive, ionoactive, etc) components. A step beyond preorganization consists in the design of systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components. Self-organization processes, directed by the molecular information stored in the components and read out at the supramolecular level through specific interactions, represent the operation of programmed chemical systems. They have been implemented for the generation of a variety of discrete functional architectures of either organic or inorganic nature. Self-organization processes also give access to advanced supramolecular materials, such as

  3. GC determination of N-nitrosamines by supersonic molecular beam MS equipped with triple quadrupole analyzer, GC/SMB/QQQ/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna, Voloshenko; Rimma, Shelkov; Lev, Ovadia; Jenny, Gun

    2011-01-01

    The determination of 14 N-nitrosamines by a supersonic molecular beam electron ionization mass spectrometer equipped with triple quadruple analyzer, GC/SMB/EI/QQQ/MS is presented. The supersonic molecular beam electron ionization ion source allows the elucidation of the molecular ion of 13 out of the 14 examined nitrosamines (except for diphenylnitrosamine which was degraded before the analysis). It was possible to use the molecular ions of all the nitrosamines as the parent ions for multiple reactions monitoring mode, which in turn allows significant increase of specificity and lowering of the method limit of detection of the higher molecular weight nitrosamines. The instrumental LOD for different N-nitrosamines was 1-5 pg injection -1 . The proposed method was exemplified by analysis of N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatables in rubber teats according to the British Standard BS EN 12868:1999.

  4. Protein Dynamics in Organic Media at Varying Water Activity Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; Abildskov, Jens; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nonaqueous enzymology, control of enzyme hydration is commonly approached by fixing the thermodynamic water activity of the medium. In this work, we present a strategy for evaluating the water activity in molecular dynamics simulations of proteins in water/organic solvent mixtures. The method...... relies on determining the water content of the bulk phase and uses a combination of Kirkwood−Buff theory and free energy calculations to determine corresponding activity coefficients. We apply the method in a molecular dynamics study of Candida antarctica lipase B in pure water and the organic solvents...

  5. Sputtering of silicon and glass substrates with polyatomic molecular ion beams generated from ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuaki, E-mail: m-takeuchi@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Hoshide, Yuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The effect of irradiating 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium positive (EMIM{sup +}) or dicyanamide negative (DCA{sup –}) ion beams using an ionic liquid ion source was characterized concerning its sputtering properties for single crystalline Si(100) and nonalkaline borosilicate glass substrates. The irradiation of the DCA{sup –} ion beam onto the Si substrate at an acceleration voltage of 4 and 6 kV exhibited detectable sputtered depths greater than a couple of nanometers with an ion fluence of only 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, while the EMIM{sup +} ion beam produced the same depths with an ion fluence 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation of a 4 kV DCA{sup –} ion beam at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} also yields large etching depths in Si substrates, corresponding to a sputtering yield of Si/DCA{sup – }= 10, and exhibits a smoothed surface roughness of 0.05 nm. The interaction between DCA{sup –} and Si likely causes a chemical reaction that relates to the high sputtering yield and forms an amorphous C-N capping layer that results in the smooth surface. Moreover, sputtering damage by the DCA{sup –} irradiation, which was estimated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy with the channeling technique, was minimal compared to Ar{sup +} irradiation at the same condition. In contrast, the glass substrates exhibited no apparent change in surface roughnesses when sputtered by the DCA{sup –} irradiation compared to the unirradiated glass substrates.

  6. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Two-Dimensional Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Renjing

    Van der Waals (vdW) materials (also called as two-dimensional (2D) material in some literature) systems have received extensive attention recently due to their potential applications in next-generation electronics platform. Exciting properties have been discovered in this field, however, the performance and properties of the systems rely on the materials' quality and interface significantly, leading to the urgent need for scalable synthesis of high-quality vdW crystals and heterostructures. Toward this direction, this dissertation is devoted on the study of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth and various characterization of vdW materials and heterostructures, especially graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The goal is to achieve high-quality vdW materials and related heterostructures. There are mainly four projects discussed in this dissertation. The first project (Chapter 2) is about MBE growth of large-area h-BN on copper foil. After the growth, the film was transferred onto SiO2 substrate for characterization. It is observed that as-grown film gives evident h-BN Raman spectrum; what's more, h-BN peak intensity and position is dependent on film thickness. N-1s and B-1s XPS peaks further suggest the formation of h-BN. AFM and SEM images show the film is flat and continuous over large area. Our synthesis method shows it's possible to use MBE to achieve h-BN growth and could also pave a way for some unique structure, such as h-BN/graphene heterostructures and doped h-BN films by MBE. The second project (Chapter 3) is focused on establishment of grapehene/h-BN heterostructure on cobalt (Co) film. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN heterostructures on Co film substrate was achieved by using plasma-assisted MBE. The direct graphene/h-BN vertical stacking structures were demonstrated and further confirmed by various characterizations, such as Raman spectroscopy, SEM, XPS and TEM. Large area heterostructures consisting of single- /bilayer graphene and

  7. Improved stability of organic light-emitting diode with aluminum cathodes prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Moon Jeong, Deuk Yeon Lee, Won Hoe Koo, Sang Hun Choi, Hong Koo Baik, Se-Jong Lee and Kie Moon Song

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated highly stable organic electroluminescent devices based on spin-coated poly-p-phenylene-vynylene (PPV thin films. The electrical properties of aluminum cathode, prepared by ion beam assisted deposition, on PPV have been investigated and compared to those by thermal evaporation. Although energetic particles of Al assisted by Ar+ ion may damage the organic material, I–V–L characteristics are improved by applying thin Al buffer layer. In addition, a dense Al cathode inhibits the permeation of H2O and O2 into PPV film through pinhole defects, and thus retards dark spot growth. It may be deduced from highly packed structure of Al cathode with an increase in the contact area between Al and PPV that reduce the contact resistance. In conclusion, the lifetime of organic light-emitting device (OLED has been extended effectively by dense Al film through ion beam assisted deposition process.

  8. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via ato...

  9. Part 1: characterization of beam synthesized catalytic materials. Part 2: further development of molecular SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheifers, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Part I of this thesis concerns characterization of catalyst materials prepared by an ion beam implanter and by a multiple expansion cluster source. Ion beam synthesis was carried out on a 250-kev ion implanter. After assembling a special reaction chamber, zeolites were implanted with phosphorous and iron. This work contributed to development of a sputter reactor for ion beam synthesis. Silver catalysts were examined in a reactor designed, built and evaluated for catalysts produced by the sputter reactor and by a multiple expansion cluster source. Small surface area silver foil catalysts and silver cluster catalysts showed kinetic activity for epoxidation of ethylene. Positive results for the small surface area silver cluster catalyst demonstrate the feasibility of studying these catalysts with the special reactor. Part 2 concerns fundamentals and applications of secondary ion mass spectrometry. A data system was implemented for a secondary ion mass spectrometer that involved design and construction of a computer interface. Software routines for the interface were written in assembly language for increased operation efficiency

  10. Origin and role of gap states in organic semiconductor studied by UPS: as the nature of organic molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin-Peng; Bussolotti, Fabio; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews experimental studies on ‘bridging electronic structure and charge transport property of organic semiconductors’ performed using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and related methods mainly in Chiba University, Japan, in particular on the investigation of the origin and the role of electronic states existing in the highest occupied molecular orbital band–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital band (HOMO–LUMO) gap. We summarize experimental observations including direct measurements of ‘invisible’ gap states with ultrahigh sensitivity UPS, which demonstrate that there exist intrinsic gap states in organic semiconductors. We firstly describe the nature of organic molecular solids to understand features of organic semiconductors because such intrinsic gap states are a result of the interplay of these features, which give the principal difference between the organic semiconductor and inorganic counterpart. We then discuss (i) the origin and role of the band gap states in relation to intermolecular interaction/band dispersion and electron–phonon coupling, (ii) the Fermi level pinning issue in organic semiconductors, and (iii) the method of computing the Fermi level position within the HOMO–LUMO gap for experimental groups. The gap states of organic semiconductors appear easily when a weak perturbation is applied to the organic system, namely by contact with other material, by injecting a charge, by elevating temperature, and by exposure to 1 atm gas. What we finally found is that tailing states of HOMO and LUMO always exist, and their energy distributions must not be symmetric; they thus produce a larger Fermi level shift from the mid gap position than previously thought. Furthermore, as shown by computational work, Fermi level pinning , which is a well-known phenomena in semiconductor devices field, occurs in weakly interacting organic/conductor systems without any gap states if the system temperature is not zero ( T

  11. Origin and role of gap states in organic semiconductor studied by UPS: as the nature of organic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Peng; Bussolotti, Fabio; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews experimental studies on ‘bridging electronic structure and charge transport property of organic semiconductors’ performed using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and related methods mainly in Chiba University, Japan, in particular on the investigation of the origin and the role of electronic states existing in the highest occupied molecular orbital band-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital band (HOMO-LUMO) gap. We summarize experimental observations including direct measurements of ‘invisible’ gap states with ultrahigh sensitivity UPS, which demonstrate that there exist intrinsic gap states in organic semiconductors. We firstly describe the nature of organic molecular solids to understand features of organic semiconductors because such intrinsic gap states are a result of the interplay of these features, which give the principal difference between the organic semiconductor and inorganic counterpart. We then discuss (i) the origin and role of the band gap states in relation to intermolecular interaction/band dispersion and electron-phonon coupling, (ii) the Fermi level pinning issue in organic semiconductors, and (iii) the method of computing the Fermi level position within the HOMO-LUMO gap for experimental groups. The gap states of organic semiconductors appear easily when a weak perturbation is applied to the organic system, namely by contact with other material, by injecting a charge, by elevating temperature, and by exposure to 1 atm gas. What we finally found is that tailing states of HOMO and LUMO always exist, and their energy distributions must not be symmetric; they thus produce a larger Fermi level shift from the mid gap position than previously thought. Furthermore, as shown by computational work, Fermi level pinning, which is a well-known phenomena in semiconductor devices field, occurs in weakly interacting organic/conductor systems without any gap states if the system temperature is not zero (T  >  0). We

  12. Low-dimensional organization of angular momentum during walking on a narrow beam

    OpenAIRE

    Chiovetto, Enrico; Huber, Meghan E.; Sternad, Dagmar; Giese, Martin A.

    2018-01-01

    Walking on a beam is a challenging motor skill that requires the regulation of upright balance and stability. The difficulty in beam walking results from the reduced base of support compared to that afforded by flat ground. One strategy to maintain stability and hence avoid falling off the beam is to rotate the limb segments to control the body’s angular momentum. The aim of this study was to examine the coordination of the angular momentum variations during beam walking. We recorded movement...

  13. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  14. A low thermal mass fast gas chromatograph and its implementation in fast gas chromatography mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Moragn, Mati; Amirav, Aviv

    2011-12-30

    A new type of low thermal mass (LTM) fast gas chromatograph (GC) was designed and operated in combination with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with supersonic molecular beams (SMB), including GC-MS-MS with SMB, thereby providing a novel combination with unique capabilities. The LTM fast GC is based on a short capillary column inserted inside a stainless steel tube that is resistively heated. It is located and mounted outside the standard GC oven on its available top detector port, while the capillary column is connected as usual to the standard GC injector and supersonic molecular beam interface transfer line. This new type of fast GC-MS with SMB enables less than 1 min full range temperature programming and cooling down analysis cycle time. The operation of the fast GC-MS with SMB was explored and 1 min full analysis cycle time of a mixture of 16 hydrocarbons in the C(10)H(22) up to C(44)H(90) range was achieved. The use of 35 mL/min high column flow rate enabled the elution of C(44)H(90) in less than 45 s while the SMB interface enabled splitless acceptance of this high flow rate and the provision of dominant molecular ions. A novel compound 9-benzylazidanthracene was analyzed for its purity and a synthetic chemistry process was monitored for the optimization of the chemical reaction yield. Biodiesel was analyzed in jet fuel (by both GC-MS and GC-MS-MS) in under 1 min as 5 ppm fatty acid methyl esters. Authentic iprodion and cypermethrin pesticides were analyzed in grapes extract in both full scan mode and fast GC-MS-MS mode in under 1 min cycle time and explosive mixture including TATP, TNT and RDX was analyzed in under 1 min combined with exhibiting dominant molecular ion for TATP. Fast GC-MS with SMB is based on trading GC separation for speed of analysis while enhancing the separation power of the MS via the enhancement of the molecular ion in the electron ionization of cold molecules in the SMB. This paper further discusses several features of

  15. Molecular Entropy, Thermal Efficiency, and Designing of Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Zhiyou

    2012-06-01

    A shortage of fossil energy sources boosts the utilization of renewable energy. Among numerous novel techniques, recovering energy from low-grade heat sources through power generation via organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) is one of the focuses. Properties of working fluids are crucial for the ORC's performance. Many studies have been done to select proper working fluids or to design new working fluids. However, no researcher has systematically investigated the relationship between molecular structures and thermal efficiencies of various working fluids for an ideal ORC. This paper has investigated the interrelations of molecular structures, molecular entropies, and thermal efficiencies of various working fluids for an ideal ORC. By calculating thermal efficiencies and molecular entropies, we find that the molecular entropy is the most appropriate thermophysical property of a working fluid to determine how much energy can be converted into work and how much cannot in a system. Generally speaking, working fluids with low entropies will generally have high thermal efficiency for an ideal ORC. Based on this understanding, the direct interrelations of molecular structures and entropies provide an explicit interrelation between molecular structures and thermal efficiencies, and thus provide an insightful direction for molecular design of novel working fluids for ORCs.

  16. Adsorption of n-butane on graphene/Ru(0001)—A molecular beam scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivapragasam, Nilushni; Nayakasinghe, Mindika T.; Burghaus, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.burghaus@ndsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Adsorption kinetics/dynamics of n-butane on graphene, physical vapor deposited on Ru(0001) (hereafter G/Ru), and bare Ru(0001) (hereafter Ru) are discussed. The chemical activity of the supported-graphene as well as the support was probed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (adsorption kinetics). In addition and to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, molecular beam scattering data of larger molecules were collected for graphene (probing the adsorption dynamics). Furthermore, samples were inspected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. At the measuring conditions used here, n-butane adsorption kinetics/dynamics are molecular and nonactivated. Binding energies of butane on Ru and G/Ru are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, G/Ru is “kinetically transparent.” Initial adsorption probabilities, S{sub 0}, of n-butane decrease with increasing impact energy (0.76–1.72 eV) and are adsorption temperature independent for both Ru and G/Ru, again consistent with molecular adsorption. Also, S{sub 0} of Ru and G/Ru are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, G/Ru is “dynamically transparent.” Coverage dependent adsorption probabilities indicate precursor effects for graphene/Ru.

  17. Adsorption of n-butane on graphene/Ru(0001)—A molecular beam scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapragasam, Nilushni; Nayakasinghe, Mindika T.; Burghaus, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption kinetics/dynamics of n-butane on graphene, physical vapor deposited on Ru(0001) (hereafter G/Ru), and bare Ru(0001) (hereafter Ru) are discussed. The chemical activity of the supported-graphene as well as the support was probed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (adsorption kinetics). In addition and to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, molecular beam scattering data of larger molecules were collected for graphene (probing the adsorption dynamics). Furthermore, samples were inspected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. At the measuring conditions used here, n-butane adsorption kinetics/dynamics are molecular and nonactivated. Binding energies of butane on Ru and G/Ru are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, G/Ru is “kinetically transparent.” Initial adsorption probabilities, S 0 , of n-butane decrease with increasing impact energy (0.76–1.72 eV) and are adsorption temperature independent for both Ru and G/Ru, again consistent with molecular adsorption. Also, S 0 of Ru and G/Ru are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, G/Ru is “dynamically transparent.” Coverage dependent adsorption probabilities indicate precursor effects for graphene/Ru.

  18. Molecular and Cellular Organization of Taste Neurons in Adult Drosophila Pharynx

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chieh David Chen; Anupama Dahanukar

    2017-01-01

    Summary: The Drosophila pharyngeal taste organs are poorly characterized despite their location at important sites for monitoring food quality. Functional analysis of pharyngeal neurons has been hindered by the paucity of molecular tools to manipulate them, as well as their relative inaccessibility for neurophysiological investigations. Here, we generate receptor-to-neuron maps of all three pharyngeal taste organs by performing a comprehensive chemoreceptor-GAL4/LexA expression analysis. The ...

  19. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan; Dong, Xinglong; Wang, Hao; Ma, Dingxuan; Tan, Kui; Jensen, Stephanie; Deibert, Benjamin J.; Butler, Joseph; Cure, Jeremy; Shi, Zhan; Thonhauser, Timo; Chabal, Yves J.; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li

  20. Double-beam optical method and apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivity and other molecular dynamic processes in utilizing the transient thermal lens effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Hong, S.; Moacanin, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivity and molecular relaxation processes in a sample material utilizing two light beams, one being a pulsed laser light beam for forming a thermal lens in the sample material, and the other being a relatively low power probe light beam for measuring changes in the refractive index of the sample material during formation and dissipation of the thermal lens. More specifically, a sample material is irradiated by relatively high power, short pulses from a dye laser. Energy from the pulses is absorbed by the sample material, thereby forming a thermal lens in the area of absorption. The pulse repetition rate is chosen so that the thermal lens is substantially dissipated by the time the next pulse reaches the sample material. A probe light beam, which in a specific embodiment is a relatively low power, continuous wave (Cw) laser beam, irradiates the thermal lens formed in the sample material. The intensity characteristics of the probe light beam subsequent to irradiation of the thermal lens is related to changes in the refractive index of the sample material as the thermal lens is formed and dissipated. A plot of the changes in refractive index as a function of time during formation of the thermal lens as reflected by changes in intensity of the probe beam, provides a curve related to molecular relaxation characteristics of the material, and a plot during dissipation of the thermal lens provides a curve related to the thermal diffusivity of the sample material

  1. High resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for crossed molecular beam study of elementary chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Minghui; Che Li; Ren Zefeng; Dai Dongxu; Wang Xiuyan; Yang Xueming

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe an apparatus in our laboratory for investigating elementary chemical reactions using the high resolution time-of-flight Rydberg tagging method. In this apparatus, we have adopted a rotating source design so that collision energy can be changed for crossed beam studies of chemical reactions. Preliminary results on the HI photodissociation and the F atom reaction with H 2 are reported here. These results suggest that the experimental apparatus is potentially a powerful tool for investigating state-to-state dynamics of elementary chemical reactions

  2. Dependence of negative muon depolarization on molecular weight and temperature in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuraev, A.A.; Evseev, V.S.; Obukhov, Yu.V.; Roganov, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    An atomic capture of negative muons in the aliphatic spirit series, the dependence of muon rest polarization on the molecular weight of spirit have been studied. The temperature dependence of depolarization in benzole and styrene has been obtained. The results on depolarization are being interpreted basing on notions about chemical interactions of mesic atoms in organic compounds. (author)

  3. Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

  4. Stepwise transformation of the molecular building blocks in a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Wojtas, Łukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal-organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C 44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd 2(COO)6]2- molecular building blocks

  5. Exploiting large-pore metal-organic frameworks for separations through entropic molecular mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Knoop, A.; Dubbeldam, D.

    2015-01-01

    We review the molecular mechanisms behind adsorption and the separations of mixtures in metal-organic frameworks and zeolites. Separation mechanisms can be based on differences in the affinity of the adsorbate with the framework and on entropic effects. To develop next-generation adsorbents, the

  6. Ozonation of humic substances: Effects on molecular weight distributions of organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy, G.L.; Kuo, C.J.; Sierka, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Four different sources of humic substances were studied to determine the effects of ozonation on molecular weight distributions, based on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Solutions of two soil-derived fulvic acids and a one soil-derived humic acid, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) associated with a natural water source were studied. Both gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and ultrafiltration (UF) were employed to define apparent molecular weight (AMW). Applied ozone doses ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 mg O 3 /mg DOC. Overall samples of untreated and ozonated waters, as well as individual molecular weight fractions, were characterized according to DOC, uv absorbance, and THMFP. Ozonation resulted in a significant disappearance of higher AMW material with a corresponding increase in lower AMW material. Although little overall reduction in DOC concentration was observed, significant overall reductions in UV absorbance and THMFP levels were observed

  7. Molecular organization and dynamics of micellar phase of polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes: ESR spin probe study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, A. M.; Kasaikin, V. A.; Zakharova, Yu. A.; Aliev, I. I.; Baranovsky, V. Yu.; Doseva, V.; Yasina, L. L.

    2002-04-01

    Molecular dynamics and organization of the micellar phase of complexes of linear polyelectrolytes with ionogenic and non-ionogenic surfactants was studied by the ESR spin probe method. Complexes of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and sodium polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) with alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (ATAB), as well as complexes of poly- N, N'-dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDACL) with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were studied. The micellar phase of such complexes is highly organized molecular system, molecular ordering of which near the polymeric chain is much higher than in the 'center' of the micelle, it depends on the polymer-detergent interaction, flexibility of polymeric chain and length of carbonic part of the detergent molecule. Complexes of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with non-ionic detergent (dodecyl-substituted polyethyleneglycol), show that the local mobility of surfactant in such complexes is significantly lower than in 'free' micelles and depends on the number of micellar particles participating in formation of complexes.

  8. Application of advanced oxidation process by electron beam irradiation in the organic compounds degradation present in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes

    1999-01-01

    The inefficacy of conventional methods to destroy toxic organic compounds present in industrial effluent has taken the search for new technologies of treatment. he water irradiation is the most efficient process to generate radicals that mineralise these compounds. A study to evaluate the Advanced Oxidation Process by electron beam irradiation to treat industrial effluent with high toxic organic compounds concentration was carried out. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 power. The effluent samples from a big industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's Liquid Effluent Irradiation Pilot Plant and the effluent samples from five steps of a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant from SABESP - ETE Suzano (industrial Receiver Unit, Coarse Bar Screens, Medium Bar Screens, Primary Sedimentation and Final Effluent), were irradiated in a batch system. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol and in the decoloring of dyes present in some samples. To remove 90% of the most organic compounds was necessary a 20 kGy dose for industry's ETE, 20 kGy for IRU, CBS and MBS and 10 kGy to 20 kGy for PS and FE. (author)

  9. Molecular Indicators of the Supply of Marine and Terrigenous Organic Matter to a Pleistocene Organic-Matter–Rich Layer in the Alboran Basin (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Rinna, J.; Hauschildt, M.; Rullkötter, J.

    1999-01-01

    The organic matter in sediment series across two organic-matter–rich layers from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 977A drilled in the Alboran Basin of the Western Mediterranean Sea has been characterized by organic geochemical methods. Organic carbon contents reached more than 2% in the organic-matter–rich layer and was ~1% in the background sediment under and overlying it. Molecular compositions of the extractable bitumens in the organic-matter–rich layer for a wide range of compound ...

  10. Investigation of a metal-organic interface. Realization and understanding of a molecular switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neucheva, Olga [Forschungszentrum Juelich (DE). Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN), Functional Nanostructures at Surfaces (IBN-3)

    2010-07-01

    The field of molecular organic electronics is an emerging and very dynamic area. The continued trend to miniaturisation, combined with increasing complexity and cost of production in conventional semiconductor electronics, forces companies to turn their attention to alternatives that promise the next levels of scale at significantly lower cost. After consumer electronic devices based on organic transistors, such as TVs and book readers, have already been presented, molecular electronics is expected to offer the next breakthrough in feature size. Unfortunately, most of the organic/metal interfaces contain intrinsic defects that break the homogeneity of the interface properties. In this thesis, the electronic and structural properties of such defects were examined in order to understand the influence of the inhomogeneities on the quality of the interface layer. However, the main focus of this work was the investigation of the local properties of a single molecule. Taking advantage of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope's (STM's) ability to act as a local probe, a single molecular switch was realized and studied. Moreover, in close collaboration with theory groups, the underlying mechanism driving the switching process was identified and described. Besides the investigation of the switching process, the ability of the STM to build nanostructures of different shapes from large organic molecules was shown. Knowing the parameters for realization and control of the switching process and for building the molecular corrals, the results of this investigation enable the reconstruction of the studied molecular ensemble and its deployment in electric molecular circuits, constituting a next step towards further miniaturization of electronic devices. (orig.)

  11. An improved optical flow tracking technique for real-time MR-guided beam therapies in moving organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachiu, C.; Papadakis, N.; Ries, M.; Moonen, C.; de Senneville, B. Denis

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) guided high intensity focused ultrasound and external beam radiotherapy interventions, which we shall refer to as beam therapies/interventions, are promising techniques for the non-invasive ablation of tumours in abdominal organs. However, therapeutic energy delivery in these areas becomes challenging due to the continuous displacement of the organs with respiration. Previous studies have addressed this problem by coupling high-framerate MR-imaging with a tracking technique based on the algorithm proposed by Horn and Schunck (H and S), which was chosen due to its fast convergence rate and highly parallelisable numerical scheme. Such characteristics were shown to be indispensable for the real-time guidance of beam therapies. In its original form, however, the algorithm is sensitive to local grey-level intensity variations not attributed to motion such as those that occur, for example, in the proximity of pulsating arteries. In this study, an improved motion estimation strategy which reduces the impact of such effects is proposed. Displacements are estimated through the minimisation of a variation of the H and S functional for which the quadratic data fidelity term was replaced with a term based on the linear L1norm, resulting in what we have called an L2-L1 functional. The proposed method was tested in the livers and kidneys of two healthy volunteers under free-breathing conditions, on a data set comprising 3000 images equally divided between the volunteers. The results show that, compared to the existing approaches, our method demonstrates a greater robustness to local grey-level intensity variations introduced by arterial pulsations. Additionally, the computational time required by our implementation make it compatible with the work-flow of real-time MR-guided beam interventions. To the best of our knowledge this study was the first to analyse the behaviour of an L1-based optical flow functional in an applicative context: real-time MR

  12. Investigation of aluminium ohmic contacts to n-type GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribes, Y.; Harrison, I.; Tuck, B.; Kim, K. S.; Cheng, T. S.; Foxon, C. T.

    1997-11-01

    Using epi-layers of different doping concentrations, we have investigated aluminium contacts on n-type gallium nitride grown by plasma source molecular beam epitaxy. To achieve repeatable and reliable results it was found that the semiconductor needed to be etched in aqua-regia before the deposition of the contact metallization. Scanning electron micrographs of the semiconductor surface show a deterioration of the semiconductor surface on etching. The specific contact resistivity of the etched samples were, however, superior. Annealing the contacts at 0268-1242/12/11/030/img9 produced contacts with the lowest specific contact resistance of 0268-1242/12/11/030/img10. The long-term aging of these contacts was also investigated. The contacts and the sheet resistance were both found to deteriorate over a three-month period.

  13. Strain-symmetrized Si/SiGe multi-quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; Karim, A.; Ni, W.-X.; Pidgeon, C.R.; Phillips, P.J.; Carder, D.; Murdin, B.N.; Fromherz, T.; Paul, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Three strain-symmetrized Si/SiGe multi-quantum well structures, designed for probing the carrier lifetime of intrawell intersubband transitions between heavy hole 1 (HH1) and light hole 1 (LH1) states with transition energies below the optical phonon energy, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature on fully relaxed SiGe virtual substrates. The grown structures were characterized by using various experimental techniques, showing a high crystalline quality and very precise growth control. The lifetime of the LH1 excited state was determined directly with pump-probe spectroscopy. The measurements indicated an increase of the lifetime by a factor of ∼2 due to the increasingly unconfined LH1 state, which agreed very well with the design. It also showed a very long lifetime of several hundred picoseconds for the holes excited out of the well to transit back to the well through a diagonal process

  14. Use of a free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometer to understand processes involving volatile corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    Many high-temperature corrosion processes generate volatile products in addition to condensed phase products. Examples of these volatile products are chlorides, oxychlorides, and certain oxides and hydroxyl species. One of the best techniques to identify high temperature vapor molecules is mass spectrometry. Most mass spectrometers operate in high vacuum and are generally used to examine processes ocurring at greatly reduced pressures. However, a free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometer system allows direct sampling of volatile corrosion products. This instrument is described. Several examples from our studies on chlorination/oxidation of metals and ceramics are discussed. In addition, reactions of Cr 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 with water vapor, which produce volatile hydroxyl species are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Transport Measurements and Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Iron Silicon Germanide Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarhoumi, Nader; Cottier, Ryan; Merchan, Greg; Roy, Amitava; Lohn, Chris; Geisler, Heike; Ventrice, Carl, Jr.; Golding, Terry

    2009-03-01

    Some of the iron-based metal silicide and germanide phases have been predicted to be direct band gap semiconductors. Therefore, they show promise for use as optoelectronic materials. We have used synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the structure of iron silicon germanide films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A series of Fe(Si1-xGex)2 thin films (2000 -- 8000å) with a nominal Ge concentration of up to x = 0.04 have been grown. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have been performed on the films. The nearest neighbor co-ordination corresponding to the β-FeSi2 phase of iron silicide provides the best fit with the EXAFS data. Temperature dependent (20 coefficient was calculated. Results suggest semiconducting behavior of the films which is consistent with the EXAFS results.

  16. Critical thickness and strain relaxation in molecular beam epitaxy-grown SrTiO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianqi; Ganguly, Koustav; Marshall, Patrick; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    We report on the study of the critical thickness and the strain relaxation in epitaxial SrTiO 3 film grown on (La 0.3 Sr 0.7 )(Al 0.65 Ta 0.35 )O 3 (001) (LSAT) substrate using the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy approach. No change in the film's lattice parameter (both the in-plane and the out-of-plane) was observed up to a film thickness of 180 nm, which is in sharp contrast to the theoretical critical thickness of ∼12 nm calculated using the equilibrium theory of strain relaxation. For film thicknesses greater than 180 nm, the out-of-plane lattice parameter was found to decrease hyperbolically in an excellent agreement with the relaxation via forming misfit dislocations. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which the elastic strain energy can be accommodated prior to forming misfit dislocations leading to such anomalously large critical thickness

  17. Optical Properties of InGaAs/ GaAs Multi Quantum Wells Structure Grown By Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sharizal Alias; Mohd Fauzi Maulud; Mohd Razman Yahya; Abdul Fatah Awang Mat; Suomalainen, Soile

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive analysis on the optical characteristics of InGaAs/ GaAs QW structure for 980 nm semiconductor laser operation is presented from experimental and theoretical point of view. The InGaAs/ GaAs quantum well structure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy at different indium composition and quantum well thickness for optical characteristic comparison. Photoluminescence spectra from the measurement show that the spectrum is in good agreement with the simulation results. Detail simulation on the material gain for the InGaAs/ GaAs quantum well as a function of carrier densities and operating temperature is also performed in order to optimize the semiconductor laser design for device fabrication. (author)

  18. UVB-emitting InAlGaN multiple quantum well synthesized using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A high Al-content (y > 0.4 multi-quantum-well (MQW structure with a quaternary InxAlyGa(1-x-yN active layer was synthesized using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The MQW structure exhibits strong carrier confinement and room temperature ultraviolet-B (UVB photoluminescence an order of magnitude stronger than that of a reference InxAlyGa(1-x-yN thin film with comparable composition and thickness. The samples were characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Numerical simulations suggest that the UVB emission efficiency is limited by dislocation-related non-radiative recombination centers in the MQW and at the MQW - buffer interface. Emission efficiency can be significantly improved by reducing the dislocation density from 109cm−2 to 107cm−2 and by optimizing the width and depth of the quantum wells.

  19. Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meng; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Guo Wei; Banerjee, Animesh

    2010-01-01

    Acceptor doping of GaN with Mg during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, under N-rich conditions and a relatively high growth temperature of 740 deg. C, was investigated. The p-doping level steadily increases with increasing Mg flux. The highest doping level achieved, determined from Hall measurements, is 2.1x10 18 cm -3 . The corresponding doping efficiency and hole mobility are ∼4.9% and 3.7 cm 2 /V s at room temperature. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements confirm good crystalline and optical quality of the Mg-doped layers. An InGaN/GaN quantum dot light emitting diode (λ peak =529 nm) with p-GaN contact layers grown under N-rich condition exhibits a low series resistance of 9.8 Ω.

  20. Backward diodes using heavily Mg-doped GaN growth by ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hironori; Martin, Denis; Malinverni, Marco; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    We grew heavily Mg-doped GaN using ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy. The use of low growth temperature (740 °C) allows decreasing the incorporation of donor-like defects (p-type doping compensation. As a result, a net acceptor concentration of 7 × 1019 cm-3 was achieved, and the hole concentration measured by Hall effect was as high as 2 × 1019 cm-3 at room temperature. Using such a high Mg doping level, we fabricated GaN backward diodes without polarization-assisted tunneling. The backward diodes exhibited a tunneling-current density of 225 A/cm2 at a reverse bias of -1 V at room temperature.