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Sample records for orange peel oil

  1. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY ESSENTIALS OILS PONTIANAK ORANGE PEELS AGAINST Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rafika; Mustari, F. Nour Aulia; Wahdaningsih, Sri

    2015-01-01

    The infectious diseases can be caused by the pathogenic bacteria among Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. One of the plants that can be used as antibacterial is essential oils from Pontianak orange peels (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa). This research aims to determine the antibacterial activity essential oils Pontianak orange peels againts the pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. This research carried out by using the experimental Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Fa...

  3. Study on essence oils from citrus grandis peel and orange peel extracted by microwave method%微波辐射法提取柚皮、橙皮的挥发油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纯馨; 陈忻; 袁毅桦; 梁少华

    2003-01-01

    The essence oil of citrus grandis peel and orange peel was extracted by the microwave method in this article.The results show that the best condition of extracting is when 100 g peel is extracted at 360 W with n-hexane for 50 s,the obtained rate of pomelo oil is 1.73% and orange oil is 0.65%.

  4. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for CO2-orange peel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Stuart

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in fractionating orange peel oil by the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2. However, progress in this area has been hindered by the lack of more comprehensive work concerning the phase equilibrium behavior of the SCCO2-orange peel oil system. In this context, the aim of this work is to provide new phase equilibrium data for this system over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, permitting the construction of coexistence PT-xy curves as well as the P-T diagram. The experiments were performed in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 50-70ºC from 70 to 135 atm and in the CO2 mass fraction composition range of 0.35-0.98. Based on the experimental phase equilibrium results, appropriate operating conditions can be set for high-pressure fractionation purposes.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Ripe and Unripe Peel of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azhdarzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium leaf, ripe and unripe peel essential oils, cultivated in southwest of Iran, were investigated. Materials and Methods: The analysis of chemical composition of hydro-distilled essential oils was carried out by GC-MS. The disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution were used to assay the antimicrobial effect of achieved essential oils. Results: According to the GC-MS analysis, 34, 39 and 21 components were determined in the leaf, ripe and unripe peel, respectively. The results revealed that the main components of all essential oils were linalool and limonene. The oxygenated monoterpene and hydrocarbonated monoterpene were the main chemical groups of leaf and peel essential oils, respectively. Although all of the examined essential oils had antimicrobial potential, the leaf and unripe peel essential oils with MIC of 4.67 mg/ml were the most effective against the bacteria and yeast species, respectively, and the ripe peel essential oil was the weakest one. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was controlled in the treated orange juices. The antifungal activity of essential oils was increased by rising up in their concentration and decreased by passing time. Unripe and ripe essential oils showed the strongest and weakest anti yeast potential, respectively. Conclusions: The essential oils of leaves and ripe and unripe peels of bitter orange could be used as natural preservatives in food industry.

  6. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis) peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erukainure, O.L.; Ajiboye, J.A.; Davis, F.F.; Obabire, K.; Okoro, E.E.; Adenekan, S.O.; Adegbola, M.V.; Awogbemi, B.J.; Odjobo, B.O.; Zaruwa, M.Z.

    2016-07-01

    Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis) oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA), total phospholipid (TP) content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the TP of the mouse chow group. The TP was highest (p < 0.05) in those fed the soy and orange peel oil blend as compared to those fed these oils separately. Feeding soy oil led to decreased MDA in brain tissues and influenced the TP content. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) GSH and SOD activities were observed in the groups fed soy oil+orange peel oil, and soy oil diets respectively. Higher significant (p < 0.05) activities were observed in the orange oil fed group. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) catalase activity was observed in the lipid free diet fed group, which was followed by orange peel oil, and soy oil+orange peel oil diets, respectively. A combination of both oils may be useful in the management of certain neurological diseases or illnesses and protect against other oxidative stress complications. (Author)

  7. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    OpenAIRE

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  8. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C...

  9. Optimization of ultrasonic emulsification conditions for the production of orange peel essential oil nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashtjin, Adel Mirmajidi; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of emulsifying conditions on some physical and rheological properties of orange peel essential oil (OPEO) in water nanoemulsions. In this regard, using the response surface methodology, the influence of ultrasonication conditions including sonication amplitude (70-100 %), sonication time (90-150 s) and process temperature (5-45 °C) on the mean droplets diameter (Z-average value), polydispersity index (PDI), and viscosity of the OPEO nanoemulsions was evaluated. In addition, the flow behavior and stability of selected nanoemulsions was evaluated during storage (up to 3 months) at different temperatures (5, 25 and 45 °C). Based on the results of the optimization, the optimum conditions for producing OPEO nanoemulsions (Z-average value 18.16 nm) were determined as 94 % (sonication amplitude), 138 s (sonication time) and 37 °C (process temperature). Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed high coefficients of determination values (R (2) > 0.95) for the response surface models of the energy input and Z-average. In addition, the flow behavior of produced nanoemulsions was Newtonian, and the effect of time and storage temperature as well as their interactions on the Z-average value was highly significant (P < 0.0001).

  10. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration.

  11. Characterization of aroma active compounds in fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bi Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Gang; Yao, Xiao Lin; Pan, Si Yi

    2008-06-12

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, beta-myrcene, octanal, linalool, alpha-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  12. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholdi, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

  13. Resistance to pathogens in terpene down-regulated orange fruits inversely correlates with the accumulation of D-limonene in peel oil glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Peña, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a D-limonene synthase transgene in antisense (AS) configuration altered the monoterpene profile in oil glands, mainly resulting in reduced accumulation of D-limonene. This led to fruit resistance against Penicillium digitatum (Pd), Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and other specialized pathogens. Here, we analyze resistance to pathogens in independent AS and empty vector (EV) lines, which have low, medium or high D-limonene concentrations and show that the level of resistance is inversely related to the accumulation of D-limonene in orange peels, thus explaining the need of high D-limonene accumulation in mature oranges in nature for the efficient attraction of specialized microorganism frugivores.

  14. Fast Determination of Essential Oil from Dried Menthol Mint and Orange Peel by Solvent Free Microwave Extraction Using Carbonyl Iron Powder as the Microwave Absorption Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-Ming; DING Lan; WANG Lu; FENG Jin; LI Tie-Chun; ZHOU Xin; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2006-01-01

    An improved solvent free microwave extraction, in which a kind of microwave absorption medium (carbonyl iron powder) was used, was applied to the extraction of essential oil from dried menthol mint and orange peel without addition of any solvent and pretreatment. It took much less time of extraction (30 min) than microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (90 min) and conventional hydrodistillation (180 min). The kinds of chemical compositions in essential oil extracted by different methods were almost the same and such improved solvent free microwave extraction can be a feasible way in extraction of essential oil from dried plant materials.

  15. Allelopathic effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L. peel essential oil Efeitos alelopáticos do óleo essencial da casca da laranja (Citrus sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop weeds are the main problem in agriculture, causing a worldwide annual loss of about US$95 billion. The principal method for control is the use of synthetic herbicides. The continued use of these products increases crop costs, reduces crop quality, and leaves toxic residues in the environment, which are a threat to human and livestock health. Therefore, there is a demand for environmentally friendly methods of weed control. The use of allelopathic compounds from crop residues is an alternative. Orange is one of the biggest crops in the world, and its cultivation generates large amounts of residues. There is strong evidence of bioactivity in orange peel essential oil. Therefore, the objective in this work was to verify the allelopathic proprieties of this oil. We extracted the oil from the peels of recently discarded oranges using water vapor flow with a Clevenger extractor, and tested it against the growth of Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell seedlings when placed in contact with the oil vapor. The results were both quantitative and qualitative in the inhibition of the seedlings.Plantas daninhas são o principal problema da agricultura no mundo, causando anualmente um prejuízo de U$95 bilhões. A principal forma de combate às plantas daninhas são os herbicidas sintéticos. Entretanto, o uso continuado desses produtos encarece a produção, reduz a qualidade dos alimentos, deixa resíduos tóxicos no ambiente e ameaça a saúde humana e animal. Existe assim, uma demanda por técnicas menos agressivas de controle. O uso de compostos alelopáticos de descartes de culturas para esse fim é uma alternativa. A laranja é uma das maiores culturas do mundo, e gera grandes quantidades de resíduos. Existem evidências da bioatividade no óleo essencial da casca da laranja. Nesse trabalho, nosso objetivo foi verificar a existência de propriedades alelopáticas desse óleo. Para isto, extraímos o óleo por arraste

  16. Study on the Preparation and Stability of Orange Peel Essence Oil Microcapsule%橘皮精油微胶囊的制备及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 淡小艳; 邓刚; 万国栋

    2012-01-01

    橘皮精油的易挥发性影响了它的实际应用,为扩大其应用,本研究以β-环糊精为包埋剂,以包埋率为主要评价指标,采用Box-Behnken中心组合试验和响应面分析法,优化了橘皮精油微胶囊化工艺;并通过考察橘皮精油微胶囊的挥发率来研究其稳定性.结果表明:橘皮精油微胶囊化的适宜工艺为芯壁材质量比(橘皮精油:β-环糊精)为1:5.7、于47℃包埋1.7h,此工艺条件下制备的微胶囊包埋率达66.7%,包埋得率达88.5%.其稳定性研究表明,在20℃鼓风干燥24h条件下,橘皮精油微胶囊的挥发率较液态精油降低了65.9%,80℃鼓风干燥24h条件下,其精油损失也仅为液态精油(20℃鼓风干燥24 h)的42.2%,控释效果明显.%Volatility of Orange peel essence oil affects its practical application. To expand the application of orange peel essence oil, the processing technology for preparing orange peel essence oil microcapsule with β - cyclodex-trin was investigated and optimized by Box - Behnken central composite test and response surface methodology. Afterwards , the stability of orange peel essential oil microcapsule was investigated by measuring its volatilization rate. The results showed that the encapsulating rate and the encapsulating yield of orange peels essence oil can reach 66.7% and 88.5% ,respectively under condition of encapsulating temperature 47℃.encapsulating time 1.7 h,and core/wall material ratio (orange peel essential oil/β - cyclodextrin) 1:5.7. Besides, compared with the liquid orange peel essence oils,the volatilization rate of orange peel essence oil microcapsule was reduced by 65. 9% (20℃ normal pressure blowing drying for 24 h) , and under the condition that 80℃. Normal pressure blowing drying for 24 h its loss of essence oil was only 42.2% of the liquid essence oil(20℃ normal pressure blowing drying for 24 h) . Results indicated that the microcapsule existed controlled - release capacity and high

  17. Investigating the effect of antioxidant extract from orange peel on lipids oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN*

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research involved investigation of the extraction yield and antioxidant property of orange peel on lipid oxidation. Orange peel was oven dried, grinded to powder and extraction procedure carried out using methanol as solvent in a soxhlet extractor. The effects of time and temperature on the extraction process were considered and results obtained showed an optimum extraction temperature and time of 50ºC and 120 minutes respectively. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the orange peel extract showed that potassium and calcium are the major elements by percentag mposition of 55.5 and 32.65 respectively. In studying the effects of oran eel extract on the melon oil sample, peroxide, free fatty acid and pH analysis were carried out for a period of 60 day. The result obtained confirmed the of ability orange peel extract as antioxidant agent.

  18. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erukainure, O. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA, total phospholipid (TP content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p Ratas albinas machos fueron alimentadas con aceites de soja y de cáscara de naranja (C. sinensis para determinar su efecto sobre el malondialdehído (MDA, fosfolípidos (TP y el contenido total de biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo de su tejido cerebral. Además de alimento para ratones, cuatro dietas fueron diseñadas conteniendo el 50% de la energía en forma de carbohidratos, el 35% en forma de grasa, y el 15% como proteína, y una cuarta dieta libre de lípidos donde se había sustituido la grasa por agua destilada. Grupos de cinco ratas fueron alimentadas cada uno con estas dietas, mientras que un quinto grupo fue alimentado con alimento para ratones peletizado. Se observó una diferencia significativa (p < 0,05 en TP del grupo alimentado concomida para ratón. Los TP fue mayor (p < 0,05 en los alimentados con mezcla de aceite de soja y de cáscaras de naranja, en comparación con los alimentados con estos aceites por separado. La alimentación con aceite de soja llevó a una disminución del MDA en los tejidos del cerebro e influyó en el contenido de TP. Se observó un descenso significativo (p < 0,05 de las actividades de GSH y SOD en los grupos alimentados con aceite de soja+aceite de piel de naranja, y con las dietas de aceite de soja. Se observaron actividades significativamente más altas (p < 0,05 en el grupo alimentado con aceite de naranja. Una actividad catalasa significativamente mas alta (p < 0,05 se observ

  19. Viscous-flow properties and viscosity-average molecular mass of orange peel pectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尽花; 吴宇雄; 沈志强

    2008-01-01

    The viscous-flow properties of pectin from the residue of orange peel after extraction of essential oil and flavonoid were studied and the viscosity-average molecular mass(Mv,ave) of this kind of pectin was determined.Experimental results show that Arrhenius viscous-flow equation can be applied to describing the effect of temperature on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions with the average viscous-flow activation energy being 17.91 kJ/mol(depending on the concentration).Neither power equation,η =K1 cA1,nor exponential equation,η=K2exp(A2c) can describe the effect of concentration on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions well.However,it seems that exponential equation model is more suitable to describe their relation due to its higher linear correlation coefficient.Schulz-Blaschke equation can be used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin.The Mv,ave of the orange peel pectin is 1.65×105 g/mol.

  20. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia; Norma Güemes Vera

    2010-01-01

    Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour) and samples with this functional ingredient. ...

  1. Preparation and physicochemical properties of soluble dietary fiber from orange peel assisted by steam explosion and dilute acid soaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Honggao; Yuan, Fang; Fan, Rui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-10-15

    The coupled pretreatment of orange peel with steam explosion (SE) and sulfuric-acid soaking (SAS) was investigated to enhance the yield and improve the functionality of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). When orange peel was pretreated by SE at 0.8MPa for 7 min, combined with 0.8% SAS, the content of SDF was increased from 8.04% to 33.74% in comparison to the control and SDF prepared with SE-SAS showed the high water solubility, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability and foam stability. SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher binding capacity for three toxic cations (Pb, As and Cu) and smaller molecular weight (Mw = 174 kDa). Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement showed that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS had a higher peak temperature (170.7 ± 0.4 °C) than that of the untreated sample (163.4 ± 0.3 °C). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images demonstrated that the surface of SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS was rough and collapsed. It can be concluded that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS has the higher potential to be applied as a functional ingredient in food products.

  2. 正交设计-重复试验优选桔皮精油的酶解提取工艺%Optimization of Enzymolysis Extraction Technology of Orange Peel Essential Oil by Orthogonal Design-Repeated Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建美; 宋焕春; 陈菲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To optimize the enzymolysis-steam distillation extraction technology of essential oil from orange peels. Methods The enzymolysis-steam distillation extraction method was adopted with the orange peel essential oil yield as the investigation index. The influence of 4 factors of compound enzymatic ratio, PH, enzymolysis temperature and distillation time on the essential oil yield were op-timized by the orthogonal design-repeated test for determining the optimal technological parameters. Results The optimal extraction conditions by the enzymolysis-steam distillation method were as follows:the ratio of pectinase to cellulose was 1:2, pH=4, the enzy-molysis temperature was 50 ℃ and the distillation time was 3 h. The yield rate of essential oil in the dried orange peels was 2. 18%. pH had greatest influence on the yield rate of essential oil, followed by the distillation time, the enzymolysis temperature had smaller in-fluence, and the influence degree of compound enzymatic ratio was lowest. Conclusion Adopting the enzymolysis-steam distillation ex-traction method can increase the yield rate of essential oil from orange peels.%目的:优选酶解-水蒸气蒸馏法提取桔皮中桔皮精油的工艺。方法采用酶解-水蒸气蒸馏提取法,以桔皮精油的得率为考察指标,通过正交设计-重复试验优化复合酶配比、pH、酶解温度、蒸馏时间4个因素对精油得率的影响来确定最佳提取工艺参数。结果酶解-水蒸气蒸馏法提取桔皮中精油的最佳条件为果胶酶与纤维素酶配比为1:2,pH=4,酶解温度为50℃,蒸馏时间为3 h;其中pH对精油得率的影响最大,其次为蒸馏时间,酶解温度影响较小,而复合酶的配比影响程度最低。干桔皮中精油的得率为2.18%。结论采用酶解-水蒸气蒸馏提取法能提高桔皮精油得率。

  3. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  4. Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: a new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

    2015-05-01

    In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22 ± 0.03% and 4.16 ± 0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956 W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02 mgGA/100 g dm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500 W in only 3 min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120 min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Corn (Zea mays growth in petroleum contaminated soil, remediated with orange (Citrus sinensis peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Darío Marín Veláquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has a strong impact when oil activity takes place within a savanna ecosystem. Any oil spill affects agricultural soils. Biostimulation with orange peel extract (Citrus sinensis is an alternative for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil and in this research the corn plant (Zea mays was used as a biomarker of contamination level of a savanna soil after their treatment. Three samples of savannah soil contaminated with oil light crude were treated with dissolutions 1, 3 and 5% of extract of orange peel in water at a dose of 150 mL per kg of soil treated. The content of oils and fats was measured every 7 days, up to 42 days. Corn seeds were planted in soil samples, their growth was measured every 5 days for a period of 35 consecutive days, comparing their growth with seeds planted in a soil sample without contamination. According to an analysis of rank contrast, the plant growth was statistically the same in all samples up to 20 days; from there, evident differences regarding the pattern were shown.

  6. Preparation of carbon monoliths from orange peel for NOx retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoliths are prepared from orange peels and chemically activated with H3PO4, KOH, ZnCl2, and water vapor without a binder. The monoliths were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K, Boehm titrations and XPS. Thereafter, monoliths were tested for their ability to establish NOx retention. The results show that the retention capacities of NOx were a function of the textural properties and chemistries. The carbons synthesized with ZnCl2 and KOH retained similar amounts of NOx.

  7. Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J

    2015-02-01

    The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  9. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  10. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  11. Integral valorisation of waste orange peel using combustion, biomethanisation and co-composting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, J A; Vargas, F; Gutiérrez, M C; Chica, A F; Martín, M A

    2016-07-01

    Although recent research has demonstrated that waste orange peel (WOP) is a potentially valuable resource that can be transformed into high value products, heat generation, biomethanisation and composting might be considered the most feasible alternatives in terms of yield. This study revealed that WOP can be successfully valorised through combustion. However, a previous drying step, which generates hazardous wastewater, is required and harmful NOx are emitted with the flue gases. In contrast, a high yield of renewable methane (280LSTPCH4/kg added COD, chemical oxygen demand) and an organic amendment can be obtained through the thermophilic biomethanisation of WOP following the removal of valuable essential oils from the peel. Co-composting of WOP combined at different proportions (17-83%) with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was also demonstrated to be suitable. Moreover, a 37% reduction in odour generation was observed in co-composting of WOP compared to single composting of OFMSW.

  12. Isolation and Screening of Pectinolytic Fungi from Orange (Citrus nobilis Tan.) and Banana (Musa acuminata L.) Fruit Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amilia, K. R.; Sari, S. L. A.; Setyaningsih, R.

    2017-04-01

    Pectinase is the one of most important enzyme which is used in food industry such as fruit and vegetable juice extraction, oil extraction and fermentation of coffee, cocoa and tea. Pectinase can be produced by microorganism such as bacteria and fungi. Fungi are known as potent producer of pectinase. This research was conducted to isolate and screen of the pectinolytic fungi from rotten orange and banana fruit peels. This research succeeded to isolate 10 fungal isolates from rotten orange peels and 5 fungal isolates from rotten banana peels. These isolates were screened in pectinolytic activities based on clear zone formation on pectic medium which is stained by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The screening result showed that fungal isolates which showed pectinolytic activity were O2, O3, O4, O7, O8, O10, B3, and B5. Based on morphological characters, pectinolytic fungi were identified as Fusarium O4 and O10, Penicillium O2, Aspergillus O3, O7, B3 and B5 and Trichoderma O8. The highest pectinolytic activity was showed by Penicillium O2 which was isolated from orange peel.

  13. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torrado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  14. Evaluation of Pectin derived from Orange peel as a Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ravindrakullai reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is extraction of pectin from waste of orange fruit peel and further characterization for useful alternative pharmaceutical excipient. The pectin was subjected to phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of its safety and suitability to use as binding and suspending agent. FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC studies were performed for drug, orange peel pectin powder, prepared tablet and suspension formulations. Aceclofenac tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing mannitol as diluent; using 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w of orange peel pectin powder and 7.5 %w/w of PVP (reference as binding agents in the tablet formulation. Aceclofenac suspensions were prepared with orange peel pectin powder at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 %w/v as suspending agent and 1.5 %w/v of sodium CMC as reference suspending agent. Pharmaceutical properties of granules and tablets such as carr’s index, Haunser’s ratio and angle of repose and post compression parameters like friability, hardness, and disintegration time studies were determine and found satisfactory. The evaluation test of suspension like sedimentation volume, redispersibility, pH, degree of flocculation were found satisfactory. In vitro release studies shows that release rate of drug is decreased with increase in the orange peel pectin powder percentage in the formulation. Orange peel pectin powder showed good binding and suspending properties at 10 %w/w and 2 %w/v, respectively.

  15. Production of ethanol from enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, K; Baldwin, E A; Buslig, B S

    1994-01-01

    We extended our previous investigations of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in orange peel by commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes to higher, more practical concentrations of orange peel solids. High yields of saccharification could be maintained even at substrate concentrations as high as 22-23%, but the rates of solubilization and saccharification decreased 2-3-fold. We also tested the fermentability of these hydrolysates by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which revealed the presence of inhibitory compounds. These compounds could be removed by the filtration of hydrolyzed peel. Successful fermentations of filtered hydrolysates were achieved after pH adjustment with calcium carbonate.

  16. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from orange peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2013-09-12

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction was applied for pectin extraction from the dried orange peel and Box-Behnken response surface design was used to study and optimize the effects of processing variables (microwave power, irradiation time, pH and solid-liquid ratio) on the yield of pectin. The amount of pectin extracted increased with increasing microwave power, while it reduces as the time, pH and solid-liquid ratio increased. From the results, second order polynomial model was developed and it adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between independent variables and the response. An optimization study using Derringer's desired function methodology was performed and optimal conditions based on both individual and combinations of all independent variables (microwave power of 422W, irradiation time of 169 s, pH of 1.4 and solid-liquid ratio of 1:16.9 g/ml) were determined with maximum pectin yield of 19.24%, which was confirmed through validation experiments.

  17. Yield, Esterification Degree and Molecular Weight Evaluation of Pectins Isolated from Orange and Grapefruit Peels under Different Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Mohamed Yassine; Chabir, Rachida; Benyahia, Hamid; Rodi Kandri, Youssef; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Touzani, Hanan; Errachidi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification “DE” and on molecular weight “Mw”. Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels. Moreover, both peels allow the obtainment of a high methoxyl pectin with DE >50%. The molecular weight was calculated using Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation which describes its relationship with intrinsic viscosity. This later was determined using four equations; Huggins equation, kramer, Schulz-Blaschke and Martin equation. The molecular weight varied from 1.538 x1005 to 2.47x1005 g/mol for grapefruit pectin and from 1.639 x1005 to 2.471 x1005 g/mol for orange pectin. PMID:27644093

  18. Effect of drying conditions on the physical properties of impregnated orange peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Manjarres-Pinzon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel represents approximately 30-40 g/100g of the fresh fruit weight and could be used to develop value-added products. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the effects of drying conditions on the physical properties of orange peel impregnated with sucrose solution. The response surface method (RSM was used to optimize two parameters: drying temperature (35-55 ºC and air flow rate (2-3 m/s. The measured responses used to determine the effect of dying process conditions were: moisture content. drying time. total soluble solids. color and hardness. The dried orange peels from the optimal process were subjected to a sensory test by 60 consumers. The optimum conditions for the drying of orange peels were determined to obtain minimum hardness, moisture content and drying time for a w values below 0.6. The optimum conditions were found to be a dying temperature of 52.3 ºC and air flow rate of 2.0 m/s. At this point, drying time, hardness and moisture content were found to be 20 h, 78.4 N and 7.6%, respectively. The sensory results showed that consumers aged over 30 years old accepted well the dried orange peel.

  19. Novel character impact compounds in Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) peel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Norio; Tomita, Naomi; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Akira; Ohkubo, Yasutaka; Maeda, Tomoko; Fujita, Akira

    2009-03-11

    Yuzu ( Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a tree-grown fruit similar to a kind of sour orange, is widely used in Japanese food/cooking for its pleasant flavor. To clarify the odor-active volatiles that differentiate yuzu from other citrus fruits, sensory evaluations were conducted on yuzu peel oil. The results revealed that the polar part of yuzu peel oil was the source of the characteristic aroma of fresh yuzu fruit. By aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar volatile part of yuzu peel oil, seven odorants were newly identified as odor-active volatiles in yuzu peel oil in the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors of 128 and 32: oct-1-en-3-one, (E)-non-4-enal, (E)-dec-4-enal, 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, (E)-non-6-enal, (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one (Yuzunone), and (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-4-ol (Yuzuol). Among the most odor-active volatiles in yuzu, (E)-non-6-enal and Yuzunone were identified for the first time solely in yuzu peel oil and not in the peel of other citrus species, and Yuzuol was identified for the first time in nature. Sensory evaluation of yuzu aroma reconstitutions revealed that the newly identified compound, Yuzunone, contributes greatly to the distinct yuzu aroma.

  20. Analysis of Orange Peel Defect in St14 Steel Sheet by Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengquan CAO; Jinxu ZHANG; Jiansheng WU; Jiaguang CHEN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the orange peel defect in the surface range of the st14 steel sheet has been investigated using the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. It has been found that the orange peel defect in the st14steel sheet was resulted from the local coarse grains which were produced during hot-rolling due to the critical deformation in dual-phase zone. During deep drawing, the coarse grains with {100}<001> microtexture can slip on the {112}<111> slip system to form bulging and yields orange peel defects, while the coarse grains with {112}<110>orientation do not form the defect as the Schmid factor of {112}<111> slip system in it equals zero.

  1. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  2. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential.

  3. Analysis of surface orange peel of aluminum-alloy automobile sheet by using of EBSD and X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Sun Zhifu; Wang Zhiwe; Lu Hongzhou; Zhou Mingbo

    2012-01-01

    The formation cause of orange peel of aluminum-alloy automotive sheet after tensile deformation was analysed by using X-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The test results showed that formation cause of surface orange peel after tensile deformation related to product texture and nonuniform deformation during the tensile process. The grain size has significant effect on deformation uniform and texture formation. Coarse grains were easy to produce nonuniform deformation and texture, which would produce surface orange peel after tensile deformation.

  4. Morphology observation for surface orange peel and fracture in tension sample of aluminum-alloy sheet and characterization of nano hardness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Mei Huashen; Lu Hongzhou; Yang Hongya; Wu Emei; Zhou Mingbo

    2012-01-01

    The tension property of aluminum-alloy sheet with different microstructures is measured, and the surface and tension fracture morphology of tension sample with and without orange peel are observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface roughness and nano hardness of tension sample are measured. The results show that the average elongation of the samples with orange peel is lower than that without orange peel ; especially the r value of per- pendicular to the rolling direction is much lower than that without orange peel. The tension surface of the orange peel samples is very rough; various parameters of surface roughness are higher. Under the observation of SEM, a wider slid- ing band with a micro crack on the surface of orange peel sample can be found. The various parameters of surface rough- ness without orange peel sample are near to zero, the sliding band is narrow and without micro cracks. The dimple width in tensile fracture of orange peel sample is larger than that without orange peel sample, but shear lip is narrower. The nano hardness testing results show that samples with orange peel behave high elastic modulus, high hardness, and high maximum load, but low plastic deformation depth. These mentioned features can completely describe surface and frac- ture morphology of tension samt31es with oranze peel.

  5. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  6. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  7. Carotenoids, carotenoid esters, and anthocyanins of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Vargas, Ester; Conrad, Jürgen; Hempel, Judith; Gras, Claudia C; Ziegler, Jochen U; Mayer, Angelika; Jiménez, Víctor; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-06-01

    Pigment profiles of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples were investigated. Among 15 identified carotenoids and carotenoid esters, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin palmitate were the most abundant in peels and pulp of all samples. Total carotenoid concentrations in the pulp of yellow- and red-peeled cashew apples were low (0.69-0.73 mg/100g FW) compared to that of orange-peeled samples (2.2mg/100g FW). The color difference between the equally carotenoid-rich yellow and red colored samples indicated the presence of a further non-carotenoid pigment type in red peels. Among four detected anthocyanins, the major anthocyanin was unambiguously identified as 7-O-methylcyanidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside by NMR spectroscopy. Red and yellow peel color was chiefly determined by the presence and absence of anthocyanins, respectively, while the orange appearance of the peel was mainly caused by increased carotenoid concentrations. Thus, orange-peeled fruits represent a rich source of provitamin A (ca. 124 μg retinol-activity-equivalents/100g pulp, FW).

  8. Exploring the Possibilities of Biological Fabrication of Gold Nanostructures Using Orange Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology requires a constant innovation and improvement in many materials. The exploration of natural resources is a promising eco-friendly alternative for physical and chemical methods. In the present work, colloidal gold nanostructures were prepared using orange peel extract as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The initial pH value of the solution and the concentration of the gold precursor had an effect on the formation and morphology of nanoparticles. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows control of nanoparticles. By controlling the pH and, especially, the gold concentration, we are able to synthesize crystalline gold nanowires using orange peel extract in the absence of a surfactant or polymer to direct nanoparticle growth, and without external seeding. UV-VIS spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to characterize the nanoparticles obtained by biosynthesis.

  9. Influence of temperature and particle size on the fixed bed pyrolysis of orange peel residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Marquez-Montesinos, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Arauzo, J. [Thermochemical Processes Group (GPT), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Orange peel is a residue from the production of juice. Its energetic valorisation could be interesting in areas where a different use, such as animal feed, is not possible. In order to investigate the viability of energy recovery, the pyrolysis of orange peel residues was studied in a fixed bed reactor, as an initial assessment of this process. The influence of pyrolysis temperature (300-600 C) and particle size (d{sub p}<300{mu}m and d{sub p}>800{mu}m) on product distribution, gas composition and char heating value has been investigated using a factorial design of experiments. Gas, char and water are the main products obtained; tar is only about 6 wt.% of the initial residue. Temperature was found to be the parameter which exerts a more important influence on the results than particle size. (author)

  10. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024 (India); Sabareesan, P. [Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur - 613 401 (India)

    2015-07-15

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2} to 1.39 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}.

  11. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aravinthan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 1012Am−2. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 1012Am−2 to 1.39 × 1012Am−2.

  12. Production of Biologically Activated Carbon from Orange Peel and Landfill Leachate Subsequent Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve adsorption of macromolecular contaminants and promote the growth of microorganisms, active carbon for biological wastewater treatment or follow-up processing requires abundant mesopore and good biophile ability. In this experiment, biophile mesopore active carbon is produced in one-step activation with orange peel as raw material, and zinc chloride as activator, and the adsorption characteristics of orange peel active carbon is studied by static adsorption method. BET specific surface area and pore volume reached 1477 m2/g and 2.090 m3/g, respectively. The surface functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The surface of the as-prepared activated carbon contained hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group. The analysis based on X-ray diffraction spectrogram (XRD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum indicated that the as-prepared activated carbon, with smaller microcrystalline diameter and microcrystalline thickness and enhanced reactivity, exhibited enhanced adsorption performance. This research has a deep influence in effectively controlling water pollution, improving area water quality, easing orange peel waste pollution, and promoting coordinated development among society, economy, and environment.

  13. Nondestructive Determination of Cu Residue in Orange Peel by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqin; Huang, Lin; Liu, Muhua; Chen, Tianbing; Yang, Ping; Yao, Mingyin

    2015-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging tool with rapid, nondestructive, green characteristics in qualitative or quantitative analyses of composition in materials. But LIBS has its shortcomings in detect limit and sensitivity. In this work, heavy metal Cu in Gannan Navel Orange, which is one of famous fruits from Jiangxi of China, was analyzed. In view of LIBS's limit, it is difficult to determinate heavy metals in natural fruits. In this work, nine orange samples were pretreated in 50-500 μg/mL Cu solution, respectively. Another one orange sample was chosen as a control group without any pollution treatment. Previous researchers observed that the content of heavy metals is much higher in peel than in pulp. So, the content in pulp can be reflected by detecting peel. The real concentrations of Cu in peels were acquired by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). A calibration model of Cu I 324.7 and Cu I 327.4 was constructed between LIBS intensity and AAS concentration by six samples. The correlation coefficient of the two models is also 0.95. All of the samples were used to verify the accuracy of the model. The results show that the relative error (RE) between predicted and real concentration is less than 6.5%, and Cu I 324.7 line has smaller RE than Cu I 327.4. The analysis demonstrated that different characteristic lines decided different accuracy. The results prove the feasibility of detecting heavy metals in fruits by LIBS. But the results are limited in treated samples. The next work will focus on direct analysis of heavy metals in natural fruits without any pretreatment. This work is helpful to explore the distribution of heavy metals between pulp and peel. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31460419) and Major Project of Science and Technology of Jiangxi, China (No. 20143ACB21013)

  14. Synergistic effect of co-digestion to enhance anaerobic degradation of catering waste and orange peel for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Muzammil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Miandad, Rashid

    2017-09-01

    Catering waste and orange peel were co-digested using an anaerobic digestion process. Orange peel is difficult to degrade anaerobically due to the presence of antimicrobial agents such as limonene. The present study aimed to examine the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste with orange peel to provide the optimum nutrient balance with reduced inhibitory effects of orange peel. Batch experiments were conducted using catering waste as a potential substrate mixed in varying ratios (20-50%) with orange peel. Similar ratios were followed using green vegetable waste as co-substrate. The results showed that the highest organic matter degradation (49%) was achieved with co-digestion of catering waste and orange peel at a 50% mixing ratio (CF4). Similarly, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) was increased by 51% and reached its maximum value (9040 mg l(-1)) due to conversion of organic matter from insoluble to soluble form. Biogas production was increased by 1.5 times in CF4 where accumulative biogas was 89.61 m(3) t(-1)substrate compared with 57.35 m(3) t(-1)substrate in the control after 80 days. The main reason behind the improved biogas production and degradation is the dilution of inhibitory factors (limonene), with subsequent provision of balanced nutrients in the co-digestion system. The tCOD of the final digestate was decreased by 79.9% in CF4, which was quite high as compared with 68.3% for the control. Overall, this study revealed that orange peel waste is a highly feasible co-substrate for anaerobic digestion with catering waste for enhanced biogas production.

  15. Sensory evaluation of sausages with orange peel flour and maguey leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Bernardo Escalona-Buendia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroindustrial by-products are mainly used for animal feeding and biomass for biodiesel production. In fruit processing, around the 70% of the raw material weight is considered as a residue, mainly peels and seeds, but they have high insoluble fiber content. Orange peel and maguey leaf, previously used for barbacoa preparation, were employed as functional ingredients in sausages. To determinate the acceptance of new food products (neophobia 300 surveys were conducted to consumers in supermarkets in the south part of Mexico City. Additionally, R-index was determined to know if there were any difference between the texture and flavor of the sausages with these ingredients using consumers, and a quantitative descriptive profile was carried out. Results shown that most of the surveys showed interest to consume healthy foods, but certain neophobia was observed to this kind of meat products (sausages with orange peel or maguey leaf due to strange flavors. R index values showed that flavor is affected by this formulation, most in maguey leaf samples, but not in texture (firmness. Descriptive sensory profiles showed the attributes distinguishing the fiber added sausages versus a control. The conclusion is that the use of agroindustrial by-products is a good source of functional ingredient in sausages; however, its flavor has to be more developed to assure consumer acceptance.

  16. Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Saija, Antonella; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2006-01-11

    Bergamot peel is an underutilized byproduct of the essential oil and juice-processing industry. As with other Citrus peels, it still contains exploitable components, such as pectins and flavonoids. Commercial glycoside hydrolases, specifically a combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, solubilized a high percentage of the material (81.94%). The flavonoid profile of the peel consisted of characteristic Citrus species flavanone rutinosides and neohesperosides derived from naringenin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin. In addition, a number of minor flavanone and flavone glycosides, not found in orange and lemon peels, were identified. The majority of flavonoids were extracted in the two 70% v/v EtOH extractions. Processing this material clearly has economic potential leading to low environmental impact.

  17. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  18. 橘皮膳食纤维可食性膜控制煎炸薯条吸油率的研究%Orange Peel Dietary Fiber of French Fries Frying Oil Absorption Rate Control of Edible Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳文; 崔慧; 刘建文; 张博禹

    2016-01-01

    This experience extract water- soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from citrus peel by acid hydrolysis with phosphate buffer, the single factor experiments determined the factors of variations of extracting water-soluble dietary fiber. And reusing response surface experimental design optimized for each factor, ifnally determine the optimum technological conditions for phosphate buffer 0.09 mol/L, bath temperature 87 ℃ ,bath time 77.00 min, solid-liquid ratio 1∶20. Using the extracts coating chips before frying, then using glycerol plasticizer SDF to increase the mechanical strength of the iflm, the single factor experiments suggested the variables’ the line graph. then french fries oil absorption rate determine the optimal conditions to make the correspondin g response surface conditions, getting SDF iflm coating concentration 3.50%, glycerol concentration 0.70% , frying time 4.75 min, drying time 11.00 min, drying temperature 145℃, and it is measured that the oil absorption fall from 43.87% which is uncoatedto 21.52%.%试验采用磷酸缓冲液酸解橘皮法,提取橘皮中的水溶性膳食纤维,通过单因素试验确定提取橘皮水溶性膳食纤维的影响因素的变化规律。再利用响应面优化试验,得到提取橘皮水溶性膳食纤维最优条件为:磷酸缓冲液浓度0.09 mol/L,水浴温度87℃,水浴时间77.00 min,固液比为1∶20。利用该实验提取的SDF将煎炸前的薯条以涂抹方式涂膜,使用甘油增塑剂增加SDF膜的机械强度,由单因素试验得到各变量的变化折线图,再以煎炸薯条吸油率为判定条件做出对应响应面,得到涂膜的最佳条件是:SDF膜浓度3.50%,甘油浓度0.70%,煎炸时间4.75 min,烘干时间11.00 min,烘干温度145℃,同时测得最优条件下吸油率由未涂膜的43.87%降低到21.52%。

  19. Arsenic(V) biosorption by charred orange peel in aqueous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Farooqi, Abida; Ok, Yong Sik; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Ali, Fawad; Ali, Shafaqat; Igalavithana, Avanthi Deshani; Arshad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Biosorption efficiency of natural orange peel (NOP) and charred orange peel (COP) was examined for the immobilization of arsenate (As(V)) in aqueous environments using batch sorption experiments. Sorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, time, initial As(V) concentration and biosorbent dose, using NOP and COP (pretreated with sulfuric acid). Arsenate sorption was found to be maximum at pH 6.5, with higher As(V) removal percentage (98%) by COP than NOP (68%) at 4 g L(-1) optimum biosorbent dose. Sorption isotherm data exhibited a higher As(V) sorption (60.9 mg g(-1)) for COP than NOP (32.7 mg g(-1)). Langmuir model provided the best fit to describe As(V) sorption. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses revealed that the -OH, -COOH, and -N-H surface functional groups were involved in As(V) biosorption and the meso- to micro-porous structure of COP sequestered significantly (2-times) higher As(V) than NOP, respectively. Arsenate desorption from COP was found to be lower (10%) than NOP (26%) up to the third regeneration cycle. The results highlight that this method has a great potential to produce unique 'charred' materials from the widely available biowastes, with enhanced As(V) sorption properties.

  20. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of Cu(Ⅱ) by chemically modified orange peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ning-chuan; GUO Xue-yi; LIANG Sha

    2009-01-01

    Cu(H) biosorption by orange peel that was chemically modified with sodium hydroxide and calcium chloride was investigated. The effects of temperature, contact time, initial concentration of metal ions and pH on the biosorption of Cu( II) ions were assessed. Thermodynamic parameters including change of free energy(△G~Θ), enthalpy (△H~Θ) and entropy(△S~Θ) during the biosorption were determined. The results show that the biosorption process of Cu( II) ions by chemically treated orange peel is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under studied conditions. Equilibrium is well described by Langmuir equation with the maximum biosorption capacity(q_m) for Cu( II) as 72.73 mg/g and kinetics is found to fit pseudo-second order type biosorption kinetics. As the temperature increases from 16 ℃ to 60 ℃, copper biosorption decreases. The loaded biosorbent is regenerated using HC1 solution for repeatedly use for five times with little loss of biosorption capacity.

  1. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  2. From waste to value - direct utilization of limonene from orange peel in a biocatalytic cascade reaction towards chiral carvolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberleitner, N.; Ressmann, A. K.; Bica, K.; Gaertner, P.; Fraaije, M. W.; Bornscheuer, U. T.; Rudroff, F.; Mihovilovic, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    In this proof of concept study we demonstrate direct utilization of limonene containing waste product orange peel as starting material for a biocatalytic cascade reaction. The product of this cascade is chiral carvolactone, a promising building block for thermoplastic polymers. Four different concep

  3. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on orange peel as biocatalyst for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessas, S.; Bekatorou, A; Koutinas, A.A.; Soupioni, M. [University of Patras (Greece). Department of Chemistry, Food Biotechnology Group; Banat, I.M.; Marchant, R. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Biomedical Sciences

    2007-03-15

    A biocatalyst was prepared by immobilizing a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (baker's yeast) on orange peel pieces for use in alcoholic fermentation and for fermented food applications. Cell immobilization was shown by electron microscopy and by the efficiency of the immobilized biocatalyst for alcoholic fermentation of various carbohydrate substrates (glucose, molasses, raisin extracts) and at various temperatures (30-15 {sup o}C). Fermentation times in all cases were low (5-15 h) and ethanol productivities were high (av. 150.6 g/ld) showing good operational stability of the biocatalyst and suitability for commercial applications. Reasonable amounts of volatile by-products were produced at all temperatures studied, revealing potential application of the proposed biocatalyst in fermented food applications, to improve productivities and quality. (author)

  4. [Effect of Characteristic Variable Extraction on Accuracy of Cu in Navel Orange Peel by LIBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-bing; Yao, Ming-yin; Huang, Lin; Chen, Tian-bing; Zheng, Jian-hong; Fan, Shi-quan; Liu Mu-hua HE, Mu-hua; Lin, Jin-long; Ouyang, Jing-yi

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metals pollution in foodstuffs is more and more serious. It is impossible to satisfy the modern agricultural development by conventional chemical analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technology with the characteristic of rapid and nondestructive detection. But LIBS' s repeatability, sensitivity and accuracy has much room to improve. In this work, heavy metal Cu in Gannan Navel Orange which is the Jiangxi specialty fruit will be predicted by LIBS. Firstly, the navel orange samples were contaminated in our lab. The spectra of samples were collected by irradiating the peel by optimized LIBS parameters. The laser energy was set as 20 mJ, delay time of Spectral Data Gathering was set as 1.2 micros, the integration time of Spectral data gathering was set as 2 ms. The real concentration in samples was obtained by AAS (atom absorption spectroscopy). The characteristic variables Cu I 324.7 and Cu I 327.4 were extracted. And the calibration model was constructed between LIBS spectra and real concentration about Cu. The results show that relative error of the predicted concentrations of three relational model were 7.01% or less, reached a minimum of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.02% respectively. The average relative errors were 2.33%, 3.10% and 26.3%. Tests showed that different characteristic variables decided different accuracy. It is very important to choose suitable characteristic variable. At the same time, this work is helpful to explore the distribution of heavy metals between pulp and peel.

  5. Effect of Grinding Methods on Structural, Physicochemical, and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Orange Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of grinding methods (regular laboratory milling, ultra centrifugal rotor milling, and ball milling on structural, physicochemical, and functional properties of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF fraction from orange peel. The results demonstrated that both ultra centrifugal milling and ball milling could effectively decrease average particle size of IDF fraction (81.40 μm and 19.63 μm, resp.. The matrix structure of IDF fraction was destroyed but FTIR structure had no major change after grinding. As particle size decreased, the bulk density and lightness of IDF fraction increased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. Furthermore, ball milled IDF fraction exhibited significantly higher capacity to retard glucose diffusion and inhibit α-amylase activity (35.09%. This work would give useful insight into effect of grinding methods on properties and functions of orange peel IDF in food industry.

  6. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2013-10-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed.

  7. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-04-20

    Microwave assisted extraction technique was used to extract pectin from sour orange peel. Box-Behnken design was used to study the effect of irradiation time, microwave power and pH on the yield and degree of esterification (DE) of pectin. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the highest yield of pectin (29.1%) were obtained at pH of 1.50, microwave power of 700W, and irradiation time of 3min. DE values of pectin ranged from 1.7% to 37.5%, indicating that the obtained pectin was low in methoxyl. Under optimal conditions, the galacturonic acid content and emulsifying activity were 71.0±0.8% and 40.7%, respectively. In addition, the emulsion stability value ranged from 72.1% to 83.4%. Viscosity measurement revealed that the solutions of pectin at low concentrations showed nearly Newtonian flow behavior, and as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant.

  8. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Sour orange peel, a by-product of the fruit juice industry, was used as a source of pectin. The effects of temperature (75-95°C), time (30-90 min), and liquid-solid ratio (20-40, v/w) were investigated on yield, methoxylation degree (DE), and galacturonic acid content using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The highest extraction yield (17.95 ± 0.3%) was obtained at temperature of 95°C, time of 90 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 25 (v/w). The DE values for the pectin ranged from 17% to 30.5%, indicating that the pectin was low in methoxyle. The emulsifying activity of pectin extracted under optimal conditions was 45%. The emulsions were 86.6% stable at 4°C and 71.4% at 23°C after 30 days of storage. The pectin exhibited Newtonian flow at low concentrations (≤ 1.0%, w/v); as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant.

  9. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures and times on the adsorption of cadmium onto orange peel derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; You, Sheng-Jie; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism and capacity of adsorption of cadmium (Cd) on orange peel (OP)-derived biochar at various pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) and heating times (2 and 6 h) were investigated. Biochar was characterized using proximate analysis, point of zero charge (PZC) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments of Cd adsorption on biochar were performed. The results indicated that the pH value at PZC of biochar approached 9.5. Equilibrium can be reached rapidly (within 1 min) in kinetic experiments and a removal rate of 80.6-96.9% can be generated. The results fitted the pseudo-second-order model closely. The adsorption capacity was estimated using the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd on biochar was independent of the pyrolysis temperature and heating time (p>0.01). The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd was 114.69 (mg g(-1)). The adsorption of Cd on biochar was regarded as chemisorption. The primary adsorption mechanisms were regarded as Cπ-cation interactions and surface precipitation. Cadmium can react with calcite to form the precipitation of (Ca,Cd)CO3 on the surface of biochar. The OP-derived biochar can be considered a favourable alternative and a new green adsorbent for removing Cd(2+) ions from an aqueous solution.

  10. 保健型复合桔皮酱的研制%Research and production of health protection orange peel curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李王平; 邵伟; 龚美珍

    2001-01-01

    本文以柑橘皮,蚕豆为主要原料,将桔皮进行处理和加工,并将蚕豆去皮、浸水、蒸煮、经制曲发酵后,制得一种具有典型桔皮风味的保健型复合调味料。%Using orange peel and broad bean as main raw material,process and deal with the orange peel,remove the broad bean peel,soak and steam the broad bean,produce a kind of health protection compound condiment with typical orange peel special flavour after manufacturing aspergillus and fermenting.

  11. Development and application of a quantitative method for determination of flavonoids in orange peel: Influence of sample pretreatment on composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Calle, María; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María D

    2015-11-01

    Peel, a part of the citrus rich in compounds with high-added value, constitutes the bulk of the waste generated in citrus juice industries. Flavonoids are a class of these high-added value compounds characterized by their bioactivity. In this research, a method for analysis of flavonoids, based on LC-MS/MS by using a triple quadrupole detector, has been developed and applied to the quantitative analysis of 16 flavonoids in extracts obtained by maceration of citrus peel. The parameters involved in the ionization and fragmentation of the target analytes were optimized to develop a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method, which reported detection and quantitation limits ranging from 0.005 to 5 ng/mL and from 0.01 to 10 ng/mL, respectively. The raw materials for flavonoids extraction were fresh, oven-dried and lyophilized peel of 8 different orange varieties, and the proposed quantitation method was applied to the analysis of the obtained extracts. Evaluation of the two methods of water removal showed that lyophilization preserves the concentration of the flavonoids, while oven-dried peel presented a decrease of glycosylated flavonoids and an increase of aglycone forms.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the effect of sweet orange oil-diesel blend on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Ashrafur; Hossain, F. M.; Van, Thuy Chu; Dowell, Ashley; Islam, M. A.; Rainey, Thomas J.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, global demand for essential oils was 165 kt and it is expected to grow 8.5% per annum up to 2022. Every year Australia produces approximately 1.5k tonnes of essential oils such as tea tree, orange, lavender, eucalyptus oil, etc. Usually essential oils come from non-fatty areas of plants such as the bark, roots, heartwood, leaves and the aromatic portions (flowers, fruits) of the plant. For example, orange oil is derived from orange peel using various extraction methods. Having similar properties to diesel, essential oils have become promising alternate fuels for diesel engines. The present study explores the opportunity of using sweet orange oil in a compression ignition engine. Blends of sweet orange oil-diesel (10% sweet orange oil, 90% diesel) along with neat diesel fuel were used to operate a six-cylinder diesel engine (5.9 litres, common rail, Euro-III, compression ratio 17.3:1). Some key fuel properties such as: viscosity, density, heating value, and surface tension are presented. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption) and emission parameters (CO, NOX, and Particulate Matter) were measured to evaluate running with the blends. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm (maximum torque condition) with different loads. The results from the property analysis showed that sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibits lower density, viscosity and surface tension and slightly higher calorific value compared to neat diesel fuel. Also, from the engine test, the sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibited slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption, particulate mass and particulate number; however, the blend reduced the brake specific CO emission slightly and brake specific NOX emission significantly compared to that of neat diesel.

  13. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  14. Extraction of essential oil from shaddock peel and analysis of its components by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Essential oil, with more than thirty kinds of compounds separated and identified by gas chromatographymass spectrometry, was extracted from Shatian shaddock peel and Sweet shaddock peel by squeeze-steam distillation and direct steam distillation method. Among their composition, the main components are terpene compounds, which account for 93. 926% (mass fraction, the same below) and 85. 843% of essential oils extracted from Shatian shaddock peel and Sweet shaddock peel, respectively. Although nootkatone is the major contributor of shaddock characteristic scent, and its contents are 1. 069 % and 1. 749 % of essential oils from Sweet shaddock peel and Shatian shaddock peel, respectively. The results show that squeeze-steam distillation gives higher yield and good quality of essential oil and the compositions of essential oils from two kinds of shaddock peels are different, but the main contributors of the shaddock scent are the same.

  15. Biofortified orange maize enhances β-cryptoxanthin concentrations in egg yolks of laying hens better than tangerine peel fortificant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heying, Emily K; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; Vasic, Vedran; Cook, Mark; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-12-10

    The xanthophyll β-cryptoxanthin provides vitamin A and has other purported health benefits. Laying hens deposit xanthophyll carotenoids into egg yolk. Hens (n = 8/group) were fed conventional-bred high β-cryptoxanthin biofortified (orange) maize, tangerine peel-fortified white maize, lutein-fortified yellow maize, or white maize for 40 d to investigate yolk color changes using L*a*b* scales, yolk carotenoid enhancement, and hen vitamin A status. Yolks from hens fed orange maize had scores indicating a darker, orange color and mean higher β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations (8.43 ± 1.82, 23.1 ± 4.8, 0.16 ± 0.08 nmol/g, respectively) than other treatments (P maize had higher liver retinol (0.53 ± 0.20 μmol/g liver) than other groups (P < 0.0001). β-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified eggs could be another choice for consumers, providing enhanced color through a provitamin A carotenoid and supporting eggs' status as a functional food.

  16. An on-line spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water, orange juice, and orange peel samples using multi-channel flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Chamjangali, M; Goudarzi, N; Ghochani Moghadam, A; Amin, A H

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a flow injection analysis (FIA) method was introduced for the determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water. This method is based upon the inhibition effect of thiourea on the reaction between meta-cresol purple (MCP) and potassium bromate catalyzed by bromide ions in a sulfuric acid medium. In the presence of thiourea, an induction period appears in the reaction system, and as a result, the absorbance of MCP increases at 525 nm in the FIA manifold. The chemical and FIA variables are studied and optimized using the univariate and Simplex optimization methods. Under the optimum conditions, thiourea can be determined in the range of 0.100-13.0 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection (3σ) for thiourea was found to be 0.0310 μg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate determinations of 0.500, 5.00, and 12.0 μg mL(-1) of thiourea were 4.0%, 1.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. The proposed method was also applied for the determination of thiourea in orange juice and orange peel samples with recoveries in the range of 98.0-101%. The analytical speed of the method was calculated to be about 120 sample per hour.

  17. Optimization on extraction pectin from orange peel%柑橘皮果胶提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴余军; 石会军

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To study the optimal extraction technology of pectin from orange peel. Methods; The research used dried orange peel as raw material to extract pectin by cellulase. Effects of concentration of cellulase solution, extracting time, extracting temperature and pH value of solution were investigated through single factor. On the basis of single factor tests, and orthogonal L9(34 ) experiment, we found that the concentration of cellulase solution was the main factors on extraction rate. The optimized extraction technology was; the concentration of cellulose solution 0. 5% , the extracting time 45 minutes, the extracting temperature 45t, pH value 5. 6. The extracting rate of pectin was 36. 56%. Conclusion; The optimized extraction technology has a higher yield and can be used in pectin extraction from orange peel.%目的:研究柑橘皮果胶提取的最优工艺.方法:以干燥的柑橘皮为试验原料,采用纤维素酶溶液提取果胶;以果胶提取率为考察指标,在单因素试验的基础上,进行L4(23)正交试验设计,研究了纤维素酶的浓度、浸提时间、浸提温度以及溶液pH值对柑橘皮果胶提取率的影响.结果:纤维素酶溶液的浓度是影响柑橘皮果胶提取率的最主要因素;纤维素酶溶液提取柑橘皮果胶的最佳工艺条件为:纤维素酶溶液浓度为0.5%,浸提时间为45 min,浸提温度为45℃,溶液pH值为5.6,在此条件下,柑橘皮果胶的提取率可达到36.56%.结论:该提取工艺的果胶提取率高,可用于柑橘皮果胶的提取.

  18. Use of orange peel extract for mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris: increased production of biomass and FAMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Moon, Myounghoon; Kwak, Min-Su; Jeon, Seungjib; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-11-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae is necessary to achieve economically feasible production of microalgal biodiesel, but the high cost of nutrients is a major limitation. In this study, orange peel extract (OPE) was used as an inorganic and organic nutrient source for the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris OW-01. Chemical composition analysis of the OPE indicated that it contains sufficient nutrients for mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris OW-01. Analysis of biomass and FAME production showed that microalgae grown in OPE medium produced 3.4-times more biomass and 4.5-times more fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) than cells cultured in glucose-supplemented BG 11 medium (BG-G). These results suggest that growth of microalgae in an OPE-supplemented medium increases lipid production and that OPE has potential for use in the mass cultivation of microalgae.

  19. Activated Carbon Prepared From Orange Peels Coated With Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles: Characterization and Applications in the Decomposition of Nox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the degradation of NOx using two catalysts prepared by coating activated carbon from orange peels with TiO2. This study compared the performance of TiO2-coated catalysts prepared by CVD (AC1/TiO2 and the sol-gel method (AC2/TiO2. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area and TEM. The photocatalytic activity was measured by studying the degradation of NOx in the vapor phase. The results show that the catalyst synthesized by the CVD method was more efficient in the decomposition of NOx. TEM and XRD revealed the presence of a mixture of the anatase and rutile phases, which favors the NOx decomposition process. Nitrogen isotherms showed that coating the nanoparticles with titanium oxide did not significantly change the surface area of the original activated carbon.

  20. Orange oil effect in the control of fennel aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the properties where fennel is grown, in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Paraiba, at the Northeast of Brazil, a high rate of usage of pesticides in the crop, aiming to control the aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orange oil Prev-Am (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate, in the control of H. foeniculi aphid of the fennel crop. The trial was conducted in a fennel field located in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, belonging to the EMEPA-PB. Forty-eight hours after the product has been sprayed, one flower of the umbel was collected and removed her aphids, which were placed in a "petri" plate from 9cm in diameter. As a following step, the insects were counted as part of two groups, considering the number of insects dead and alive, being tabulated for later analysis. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, using the experimental design of randomized blocks composed of six treatments (doses of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7% of orange oil (Prev-am and pure water as check, with five repetitions. The data were submitted to the regression analysis. The orange oil (Prev-am controls effectively H. foeniculi at the concentration of 0.3%, increasing the control up to concentrations of 0.6 and 0.7%. The product does not kill ladybugs (Cycloneda sanguinea and can be used in programs for integrated pest management.Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare, aphid, vegetable oil, ladybug, umbel.

  1. Efficacy of three citrus oil formulations against solenopsis invicta buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the red imported fire ant1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Vogt; Thormas G. Shelton; Michael E. Merchant; Scott A. Russell; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas to assess efficacy of raw citrus peel extract (orange oil) and a commercial citrus oil formulation for control of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. A recipe containing orange oil (equal parts orange oil, cattlemen's molasses, and compost tea at 47 mL L1 water),...

  2. Pomelo peel modified with acetic anhydride and styrene as new sorbents for removal of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Junchen; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Beibei; Yin, Tiantian

    2015-11-01

    Pomelo peel (PP), as one of the well-known agricultural wastes, is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Based on PP, two new kinds of oil sorbents were prepared by using acetic anhydride and styrene. The structures of raw pomelo peel (RP), acetic anhydride-treated pomelo peel (AP) and styrene-treated pomelo peel (SP) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle (CA) measurements. The optimum reaction conditions for preparation of AP and SP were also investigated. The resulting products exhibited better oil sorption capacity than that of RP for diesel and lubricating oil, also SP had better oil sorption capacity than AP, while the oil sorption capacities of SP for diesel and lubricating oil reached 18.91 and 26.36 g/g, respectively. Adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that AP and SP, especially SP could be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...

  4. Optimization of Extracting Pigment from Orange Peel by Response Surface Methodology and Stability of Pigment in Orange Peel%橘皮色素提取的响应面优化及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 淡小艳; 乔璐; 郑晓娜; 邵欢欢

    2012-01-01

    Using ethanol to extract pigment from orange peel. Box-Behnken central composite test and response surface methodology were used to study the impacts of different extraction conditions (ratio of solid to liquid, extraction temperature and extraction time) on extraction effect of pigment, and to analyze the stability of pigment in orange peel. The results showed that when extraction solvent, ratio of solid to liquid, extraction temperature and extraction time were 95% aqueous ethanol, 1:20 (g/mL), 75℃ and 120 min, respectively, the extraction effect of pigment was the best; the pigment was unstable under light conditions, so it should be stored without light; metal ions including Mg2+, K+, Na+, Mn2+ and Ca2+, common food additives such as glucose and citric acid, oxidizer and reductant all had no impact on the stability of pigment; the pigment was sensitive under acidic condition, and the color of pigment deepened under alkaline condition.%采用Box-Behnken中心组合试验和响应面分析法,研究醇提法提取橘皮色素中料液比、提取温度和提取时间对提取效果的影响,并分析橘皮色素的稳定性.结果表明:以95%乙醇为提取溶剂,在料液比为1∶20(g/mL)、温度为75℃、提取时间为120min条件下提取效果最佳;橘皮色素的稳定性研究表明,橘皮色素在光照条件下稳定性较差,因此贮藏中应适当避光;Mg2+、K+、Na+、Mn2+和Ca2+等金属离子对色素无不良影响;常用食品添加剂葡萄糖和柠檬酸溶液对色素的稳定性几乎无影响;橘皮色素对氧化剂和还原剂亦较为稳定;橘皮色素在酸性条件下比较敏感,在碱性条件下颜色加深.

  5. Orange oil effect in the control of fennel aphid

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Luciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito; Carlos Henrique de Brito; Edson Batista Lopes; Jacinto de Luna Batista

    2009-01-01

    In the properties where fennel is grown, in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Paraiba, at the Northeast of Brazil, a high rate of usage of pesticides in the crop, aiming to control the aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orange oil Prev-Am (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate), in the control of H. foeniculi aphid of the fennel crop. The trial was conducted in a fennel field located in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, belonging to the ...

  6. Fungal inhibitory effect of Citrus Limon peel essential oil on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Hernawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infections due to Candida albicans that often found in people with HIV/AIDS. Anti-fungi, polyne and azole, are used in the treatment of oral candidiasis, but often cause persistence and recurrence. Citrus Limon peel contains terpenoids capable of inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a component of the fungal cell wall that helps to maintain cell membrane permeability. Essential oil derived from citrus limon peel, thus, is expected to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Purpose: This research was aimed to know how essential oil derived from citrus Limon peel can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Method: This research was a laboratory experimental research carried out in three phases. First, essential oil was made with cold pressing method, and then the concentration of 100% was diluted to 50%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. A test was conducted on the culture of Candida albicans in Sabouraud broth, accompanied by control (+ and (-. Second, the dilution of essential oil was conducted to alter the concentration with inhibitory power, from the strongest one to the weakest one, and then it was tested on the culture of Candida albicans. Third, spreading was carried out from liquid culture to agar media in order to measure the number of colonies. Result: Candida albicans did not grow on media with 100% essential oil treatment, but it grew on media with 50% essential oil treatment. In the second phase, dilution of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% was conducted. The growth of Candida albicans was found on the treatment media of 60% and 50%. On the agar media, the growth occurred in the cultured medium treated with 70%. Conclusion: The minimum inhibitory power of essential oil derived from citrus Limon peel against Candida albicans was in the concentration of 80%. Essential oil derived from citrus Limon peel has antifungal effect and potential as a therapeutic agent for oral candidiasis.

  7. 改性橙皮对汞的吸附研究%Study on the Adsorption of Mercury by Modified Orange Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 魏爱斌

    2012-01-01

    为了了解改性橙皮对废水中Hg2+的吸附作用,通过静态吸附实验,考察了离子初始浓度、吸附时间等因素对Hg2+吸附的影响。试验结果表明,化学改性的橙皮对废水中的Hg2+有一定的吸附能力。在温度50℃,初始浓度为10μg.L-1、搅拌30 min、投加量为20 mg/L的条件下,Hg2+的去除率可达到96.66%。%Adsorption of Hg2+ by modified Orange peel was studied. The effects of initial Hg2+ concentration, contact time and so on adsorption were investigated. The results indicated that modified Orange peel had good adsorption to Hg2+. In condition of 50℃, the initial concentration of 10μg.L-1, contact time was 30 min, 20 mg/L modified Orange peel, the adsorption rate of Hg^2+ could be up to 96.66 %.

  8. 玉米须陈皮复合保健饮料的研制%Development of the Compound Health Drink of Corn Silk and Dried Orange Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奇; 谢佩; 项俊; 方元平

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To develop a new compound health drink with corn silk and dried orange peel. [ Method] With the experimental factors of corn silk juice, dried orange peel juice, white sugar and citric acid, a L9(34)orthogonal experiment was conducted, the color, aroma, taste and appearance of the beverage were graded to conclude the optimal ratio of materials. [ Result] The best formula of corn silk and dried orange peel compound beverage was: 75% corn silk juice, 75% dried orange peel juice, 14% white sugar, 0. 18% citric acid and 0. 1% orange flavor. Hie influential degree of the four factors on the seiisyry evaluation, of products decreased in the order of dried orange peel juice > white sugar > citric acid > corn silk juice. With the increasing addition of dried orange peel juice, the color of products became brighter, and the aroma became strong; with the increasing addition of white sugar, the appropriate ratio of sugar-acid greatly improved the taste and products, the palate of com silk was soft without producing significant impact on the flavor of products. [ Conclusion] Hie compound beverage developed by com silk and dried orange peel has special flavor and taste with high nutritional value and good healthcare functions, thus it has great market prospect and development value.%[目的]以玉米须、陈皮为主要原料,开发研制具有营养保健作用的复合保健饮品.[方法]选用玉米须汁、陈皮汁、白砂糖、柠檬酸作为试验因子,采用L9(34)正交试验的方法进行试验,根据饮品的色泽、香气、滋味和组织状态进行评分,分析得出最佳的原料配比.[结果]试验得出,玉米须陈皮复合保健饮料的最佳配方为:玉米须汁75%,陈皮汁75%,白砂糖14%,柠檬酸0.18%,甜橙香精0.1%.4个因子对产品感官评价的影响程度大小依次为:陈皮汁>白砂糖>柠檬酸>玉米须汁.随着陈皮汁加入量的增加,产品感官色泽有较明显的上升趋势,同时香气更

  9. Utilization of orange peel, a food industrial waste, in the production of exo-polygalacturonase by pellet forming Aspergillus sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz; Lahore, Marcello Fernandez; Tari, Canan

    2015-04-01

    The production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from orange peel (OP), a food industrial waste, using Aspergillus sojae was studied in submerged culture. A simple, low-cost, industrially significant medium formulation, composed of only OP and (NH4)2SO4 (AS) was developed. At an inoculum size of 2.8 × 10(3) spores/mL, growth was in the form of pellets, which provided better mixing of the culture broth and higher exo-PG activity. These pellets were successfully used as an inoculum for bioreactors and 173.0 U/mL exo-PG was produced. Fed-batch cultivation further enhanced the exo-PG activity to 244.0 U/mL in 127.5 h. The final morphology in the form of pellets is significant to industrial fermentation easing the subsequent downstream processing. Furthermore, the low pH trend obtained during this fermentation serves an advantage to fungal fermentations prone to contamination problems. As a result, an economical exo-PG production process was defined utilizing a food industrial by-product and producing high amount of enzyme.

  10. Neural network model and isotherm study for removal of phenol from aqueous solution by orange peel ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Naba Kumar; Bhaumik, Ria; Das, Biswajit; Roy, Palas; Datta, Jayanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Bhattacharjee, Siddhartha

    2015-09-01

    Artificial Neural Network model and isotherm study were done to predict the removal efficiency of phenol. An inexpensive adsorbent was developed from orange peel ash (OPA) for effective uptake of phenol from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters (initial concentration, pH, adsorbents dose, contact time, stirring rate and temperature) on phenol uptake efficiency was evaluated. Phenol was adsorbed by the OPA up to maximum of 97.34 %. Adsorption of phenol on OPA correlated well with the Langmuir isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of phenol onto the surface of the adsorbent. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 3.55 mg g-1 at 303 K. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data. Moreover, the activation energy of the adsorption process ( E a) was found to be -18.001 kJ mol-1 indicating physorption nature of phenol onto OPA. A negative enthalpy (∆ H°) value indicated that the adsorption process was exothermic. Again multi-layer Neural Network model was in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Removal of Congo Red and Acid Yellow 36 Dye Using Orange Peel and Rice Husk as Absorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Ranjini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have identified the capability of agricultural wastes as absorbents to remove different types of pollutants including dyes. This study represents the use of orange peel (OP and rice husk (RH to remove two types of dye, Congo Red (CR and Acid Yellow 36 (AY 36 dye and provides simple comparison between granular form of OP and RH and activated form of OP and RH. Both types of dyes are toxic and can cause severe problems to the environment. Factor such as absorbent dosage was studied. Batch absorption studies were conducted at 27˚C with constant stirring at 150 rpm for 2 hours and absorbent dosage of 0.2 to 1.0 g. The results showed that the activated form of OP and RH had the highest removal percentage of CR and AY 36 dyeswhich were up to 100% removal. This study indicates that OP and RH could be employed as low cost materials for the removal of textile dyes from effluents.

  12. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sye Chee Ling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic com- pounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. Material and methods. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, p-anisidine value (p-AnV, total oxidation value (TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and free fatty acid (FFA content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. Results. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Conclusions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the ap- plication of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  13. Investigation of Trace Element Content in the Seeds, Pulp, and Peel of Mashui Oranges Using Microwave Digestion and ICP-MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shen, Mei; Ma, Ande; Han, Weili

    2017-06-16

    Fresh Mashui orange samples were pretreated with microwave digestion using an HNO3-H2O2 system. The levels of Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the seeds, pulp, and peel were then determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with collision cell technology (CCT) and kinetic energy discrimination (KED). The standard curve coefficient of determinations of the ten tested elements were between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The instrument detection limit was between 0.112 ng/L and 3.05 ng/mL. The method detection limit was between 0.0281 and 763 ng/g. The average recovery rate was between 85.0 and 117%. The current results showed that Mashui oranges are rich in three elements, namely Mg, K, and Ca. The concentrations of K and Ca were significantly higher than that of Mg in the peel. The content of K was the highest in the seeds. Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn had the second highest concentrations, and Fe was the highest in the seeds, while Cu was the lowest in the peel. As, Cd, and Pb (hazardous elements) had the lowest concentrations of all the tested elements.

  14. Biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceumL.) peel extract and their photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, Thenmozhi; Selvakumar, Stanly Arul Samuel

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, describes the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceumL.) peel extract via bio synthesis method and developed a new low cost technology to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. During the synthesis, fruit peel extract act as a natural ligation agent. The successfully prepared product was analyzed with some standard characterization studies like X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS Diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High resolution transmittance electron microscope (HR-TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under UV light and the result depicts around 83.99% decolorisation efficiency at 120 min of illumination. In addition with photodecolorisation, mineralization was also achieved. The mineralization has been confirmed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values.

  15. Analysis of Orange Peel Defects in Cold Rolled Sheet%冷轧板冲压橘皮缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪翠

    2013-01-01

    Because orange peel defects appeared in the surface of St13 cold-rolled sheet after deep punching, seriously affecting the use performance, the process parameters and the samples from the sheet with defects were analyzed. The results showed that the chemical composition met the requirement and the annealing parameters were regular, but mixed grain phenomenon in the microstructure of the sample and a smell yield point jog existed in the tension test of the simple. The fluctuation of hot rolling process and small rolling force in leveling process are main reasons caused the orange peel defects. Through strengthening process control in hot rolling and optimizing leveling parameter, the yield point jog and orange peel defect were eliminated.%  由于St13冷轧板冲压后表面出现橘皮缺陷,严重影响使用性能,对钢板生产工艺过程参数和缺陷板取样进行分析,结果表明,化学成分符合要求,退火工艺参数正常,但缺陷试样组织存在一定混晶现象,试样拉伸试验存在微小屈服平台,说明热轧工艺波动和冷轧平整力不足是导致橘皮缺陷产生的主要原因,通过加强热轧工艺控制,优化平整工艺参数,消除了屈服平台和冲压橘皮缺陷。

  16. Research on Extraction of Pectin from Orange Peel%芦柑皮果胶提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏睿; 邹立强; 韩雅惠; 沈勇根

    2011-01-01

    Taking dried orange peel which is crushed as material, raw pectin was extracted from it with the method of acid hydrolysis deposition. The research aimed to investigate the best conditions for extracting raw pectin from orange peel by single-factor experiment(material to water ratio, pH value, extraction temperature and extraction time)and L9(34)orthogonal experiment. The maximum extracting rate of raw pectin could be obtained under the following conditions:The temperature was 85 ℃, the ratio of orange peel over hydrochloric acid was 1:10, pH value was 2.0, the stirring time was 60 minutes. The average extracting rate of pectin from orange peel was 14.57%. The purity of pectin was 87.23%.The esterification degree of pectin was 75.66%, and pectin sample color was creamy white to pale yellow.%以烘干芦柑皮的粉末作为原料,采用酸水解乙醇沉淀法提取粗果胶.在参考料液比、pH值、浸提温度、浸提时间4个单因素提取效果的基础上,进行了L9(34)正交试验.优化试验以及方差分析结果表明,芦柑皮果胶提取的最佳工艺条件为:料液比1:10,pH值2.0,浸提温度85℃,浸提时间60min.在上述条件下,制备的果胶样品颜色呈乳白至淡黄色,芦柑皮果胶平均提取率为14.57%,果胶纯度87.23%,酯化程度即甲氧基果胶含量为75.66%.

  17. Searching on the Application of Edible Film Orange Peel Pectin%橙皮果胶可食性保鲜膜的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶莹; 王朝瑾; 沈宗霖

    2012-01-01

    利用橙皮提取果胶,检测果胶样品的质量,分析得出该果胶产品符合作为食品添加剂的国家标准。利用橙皮果胶为主要原材料制备的薄膜各项指标为:透光率为87.8%,厚度为0.127 mm,抗拉强度为3.983 MPa,断裂伸长率为24.883%。文中还将果胶标准品膜、提取的果胶样品膜和购买的PE膜进行物理特性的分析对比,并应用于猪肉的保鲜,通过分析汁液渗出量、pH值、挥发性盐基氮和细菌总数4个指标的变化,证明橙皮果胶可食性保鲜膜对冷鲜猪肉的保鲜效果明显优于PE塑料保鲜膜,具有良好的实用价值。%Pectin was extracted from pericarp of orange peel.The characteristics of the pection was: luminousness 87.8%,thickness 0.127 mm,tensile strength 3.983 MPa,elongation at break 24.883%.This pectin product met the national standards as food additives.The comparison among films made from pectin standard product,orange peel pectin and PE bought from the market was carried out.The result showed that orange peel pectin edible film was better than PE plastic wrap on preserving cold fresh pork in the following areas: weight losses,pH,TVBN,and total bacterial count. So that orange peel pectin edible film has good practical value.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry.

  19. Formulation of antiacne serum based on lime peel essential oil and in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Fatimah, Ifat; Chabib, Lutfi; Fajarwati, Febi Indah

    2017-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes are a normal bacterium in human skin but it can become primary pathogens that can cause inflammation on the skin. Research about new antibacterial compounds is important because resistance of bacteria acne to antibiotics. Some of Essential oils have antibacterial properties. Lime peel essential oil and patchouli essential oil have some terpenoids that act as antibacterial compounds such as Linalool and Seychellene. The purpose of this research was to formulate anti acne serum based on lime peel essential oil and patchouli oil and to determine the zone of inhibition against of Propionibacterium acnes. This study made 21 variations of formulation of anti acne serum, consisted of lime peel essential oil, patchouli oil and olive oil. Anti acne serum was evaluated i.e. in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes for 5 days, organoleptic, stability test, pH test, viscosity test and GC-MS analysis. Nine serum formulations had been selected, which based on their most favorite order. Those favorite serums had antibacterial inhibitory against Propionibacterium acnes between 20.80 - 26.12 mm, whereas control positive only 12.47 mm and control negative 5.78 mm. The most favorite serum with the best antibacterial activity was serum formula A. The composition of serum A consist of lime peel essential oil: patchouli oil: olive oil (11:1:18).

  20. A Comparative Study of Cellulose Agricultural Wastes (Almond Shell, Pistachio Shell, Walnut Shell, Tea Waste And Orange Peel for Adsorption of Violet B Dye from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Hashemian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of violet B azo dye from aqueous solutions was studied by different cellulose agriculturalwaste materials (almond shell (AS, pistachio shell (PS, walnut shell (WS, Tea waste (TW and orange peel (OP. Cellulose agricultural waste sorbents characterized by FTIR and SEM methods. The effects of different parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration were studied.Maximum removal of dye was obtained at contact time of 90 min and pH 11.The adsorption of violet B was fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model.The Langmuir isotherm model was better fitted than Freundlichmodel. The results showed that the adsorption efficiency of violet B by cellulose agricultural waste materials is as followed: Almond shell > Orange peel > Pistachio shell > Tea waste> Walnut shell.The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained 96, 82, 71.4, 55.5 and 48.7 mg g−1 for AS, OP, PS, TW and WS, respectively.

  1. 桔皮纹理效果环氧地坪漆的制备%The Preparation of Epoxy Flooring Paint with Orange Peel Texture Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐植贤; 徐军标; 蔡芬峰

    2016-01-01

    On basis of common solvent based epoxy flooring paint,a thickness epoxy flooring paint with orange peel texture effect was prepared through applications of organic bentonite,fumed silica,silica surfactant and other functional fillers. The influences of organic bentonite,fumed silica and pigment volume concentration(PVC)on the thixotropic index of paint and orange peel texture effect of film were discussed.%在普通溶剂型环氧地坪漆中,通过对有机膨润土、气相白炭黑、有机硅表面控制剂以及其它功能填料的应用,制备了一种厚质桔皮纹理效果环氧地坪漆。讨论了有机膨润土、气相白炭黑和颜料体积浓度(PVC)对漆液触变指数和漆膜桔皮纹理效果的影响。

  2. Studies on Extraction of Pectin from Shatang Orange Peel%砂糖桔皮中果胶提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石月锋; 周向辉; 任向莉; 李哲斌

    2014-01-01

    以干砂糖桔皮为原料,通过对料液比、浸提温度、浸提时间进行单因素试验和L9(33)正交试验,对桔皮果胶提取工艺进行优化。结果表明:桔皮果胶提取的最佳工艺条件为:料液比1∶30(g∶mL)、温度90℃、时间1.5 h,在此条件下桔皮中果胶得率为26.74%。将得到的砂糖桔皮果胶通过活性炭脱色、干燥处理,得到质量较好的果胶产品。%With the dried orange peel as raw material, the extraction of pectin from Shatang orange peel through L9(33) orthogonal test was studied. The results showed that the optimal process of pectin was as follows:liquid ratio 1∶30, temperature 90℃, time 1.5 h. Under this extract condition, the pectin rate was 26.74%.

  3. Effects of microwave roasting on the yield and composition of cold pressed orange seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aydeniz Güneşer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to valorize orange (Citrus sinensis seeds, which are generated as waste. This study presents data about raw orange seed, the meal gained after cold pressing, and characterization data of the cold pressed seed oils. Furthermore, the effects of microwave roasting of the seds compared to regular roasting (control were determined. The oil yield of orange seed cold pressing was around 52.93–62.99%. After cold pressing, 13.57–17.97% oil remained in the meal together with 20.68–25.61% protein. Hence, pressed meals could be valorized for different purposes. Except for turbidity, the color b* value, free acidity, the p-anisidine value and antioxidant capacity, there was no significant difference between the two oil samples for the measured physicochemical properties. Six different fatty acids were quantified and the major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acid composition of the orange seed oil can be accepted as nutritionally balanced. Among the fifteen sterols quantified, ß-sitosterol was dominant (around 77–78%. Likewise, the α-tocopherol content of the samples was not significantly different. The thermal onset and peak temperatures, and enthalpies for crystallization and melting were also reported. This study showed that good quality orange seed oils can be produced by cold pressing, and the oils could be used in food and non-food applications.

  4. Antioxidant and lipase inhibitory activities and essential oil composition of pomegranate peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, Fatma; Cher, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef Talel; Adel, Sayari

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil, antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of various solvent extracts obtained from pomegranate peelTunisian cultivar was evaluated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PP essential oil. Nine-teen components were identified and the main compounds were the camphor (60.32%) and the benzaldehyde (20.98%). The phenolic and flavonoids content varied from 0 to 290.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent and from 5.2 to 20.43 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from pomegranate peel was also investigated using various in vitro assays as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays.Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the most potent antioxidant activity in all assays tested followed by water and acetone extracts. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate peelextracts on porcine pancreatic lipase was evaluated and the results showed that ethanol and methanol extracts markedly reduced lipase activity. Generally, the highestlipase activity inhibitory (100%) was observed at a concentration of 1 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation. LC-MS analysis of ethanol extract showed the presence of four components which are cholorogenic acid, mannogalloylhexoside, gallic acid and ellagic acid. Our findings demonstrate that the ethanol extract from pomegranate peel might be a good candidate for furtherinvestigations of new bioactive substances.

  5. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  6. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Peel of Chinese Torreya grandis Fort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the peel essential oil of Torreya grandis fort obtained by cold pressing and steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. 62 constituents accounting for 99.6% of the total pressed oil were identified while 59 compounds accounting for 99.4% of the steam distilled oil were identified. Limonene (35.6–37.1%, α-pinene (20.1–24.1%, and δ-carene (3.3–3.9 were the major constituents. Others include γ-carene (3.8-3.9%, germacrene D (2.5–2.9%, and β-farnesene (2.7-2.8%.

  7. Studies on orange oil methyl ester in diesel engine with hemispherical and toroidal combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthickeyan Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to compare the emission characteristics of 20% orange oil methyl ester and 80% diesel in volumetric basis with Neat diesel in hemispherical combustion chamber and toroidal combustion chamber. Non-edible orange oil is selected and utilized to prepare alternative fuel to be utilized in Diesel engine. The traditional method of transestrification is employed for preparation orange oil methyl ester. The chemical properties of prepared methyl ester were determined using fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy method. Further its fuel properties were found based on American Society for Testing and Materials standards and compared with Neat diesel fuel properties. A compression ignition engine with electrical dynamometer test rig with gas analyzer has been used. It is observed that 1% of NOx and 4% of HC emission reduced in toroidal combustion chamber engine. However, smoke emission is found to be lower in hemispherical combustion chamber engine.

  8. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  9. 微波法提取橘皮中类胡萝卜素的工艺研究%Microwave Extraction of Carotenoid from Orange Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春燕; 磨文龙

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to explore the process conditions of extracting carotenoid from orange peel with microwave extraction. [Method] The carotenoid was extracted from orange peel by using microwave-assisted extraction, with β-carotene as standard sample, the carotenoid content was determined with ultraviolet spectrophotometer and the extraction rate was calculated. [Result] The single-factor experiment showed that the extraction rate was the highest when chloroform was taken as extractant, and the next was petroleum ether. The extraction rate was the highest when microwave power was 560 W, and extraction rate was increased slowly after 55 s. The extraction rate was only increased slightly with the rising up of solid-liquid ratio when the solid-liquid ratio was more than 1:25. The extraction rate of the 2nd time microwave extraction was obviously higher than that of the 1st time extraction. The effect of each factor on extraction rate of carotenoid from orange peel was in the order as: microwave power > extraction times > extraction time > solid-liquid ratio. The optimal process conditions were: microwave power was 560 W, solid-liquid ratio was 1:20, extracted for twice and 60 s per time, under these technological conditions, the extraction rate of carotenoid from orange peel was 7.51 mg/100 g. [Conclusion] The study was reduced the production cost of carotenoid, and increased the sources of carotenoid.%[目的]探讨微波萃取法提取橘皮中类胡萝卜素的工艺条件.[方法]采用微波辅助萃取法提取橘皮类胡萝卜素,以β-胡萝卜素为标准品,用紫外分光光度计测定类胡萝卜素含量并计算提取率.[结果]单因素试验表明,以三氯甲烷为提取剂的提取率最高,石油醚次之;微波功率为560 W时,提取率最高;微波作用55 s后提取率增加缓慢;当固液比(g/ml)大于1:25时,提取率变化不大;微波萃取2次的提取率明显高于1次.各因素对橘皮中类胡萝卜素提取率的影

  10. Purification and general properties of pectin methyl esterase from Curvularia inaequalis NRRL 13884 in solid state culture using orange peels as an inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, A F; Fawzi, E M; Foaad, M A

    2002-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) [E.C.3. 1.1.11] production by Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn NRRL 13884 was investigated using solid-state culture. The highest level of extracellular pectin methyl esterase was detected with orange peels as an inducing substrate and as a sole carbon source. The enzyme was partially purified using Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography. It was purified about 40 fold with optimum activity at pH 4.4 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme was activated by Co++, Mg++, Na+, whereas it was slightly activated in the presence of Cu++, K+, Mn++, Zn++. On the other hand Ag++, Ca++ and Hg++ inhibited the activity of the enzyme. The Km was calculated to be 0.52 mM.

  11. Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Pectin from Umbilica-like Orange Peel%超声波辅助提取脐橙皮果胶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秋红; 贾娟; 李轲

    2013-01-01

    The pectin was extracted by ultrasonic from umbilica-like orange peel. Single factor experiments and or-thogonal experiments were designed to confirm the main factors and the optimal condtions. The results showed that optimal condtions were as following: solid-liquid ratio (g∶mL) was 1∶20, pH was 2.0, extraction temperature was 70℃, extraction time was 50min. Under these conditions, the extraction rate of pectin reached 21.30%. Compared with the traditionally direct heat extraction, ultrasonic was a energy-saving time-saving, and highly efficient method for extracting pectin from umbilica-like orange peel.%  采用超声波辅助法提取脐橙皮果胶,通过单因素实验研究了影响提取脐橙皮果胶的主要因素及水平范围,通过正交实验确定了其最佳提取条件为:料液比(g∶mL)为1∶20,pH为2.0,超声波浸提温度为70℃,浸提时间为50min。在此条件下提取脐橙皮果胶,得率可达到21.30%。与传统的直接加热提取法相比,超声波辅助提取法是一种节能、省时、高效的提取脐橙皮果胶的好方法。

  12. Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of orange peels with a view to establishing their raw material potentials.

  13. Biogenic synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using Pisum sativum peels extract and its effect on magnetic and Methyl orange dye degradation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Cheera; Yuvaraja, Gutha; Venkateswarlu, Ponneri

    2017-02-01

    We have been developed facile and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using an aqueous extract of Pisum sativum peels (PS) is used as reducing and capping agent. The as synthesized PS-Fe3O4 MNPs are characterized by diverse techniques such as FTIR, powder XRD, TEM, BET and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the obtained Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibits high specific surface area (∼17.6 m2/g) and agglomerated spherical in shape with the size range of 20-30 nm. The magnetic properties of PS-Fe3O4 MNPs sample clearly exhibits ferromagnetic nature with a saturation magnetization of 64.2 emu/g. Further, the catalytic properties of PS-Fe3O4 MNPs for degradation of Methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution have been investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The results show that PS-Fe3O4 MNPs is an efficient catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye than previously reported ones.

  14. Hydrothermal treatment favors peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter quality Tratamento hidrotérmico facilita o descascamento de laranja 'Pera' e não afeta sua qualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for ready-to-eat-products has stimulated the development of new processing techniques to prepare fresh-cut fruit and vegetables. The aim of this study was to propose a peeling method for 'Pera' oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. by using a hydrothermal treatment and to determine its influence on the respiratory activity, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics, as well as on the peeling time. Cooled oranges (6ºC were immersed in heated water (50ºC for eight minutes and then, peeled and stored at 6ºC. The internal fruit temperatures taken at 1 and 3 cm depths (from fruit surface were 15ºC and 10ºC, respectively, at the end of the hydrothermal treatment. Non-hydrothermally-treated peeled oranges were used as control. The peeling time for treated oranges was 3.2 times as short as the time used for the control. The yield of marketable oranges was 95% for hydrothermally-treated oranges versus 60% for control. The respiratory activity of hydrothermally-treated oranges was greater than that of control oranges only during the first hour after peeling. The hydrothermal treatment influenced neither the physicochemical quality (given by soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content nor fruit flavor. Oranges peeled with the aid of the hydrothermal treatment had better appearance. The hydrothermal treatment makes the peeling of oranges easier and does not affect their respiratory activity or their physicochemical and sensorial qualities.A demanda dos consumidores por produtos 'prontos para o consumo' tem estimulado o desenvolvimento de técnicas de processamento para preparar frutas e hortaliças minimamente processadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor um método de descascamento para laranja 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. pelo uso do tratamento hidrotérmico e determinar sua influência na atividade respiratória, características físico-químicas e sensoriais e no tempo de descascamento de laranja 'Pera

  15. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly(alpha-hydroxydibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milled Osage orange seeds (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid) were Soxhlet extracted with hexane, and portions of the extract were treated with activated carbon before solvent removal. The crude oil was winterized and degummed by centrifugation at low temperature. Decantation of the centrifuge gave an...

  16. Properties of chitosan microencapsulated orange oil prepared by spray-drying and its stability to detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance encapsulated in small particles of less than 20 µm diameter is preferred for use in textiles. In this study, aromatic orange oil was emulsified in a continuous phase of chitosan and spray-dried to produce microcapsules. The most effective combination of emulsifiers, ratio of chitosan to oi...

  17. 四种食品防腐剂对桔皮黄酮清除自由基影响%Effect of four food preservative on flavonoid from orange peel eliminating radical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蜀眉; 王丽荣; 盛显良; 辛启凤

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids from orange peel were extracted with 90% alcohol. Effect of four food preservatives on ability in flavonoids from orange peel elimination radical was studied by DPPH method when their concentration and temperature are different. The result showed that when temperature is 40 ℃,0.1%sorbistat and 0.1%benzoic acid can improve ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel,0.1%sodium propionate and 0.06%ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate can reduce ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel. 0.1%sorbistat and 0.1%benzoic acid and 0.06%ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate can reduce ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel when temperature is 60℃. Effect of 0.1%sodium propionate on ability in flavonoids from orange peel elimination radical has no relation with temperature.%用90%的乙醇提取桔皮中的黄酮类化合物,通过DPPH法研究四种食品防腐剂在不同浓度和温度下对桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基能力的影响。结果表明,在温度40℃时,0.1%山梨酸、0.1%苯甲酸可以提高桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力;0.1%丙酸钠、0.06%对羟基苯甲酸乙酯使桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力下降。在温度60℃时,0.1%山梨酸、0.1%苯甲酸、0.06%对羟基苯甲酸乙酯使桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力下降。0.1%丙酸钠对桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基能力的影响与温度没有关系。

  18. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.

  19. Enhanced production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using banana peels as substrate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sethi, Bijay Kumar; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-01-01

    ...) for biosynthesis of pectinase. Amongst various substrates, like, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake, groundnut oil cake, black gram peels, green gram peels, chickling vetch peels/grass pea peels wheat bran, pearl millet residues...

  20. Bio-oil from cassava peel: a potential renewable energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Ong Lu; Kurniawan, Alfin; Lin, Chun Xiang; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Ismadji, Suryadi

    2013-10-01

    In this work, liquid biofuel (bio-oil) was produced by pyrolizing cassava peel. The experiments were conducted isothermally in a fixed-bed tubular reactor at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600°C with a heating rate of 20°C/min. The chemical compositions of bio-oil were analyzed by a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. For the optimization of liquid product, temperature was plotted to be the most decisive factor. The maximum yield of bio-oil ca. 51.2% was obtained at 525°C and the biofuel has a gross calorific value of 27.43 MJ/kg. The kinetic-based mechanistic model fitted well with experimental yield of pyrolysis products with the mean squared error (MSE) of 13.37 (R(2)=0.96) for solid (char), 16.24 (R(2)=0.95) for liquid (bio-oil), and 0.49 (R(2)=0.99) for gas.

  1. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Research Status of Extraction and Applications of Essential Oil of Pomelo Peel%柚皮精油提取工艺与应用研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋平; 吴厚玖; 沈海亮

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarized the extraction methods of pemelo peel oil at home and abroad, and the application of every method. According to the applications of essential oils of pomelo peel at this stage, the development prospect of studies and application of essential oil of pomelo peel were outlooked.%综述目前国内外柚皮精油的提取方法及应用研究情况,并根据现阶段柚皮精油的应用状况,展望未来柚皮精油研究与应用的发展前景.

  3. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  4. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  5. A comparative study of natural, formaldehyde-treated and copolymer-grafted orange peel for Pb(II) adsorption under batch and continuous mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Lugo, Violeta; Hernández-López, Susana; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Ureña-Núñez, Fernando; Bilyeu, Bryan

    2009-01-30

    Natural, formaldehyde-treated and copolymer-grafted orange peels were evaluated as adsorbents to remove lead ions from aqueous solutions. The optimum pH for lead adsorption was found to be pH 5. The adsorption process was fast, reaching 99% of sorbent capacity in 10 min for the natural and treated biomasses and 20 min for the grafted material. The treated biomass showed the highest sorption rate and capacity in the batch experiments, with the results fitting well to a pseudo-first order rate equation. In the continuous test with the treated biomass, the capacity at complete exhaustion was 46.61 mg g(-1) for an initial concentration of 150 mg L(-1). Scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the materials had a rough surface, and that the adsorption of the metal took place on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the functional groups responsible for metallic biosorption were the -OH, -COOH and -NH(2) groups on the surface. Finally, the thermogravimetric analysis indicates that a mass reduction of 80% can be achieved at 600 degrees C.

  6. A comparative study of natural, formaldehyde-treated and copolymer-grafted orange peel for Pb(II) adsorption under batch and continuous mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Lugo, Violeta; Hernandez-Lopez, Susana [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Barrera-Diaz, Carlos [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Urena-Nunez, Fernando [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P.18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bilyeu, Bryan [Xavier University of Louisiana, Department of Chemistry, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)

    2009-01-30

    Natural, formaldehyde-treated and copolymer-grafted orange peels were evaluated as adsorbents to remove lead ions from aqueous solutions. The optimum pH for lead adsorption was found to be pH 5. The adsorption process was fast, reaching 99% of sorbent capacity in 10 min for the natural and treated biomasses and 20 min for the grafted material. The treated biomass showed the highest sorption rate and capacity in the batch experiments, with the results fitting well to a pseudo-first order rate equation. In the continuous test with the treated biomass, the capacity at complete exhaustion was 46.61 mg g{sup -1} for an initial concentration of 150 mg L{sup -1}. Scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the materials had a rough surface, and that the adsorption of the metal took place on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the functional groups responsible for metallic biosorption were the -OH, -COOH and -NH{sub 2} groups on the surface. Finally, the thermogravimetric analysis indicates that a mass reduction of 80% can be achieved at 600 deg. C.

  7. Respective Effects of Post-harvest Citrus Oil Induction and Vibration Stress Treatment on Oleocellosis in Jincheng Orange Peel(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Jincheng)%采后橘油诱导及振动胁迫对贮藏期锦橙果皮油胞病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丹; 吴日章; 曾凯芳

    2011-01-01

    The respective effects of post-harvest citrus oil induction and vibration stress treatment on oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel were studied based on collapse index and color index.Oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel showed a gradual increase as the concentration of citrus oil increased.The most serious oleocellosis in citrus peel could arise from 100% citrus oil treatment.In addition,mechanical vibration stress also could induce oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel.Mechanical vibration stress at 500 r/min revealed the most obvious effect on oleocellosis formation.Moreover,Jincheng oranges treated with citrus oil or mechanical vibration stress were also used to explore the effect of storage temperature on oleocellosis in their peels.As a result,Jincheng oranges stored at 20 or 5 ℃had the severest change in oleocellosis.However,Jincheng oranges had the slightest change in oleocellosis during 5 ℃ storage.Therefore,these results can provide a theoretical reference for exploring the mechanisms and control strategies of oleocellosis.%以果皮塌陷指数和变色指数为测定指标,研究橘油及振动胁迫处理对锦橙果皮油胞病的影响。结果表明:随橘油体积分数增大果皮油胞病逐渐加重,并以100%橘油处理对锦橙果皮油胞病的诱导效果最明显;锦橙果皮油胞病发病程度随着振动胁迫强度增大而加重,其中500r/min的诱导效果最显著。另外,在橘油和振动胁迫处理后的果实在不同温度下贮藏时,发现20℃贮藏的锦橙果皮油胞病最为严重,0℃冷害温度也能加剧果实油胞病的发生,5℃贮藏的锦橙果皮油胞病最轻微。研究结果为进一步研究柑橘油胞病的发生机理及防控措施提供理论依据。

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cold Pressed Oils from Florida Hamlin and Valencia Oranges Affected by Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Brittany M; Sims, Charles A; Etxeberria, Edgardo; Schneider, Renée M Goodrich

    2017-09-01

    Cold pressed oils from huanglongbing (HLB) symptomatic (SY) and asymptomatic (AS) Hamlin and Valencia oranges were assessed for 2 y (2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016 seasons) with 2 harvest dates for each orange variety per year. Physicochemical properties (optical rotation, aldehyde content, ultraviolet [UV] absorbance, refractive index, and specific gravity) mandated by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for orange oil quality were assessed. Hamlin and Valencia oils showed minor differences in physicochemical properties based upon disease stage. However, all Hamlin oils had aldehyde contents below the USP minimum and Valencia oil from late season SY oranges had specific gravities above the USP maximum. Significant differences based on harvest year were seen for aldehyde content, refractive index, optical rotation, and UV absorbance. While none of these changes led to an oil being out of USP specifications, they indicate a need to monitor the quality of oil every year to ensure a consistent product. Flavor taste panels were performed both years by adding 0.035% oil samples to a uniform orange juice base. Aroma panels were done by smelling pure oil. There were no significant differences between SY and AS oils for flavor, although panelist race was a significant factor in several of the panels. There were significant differences between the aroma of SY and AS oils for both 2015 to 2016 Hamlin Early and Valencia Late samples. Overall, these results show HLB can have an effect on the aroma and USP mandated physicochemical properties of Florida orange oils, although flavor may be unaffected by this plant disease. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Performance of orange oil in the control of carmine cochineal in giant cactus pear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, in 2001, the carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae already decimated some 100.000 hectares of giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica in semi-arid region of Paraiba. This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of five concentrations of orange oil, applied in cladodes on the death of D. opuntiae in field conditions. The research was carried out in a field of giant cactus pear infested by carmine cochineal on the site rigideira, Monteiro County, State of Paraíba. The trial design used was blocks at random (DBR composed of six treatments [doses of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7% of orange oil (Prev-am] and water as control and five repetitions. The orange oil known like Prev-Am (Sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate was effective against to carmine cochineal as early as the dose of 0.3% and higher potential for efficiency were observed at doses of 0.6 and 0.7%. After 48 hours of application of the product, which was observed at doses applied adults and nymphs of the insect, was dried according to the product action that acts by contact. The product had no lethal effect on ladybugs (Cycloneda sanguinea and Scymnus intrusus, but was lethal to larvae of Baccha sp. at a dose of 0.7%.

  10. Effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Khedmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.Sixty-eight single-rooted single-canal extracted human premolar teeth were used. Tooth crowns were separated from the roots at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ. Roots were buccolingually sectioned into mesial and distal halves. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 20 teeth in each solvent group and 4 teeth in each control group. Primary microhardness of specimens was measured using Vickers microhardness tester. Specimens were exposed to solvents for 15 minutes and were subjected to microhardness testing again. Data were recorded and analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA.No significant difference was found in dentin microhardness before and after exposure to solvents in any of the orange oil, eucalyptol, chloroform or saline groups (P=0.727. None of the experimental groups showed any significant difference in terms of dentin microhardness reduction (P=0.99 and had no significant difference with the negative control group.This study showed that chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil as gutta percha solvents did not decrease the microhardness of root dentin. Thus, none of the mentioned solvents has any superiority over the others in terms of affecting dentin properties.

  11. 橙皮多糖组成、理化性质及抗氧化性检测%Determination of the Monosaccharide Components, Physicochemical Property and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Orange Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔立龙; 程翠利; 周春姣; 王辉宪; 蒋红梅

    2016-01-01

    探索并优化了橙皮多糖的提取工艺条件,检测纯化后橙皮多糖的组成,理化性质及抗氧化性;方法:采用用单因素及正交实验设计探索并优化超声波辅助提取橙皮多糖的工艺条件,粗多糖经氯仿:正丁醇(5:1, V:V)去蛋白、浓缩、乙醇沉淀后冷冻干燥,利用离子色谱技术分析纯化后橙皮多糖的组成,采用常规理化检测方法及体外抗氧化实验检测了纯化后橙皮多糖的理化性质及抗氧化性能力。结果表明离子色谱法测得橙皮多糖由3种单糖组成,分别为鼠李糖、葡萄糖、半乳糖醛酸;理化性质实验结果显示,橙皮多糖溶于水,微溶于体积分数为95%乙醇,不溶于乙醚、丙酮,灰分含量为0.1191%,蛋白质含量为0.15 mg/g抗氧化能力低于抗坏血酸(Vc)和2,6-二叔丁基对甲酚(BHT),橙皮粗多糖抗氧化能力优于精制橙皮多糖。%Extracting condition, composition, physicochemical property and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide which was extracted and purified from orange peel were investigated. Polysaccharide from orange peel was extracted using ultrasonic, and optimum extracting conditions of polysaccharide from orange peel with ultrasonic were studied by one-factor-at-a-time method and orthogonal experiments. The crude polysaccharide was purified by eliminating proteins with chloroform:n-butanol (5:1, V:V), concentrating, precipitating with cold ethanol and vacuum freeze drying. The composition of polysaccharide which was extracted and purified from orange peel was analyzed by employing ion chromatography. The physicochemical property and antioxidant activity of purified polysaccharide were measured. Results showed that purified polysaccharide from orange peel was composed of three kinds of monosaccharide, that was rhamnose, glucose and galacturonic acid. The physicochemical properties of purified polysaccharide from orange peel was soluble in water, slightly soluble in 95% ethanol

  12. Microbial population in the rumen of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilajun, R; Wanapat, M

    2013-06-01

    Four, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were used to study microbial populations in the rumen when supplemented with coconut oil and mangosteen peel. Animals were randomly assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were un-supplemented (Control), supplementation with coconut oil at 50 g/kg (CO5), supplementation with mangosteen peel at 30 g/kg (MP3) and supplementation with CO5 and MP3 (COM), of total DM intake. Animals received concentrate at 10 g/kg of BW, and rice straw was given ad libitum. Abundance of total bacteria was increased by CO5 supplementation, whereas populations of protozoa and Fibrobacter succinogenes were reduced by CO5 and COM supplementation. Dietary supplementation did not affect methanogen, Ruminococcus flavefaciens or Ruminococcus albus abundances. Dietary treatments changed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns of methanogens and protozoa when compared with the control group, especially when supplemented with MP3. Supplementation of COM resulted in the greatest difference in pattern of DGGE bands for total bacteria compared with the control. Coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation resulted in changing of rumen microbial abundances and communities; however, combination of them could be more benefit to improve rumen fermentation of swamp buffalo fed on rice straw.

  13. A Study on in Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Orange Pulp and Peel of Four Ripe Navel Orange Cultivars Planted in South Jiangxi%赣南不同脐橙品种果实体外抗氧化性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵嗣璠; 张智慧; 郭晓敏; 徐维杰; 钟八莲

    2012-01-01

    分别以清除DPPH·、ABTS+·和·OH自由基效果综合评价赣南主栽的4个脐橙品种成熟果实的抗氧化性,结果表明:4个脐橙品种果肉清除3种自由基的效果,红肉与纽荷尔相似,林娜与朋娜相似;但红肉和纽荷尔清除3种自由基的效果分别显著地(P<0.05)高于林娜与朋娜.4个品种脐橙果皮清除DPPH·和ABTS+·自由基的效果与果肉一致,清除·OH自由基的效果纽荷尔、红肉、林娜3品种相似,但显著地高于朋娜(P<0.05).4个脐橙品种果皮清除3种自由基效果均优于果肉.因此,从抗氧化角度考虑,纽荷尔、红肉脐橙值得在当地进一步扩大栽培面积,加工厂废弃的脐橙皮渣是可供利用的抗氧化资源.%In vitro antioxidant activities of orange peel and pulp of four ripe navel orange cultivars (Ne-whall, Cara, Navelina, Bonanza) , which are cultivated in South Jiangxi, are assessed with DPPH · , ABTS+ · and o OH free radical neutralization approaches in this paper. The results show that by orange pulp in vitro antioxidant activities these four orange cultivars are categorized into two groups, group A formed by Newhall and Cara, and group B formed by Navelina and Bonanza. There is no statistical difference between the groups. But the performance of group A is statistically better than that of group B with P - value <0.05. By neutralization activities of orange peel on DPPH o and ABTS + · free radicals, these four orange cultivars have the same performance as that of orange pulp. By orange peel neutralization activities of · OH free radicals three cultivars (Newhall, Cara, Navelina, Bonanza) have similar performance. But they are statistically better than that of Bonanza with P-value < 0. 05. The neutralization performance of orange peel is better than  that of orange pulp. If only considering in vitro antioxidant activities of these four orange cultivars, two culti-vars ( Newhall, Cara) are worthy of expanding their production. And

  14. The Correlation of Cracking Fruits Types and Peel Structure between ' Washington' and ' Bonanza' Navel Oranges%朋娜和华盛顿脐橙果皮结构与裂果类型的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 陈杰忠; 万继锋; 黄永敬; 姚青

    2011-01-01

    不同脐橙品种在果实成熟期都容易出现裂果现象,已成为商业种植中非常严重的问题.本研究于2007年和2008年调查了朋娜脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv.Skaggs Bonanza)和华盛顿脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv.Washington)的裂果类型和果实显微、超显微结构的差异.朋娜脐橙外果皮细胞排列的整齐紧密度较差,其细胞起伏、细胞间隙大,细胞形状偏圆形,表皮细胞层数较少,其果皮白皮层细胞间结合的紧密度、均匀度和网状连接程度好;华盛顿脐橙中果皮细胞壁纤维素微纤丝排列较细密,其微纤丝、胞间层不及朋娜脐橙细胞壁的清晰可见.二者都是高裂果率品种,华盛顿脐橙的裂果类型偏向于皱皮裂,朋娜脐橙则偏向果实外裂.%Fruit cracking is a serious pre-harvest physiological disorder commonly found in many navel orange orchards and results in lots of loss in commercial cultivation. The two navel orange species, Washington (Citrus sinensis Osbeck Washington)and Bonanza (Citrus sinensis Osbeck Skaggs Bonanza)navel orange from Anyuan and Xunwu County of Jiangxi Province and Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province, were used in this study. Obvious differences existed in flavedo, albedo and cell wall ultrastructure of healthy peel among different navel orange cultivars in which there were different cracking fruit types. Washington and Bonanza navel orange are high cracking fruit cultivars. In the contrary, most cracking fruits of Washington navel orange begins from albedo. Both of them had intact-structural flavedo, albedo, middle lamella (ML)and primary wall(PW). The flavedo of Bonanza navel orange was smaller, thinner and waved greatness, had bigger interspaces between cells than Washington navel orange, while the albedo of Bonanza navel orange was more regular than that of Washington navel orange. The albedo of Washington navel orange had bigger interspaces between cells, poorer spongy layer network and middle

  15. Production and characterization of films based on blends of chitosan from blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) waste and pectin from Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ricardo Duran; Pérez, Latife Lúquez; Salcedo, Jesús Mejía; Córdoba, Luis Pérez; Sobral, Paulo José do Amaral

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize films based on blends of chitosan and pectin, produced in laboratory scale, from industrial wastes. The chitosan was obtained by termoalcaline deacetylation of chitin, extracted from blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) waste and characterized according to degree of deacetylation (DD) and viscosimetric molecular weight (Mw); and pectin was extracted by conventional heating, from orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) peel and characterized according to degree of esterification (DE) and molecular weight (Mw). The Ch:P based films were prepared by the casting method in different Ch:P ratios [0: 100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0], and compared to two controls [0:100 and 100:0], of commercial pectin and chitosan. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer at concentrations of 0.2g/g macromolecules. The addition of high concentrations of pectin in the formulations resulted in films with high solubility and an increase in moisture. No significant difference (P>0.05) in the degree of swelling (DS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films was observed. Ch:P blend films were less stiff and therefore more elastic and flexible than films based on only one biopolymer. The control films presented better results in terms of color, being brighter and less opaque than other film formulations. These data suggest that chitosan or pectin obtained from agro-industrial waste is a potential matrix to produce biodegradable films for future food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of Azo Dyes (Violet B and Violet 5R from Aqueous Solution Using New Activated Carbon Developed from Orange Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Hashemian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon developed from agricultural waste orange peel (COP was prepared. COP was characterized using Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and BET. COP has surface area and mean pore diameter of 225.6 m2 g−1 and 22.40 nm, respectively. The removal of violet B (VB and violet 5R (V5R from aqueous solutions by COP was investigated. The effect of operational parameters such as contact time, pH, initial dye concentration, and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of dyes was investigated. Maximum dye was removed within 30 min of contact time at pH > 7. Two common models, the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, were used to investigate the interaction of dye and COPs. The isotherm evaluations revealed that the Langmuir model provides better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich model. The adsorption of VB and V5R onto COP was followed by pseudo-second-order kinetic model with a good correlation (R2>0.99. Activation energies 5.47 and 29.7 KJ mol−1 were determined for violet B and violet 5R, respectively. The rate of adsorption of violet 5R was faster than that of violet B (kV5R>kVB. The prepared COP could thus be used as promising adsorbent for removal of organic dyes, especially azo dye, from polluted water. The solid COP could be conveniently regenerated after adsorption.

  17. 超声波辅助提取橘子皮中果胶的研究%Research on Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Pectin From Orange Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙悦; 张双; 任铁强; 贾卓慧

    2014-01-01

    采用超声波辅助酸法从橘子皮中提取果胶。实验中对固液比、pH 值、提取温度和超声波提取时间等四个影响果胶提取率的因素分别进行考查,依据单因素实验结果进行正交试验。通过R和K值的比较,确定pH值、固液比对果胶提取率的影响较大,并确定最佳实验条件:pH值1.5、提取温度70℃、提取时间45 min、固液比20∶1,在该条件下果胶提取率可达到20.8%。采用红外光谱法对产品进行定性分析。%Pectin was extracted from orange peel by using ultrasonic assisted acid method. In the experiment process, effects of four factors including pH value, extraction temperature, reaction time and extracting solid-liquid ratio on pectin extraction yield were investigated, and then orthogonal test was utilized on the basis of results of single-factor test. Through comparing R and K value, it’s concluded that pH value and the extracting solid-liquid ratio have great influence on pectin extraction yield. The best experiment scheme was determined as follows:pH value 1.5, extraction temperature 70 ℃, reaction time 45 min, extracting solid-liquid ratio 1:20. Under above conditions, the pectin exacting field can reach 20.8%. Infrared spectrometry was used to carry out qualitative analysis of the product.

  18. 超声波辅助提取夏橙皮渣果胶研究%Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Pectin from Summer Orange Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖立敏; 李建凤

    2016-01-01

    Dried summer orange peel was adopted as raw materials in the study. After materials were soaked with phosphate solution for 24 h,pectin was extracted through ultrasound-assisted extraction method. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration,liquid-solid ratio,hydrolysis temperature,hydrolysis time and ultrasonic treatment time on extraction rate of pectin were studied. The results showed that when the hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.15 mol/L,liquid ratio was 30 mL/g,hydrolysis temperature was 70 ℃,hydrolysis time was 30 min,and ultrasonic treatment time was 40 min,the extraction rate of pectin reached 20.67%and the experi-mental reproducibility was good.%以干燥的夏橙皮渣为原料,先用复合磷酸盐碱性溶液浸泡24 h,采用超声波辅助提取法对果胶进行了提取。以果胶提取率为考察指标,研究了盐酸浓度、液料比、水解温度、水解时间、超声波处理时间对果胶提取的影响。结果表明,盐酸浓度为0.15 mol/L、液料比为30 mL/g、水解温度为70℃、水解时间为30 min、超声波处理时间为40 min时,果胶提取率高达20.67%,试验重现性好。

  19. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC; An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 5220, respectively and temperature values varied between 10-50ºC were used for the experiment. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 40 min of adsorption time. Partition coefficients, kd (L/kg for various samples reacted inversely with temperature and were in the ranges of 0.37-0.69, 0.65-1.11, 1.28-2.04, 1.17-1.39 and 1.23-4.53 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. percentage of crude oil samples on the AOMC decreased with low crude oil hydrocarbons and the trend was shown as follows D>C >A>E>B. Percentage ranges for samples A, B, C,D and E were given to be 86.8-88%, 60.5-72.4, 52.5-55.2, 47.9-55.4 and 45.3-49.2%, respectively. Sorption of the crude oil samples to AOMC was found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and physio-sorption controlled with G values being in the ranges of -71.49 to -21.29, -18.25 to -5.43, -30.24 to -21.11, -28.55 to -11.33 and -50.74 to -50.12 KJ/mol for samples A ,B , C , D and E, respectively. Enthalpy(H and Entropy changes(S were also found to be -10.28, -12.24, -8.92, -6.9, -50.28 J/mol/K and -2.92, -0.32, -0.50, -0.44, -0.01 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Activated orange meso-carp provides a veritable environmentally remediation technique for crude oil spillage.

  20. Avaliação da silagem de bagaço de laranja e silagem de milho em diferentes períodos de armazenamento = Ensilage evaluation of orange peel and corn silages in different storage times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pereira Pinto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar alguns parâmetros de qualidade da silagem de bagaço de laranja e silagem de milho em diferentes períodos de armazenamento dos silos. Foram preparados minisilos, com capacidade para 3,6 kg, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 2 x 6, sendo dois tipos de silagem(bagaço de laranja ou milho e seis períodos de armazenamento (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 110 dias, com três repetições. Determinaram-se as características químicas, parâmetros de fermentação e digestibilidade in vitro (DIV. O teor médio de matéria seca (MS da silagemde bagaço de laranja (SBL foi de 26,5%. Apesar de a SBL apresentar maior capacidade tampão do que a silagem de milho (SM, houve maior produção de ácido lático nas SBL. A SBL e SM apresentaram pH de 3,5 e 3,9, respectivamente, com dez dias de ensilagem. A SBL apresentou maior DIV, quando comparado à silagem de milho. Conclui-se que asilagem de bagaço de laranja apresentou bom padrão de fermentação, quando os teores de MS estavam ao redor de 26%, podendo ser utilizada a partir de dez dias de ensilagem. A SBL possui elevada DIV, sendo boa alternativa nos períodos de escassez de alimentos.This study evaluated quality parameters of orange peel and corn silages in different silo storage times. Experimental mini-silos, with capacity for 3.6 kg were prepared in a completely randomized design, distributed in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement, consistingof two silages (orange peel or corn and six opening times (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 days, with three replications. The chemical characteristics, fermentation parameters and in vitro digestibility (IVD were determined. The dry matter (DM average of orange peel silage (OPS was 26.5%. Even though OPS presented higher buffering capacity than corn silage (CS, there was greater lactic acid production in OPS. Orange peel silage and corn silage presented pH after ten days of ensilage of 3.5 and 3

  1. The Cytotoxic Effect of Essential Oil of Syrian Citrus limon Peel on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (Lim1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eyad Chatty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils are the volatile fraction of aromatic and medicinal plants created after extraction by steam or water distillation. Species of the genus Citrus(Rutaceae have been widely used in traditional medicine as volatile oils and are currently the subject of numerous research. Citrus essential oil consists of different terpens that have antitumor activities. This study determines the cytotoxic effect of the essential oils of Citrus limon L. peels on a colorectal cancer cell line (LIM1863.Methods: We harvested four samples from four locations in Syria. Essential oils were prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.Various concentrations ofessential oils (0.5-48 μg/ml were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated byMTT-basedcytotoxicity assay.Results: We noted 18 components that represented 98.81% of the total oil content. The major components were: limonene (61.8%-73.8%, γ-terpinene (9.4%-10.4%, β-pinene (3.7%-6.9%, O-cymene(1%-2.4%,and citral (0.8%-5.4%.The obtained IC50 value range of Citrus limon essential oils was 5.75-7.92 μg/ml against LIM1863.Conclusion: This study revealed that Syrian Citrus limon essential oil has a cytotoxic effect on the human colorectalcarcinoma cell line LIM1863 when studied in vitro.

  2. Effect of the gamma irradiation on the bio-sorption of Cr (Vi) by orange peel;Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la biosorcion de Cr(VI) por cascara de naranja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo L, V.; Barrera D, C. E.; Sanchez M, V. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Paseo Tollocan esquina Paseo Colon s/n, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Urena N, F., E-mail: violelugol@yahoo.e [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The orange peel (Citrus sp.) is a bioadsorbent that contains functional groups able to remove Cr (Vi). To study the effect of gamma irradiation in the sorption capacity, the Nn materials were irradiated with gamma rays using a Co{sup 60} source to dose from 10 to 3500 KGy (Nlgamma). The biomass irradiation with gamma rays was successful since it increased the hexavalent chromium removal obtaining a maximum removal percentage of 100%. Sorption isotherms were realized to determine the concentration effect of initial Cr (Vi), the ph effect of the solution and the relationship m/v. (Author)

  3. Performance of orange oil in the control of carmine cochineal in giant cactus pear.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Since its introduction, in 2001, the carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae) already decimated some 100.000 hectares of giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) in semi-arid region of Paraiba. This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of five concentrations of orange oil, applied in cladodes on the death of D. opuntiae in field conditions. The research was carried out in a field of giant cactus pear infested by carmine cochineal on the site rigideira, Monteiro County, State of Paraíba. The ...

  4. An examination of the phenol-croton oil peel: Part II. The lay peelers and their croton oil formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetter, G P

    2000-01-01

    From the turn of the century, lay face peelers, known as "skinners," ran "beautifier" salons. Beginning in the 1920s, lay peelers were using croton oil-phenol formulas in Hollywood. These persons were renowned, made a good living, and treated many, if not most, of the leading "stars" of the day. They had a treatment, a "secret," that physicians did not. Physicians brought their own wives to the peelers for their expertise. The leading lay peel personalities from the 1920s through to our time are presented. The lay peelers dominated the field until the 1960s, when legal attacks on them, often directly instigated by the newly educated physician peelers, put them at a legal disadvantage. Nevertheless, there was considerable interaction with many plastic surgeons along the way. Some plastic surgeons came into possession of the techniques and some also into knowledge of the ingredients in a formula. The author has presented the recipes of four of the renowned lay peelers, two from Hollywood, Gradé and Kelsen, and two from Miami, Coopersmith and Maschek. These recipes all have 80 to 90 percent less croton oil than the "classic" Baker formula and, therefore, wound less deeply. The Hollywood formulas were used on many celebrities both inside and outside the film world from the 1920s to the early 1990s. These lay recipes are cumbersome to prepare. The author has simplified the preparation of these lay recipes by using USP liquid phenol instead of crystals. These simple formulas are provided in a table and are as easy to prepare as the Baker formula.

  5. Electrochemical Determination of Prochloraz in Orange Peel after Derivatization%衍生电化学法测定橘皮中的咪酰胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李红波; 胡效亚

    2011-01-01

    A method to determine prochloraz in orange peel by electrochemistry analysis after derivatization was developed.Prochloraz was stepwise extracted by acetone and ethyl acetate,and hydrolyzed into electrochemical active 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by pyridine hydrochloride.Differential pulse stripping voltammetry(DPSV) was utilized to determine prochloraz under the optimized conditions pH 4.0 and accumulation at 0 V potential for 300 s.The results showed that oxidative peak current of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was positively linearly correlated with its concentration within the range of 9.0 × 10-9-8.0 × 10-5 mol/L.The detection limit was 9.7 × 10-10 mol/L,and the recovery between 98.5% and 113.0%.%采取简便的衍生电化学法灵敏地测定橘皮中的咪酰胺。用丙酮和乙酸乙酯分别萃取橘皮中的咪酰胺,然后用吡啶盐酸盐对其进行水解,使没有电化学活性的咪酰胺生成具有电化学活性的2,4,6-三氯苯酚。在优化实验条件(pH4.0,富集电位和富集时间分别是0V和300s)下,运用差示脉冲溶出伏安法建立测定橘皮中咪酰胺含量的新方法。进一步实验结果表明,2,4,6-三氯苯酚氧化峰电流与其浓度在9.0×10-9~8.0×10-5mol/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,检出限为9.7×10-10mol/L,回收率为98.5%~113.0%。

  6. 从桔皮中微波提取果胶及分离%Microwave extraction and separation of pectin from orange peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志鸿; 刘晓红; 李建敏

    2011-01-01

    Pectin has been prepared from the orange peel residues after the extraction of pigment,through the Microwave-assisted extraction of tartaric acid and precipitation of ethanol. The extraction rate of the refined pectin was chosen as the evaluation index. The process conditions determined by the Single-factor experiment was as followed: pH=2. 0 for the tartaric acid as extractive solvent , the ratio of solvent to material 10 mL/g, microwave power 280 W, radiation time 5min, extractive times 3, enriched ratio 4 : 1, ethanol concentration 60%, depositional time 60min. According to the optimum conditions, 3 experiments were operated and the average extractive percentage reached 21. 77%. The results of infra-red spectrometry and quality detection indicated that products were qualified. Tartaric acid as solvent to extract pectin has good quality and high yield; Microwave assisted extraction shows advantages of fast,energy-saving and higher yield.%浸提色素后的桔皮滤渣,通过微波协同酒石酸浸提、乙醇沉析得到果胶.以精制果胶浸提率为评价指标,单因素实验得工艺条件为:浸提剂酒石酸pH=2.0,液料比10 mL·g-1,浸提微波功率280 W,辐射时间5 min,浸提级数3级,浓缩比4:1,乙醇浓度60%,沉析时间60 min.按优选的工艺条件实验3次,果胶平均浸提率达21.77%.通过红外光谱表征及质量检测表明产品合格.酒石酸浸提果胶产品品质好,浸提率高;微波法快速、节能、浸提率更高.

  7. 改性橘子皮对水中金属离子的吸附%The Adsorptive Capacity of Zinc and Iron of Water by Modified Orange Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛娜

    2014-01-01

    将橘子皮用氢氧化钾、乙醇和氯化钙进行皂化处理,得到改性橘子皮生物吸附剂( SCOP)。在保持pH、起始金属离子浓度和温度不变的情况下进行吸附试验,研究不同氢氧化钾浓度浸泡下的SCOP及不同固液比、接触时间的改性橘子皮对水中锌、铁离子的吸附量大小。通过火焰原子吸收分光光度计定性测得SCOP对锌离子有较好的吸附,对铁则吸附较少。%A novel absorbent was prepared by modifying orange peel with potassium hydroxide and calcium chloride. Keeping pH, initial concentration of metal ions and experimental temperature not change, the absorption behavior of Zn( II) and Fe ( II ) on modified orange peel under varying concentration of sodium hydroxide, contract time and absorption of different quantity were studied. SCOP had a better adsorption capacities for Zn ( II ) but with a fewer for Fe( II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

  8. Research on the process of extraction pectin from orange peel using the cellulase%纤维素酶提取柑桔皮果胶工艺条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴余军; 丁文; 石会军

    2011-01-01

    The research aims to investigate the best conditions for extracting pectin from orange peel. Taking orange peel as material, pectin was extracted from it using the cellulase. Results show that the maximum extracting rate of pectin could be obtained under the following conditions: the concentration of cellulose solution is 0. 5 %, the stirring time is 45 minutes, the temperature is 45 ℃, pH value is 5.6. The extracting rate of pectin is 36.56 %.%为了探索提取果胶的最佳试验条件,以柑桔皮为试验原料,采用纤维素酶法提取果胶,结果表明:在纤维素酶溶液浓度为0.5%,浸提时间为45 min,浸提温度为45℃,浸提pH值为5.6的条件下,果胶的得率最大,果胶提取率达到36.56%.

  9. Study on Extraction Process of Pectin from Orange Peel with Enzymatic Hydrolysis Assisted by Ultrasonics%超声波辅助酶解法提取桔皮中果胶的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圣燕

    2011-01-01

    文章采用超声波辅助酶解法提取桔皮中的果胶,研究了pH、提取温度及提取时间对果胶提取率的影响,确定了提取的最佳工艺条件:pH 4.6,提取温度41℃,提取时间50 min。在最佳提取工艺条件下,桔皮中果胶的提取率约为2.08%。%Enzymatic hydrolysis assisted by ultrasonics was used to extract pectin from orange peel in the paper.The affecting factors of pH,extraction temperature and extraction time were investigated.The results showed that the optimal process parameters were pH 4.6,extraction temperature 41 ℃,extraction time 50 min.The yield of pectin from orange peel reached 2.08 % under the optimal process parameters.

  10. Experimental investigation on heat and mass transfer of fluidized drying of zymotic orange peel%发酵柑桔皮渣流化干燥传热传质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 原如冰; 张强; 童明伟

    2011-01-01

    为了开发高教合理的柑桔皮渣发酵-干燥成套设备,需要进行发酵柑桔皮渣的干燥机理分析、传热传质的研究.该文采用流化干燥方法对发酵柑桔皮渣的干燥进行试验研究,建立了小型的流化床干燥试验台,分析了风速、颗粒粒径、初始含水率等对发酵柑桔皮渣流化干燥过程中传热传质的影响.试验表明:流化床的传热传质性能与流体的物理性质、操作参数、颗粒本身的物理性质以及流化床的特性密切相关.试验结果表明,传热系数沿流化床床高增加而减小,在床高4~6 cm之间,传热系数减小的幅度较大;在风速、颗粒粒径、初始含水率3个影响因素中,风速对传热系数的影响最大,当风速从2.06 m/s增大到2.75 m/s时,床高2~4 cm区域的平均局部传热系数增大了近92%.根据试验结果建立了传热传质数学模型并获得了传热无因次准则方程式,为强化传热传质以提高干燥效果提供了理论依据.%It is necessary to research the heat and mass transfer law in drying process of the zymotic orange peel for the purpose of industrial production of the zymotic orange peel feed. A fluidized drying method was used to research the drying characteristics of zymotic orange peel, and the experimental equipment of fluidized bed drying was built, the influences of drying parameters, such as air velocity, particle diameters, the initial moisture content etc on heat and mass transfer were analyzed. The results indicated that the heat and mass transfer characteristics of the fluidized bed were affected by the flow velocity, operating conditions, the physical characteristics of the zymotic orange peel and the fluidized bed. The experiment results showed that the local heat transfer coefficient decreased with the increasing of fluidized bed height, especially at the height from 4 to 6 cm. The air velocity had bigger influence on the local heat transfer coefficient compared to that

  11. Aditivos na conservação do bagaço de laranja in natura na forma de silagem Conservation of fresh orange peel by ensilage process using additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de aditivos na fermentação e composição do bagaço de laranja, em silos laboratoriais de PVC com capacidade para 15 kg, distribuídos ao acaso com três silos por tratamento: sem aditivo (CT, inoculante enzimático microbiano (IN e ácidos fórmico (FO, propiônico (PP e acético (AC. As amostras foram tomadas antes (0 e 2, 8, 16, 32 e 64 dias após a ensilagem. Analisaram-se os teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e detergente ácido (FDA, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da parede celular (DIVPC, o pH, a capacidade tampão (CATP e o N amoniacal. A silagem sem aditivo apresentou os menores teores de MS. Os teores de PB, FDN e FDA da silagem tratada com ácido fórmico (FO foram os menores. As DIVMS e DIVPC foram constantes, com exceção do tratamento com ��cido fórmico (FO, que foi linear negativo, em função do tempo de ensilado. O comportamento do pH apresentou equações de regressão cúbicas, com exceção do tratamento com ácido fórmico, que foi linear. A silagem tratada com ácido fórmico apresentou os menores valores de CATP (25,7 a 39,1 mg HCl/100 g MS e os maiores de N amoniacal (3 a 4% N total. Os aditivos não melhoraram a qualidade e o valor nutricional da silagem de bagaço de laranjaThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of different additives on fermentation and composition of orange peel silage. Fresh orange peel was ensiled in 15-kg capacity PVC laboratory silos that were arranged according to a randomized design with three silos per treatment: without additive (control, enzyme inoculate (EI, formic acid (FA, propionic acid (PA and acetic acid (AA. Samples of orange peel were taken before ensiling (0, and 2, 8, 16, 32 and 64 days after ensiling. Samples of fresh and ensiled orange peel were analyzed for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry

  12. Study on the Development of Composite Solid Tea Beverage with Cassia Seed,Orange Peel and Red Jujube%决明子陈皮红枣复合固体茶饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金艳梅; 高鹤宁

    2012-01-01

    对决明子陈皮红枣复合固体茶饮料生产工艺进行了研究,采用三因素三水平试验和多种感官评定方法得出最佳配方,混合浸提液最佳配方为陈皮:红枣:绿茶=3:8:3;决明子吸收浸提液最佳配比为1:1.7。该工艺生产的饮料为固体茶饮料,便于保存,冲泡后颜色为亮红棕色,口感清爽,有复合风味,富含蛋白质、有机酸、维生素和矿物质,具有决明子、陈皮、红枣及绿茶的营养价值和保健功能。%The production process of composite solid tea beverage with cassia seed dried tangerine and orange peel was studied.The best formula was acquired by three factors and three levels test and various sensory evaluate method.The formula were dried tangerine or orange peel: red dates: green tea=3:8:3;Cassia seed: leach 1:1.7.Under this technology the drinks was convenient to store,bright red color after mix with water,taste fresh,with composite aroma.Protein,organic acids,vitamins and minerals were rich.This drink had nutrition and healthy care function with tangerine peel,red jujube and green tea in it.

  13. Seed and peel essential oils obtained from Campomanesia adamantium fruit inhibit inflammatory and pain parameters in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuntini Viscardi, Danieli; Arrigo, Jucicléia da Silva; Correia, Camila de Azevedo Chaves; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Maldonade, Iriani Rodrigues; Argandoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez

    2017-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is popularly known as “gabiroba” and has been used in folk medicine as antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and toxicology of essential oils from peel (EOP) and seed (EOS) of C. adamantium fruits in animal models. Different groups were treated with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg and the inflammatory parameters were evaluated in carrageenan induced paw oedema and leukocyte migration in pleurisy model, while antinociceptive activity was evaluated using formalin method in rodents. The major constituent of EOP and EOS was limonene with 13.07% and 20.89%, respectively. No clinical signs of toxicity have been observed in animals. It was observed a significant decreased (Pnociception test. In the first formalin-phase, maximal inhibitions were at 48±5% for EOP and 66±4% for EOS (300 mg/kg). At the inflammatory phase induced by formalin, maximal inhibitions were 72±2% for EOP and 80±2% for EOS at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Seed and peel essential oils from C. adamantium fruit inhibited leukocyte migration, inflammatory and neurogenic pain and oedema suggesting their use as nutraceutical or pharmacological agent. PMID:28222179

  14. Efeito do tipo de descasque e da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade de laranjas 'Pera' minimamente processadas Effect of type of peeling and storage temperature on quality of minimally processed "Pera-rio" oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rodrigues Donadon

    2004-12-01

    produtos DM e DME, armazenados a 5ºC, foram os preferidos pelos provadores e apresentaram boa aparência por 19 dias e bom sabor por 23 dias. Os DE e armazenados a 5ºC apresentaram boa aparência por 4 dias e sabor desagradável no 1º dia.The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of type of peeling, manual, mechanic and enzymatic, and temperature of storage, 5ºC, 10ºC and ambient (21-23ºC on the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Pera' type Rio oranges. Ripe oranges were picked and immediately washed and peeled. After peeled, fruits were disinfected and packed on polystyrene trays recovered with stretchable PVC film. During storage, was evaluated the appearance, amount of juice loss, rotting, loss of fresh mass, respiratory intensity, level of O2 and CO2 inside the packages, color, contents of total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and ascorbic acid (AA and the ratio TSS/TA. Microbiological evaluations were made as well as testing acceptance and preference by the consumer. Only enzymatically peeled products presented juice loss that increased with storage time. There was continuous loss of fresh mass in every product, but peeled products stored at 21-23ºC presented the greatest losses. Processed oranges presented a respiratory peak at the first hour after peeling followed by reduction and stabilization at 11th-13th hour. The enzymatic peeling and the lowest storage temperatures produces the highest contents of O2 and the lowest of CO2 in packages. Processed fruits presented low counting of microorganisms, mesophilic, psychrotrophs and coliforms. Fecal coliforms were not detected. Rotting appeared on manually and mechanically peeled after 13 days at 5ºC, 8 days at 10ºC or 4 days at 21-23ºC. Products obtained from manual peeling did not differ from mechanically or enzymatically peeled related to contents of TA, TSS and AA and the ratio (TSS/TA. Products manually or mechanically peeled, and stored at 5ºC , were considered the best by the tasters

  15. Excito-Repellency of Citrus hystrix DC Leaf and Peel Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae), Vectors of Human Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Kongmee, Monthathip; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2017-01-01

    The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus Theobald using an excito-repellency test system. Both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. Comparing unadjusted escape responses for An. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irritant and repellent activity responses at 1-5% concentrations (90.0-96.4% escape) and the strongest spatial repellent activity at 1% and 2% (85.9% and 87.2% escape, respectively). The peel oil exhibited good excitation with repellency at concentrations of 2.5% (89.8% escape) and 5% (96.28% escape), while concentrations 1-5% showed more moderate repellent activity against An. minimus. For Ae. aegypti, 2.5% leaf oil produced the greatest response for both contact (56.1% escape) and noncontact (63.3% escape) trials, while 2.5% produced the strongest response among all concentrations of peel oil, with 46.5% escape. However, after adjusting the contact trial escape (a measure of combined excitation and repellency), the estimated escape due to contact alone was a much weaker response than spatial repellency for both species. Knockdown responses above 50% were only observed in Ae. aegypti exposed to 5% leaf oil. Kaffir lime oils were more active against An. minimus than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. There were statistically significant differences between leaf (more active) and peel oils at each concentration against An. minimus in contact and noncontact trials, except at the highest (5%) concentration. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 橘皮中果胶提取工艺的优化及其理化性质测定%Optimization of Extraction Technique and Physicochemical Property of Pectin from Orange Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 淡小艳; 阮琴; 顾美丽

    2011-01-01

    The acid extraction technique of pectin from orange peel was optimized, the effect of different decolorizers on pectin decolorization was studied and the physicochemical property of pectin from orange peel was determined to develop and utilize pectin from orange peel in production. The results show that the optimal acid extraction technique includes 1: 1.5 solid-liquid ratio, pH 1.5 and 95C for 120min and the pectin yield could be up to 12.66% under the optimal acid extraction technique. The recovery rate of pectin after decolorization reaches 93.1% by using AB-8 macroporous absorbent resin as a decolorizer.The pH, ash content, esterification degree and galacturomic acid content of pectin with light yellow powder, no peculiar odor and water-solubility were 2. 94, 4. 52%, 71. 63% and 76. 05% respectively,which accords with the standard of QB2484-2000.%为使橘皮果胶能在生产上得到广泛应用,采用酸萃取法对提取橘皮中果胶的工艺条件进行了优化,考察了优化后的果胶脱色工艺,并对提取果胶的理化性质进行了测定.结果表明:酸萃取法提取橘皮果胶的适宜工艺为以pH 1.5的水、料液比1:15(g:mL),于95℃浸提120 min,果胶得率为12.66%;AB-8型大孔吸附树脂的脱色效果较好,脱色后果胶回收率达93.1%;果胶外观呈淡米黄色粉末,无异味,溶于20倍水呈粘稠状液体,pH 2.94,灰分4.52%,酯化度为71.63%,半乳糖醛酸含量为76.05%,均符合QB2484-2000标准.

  17. Evaluation of orange peel and corn silages with different protein additivesAvaliações das silagens de bagaço de laranja e de milho com diferentes aditivos protéicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental mini-silos were prepared, in a completely randomized design distributed in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement, with two silages (orange peel and corn and five treatments (without protein source; with urea; soybean meal; cotton seed meal and sunflower meal. The protein additives were added to each silage to achieve about 10% protein. The silos were opened 90 days after the make silages. The following determinations were accomplished: pH, lactic acid (LA, buffering capacity (BC, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, calcium (Ca, total carbohydrates (TC, non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and in vitro digestibility (IVD. The protein additives increased the DM averages of the silages. The pH of silages varied from 3.41 to 3.95, being the lactic acid and in vitro digestibility higher to the orange peel silage when compared to the corn silage. It can be concluded that the orange peel silage to be preserved in silage form with protein source. Foram preparados minisilos experimentais, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 2 x 5, sendo, 2 tipos de silagem (bagaço de laranja e milho e 5 tratamentos (sem fonte protéica; com uréia; farelo de soja; farelo de algodão e farelo de girassol. Os aditivos protéicos foram adicionados para que cada silagem obtivesse um teor protéico ao redor de 10%. Os silos foram abertos 90 dias após o preparo das silagens. Foram determinados pH, ácido lático (AL, capacidade tampão (CATP, matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, nitrogênio amoniacal (NNH3, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, cálcio (Ca, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF e digestibilidade in vitro (DIV. Os aditivos protéicos aumentaram os teores de MS das silagens. O pH das silagens variou de 3,41 a 3,95, sendo a produção de ácido lático e a digestibilidade in vitro maior para a silagem de bagaço de laranja quando comparada

  18. Modeling the supercritical desorption of orange essential oil from a silica-gel bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important byproducts of the orange juice industry is the oil phase. This is a mixture of terpenes, alcohols, and aldehydes, dissolved in approximately 96% limonene. To satisfactorily use oil phase as an ingredient in the food and cosmetics industries separation of the limonene is required. One possibility is to use a fixed bed of silica gel to remove the light or aroma compounds from the limonene. The aroma substances are then extracted from the bed of silica gel using supercritical carbon dioxide. This work deals with the modeling of the desorption step of the process using mass balance equations coupled with the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm. Data taken from the literature for the overall extraction curves were used together with empirical correlations to calculate the concentration profile of solute in the supercritical phase at the bed outlet. The system of equations was solved by the finite volume technique. The overall extraction curves calculated were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  19. 响应面优化超声波辅助酶法提取橘皮黄酮的研究%Response Surface Optimization on Extraction of Orange Peel Flavone Using Ultrasonic-assisted Enzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金柱; 刘春霞; 刘凤云

    2016-01-01

    Flavone was extracted from orange peel by ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic method , and the effects of enzyme extraction temperature, enzyme dosages, extraction time and pH of buffer solution on the flavone extraction yield were discussed. The process was optimized , and a quadratic regression model was established with response surface methodology (RSM). The infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the extraction had representative characteristic of flavonoid. The optimization results of RSM indicated that the extraction yield of flavone was 5.82%as 52℃enzyme extraction temperature, 0.96%enzyme dosages, 90 min enzyme extraction time and 4 pH of buffer solution of orange peel as it pretreated 20 min with 300 W ultrasonic.%采用超声波辅助酶法提取橘皮黄酮,探讨了酶解温度、酶液用量、酶解时间和缓冲液pH对黄酮提取率的影响,并通过响应面法建立二次回归模型对提取工艺进行优化。红外光谱分析显示,提取物为典型的黄酮类化合物。响应面法优化结果表明,使用300 W功率超声波预处理20 min后,在酶解温度52℃、酶液用量0.96%、酶解时间90 min和缓冲液pH为4的条件下,黄酮的提取量可达到5.82%。

  20. Effect of some technological factors on yield of calcium pectinate from orange peel%不同工艺条件对桔皮果胶钙产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀君; 黄雪松

    2013-01-01

    为提高桔皮果胶钙的产量,以桔皮为原料,用钙盐析法沉淀果胶,利用单因素和正交分析法,探讨pH、盐析时间、盐析温度、氯化钙添加量等因素对果胶钙产量的影响.结果表明,pH、盐析时间和温度对果胶钙产量影响显著,氯化钙添加量对果胶钙产量的影响不显著.生产果胶钙的最适宜条件为:pH10.00,温度40℃,时间6h,CaCl2用量为7.2gCaCl2/100g干桔皮,此条件下的桔皮果胶钙产量为19.67%.本研究为生产果胶钙提供了一定的参考.%To increase yield of calcium pectinate from orange peel,pH,time,temperature,calcium chloride dosage were investigated through single factor and orthogonal method.Results showed that pH,time,temperature had significant effect on the yield of calcium pectinate,followed by the effects of calcium chloride concentration.The highest yield of calcium pectinate of 19.67% was achieved under the optimal extraction conditions of pH10.00,temperature 40℃,time 6h,7.2g calcium chloride per 100g orange peel.These results provided a basis to improve the yield of calcium pectinate.

  1. 微波法分批次提取柑橘皮中果胶的工艺研究%Study on Extraction Process of Pectin from Orange Peel in Batches with Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉; 蒋诚; 王威; 朱邻遐

    2015-01-01

    Using the concentration gradient can improve the efficiency of leaching.The pectin from orange peel was extracted in batches with microwave heating.The effects of different acid, solvent types, solid-liquid ratio, microwave power, microwave and pH value on the yield were studied through single factor test.The result showed that the optimum extraction process of pectin from orange peel was as follows:hydrochloride was taken as extractant, solid-liquid ratio was 1:15, microwave power was 700 W, microwave time was 5 min and pH value was 1.8, pectin yield was 22.9%.%利用浓度梯度能提高浸出效率,分批次采用微波加热提取柑橘皮果胶。通过单因素实验,研究了不同酸、料液比、微波功率、微波时间、 pH值等反应条件对产率的影响。结果表明:果胶的最佳提取条件为:盐酸为萃取剂,料液比为1砄15,微波功率700 W,微波辐射时间为5 min,提取液pH值为1.8,果胶得率22.9%。

  2. Descascamento de laranja 'Pêra' em função da duração do tratamento hidrotérmico Peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange related to the duration of the hydrothermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram adequar a tecnologia de descascamento de laranja 'Pêra' pelo uso do tratamento hidrotérmico e avaliar sua influência na atividade respiratória e nas características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais dos frutos. O tempo de descascamento, o rendimento em frutos comercializáveis e a temperatura interna dos frutos durante o tratamento também foram avaliados. O tratamento consistiu em colocar os frutos em banho-maria a 50°C por 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 minutos. Em seguida, os frutos foram descascados retirando-se a parte peduncular com a faca e, posteriormente, o flavedo e o albedo foram retirados manualmente. Os frutos sem tratamento hidrotérmico foram considerados controle. Os frutos foram armazenados durante seis dias a 5°C. O tratamento hidrotérmico alterou a atividade respiratória dos frutos somente nas primeiras horas após o processamento. A temperatura interna dos frutos, após 30 minutos de tratamento, atingiu no máximo 35°C. Não ocorreram alterações nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas dos frutos. O tratamento não alterou o sabor, melhorou a aparência, diminuiu em até 78% o tempo de descascamento e aumentou o rendimento em frutos comercializáveis. Conclui-se que o tratamento hidrotérmico de 10 a 30 minutos pode ser utilizado como técnica de descascamento para laranja 'Pêra'.The objective of this research was to adapt the technology of peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange for the use of hydrothermal treatment, and to evaluate its influence in the respiratory activity and physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. Peeling time, marketable fruits yield and internal fruit temperature during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of water-bath fruits at 50°C for 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 minutes. The fruits were peeled by first opening cut the peduncle region with a knife and then, the flavedo and albedo

  3. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20, 2015. Anitha B. Prevention of complications in chemical peeling. Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 2010;3:186. Langsdon PR, et al. Latest chemical peel innovations. Facial and Plastic Surgery Clinics of ...

  4. Chemical Composition and Radical Scavenging Activity of Citrus Limon Peel Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ghoorchibeigi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The water distillated essential oil of Citruslimon collected from Ramsar, Province of Mazandaran, North of Iran collected in December 2013, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The yield of oil was 0.23% w/w. Twenty-one components representing 100% of the essential oil were characterized. Limonene (61.4%, b-pinene (13.1% and g-terpinene (11.3% were identified as the main constituents in the volatile oil. The antioxidant ability of the oil was examined by free radical scavenging method using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical at different concentration of the oil. The Citruslimon oil exhibited free-radical-scavenging properties with IC50 value of 284.71µg ml-1.

  5. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

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    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bioactive agents against mosquito vectors.Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae under laboratory condition. Then chemical com­position of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS.Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62% constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  6. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

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    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  7. 柚皮精油的提取与抗茵作用研究%STUDY ON THE EXTRACTION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SHADDOCK PEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 杨丽君

    2012-01-01

    本文主要是对柚皮精油的提取方法进行优化,并采用滤纸片扩散法测定所提取柚皮精油的抑菌作用。结果表明:采用石油醚为提取溶剂,以柚皮和石油醚的质量体积比为1:10,75℃下回流提取5h,精油的最终产率为0.987%。柚皮精油对枯草芽孢杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌均有抑制作用,对枯草芽孢杆菌的抑制效果比金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌效果好,是一种有广阔开发前景的芳香油资源。%The extraction method of essential oil was optimized in this paper. To determine the antibacterial activity of the shaddock peel essential uil,we used disk diffusion method. The results show that extraction solvent was petroleum ether. The mass and volume ratio of shaddock peel to petroleum ether was 1: 10. Shaddock peel was in refluxing extraction for 5 h at 75 ℃. The yield of essential oil was about 0. 987 %. It was founded that the essential oil had antibacterial activity against Bacillus sabtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and the antibacterial activity against Bacillus sabtills was better than against Staphylococcus aureus. So shaddock peel essential oil which has strong antibacterial activity enjoys a prosperous marketing prospect.

  8. Chemotaxonomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella genotypes based on peel oil volatile compounds--deciphering the genetic origin of Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Liu

    Full Text Available Volatile profiles yielded from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis provide abundant information not only for metabolism-related research, but also for chemotaxonomy. To study the chemotaxonomy of Mangshanyegan, its volatile profiles of fruit and leaf and those of 29 other genotypes of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that 145 identified (including 64 tentatively identified and 15 unidentified volatile compounds were detected from their peel oils. The phylogenetic analysis of peel oils based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA demonstrated a good agreement with the Swingle taxonomy system, in which the three genera of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were almost completely separated. As to Citrus, HCA indicated that Citrophorum, Cephalocitrus, and Sinocitrus fell into three subgroups, respectively. Also, it revealed that Mangshanyegan contain volatile compounds similar to those from pummelo, though it is genetically believed to be a mandarin. These results were further supported by the principal component analysis of the peel oils and the HCA results of volatile profiles of leaves in the study.

  9. Application of orange essential oil as an antistaphylococcal agent in a dressing model

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    Muthaiyan Arunachalam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen most often and prevalently involved in skin and soft tissue infections. In recent decades outbreaks of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA have created major problems for skin therapy, and burn and wound care units. Topical antimicrobials are most important component of wound infection therapy. Alternative therapies are being sought for treatment of MRSA and one area of interest is the use of essential oils. With the increasing interest in the use and application of natural products, we screened the potential application of terpeneless cold pressed Valencia orange oil (CPV for topical therapy against MRSA using an in vitro dressing model and skin keratinocyte cell culture model. Methods The inhibitory effect of CPV was determined by disc diffusion vapor assay for MRSA and vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA strains. Antistaphylococcal effect of CPV in an in vitro dressing model was tested on S. aureus inoculated tryptic soya agar plate. Bactericidal effect of CPV on MRSA and VISA infected keratinocyte cells was examined by enumeration of extra- and intra-cellular bacterial cells at different treatment time points. Cytotoxic effects on human skin cells was tested by adding CPV to the keratinocyte (HEK001 cells grown in serum free KSFM media, and observed by phase-contrast microscope. Results CPV vapour effectively inhibited the MRSA and VISA strains in both disc diffusion vapour assay and in vitro dressing model. Compared to untreated control addition of 0.1% CPV to MRSA infected keratinocyte decreased the viable MRSA cells by 2 log CFU/mL in 1 h and in VISA strain 3 log CFU/mL reduction was observed in 1 h. After 3 h viable S. aureus cells were not detected in the 0.2% CPV treatment. Bactericidal concentration of CPV did not show any cytotoxic effect on the human skin keratinocyte cells in vitro. Conclusions At lower concentration addition of CPV to keratinocytes infected

  10. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) as influenced by storage period and edible covers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamloo, M. M.; M SHARIFANI; Daraei Garmakhany, A.; Seifi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %),...

  11. Fractionation of a peel oil key mixture by supercritical CO{sub 2} in a continuous tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverchon, E.; Marciano, A.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingeneria Chimica e Alimentare

    1997-11-01

    The fractionation of peel oils with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied using a mixture of four key compounds. Experiments were performed on a 2-m column operated counter currently. The operating pressure and temperature ranged between 75 and 90 bar and between 40 and 80 C, respectively. Solvent-to-feed ratios of 60, 80, and 120 were used. The total and partial extract refluxes were tested in order to evaluate the process feasibility. The effects of different feed insertion points and column packings were also tested. Experimental results indicate that fractionation can be successfully obtained between 75 and 80 bar and between 50 and 80 C. In general, an increase of solubility corresponds to a decrease of selectivity, and thus, optimization of the separation is required. Experiments also indicate that temperature helps in separation and, furthermore, increases the recovery of oxygenated compounds. The upper limit to the operating temperature is given, however, by the thermal stability of the product. The total and partial refluxes of the extract at the column top show a definitely positive effect on the separation. The theoretical number of mass-transfer units of the apparatus is between 2 and 3, and this finding seems to be confirmed by experimental results. Higher fractionation efficiencies should require a larger number of these units to be obtainable, for example, with taller columns or with a column series.

  12. Nanoemulsion of orange oil with non ionic surfactant produced emulsion using ultrasonication technique: evaluating against food spoilage yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Saranya; Singh, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, food industries have shown great interest in developing nanoemulsion (NE) using essential oils (EOs) to prevent food spoilage caused by microorganisms. The hydrophobic properties of EOs have lead to reduced solubilization effect of food, which in turn, created a negative impact on the quality of food and its antimicrobial efficacy. Focusing this issue, we attempted a unique NE preparation using orange oil, Tween 80 (organic phase) and water (aqueous phase) by sonication technique. Based on thermodynamic stability studies, the effective diameter was reported to be in the size range from 20 to 30 nm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in testing the anti-yeast effect. Their activity was studied in both growth medium and apple juice. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this NE was determined using broth dilution method. At 2 μl/ml, orange oil NE demonstrated inhibition of tested microorganisms. The kinetics of killing curve, have shown that the NE treated cells had lost its viability within 30 min of interaction. Also, SEM image revealed that the treated cells became distorted in comparison to their control cells. NE treated apple juice showed complete loss of viability even on dilution as compared to their controls.

  13. Induced factors and controlled methods of oil subsidence in citrus peel%柑橘果皮油胞下陷诱发因素及控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丹; 曾凯芳

    2012-01-01

    The physiological disorder of citrus peel had been generally concerned by consumers.In particular,oil subsidence was the main problem which affected the appearance quality of citrus.Oil subsidence of citrus peel made physiological disorder of citrus peel performing oil spotting and brown spot,resulting in the commodity and storability of citrus declined.Therefore,how to reduce the citrus peel diseases was a investigative hot spot.This article summarized factors of citrus peel oil subsidence and methods of reducing citrus peel oil subsidence in order to support technical for further study in oil subsidence and the fundamental mechanism of citrus peel oil subsidence.%目前柑橘的生理病变受到普遍关注,尤其柑橘果皮的生理病变—油胞下陷是影响柑橘品质的主要问题。柑橘果皮油胞下陷使柑橘果皮病变主要表现为油胞病和褐斑病,导致柑橘的商品性和耐贮性降低,因此如何减少柑橘果皮的病变是目前研究的热点。本文总结了减少柑橘果皮油胞下陷的因素和多种控制方法,希望能为进一步研究柑橘果皮油胞下陷的方法和根本机制提供技术支持。

  14. 椪柑精油提取工艺与稳定性研究%The Technical Process and Stability of Essential Oil Extracted from Ponkan Peels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦荣欢; 叶芳慧; 谢秋季

    2013-01-01

    Perfume essential oil was extracted from ponkan peels by steam distillation. The stability of the perfume essential oil from ponkan peels was subjected to spectral scanning in the wavelength of 208nm in this paper. The influences of illumination, temperature, and different metal ions on the stability of the essential oil were investigated. The results show that the illumination and temperature affect the stability of the essential oil from ponkan peels in different degree. The presence of Na+, Al3+affected the stability of essential oil was not obvious at a low concentration range. But Fe3+have severe effect at varying concentration range.%选用水蒸气蒸馏法提取椪柑皮中的香精油,并对椪柑皮精油的稳定性进行了初步研究。通过紫外分光光度法对精油于208nm处吸光值的测定,研究光照、温度变化及不同金属离子对椪柑精油稳定性的影响大小。研究结果显示,光照、温度均影响精油的稳定性,Na+、Al3+在低浓度范围内对精油的稳定性影响不明显,Fe3+对椪柑精油的稳定性影响较大。

  15. 柠檬皮中香精油提取工艺的研究%On Extraction of Essential Oil from Lemon Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈王庆; 沈哲华

    2012-01-01

    To study the essential oil extraction process from lemon peel, single factor approach was applied to investigate the influence of factors like the weight of the lemon peel, volume of petroleum ether, extraction time and extraction temperature upon the yield of the essential oil by Soxhlet extraction method. The result showed when the weight of the lemon peel was 25g, the extraction temperature was at 60℃ and the extraction time was 30 min, the oil yield was maximum. The oil yield of the essential oil increases as the volume of petroleum ether increases. The optimal volume of petroleum ether was 400 mh%为了研究柠檬皮中香精油的提取工艺,利用石油醚索氏提取,采用单因素法分别考察了柠檬皮的投加量、石油醚的体积、萃取时间和萃取温度对香精油出油率的影响.结果表明当柠檬皮的投加量为25g、萃取温度为60℃、萃取时间为30min时香精油的出油率达到最大值;随着石油醚用量的增加,香精油的出油率不断增加,综合考虑提取率与经济性石油醚用量取400ml为宜.

  16. Comparison of heat and mass transfer of different microwave-assisted extraction methods of essential oil from Citrus limon (Lisbon variety) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Moayyedi, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    Dried and fresh peels of Citrus limon were subjected to microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), respectively. A comparison was made between MAHD and SFME with the conventional hydrodistillation (HD) method in terms of extraction kinetic, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwaves and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable differences between the constituents of essential oils obtained by MAHD and SFME, in comparison with HD. Antioxidant analysis of the extracted essential oils indicated that microwave irradiation did not have adverse effects on the radical scavenging activity of the extracted essential oils. The results of this study suggest that MAHD and SFME can be termed as green technologies because of their less energy requirements per ml of essential oil extraction.

  17. Effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus leaves and its susceptibility on the quality of fresh orange juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euloge ADJOU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effect of essential oil (EO from Cymbopogon citratus leaves against the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice. Thus, the EO was extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus collected in southern Benin and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Orange samples were collected from large production areas of South and Central Benin and juices were extracted by mechanical pressing. After identification of spoilage flora of fresh orange juice, antimicrobial tests were carried out with the EO of Cymbopogon citratus to evaluate its antimicrobial activity on spoilage flora of fresh orange juice.  Results indicate that the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice is mainly composed of fungi belonging to the genera of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Fusarium. Bacteria such as Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes were also identified in some samples. The major compounds identified in the EO by GC/MS are Neral (33.0% and geranial (41.3% with a predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes (85.5%. Antimicrobial tests have revealed a high antibacterial activity of the EO, with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC between 0.1 and 0.15 μL.mL-1. Antifungal tests revealed that fungi are also susceptible to this EO with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC between 0.15 and 0.25 μL.mL-1. Results obtained during the evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of the orange juice stored by adding EO, indicated a significant decrease in the pH and vitamin C content. However, with EO concentration of 0.250 μL.mL-1, the pH of stored juice was 6.4 ± 0.1 after 15 days of preservation, with a best vitamin C content of 28.06 ± 0.03 mg / 100mL. The EO of Cymbopogon citratus, with high antimicrobial activity, could be used as an alternative in the preservation of fruit juices, replacing antimicrobials from chemical synthesis.

  18. Effect of hesperidin and neohesperidin from bittersweet orange (Citrus aurantium var. bigaradia) peel on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia I; Mahmoud, Mona F; Wink, Michael; El-Shazly, Assem M

    2014-05-01

    Hesperidin and neohesperidin are the major flavanones isolated from bittersweet orange. It was recently reported that they have potent anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory models. In the present study, the effects of hesperidin and neohesperidin on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats with a single dose of indomethacin. The effects of pretreatment with hesperidin and neohesperidin were assessed in comparison with omeprazole as reference standard. Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product, malondialdhyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in stomach were measured. Furthermore, gross and histopathological examination was performed. Our results indicated that both hesperidin and neohesperidin significantly aggravated gastric damage caused by indomethacin administration as evidenced by increased ulcer index and histopathological changes of stomach.

  19. 柑橘皮精油提取分离及成分测定%Determination of Segregate Constituents of Essential Oil Extracted from Orange Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔; 万萍; 张崟

    2011-01-01

    为提高柑橘原材料利用率以增加其经济效益,以柑橘皮为原料,研究柑橘皮精油的成分,用水蒸气蒸馏法提取柑橘皮中的精油,并利用气质联用仪对提取的精油成分进行测定.结果表明,柑橘皮精油含33种成分,其主要成分为柠檬烯.%To improve the use ratio and increase the economical benefit of orange raw materials,taking orange skins as raw materials,the chemical components of the essential oil extracted from orange skins were studied.Vapor distillation method was used to extract essential oil from orange skins and gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to determine the components of the oil.The findings show that there are 33 components in the essential oil extracted from orange skins,most of which is limonene.

  20. Preparation of Sweet Orange Oil Micro-emulsion%甜橙油微乳的制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠慧; 曹慧; 黄健

    2012-01-01

    制备了水、Tween-80/L-7D(吐温80/十聚甘油月桂酸酯)、甜橙油和丙二醇的微乳液.利用三元相图,比较了Tween-80、L-7D这两种乳化剂对微乳区形成大小的影响,考察了微乳液的稳定性和粒径大小.结果表明,在该试验条件下,Tween-80更适合于制备微乳,利用三元相图配制的微乳,可自发形成且稳定性好,粒径小于100 nm.%Sweet orange oil micro-emulsion composed of water, Tween-80/L-7D, sweet orange oil, propylene glycol was prepared using ternary phase diagram. The stability of micro-emulsion also was tested. The results showed that tween-80 was more suitable for the formation of micro-emulsion than L-7D under the conditions of this study, the micro-emulsion prepared by following the ternary phase diagram could form spontaneously and had good stability, its particle size was less than 100 nm.

  1. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  2. 脐橙果皮镉铅含量激光诱导无损检测试验%Nondestructive determination for concentration of Pb and Cd in navel orange peel by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 姚明印; 刘木华

    2013-01-01

    multi-element analysis, direct measurement without contact with the material to be analyzed, high measuring speed, and no or less sample preparation, which make it a useful tool for rapid, real-time and in-situ measurements. Based on the huge potential of LIBS in elemental analysis, more and more researchers have begun to study the application of LIBS for analysis of agricultural products. In this experiment, the fruits of a common orange (Gannan navel orange) from Ganzhou municipality, Jiangxi Province in China were used. Because the area has better ecological and environmental quality, there is lower Cd and Pb concentration in natural oranges. To prove the feasibility of quantitatively determining Cd and Pb in Gannan navel oranges, the oranges need to be contaminated before the analysis. A LIBS experimental platform was set up in the laboratory . The laser source was a Q-switched Nd:YAG operating at 1064 nm with pulse duration of 10 ns. The spectrometer provided high spectral resolution (full wave at half maximum, FWHM 0.05 nm) in the region from 200 nm to 1100 nm. The charged-coupled device(CCD) detector was triggered with suitable delay time between the laser pulse and the acquisition of plasma emission using a digital pulse delay generator DG535. The spectra of Cd and Pb in navel oranges peel were detected by LIBS. The characteristic spectral lines of Cd and Pb were analyzed based on NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) database of USA.The optimal characteristic spectral line were 226.502 nm and 405.783 nm for Cd and Pb, respectively. The variation of signal noise ratio and intensity of spectrum with delay time and laser energy were observed. The results demonstrated that the delay time and laser energy optimized were 1300ns and 130mJ, respectively. At the same time, the real concentrations of Cd and Pb in sample peel were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS).The relationships between spectral intensity and concentrations of Cd and Pb

  3. Effect of an Orange Oil Emulsion on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...

  4. Microencapsulação de óleo essencial de laranja Microencapsulation of orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy C. ABURTO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Microcápsulas contendo óleo de laranja foram obtidas utilizando secagem por atomização. Para a análise da influência dos componentes na retenção total de óleo, prepararam-se três formulações com concentrações diferentes de goma arábica e amido modificado, mantendo constante a concentração de maltodextrina (36% e óleo (10%. As três fórmulas receberam três tratamentos térmicos (180°C, 200°C e 220°C, resultando na obtenção de nove produtos. As retenções de óleo superficial e interno das microcápsulas foram quantificadas e um estudo microscópico da estrutura das microcápsulas foi realizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a microestrutura das cápsulas eram similares e que as três temperaturas empregadas não alteraram a microencapsulação. A microscopia ótica revelou microcápsulas globosas, com diâmetros variáveis e superfícies irregulares. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura verificou-se que as faces das microcápsulas eram predominantemente rugosas, exibiam perfurações e quando quebradas demonstravam paredes porosas. A forma e os diâmetros das microcápsulas não dependeram do amido modificado, mas sua presença conferiu melhor retenção de óleo. A maior retenção de óleo, 94%, foi obtida com a fórmula contendo 10% de amido modificado, 36% de maltodextrina e 10% de óleo essencial de laranja, independente da temperatura de secagem.It was done microencapsulation of natural essencial orange oil through spray-drying. The purpose was to use the best proportion of wall materials among maltodextrin, acacia gum, and modified starch (capsul in order to retain greater amount of orange oil. The orange oil (10% and maltodextrin (36% remained constant. Three spray drying temperatures were employed: 180°C, 200°C and 220°C, therefore, nine final products were obtained. The superficial and inner oil concentrations were measured. The microcapsules were also examined through optical and scanning electron

  5. Investigation on Key Molecules of Huanglongbing (HLB)-Induced Orange Juice Off-flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Hartmann, Anja; Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Krammer, Gerhard; Trautzsch, Stephan

    2017-03-27

    Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on terpeneless peel oil led to the identification of long-chained aldehydes such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-8-tetradecenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (Z)-4-decenal, and octanal with the highest flavor dilution factors among 25 odor-active volatiles in the peel oil of healthy oranges. Taste-guided fractionation and identification of the HLBOJ secondary metabolites followed by sensory validation revealed that flavanoids such as hesperidin may modulate the flavor to evoke the unacceptable harsh/metallic taste impression. Quantitation of the bitter components showed good correlation between the limonoid and flavanoid concentrations with the off-flavor and quality of the oranges obtained throughout the season.

  6. 桔子皮渣水溶性膳食纤维提取工艺的优化%Optimization for soluble dietary fiber extraction from orange peel by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥燕; 赵良忠

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain optimum for soluble dietary fiber from orange peel extracted by supercritical CO 2 , Response surface methodology was conducted to the optimal parameters on the basis of single factor investigations. The results showed that the yield of soluble dietary fiber was mainly affected by pH, temperature and time. A regression model was established by response surface methodology and very significant with R-squared 0. 984 6. The optimum extraction conditions of soluble dietary fiber were identified as pH 1. 5, extracting time 2. 28 h, extracting temperature 92. 2 °C and homogenized pressure 29. 7 Mpa. The experiment was accomplished under the optimum conditions, and the yield of soluble dietary fiber was 25. 92%.%以超临界萃取精油等化合物以后的桔子皮渣为材料,在单因素的基础上,运用响应面分析法研究水溶性膳食纤维的提取条件.结果表明,pH值、提取时间和提取温度影响显著,并建立水溶性膳食纤维提取的二次回归方程,模型高度显著且有效,回归系数R为0.984 6,水溶性膳食纤维的最佳提取条件:提取温度92.2℃·pH值1.50,均质压力29.7 MPa,提取时间2.28 h,该条件下,水溶性膳食纤维的得率为25.92%.

  7. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on pigment extracting from orange peel with hot reflux%超声波预处理对热回流提取桔皮色素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余先纯; 李湘苏; 易雪静; 龚铮午

    2011-01-01

    Pigment of orange peel extracted using ultrasonic pretreatment and hot reflux. The effects of ultrasonic power, ultrasonic pretreatment time, temperature and material-liquid ratio on the pigment yield were discussed. The ultrasonic pretreatment process was optimized and analyzed with response surface methodology, and quadratic regression model was founded. The results showed that ultrasonic pretreatment could promote pigment extraction, increase pigment yield. The pigment yield was as 65.53%, which had been increased 11.31% compared with the sample which had not pretreated with ultrasonic as the ultrasonic power was 246 W, ultrasonic pretreatment temperature was 44 ℃, ultrasonic pretreatment time was 21 min,material-liquid ratio was 6 : 1(V: m)%以桔皮为原料,采用超声波进行预处理,然后热回流提取桔皮色素,探讨超声功率、超声温度、超声时间、液料比对色素得率的影响.采用响应面分析法对预处理工艺进行优化.结果表明:超声波预处理能有效的促进桔皮色素提取.在超声功率246 W、超声温度44℃、超声时间21 min、液料比6;1(V:m)的条件下,色素的得率比未经过预处理的试样提高了11.31%.

  8. Optimization of Extraction Technology and Antioxidant Activity of Pectin from Orange Peel%慈橙皮果胶的提取工艺优化及抗氧化研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 张镜

    2016-01-01

    为探索慈橙皮中果胶提取的最佳工艺条件和体外抗氧化活性,以平远慈橙皮为原料,采用纤维素酶法提取果胶和离体条件测定果胶对O-2·、 DPPH自由基和·OH的清除能力。结果表明:在纤维素酶溶液浓度0.3%,温度46℃,料液比1:15, pH 4.8条件下,果胶得率达到14.32%,且具有良好的体外抗氧化活性,为功能性食品的开发提供一定的理论基础。%Aimed to investigate the best conditions for extracting pectin from Pingyuan orange peel and the antioxidant activity of pectin in vitro, the extraction of pectin by using cellulase and the free radical scavenging activities of pectin on superoxide anion, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were detected. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows:cellulase dose was 0. 3%, temperature was 46 ℃, soild/liquid ratio (g/mL) was 1:15, pH was 4. 8, under these conditions the extracting rate of pectin was 14. 32% and had great potential for the development of functional foods due to its excellent antioxidant activity.

  9. Effect of feeding dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves on growth performance, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler during the finisher phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzawqari, M H; Al-Baddany, A A; Al-Baadani, H H; Alhidary, I A; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Aqil, G M; Abdurab, A

    2016-09-01

    The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dried sweet orange peel (SOP) and lemon grass leaves (LGL) as feed additives on broiler growth performance, serum metabolites, and antioxidant status. A total of 192-day-old (Ross 308) broiler chickens were distributed randomly into 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment. The dietary treatments included a control diet without any feed additive (T1), a diet containing 0.8 % SOP (T2), a diet containing 0.8 % LGL (T3), and a diet containing combination of 0.4 % SOP + 0.4 % LGL (T4) was fed during the growth period from 22 to 42 days. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass traits, serum components, and antioxidant status were measured. At the end of the experimental period, the results indicated that supplementation of SOP and LGL alone or in combination did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect BWG, FI, FCR, and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. Serum total protein was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in T3 and T4 compared to the other treatments. Also, serum globulin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups. Serum glucose, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups, while cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein decreased in T2 compared to the other groups. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher total antioxidant status was observed in T2 compared to the other treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that SOP, LGL, and their combination may positively modify some serum components and the antioxidant status without any beneficial effect on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens.

  10. Avaliação da silagem de bagaço de laranja e silagem de milho em diferentes períodos de armazenamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.995 Ensilage evaluation of orange peel and corn silages in different storage times - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édson Luiz de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar alguns parâmetros de qualidade da silagem de bagaço de laranja e silagem de milho em diferentes períodos de armazenamento dos silos. Foram preparados minisilos, com capacidade para 3,6 kg, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 2 x 6, sendo dois tipos de silagem (bagaço de laranja ou milho e seis períodos de armazenamento (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 110 dias, com três repetições. Determinaram-se as características químicas, parâmetros de fermentação e digestibilidade in vitro (DIV. O teor médio de matéria seca (MS da silagem de bagaço de laranja (SBL foi de 26,5%. Apesar de a SBL apresentar maior capacidade tampão do que a silagem de milho (SM, houve maior produção de ácido lático nas SBL. A SBL e SM apresentaram pH de 3,5 e 3,9, respectivamente, com dez dias de ensilagem. A SBL apresentou maior DIV, quando comparado à silagem de milho. Conclui-se que a silagem de bagaço de laranja apresentou bom padrão de fermentação, quando os teores de MS estavam ao redor de 26%, podendo ser utilizada a partir de dez dias de ensilagem. A SBL possui elevada DIV, sendo boa alternativa nos períodos de escassez de alimentos.This study evaluated quality parameters of orange peel and corn silages in different silo storage times. Experimental mini-silos, with capacity for 3.6 kg were prepared in a completely randomized design, distributed in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement, consisting of two silages (orange peel or corn and six opening times (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 days, with three replications. The chemical characteristics, fermentation parameters and in vitro digestibility (IVD were determined. The dry matter (DM average of orange peel silage (OPS was 26.5%. Even though OPS presented higher buffering capacity than corn silage (CS, there was greater lactic acid production in OPS. Orange peel silage and corn silage presented pH after ten days of ensilage of 3.5 and 3

  11. APPLICATION OF CASSAVA PEELS ACTIVATED CARBON IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL REFINERY WASTEWATER – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh; Smith Orode Otuagoma; Evuensiri Onogwharitefe Ohimor

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the efficiency of activated carbon produced from fermented cassava peels (CPB), unfermented cassava peels (CPA) and commercial grade activated carbon (CAC) in the treatment of refinery wastewater was carried out. CPB was found to be 8% and 18% more efficient when compared to CPA and CAC in the removal of COD, and 14% and 3% better than CAC and CPA respectively in the removal of BOD5. The removal efficiency of Pb2+ by CPB was 100% compared to 95% and 57% by CPA and CA...

  12. Comparison Study on Extraction of Pectin from Orange Peel by Ammonium Oxalate and Mixing-Salting Out Method%草酸铵法和混合盐析法橘皮果胶提取工艺的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康莹; 唐艳; 陈凯; 黄磊; 姜敏

    2013-01-01

      以汉中地产橘皮为原料,进行草酸铵法和混合盐析法橘皮果胶提取工艺条件的对比研究。实验结果表明,草酸铵法在浸提温度80℃、草酸铵浓度0.8%、料液比1∶30、浸提时间1.5h的最佳工艺条件下,果胶产率为35.6%;混合盐析法在浸提温度80℃、混合盐比12∶1、浸提时间1.5h、pH3.8的最佳工艺条件下,果胶产率为8.1%。因此,我们建议工业上用草酸铵法来提取果胶。%Applied local orange peel in Hanzhong as experimental material, the comparison extracted research of pectin from orange peel by ammonium oxalate and mixing-salting out methods was carried out. The results showed that by ammonium oxalate method, un-der the best extraction process conditions of extraction temperature 80℃, ammonium oxalate mass fraction 0.8%, the ratio of solvent to material 1∶30 and extraction time 1.5h, the pectin yield was 35.6%, while the pectin extraction rate was 8.1%by mixing-salting out method under the extraction temperature 80℃, the ratio of mixing-salt 12∶1, solvent to material ratio 1∶30, extraction time 1.5h and pH value 7. So ammonium oxalate was suggested to be used in industrial extraction of pectin from orange peel.

  13. Extracts of Immature Orange (Aurantii fructus immaturus) and Citrus Unshiu Peel (Citri unshiu pericarpium) Induce P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A4 Expression via Upregulation of Pregnane X Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoto; Murakami, Aki; Urushizaki, Shiori; Matsuda, Misa; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) are expressed in the intestine and are associated with drug absorption and metabolism. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is the key molecule that regulates the expression of P-gp and CYP3A4. Given that PXR activity is regulated by a variety of compounds, it is possible that unknown PXR activators exist among known medicines. Kampo is a Japanese traditional medicine composed of various natural compounds. In particular, immature orange [Aurantii fructus immaturus (IO)] and citrus unshiu peel [Citri unshiu pericarpium (CP)] are common ingredients of kampo. A previous study reported that kampo containing IO or CP decreased the blood concentration of concomitant drugs via upregulation of CYP3A4 although the mechanism was unclear. Some flavonoids are indicated to alter P-gp and CYP3A4 activity via changes in PXR activity. Because IO and CP include various flavonoids, we speculated that the activity of P-gp and CYP3A4 in the intestine may be altered via changes in PXR activity when IO or CP is administered. We tested this hypothesis by using LS180 intestinal epithelial cells. The ethanol extract of IO contained narirutin and naringin, and that of CP contained narirutin and hesperidin. Ethanol extracts of IO and CP induced P-gp, CYP3A4, and PXR expression. The increase of P-gp and CYP3A4 expression by the IO and CP ethanol extracts was inhibited by ketoconazole, an inhibitor of PXR activation. The ethanol extract of IO and CP decreased the intracellular concentration of digoxin, a P-gp substrate, and this decrease was inhibited by cyclosporine A, a P-gp inhibitor. In contrast, CP, but not IO, stimulated the metabolism of testosterone, a CYP3A4 substrate, and this was inhibited by a CYP3A4 inhibitor. These findings indicate that the ethanol extract of IO and CP increased P-gp and CYP3A4 expression via induction of PXR protein. Moreover, this induction decreased the intracellular substrate concentration.

  14. Extracts of Immature Orange (Aurantii fructus immaturus) and Citrus Unshiu Peel (Citri unshiu pericarpium) Induce P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A4 Expression via Upregulation of Pregnane X Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoto; Murakami, Aki; Urushizaki, Shiori; Matsuda, Misa; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) are expressed in the intestine and are associated with drug absorption and metabolism. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is the key molecule that regulates the expression of P-gp and CYP3A4. Given that PXR activity is regulated by a variety of compounds, it is possible that unknown PXR activators exist among known medicines. Kampo is a Japanese traditional medicine composed of various natural compounds. In particular, immature orange [Aurantii fructus immaturus (IO)] and citrus unshiu peel [Citri unshiu pericarpium (CP)] are common ingredients of kampo. A previous study reported that kampo containing IO or CP decreased the blood concentration of concomitant drugs via upregulation of CYP3A4 although the mechanism was unclear. Some flavonoids are indicated to alter P-gp and CYP3A4 activity via changes in PXR activity. Because IO and CP include various flavonoids, we speculated that the activity of P-gp and CYP3A4 in the intestine may be altered via changes in PXR activity when IO or CP is administered. We tested this hypothesis by using LS180 intestinal epithelial cells. The ethanol extract of IO contained narirutin and naringin, and that of CP contained narirutin and hesperidin. Ethanol extracts of IO and CP induced P-gp, CYP3A4, and PXR expression. The increase of P-gp and CYP3A4 expression by the IO and CP ethanol extracts was inhibited by ketoconazole, an inhibitor of PXR activation. The ethanol extract of IO and CP decreased the intracellular concentration of digoxin, a P-gp substrate, and this decrease was inhibited by cyclosporine A, a P-gp inhibitor. In contrast, CP, but not IO, stimulated the metabolism of testosterone, a CYP3A4 substrate, and this was inhibited by a CYP3A4 inhibitor. These findings indicate that the ethanol extract of IO and CP increased P-gp and CYP3A4 expression via induction of PXR protein. Moreover, this induction decreased the intracellular substrate concentration. PMID:28270768

  15. 橘皮果胶的提取及果胶膜制备工艺参数的优化%Optimization of Process Parameters on Pectin Extraction from Orange Peel and Preparation of Pectin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许茹; 武文洁; 南岳

    2011-01-01

    采用3种不同的方法从橘皮中提取果胶,探讨果胶膜成膜因素对制备膜性能的影响,研究制备膜的最佳工艺.结果表明:酒石酸酸解盐析法提取果胶效果最好,提取率达10.35%;果胶质量分数、变性淀粉质量分数及助膜剂质量分数均影响制备果胶膜的抗拉强度;影响制备果胶膜抗拉强度的主要因素顺序为助膜剂质量分数>果胶质量分数>变性淀粉质量分数,果胶质量分数2.5%、助膜剂质量分数3.0%、变性淀粉质量分数10.0%为制备膜的最佳工艺条件.%Pectin was extracted from orange peel by three different methods.The effects of pectin concentration,glycerol concentration and modified starch on the properties of pectin film were investigated and optimal process was studied.The results showed that the total pectin extraction efficiency is 10.35% by the tartaric acid hydrolysis and salting-out method.Finally,the results indicate the effects of glycerol concentration ,pectin concentration,and modified starch addition on intensity of tension of the pectin film is significant.The main sequence of the factors affecting tensile strength of pectin film is as follows:glycerol concentration>pectin concentration>modified starch addition.The optimum concentrations of pectin,glycerol and modified starch are 2.5%,3.0% and 10.0%,respectively.

  16. An Ap"peel"ing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urich, Joshua A.; Sasse, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on mathematics activity wherein students peel oranges to explore the surface area and volume of a sphere. This activity encourages students to make conjectures and hold mathematical discussions with both their peers and their teacher. Moreover, students develop formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere…

  17. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma-therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three Citrus species, C. aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and they contain mainly limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and linalyl acetate. C. aurantifolia oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC₅₀ value of 19.6 μg/mL), while C. bergamia exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC₅₀ = 42.6 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation). C. aurantifolia inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of Citrus oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of Citrus essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra-nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Sangoi BARRETO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1. Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each, and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2. Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3. Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05. The volume of residual filling material was similar to that in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than that observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05. When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05. Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material.

  19. Marinade with thyme and orange oils reduces Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter coli on inoculated broiler breast fillets and whole wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanissery, R; Smith, D P

    2014-05-01

    Essential oils have been reported to possess antimicrobial properties and therefore have potential usage as natural antimicrobials in food. In a previous study, thyme orange essential oil combination (TOC) used at the 0.5% level as a dip application on chicken cut-up parts had a significant antibacterial effect against Salmonella and Campylobacter. A study was designed to evaluate the effect of salt-phosphate marinade solution containing 0.5% TOC to 1) reduce Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter coli numbers on broiler breast fillets and whole wings marinated by vacuum tumbling, and 2) reduce cross-contamination of both pathogens between inoculated and uninoculated parts during marination. A total of 52 skinless breast fillets and 52 whole wings were used for the 2 replications. For each replication, each cut-up part was randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups: treatment 1: uninoculated parts marinated without TOC; treatment 2: inoculated parts marinated without TOC; treatment 3: uninoculated parts marinated with TOC; treatment 4: inoculated parts marinated with TOC; and control: nonmarinated inoculated parts. Samples were dipped in an inoculum containing a mixture of Salmonella Enteritidis and C. coli. The treatment samples were marinated by vacuum tumbling. All samples were immediately evaluated to determine Salmonella Enteritidis and C. coli numbers. Results indicated that TOC at the 0.5% level in the marinade solution applied by vacuum tumbling significantly reduced (P Salmonella Enteritidis by 2.6 and 2.3 log cfu/mL on broiler breast fillets and C. coli by 3.6 and 3.1 log cfu/mL on whole wings. Cross-contamination was observed as the uninoculated chicken parts marinated with inoculated parts were positive. However, the number of bacterial cells recovered from the TOC treated samples were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the numbers recovered from the untreated samples. Marination with a salt phosphate formulation containing 0.5% TOC successfully reduced

  20. Evaluation of α-tocopherol acetate, peel and extract pomogrante antioxidative potential in diet contained fish oil on meat quality boiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salehi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poultry meat enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA Lc n-3 can make a nutritionally meaningful contribution to Western diets in which consumption of PUFA Lc n-3 is low. Enrichment of poultry meat with this fatty acid is usually achieved by inclusion of fish oil in broiler diet (23, 24. However, meat enriched in this way is susceptible to quality deterioration by lipid oxidation during storage or cooking, leading to reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of lipid oxidation products (10. Oxidation is a very general process affecting lipids, pigments, proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and vitamins (11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary α-tocopherol (α-Toc, pomegranate peel extract (PPE and pomegranate peel (PP on fatty acid profile, aoxidation and phenolic compounds in raw thigh and breast meat during refrigeration. Materials and methods Peels of pomegranate were harvested in October 2011 from pomegranate trees (Ardestani, variety in Khorasan Razavi province (East, Iran. Dried powders of peels (2.5 g were extracted with 40 mL of methanol solvent at room temperature for 6 hours. Three hundred and eighty four 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 8 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds. Eight dietary treatments including control diet without feed additives, control diet mixed with 200 mg/kg α-Toc, control diet mixed with PPE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control diet mixed with PP (1, 2 and 3 g/kg. In all diets 2% fish oil were added to enhance the enrichment of unsaturated n-3 fatty acid in birds. One broiler chick was randomly selected from each pen of 42 d of age. The antioxidative potential and various meat quality characteristics were determined on 0, 7, and 11 days of refrigerated storage. Total phenols content in the aqueous supernatant was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (33. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging

  1. APPLICATION OF CASSAVA PEELS ACTIVATED CARBON IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL REFINERY WASTEWATER – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the efficiency of activated carbon produced from fermented cassava peels (CPB, unfermented cassava peels (CPA and commercial grade activated carbon (CAC in the treatment of refinery wastewater was carried out. CPB was found to be 8% and 18% more efficient when compared to CPA and CAC in the removal of COD, and 14% and 3% better than CAC and CPA respectively in the removal of BOD5. The removal efficiency of Pb2+ by CPB was 100% compared to 95% and 57% by CPA and CAC while 96% of phenol was removed by CPB against 93% and 83% by CPA and CAC respectively. This better performance of CPB over CPA and CAC is not unconnected with its higher pH resulting from the removal of cyanide from the peels during the fermentation process. However, despite the high phenol removal efficiency by CPB, the concentration of phenol in the treated effluent does not meet the environmental guidelines for disposal. It is therefore, recommended that a two-stage CPB adsorption column arranged in series is necessary to treat refinery wastewater efficiently if it is desired to totally remove phenol from the effluent or reduce the concentration to 0.005mg/l allowed by the Federal environmental protection agency (FEPA. The equilibrium adsorption test conducted showed that the Freundlich isotherm is a better fit for the adsorption of phenol by the three activated carbons with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9364, 0.9383 and 0.9541 for CAC, CPA and CPB respectively. CPB was found to be a better adsorbent as it has the highest adsorptive capacity as evidenced from its better Freundlich exponent.

  2. Effect of aromatherapy with orange essential oil on salivary cortisol and pulse rate in children during dental treatment: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Mehdi; Arman, Soroor; Pour, Fatemeh Farahbakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Essential oils have been used as an alternative and complementary treatment in medicine. Citrus fragrance has been used by aromatherapists for the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Based on this claim, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy with essential oil of orange on child anxiety during dental treatment. Materials and Methods: Thirty children (10 boys, 20 girls) aged 6-9 years participated in a crossover intervention study, according to the inclusion criteria, among patients who attended the pediatric department of Isfahan Dental School in 2011. Every child underwent two dental treatment appointments including dental prophylaxis and fissure-sealant therapy under orange aroma in one session (intervention) and without any aroma (control) in another one. Child anxiety level was measured using salivary cortisol and pulse rate before and after treatment in each visit. The data were analyzed using t-test by SPSS software version 18. Results: The mean ± SD and mean difference of salivary cortisol levels and pulse rate were calculated in each group before and completion of treatment in each visit. The difference in means of salivary cortisol and pulse rate between treatment under orange odor and treatment without aroma was 1.047 ± 2.198 nmol/l and 6.73 ± 12.3 (in minutes), which was statistically significant using paired t-test (P = 0.014, P = 0.005, respectively). Conclusion: It seems that the use of aromatherapy with natural essential oil of orange could reduce salivary cortisol and pulse rate due to child anxiety state. PMID:23930255

  3. Antioxidative effects of extracts from wax gourd peels on oils and fats%冬瓜皮提取物对油脂的抗氧化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣秀; 王海凤; 李娜; 王璐; 王俊斌

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,total polyphenols and flavanones from wax gourd peels were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method,and the contents were determined.Further,the effect of the wax gourd peels extracts on the antioxidant capacity of flax seed oil and lard were detected with peroxide value,acid value and malonaldehyde content as oxidation stability indexes.The results showed that wax gourd peels extract can effectively delay oxi-dation of oil and lard,and the antioxidant activity increased with the amount of wax gourd peels extracts in-creasing.The antioxidant activity of crude extracts was less than butylated hydroxytoluene.%以冬瓜皮为原料,应用超声波法提取多酚和黄酮类物质并进行测定,以过氧化值、酸价和丙二醛含量为氧化稳定性指标,研究冬瓜皮提取物对亚麻油和猪油的抗氧化作用。结果表明:冬瓜皮提取物可以有效地延缓亚麻油和猪油的氧化,抗氧化能力随着提取物添加量的增加而增强,但小于同浓度二丁基羟基甲苯的抗氧化能力。

  4. Application of response surface methodology for the optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oil from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Raofie, Farhad

    2016-07-01

    Essential oils and volatile components of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel of the Malas variety from Meybod, Iran, were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and hydro-distillation methods. The experimental parameters of SFE that is pressure, temperature, extraction time, and modifier (methanol) volume were optimized using a central composite design after a (2(4-1)) fractional factorial design. Detailed chemical composition of the essential oils and volatile components obtained by hydro-distillation and optimum condition of the supercritical CO2 extraction were analyzed by GC-MS, and seventy-three and forty-six compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra, respectively. The optimum SFE conditions were 350 atm pressure, 55 °C temperature, 30 min extraction time, and 150 µL methanol. Results showed that oleic acid, palmitic acid and (-)-Borneol were major compounds in both extracts. The optimum extraction yield was 1.18 % (w/w) for SFE and 0.21 % (v/w) for hydro-distillation.

  5. The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

    2014-08-01

    Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Investigation of peel and leaf essential oils of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. growing in the south of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thao-Tran Thi; Thi Tran, Thanh-Tram; Hua, Tra-My

    2016-01-01

    (disc diffusion antibiotic sensitivity assay) of the oils was investigated against six reference test organisms including two Gram (+) bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram (-) bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri), and one fungus (Candida...

  7. 不同方法提取沙田柚柚皮精油成分的研究%Study on the Components of Essential Oil of Shatian Pomelo Peel Extracted by Different Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋平; 宋元德

    2014-01-01

    With peel of Shatian pomel as test materials, using cold pressing method, steam distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction method to extract the essential oil from pomelo peel, the components and contents of essential oil from pomelo peel were studied. The results showed that, the extraction rates of essential oil which extracted by the three methods was 0.126%, 0.401% and 0.252% respectively. The results of GC-MS analysis showed that, the kinds of effective components of essential oils obtained by the three methods were 49, 35 and 37, and there were 22 kinds of the same components, including 6 kinds of the highest content of the component (0.4%). The high temperature in the extraction process of steam distillation would cause evaporation or decomposition of some essential oil components. The freeze-drying treatment before supercritical CO2 extraction method would make part of components of the essential oil loss with water. The cold pressing method was still the most effective method which could keep the components of essential oil of peel of Shatian pomelo.%以长寿沙田柚柚皮作为试验材料,采用冷压法、水蒸气蒸馏法和CO2超临界萃取法三种方法提取柚皮精油,研究不同方法提取柚皮精油的成分与含量。结果表明,三种提取方法的精油提取率分别为0.126%、0.401%和0.252%;采用GC-MS检测分析结果表明,三种方法所得精油有效成分的种类分别为49种、35种和37种,其中有22种成分相同,包括6种最高含量的成分(0.4%);水蒸气蒸馏法在提取过程中的高温会导致部分精油成分挥发或分解,CO2超临界萃取法提取前的冻干过程也会使部分精油成分随水分流失,冷压法依然是可保持沙田柚柚皮精油成分最有效的提取方法。

  8. Ultrasound-assisted Steam Distillation Extraction of Essential Oil from Huyou Peels%超声波辅助蒸馏法提取胡柚皮中香精油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽萍; 朱妞; 臧鲍

    2014-01-01

    探究了影响超声波辅助水蒸气蒸馏法提取胡柚皮中香精油的主要因素,并采用单因素实验和正交实验法确定其最佳提取工艺。结果表明超声波功率250W,超声时间25min,蒸馏提取时间2.5h,氯化钠质量分数3%时,胡柚皮中香精油的提取率可以达到2.27%,从而为胡柚的综合利用及进一步的研究提供了可靠的依据和参考。%This paper explores the main factors that affect essential oil extraction from huyou peels us-ing ultrasonic assisted steam distillation, and determines the optimum extraction process using single factor experiment method and orthogonal experimental method. The experimental results show that: the extraction rate of essential oil from huyou peels can reach 2.27% when the ultrasonic power is 250W with ultrasonic time 25min, distillation extraction time 2.5h and the mass fraction of sodium chloride 3%. The paper pro-vides reliable basis and reference for the comprehensive utilization and further research of huyou peels.

  9. Comparison of the Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Green Branches and Leaves of Egyptian Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. malesy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldahshan, Omayma A; Halim, Ahmed F

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from the leaves and green branches of the Egyptian navel orange trees were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 33 and 24 compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and branches accounting for 96.0% and 97.9%, respectively, of the total detected constituents. The major ones were sabinene (36.5; 33.0%), terpinen-4-ol (8.2; 6.2%), δ-3-carene (7.0; 9.4%), limonene (6.8; 18.7%), trans-ocimene (6.7; 6.1%), and β-myrcene (4.5; 4.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated using the agar-well diffusion method toward three representatives for each of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. The oil of leaves was more effective as antimicrobial agent than that of the branches. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive bacteria and fungi by the leaves oil.

  10. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  11. Shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps as affected by thymol essential oil and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Danza, Alessandra; Conte, Amalia; Muratore, Giuseppe; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2010-12-15

    In this work the influence of different packaging strategies on the shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps was investigated. First, the effectiveness of the coating (Coat) and the active coating loaded with different concentrations of thymol (Coat-500, Coat-1000, and Coat-1500) on the quality loss of the investigated food product packaged in air was addressed; afterwards, the thymol concentration that had shown the best performance was used in combination with MAP (5% O(2); 95% CO(2)). Microbial cell load of main spoilage microorganisms, pH and sensorial quality were monitored during the refrigerated storage. Results of the first step suggested that the sole coating did not affect the microbial growth. A slight antimicrobial effect was obtained when the coating was loaded with thymol and a concentration dependence was also observed. Moreover, the active coating was effective in minimizing the sensory quality loss of the investigated product, it was particularly true at the lowest thymol concentration. In the second step, the thymol concentration (1000 ppm) that showed the strike balance between microbial and sensorial quality was chosen in combination with MAP. As expected, MAP significantly affected the growth of the mesophilic bacteria. In particular, a cell load reduction of about 2 log cycle for the samples under MAP respect to that in air was obtained. Moreover, the MAP packaging inhibited the growth of the Pseudomonas spp. and hydrogen sulphide-producing bacteria. The MAP alone was not able to improve the shelf life of the uncoated samples. In fact, no significant difference between the control samples packaged in air and MAP was observed. Whilst, the use of coating under MAP condition prolonged the shelf life of about 6 days with respect to the same samples packaged in air. Moreover, when the MAP was used in combination with thymol, a further shelf life prolongation with respect to the samples packaged in air was observed. In particular, a shelf life of

  12. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  13. Changes of Dominant Pigments and Sugar Concentration in Peel of Cara Cara Navel Orange at Different Fruit Branching Position and Their Correlation%红肉脐橙树体不同部位果实果皮主要色素和糖含量的变化及其相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵元; 夏仁学; 曾祥国; 吴强盛

    2011-01-01

    研究了红肉脐橙[Citrus.sinensis (L)Osbeck cv.Cara Cara]树体不同部位果实果皮中主要色素和糖含量的动态变化,并对其相关性进行了分析.结果表明,内膛果实果皮的叶绿素含量在幼果期和果实膨大末期极显著或显著低于外围果实果皮,其他时期无显著差异,变化趋势也基本一致;除8月26日、11月10日和12月25日外,其他时期内膛果实果皮的类胡萝卜素含量都显著或极显著地低于外围果实果皮,这表明遮光不利于果皮叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量的积累.外围果实果皮和内膛果实果皮的葡萄糖、果糖和总糖含量变化均呈"S"型曲线,蔗糖含量变化均为一单峰曲线,内膛果实果皮除蔗糖含量于果实迅速膨大期(8月26日)和成熟时(12月25日)与外围果实果皮相比无显著性差异外,其他各时期各类糖含量均极显著低于外围果实果皮,这表明遮光严重阻碍了果皮中糖的积累.外围果实果皮和内膛果实果皮的叶绿素与葡萄糖、果糖和总糖含量呈显著或极显著的负相关,类胡萝卜素则与其呈正相关,表明果皮叶绿素和类胡萝卜素分别对糖的积累起着负向和正向的调控作用.%Changes of dominant pigments and sugar concentration in peel of Cara Cara navel orange [Citrus. sinensis (L)Osbeck cv. Cara Cara] at different position of fruiter were studied, and their correlation was analyzed. The results showed that the chlorophyll concentration of inner fruit's peel was significantly or very significantly lower than that of the outer fruit peel during young period and the expanding anaphase of fruit; and there was no significant difference during other periods,the changing trend were consistent, too. Except for August 26, November 10 and December 25, the carotenoid concentration of inner fruit's peel was significantly or very significantly lower than that of the outer fruit peel, which showed that shading reduced the accumulation of chlorophyll

  14. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Aarumugam; P. Saravana Bhavan; T. Muralisankar; N. Manickam; V. Srinevasan; S. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-...

  15. Analysis on Volatile Oil from Peel of 'Newhall' Navel Orange by GC-MS%纽荷尔脐橙皮挥发油的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏新中; 张道明; 刘连生

    2013-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取湖北秭归产纽荷尔脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osb.)皮中的挥发油,利用GC-MS分析其化学组成,并通过峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对质量分数.结果表明,湖北秭归产纽荷尔脐橙鲜果皮共分离出56种组分,鉴定了50种挥发性化学成分,其中19个成分是首次从脐橙果皮挥发油中鉴定.在该挥发油中,柠檬烯含量最高达95.034%、其次是β一月桂烯1.309%.湖北秭归产纽荷尔橙皮与其他地区橙皮挥发油的主要化学成分基本相同,但各成分含量存在明显差异,朱栾倍半萜是其特有的主要成分.

  16. Orange Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  17. Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Mutant Cells Induced by Orange Oil and d-Limonene via the p38 MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinomiya,Misae

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of natural essential oil on neurite outgrowth in PC12m3 neuronal cells to elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of the oils used in aromatherapy. Neurite outgrowth can be induced by nerve growth factor (NGF, where ERK and p38 MAPK among MAPK pathways play important roles in activating intracellular signal transduction. In this study, we investigated whether d-limonene, the major component of essential oils from oranges, can promote neurite outgrowth in PC12m3 cells, in which neurite outgrowth can be induced by various physical stimulations. We also examined by which pathways, the ERK, p38 MAPK or JNK pathway, d-limonene acts on PC12m3 cells. Our results showed that neurite outgrowth can be induced when the cells are treated with d-limonene. After treatment with d-limonene, we observed that p38 MAPK is strongly activated in PC12m3 cells, while ERK is weakly activated. In contrast, JNK shows little activity. A study using an inhibitor of p38 MAPK revealed that neurite outgrowth in PC12m3 cells is induced via the activation of p38 MAPK by d-limonene. The results thus indicate that d-limonene may promote neural cell differentiation mainly via activation of the p38 MAPK pathway.

  18. 微胶囊技术生产固体甜橙精油的研究%STUDY ON THE MICROENCAPSULATION OF SWEET ORANGE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱东; 葛毅强; 蔡同一

    2001-01-01

    Sweet orange oil with the method of spray drying using the arabic gum,dextrin and the high fructose cornsyrup as the wall materials.The optium wall composition was obtained by orthogenesis test.The product was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM).%本研究以阿拉伯胶、糊精及玉米糖浆及壁材,优化确定壁材配方及工艺条件,采用喷雾干燥技术进行甜橙精油的微胶囊包埋处理以获得固体香精,并对产品进行了电镜扫描检测。

  19. 四种植物挥发油对食用油脂抗氧化作用的研究%STUDY ON ANTIOXIDATIVE ACTIVITIES OF FOUR KINDS OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OIL TO EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江琰; 陈训

    2006-01-01

    本文采用硫氰酸铁法,以没食子酸丙脂为对照,研究4种植物挥发油对食用植物油脂的抗氧化活性.结果表明,姜黄、生姜、木姜子、桔皮挥发油对黄豆油、芝麻油、油菜籽油、花生仁油等食用植物油脂均具有较强的抗氧化作用.%Antioxidative activities of some kinds of plant essential oil in the four kinds of edible vegetable oil, including soybean oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil and gingili oil, were investigated in comparison with GP by the thiocyanate method. Those plant essential oil are gained from curcuma, ginger, litsea pugers, and orange peel. The antioxidative activities of the essential oil of curcuma, ginger, litsea pugers, and orange peel in edible oil are quite strong.

  20. A case of peeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Peeling of paint and plaster from building facades is a well-known phenomenon. This contribution analyses a case of peeling on a villa and its gardens walls, Figure 1. The walls were levelled with cement plaster, before painted with a formally very dense acrylic paint. - The analysis shows...... that the present layer of acryl paint is not very dense because it is applied on a rough plaster surface. - However, the main reason of the peeling seems to be the difference in thermal expansion between the masonry and the cement plaster. It is shown that the peeling takes place both winter and summer....

  1. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  2. Chemical face peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarasso, S L; Glogau, R G

    1991-01-01

    Application of caustic chemicals to improve cosmesis and reverse actinic damage has been used for centuries. Although still not an exact science, it was not until the latter part of this century that peeling became more systematized. The indications, patient selection, armamentarium, histology, comprehension of the mechanisms of action, and safety parameters of peels have only recently become more extensively defined. Phenol, when used in the Baker's formula, provides the most dramatic results but also holds the most potential for systemic complications. Ideally suited for fair-skinned women, a phenol peel can provide substantial improvement in rhytidosis and actinic damage. Although the results of medium-depth peels approach those of Baker's peels, they are not quite as profound. Use of TCA and the medium-depth peels has filled an important gap between deep and superficial peels, however. Also ideal for light complexions, this category of peels lightens pigmentary problems and improves rhytides with minimal potential for systemic toxicity; however, local complications, including scarring and pigmentary anomalies, should not be underestimated. [table: see text] Superficial peels do not effectively eradicate the ravages of time and sun, but when done repetitively, they do improve pigmentary irregularities and may improve some minor surface changes and thus impart a fresher appearance to facial skin. Although pigmentary changes can occur, superficial peels are relatively safe, and maximal results can be achieved with serial applications. Peels have been categorized by patient indications and the corresponding depth of peeling required for improvement (Table 4). The depth is determined in turn by a host of factors (Table 5). Neither the classification scheme nor the peel process should be viewed dogmatically. Patients will often benefit from the concurrent use of different skin preparations and wounding agents. Localized gradations can be achieved not only with

  3. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  4. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yin Bing; Tam, Ada Chung Ying

    2008-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of an aromatic essential oil (1% Zingiber officinale and 0.5% Citrus sinesis) massage among the elderly with moderate-to-severe knee pain. Fifty-nine older persons were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental study group from the Community Centre for Senior Citizens, Hong Kong. The intervention was six massage sessions with ginger and orange oil over a 3-week period. The placebo control group received the same massage intervention with olive oil only and the control group received no massage. Assessment was done at baseline, post 1-week and post 4 weeks after treatment. Changes from baseline to the end of treatment were assessed on knee pain intensity, stiffness level and physical functioning (by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index) and quality of life (by SF-36). There were significant mean changes between the three time-points within the intervention group on three of the outcome measures: knee pain intensity (p=0.02); stiffness level (p=0.03); and enhancing physical function (p=0.04) but these were not apparent with the between-groups comparison (p=0.48, 0.14 and 0.45 respectively) 4 weeks after the massage. The improvement of physical function and pain were superior in the intervention group compared with both the placebo and the control group at post 1-week time (both p=0.03) but not sustained at post 4 weeks (p=0.45 and 0.29). The changes in quality of life were not statistically significant for all three groups. The aroma-massage therapy seems to have potential as an alternative method for short-term knee pain relief.

  5. Efficient Isolation of RNA from Fruit Peel and Pulp of Ripening Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)%一种适合于成熟脐橙果皮和果肉的RNA提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永忠; 刘庆; 陶能国; 邓秀新

    2006-01-01

    An efficient RNA isolation method was established in the present paper. RNA extracted from peel and pulp collected at different ripening time was successfully used for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) without DNase treatment, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP), and RNA blotting. The A260/A230ratios were higher than 2. 0, and the A260/A280 ratios ranged from 1.65 to 1.92. In addition, the protocol is safe, convenient and proved to be widely applicable, since it was successfully employed for RNA extraction from citrus leaves, immature fruit, Poncirus seedling and citrus callus as well.%研究了一种适合脐橙果实成熟过程中有效的RNA提取方法.结果表明利用该方法从不同成熟时期果实的果皮和果肉中提取的RNA可以有效用于RT-PC,cDNA-AFLP和RNA杂交.其A260/A230的比值超过2.0,A260/A280的比值在1.65-1.92的范围之间.另外该方法也证明可以广泛用于柑橘叶片,未成熟的幼果,枳壳幼苗和柑橘愈伤组织的RNA提取,是一种安全、方便和适用性较广的RNA提取方法.

  6. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  7. 自制双层固相萃取柱在新会陈皮及其制品中11种有机磷农药测定中的应用%Application of homemade double solid phase extraction column for determination of 11 organophosphorus pesticides in Xinhui dried orange peel and its products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓俊; 秦汉; 温绮靖; 梁伟华; 梁优珍

    2016-01-01

    By packing N-propylethylenediamine ( PSA ) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) separately,a homemade double solid phase extraction purification column was made. A gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides,including dichlorovos,methamidophos,acephate,phor-ate,omethoate,dimethoate,chlorpyrifos,malathion,parathion-ethyl,quinalphos and ethion in Xinhui dried orange peel and its products. The samples were centrifuged after extracted by ethyl acetate,and then cleaned up with a homemade double PSA/MWNTs solid phase extrac-tion column. The separation of target compounds was performed on an Agilent RTS-1701 capil-lary column with temperature programmed within 25 min,then determined by a flame photo-metric detector and quantified by using external standard method. The factors affecting the determination,such as packing type,amount of packing,elution mode,extraction solution and ultrasonic time,were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions,the novel method showed a good linearity in the range of 0. 020-1. 0 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0. 999 0-0. 999 8,the limits of detection were 3. 5-9. 6 μg/kg for the pesticides. The new method was successfully applied to the analyses of organophosphorus pesticides in Xinhui dried orange peel and its products. The recoveries spiked with organophosphorus pesticides standards at three concentration levels of 10,25 and 100 μg/kg in samples were 50. 8%-109% with relative standard deviations of 2. 7%-8. 5%. The established method is accurate,sensitive,simple and fast. The detection limits of the method meet the limited requirements of organophosphorus pesticide residues. The homemade column is cost saving and worthy of popularization and application. The study provides a useful method for the analysis of trace substance.%以自制改性多壁碳纳米管(MWNTs)和 N-丙基乙二胺(PSA)填料分层填装的双层固相萃取

  8. Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Pinheiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

  9. Microdermabrasion with chemical peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, A M

    2001-03-01

    Microdermabrasion is a popular, noninvasive superficial skin treatment. The author describes the benefits of microdermabrasion combined with a trichloroacetic acid peel to improve the appearance of moderately deep rhytids, acne scars, and photodamaged skin.

  10. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  11. [Furanocoumarins contents and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products: outflow of 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin during processing treatment of peel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Masaru; Toda, Hikaru; Sunagane, Nobuyoshi; Ohta, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) such as bergamottin (BG) and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG) contained in grapefruits are known to be cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors. These are contained in larger quantity in peel than in pulp, and therefore, processed peel products possibly have strong CYP3A4 inhibitory activity. The CYP3A4 inhibitory potency of these processed peel products, however, remains to be elucidated. The FC content and CYP3A inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products were investigated. CYP3A inhibitory activities of crystallized grapefruit peel, grapefruit marmalade, lemon peel and bitter orange slice were close to that of 100% grapefruit juice, while the activities of yuzu slice, pomelo (buntan) marmalade and crystallized iyokan peel were very weak, 1/8-1/20 of 100% grapefruit juice. The maximum BG content was 5.6 µg/g in lemon peel. The maximum DHBG content was 7.2 µg/g in crystallized grapefruit peel, about 1/30 that of raw peel. Grapefruit marmalade and crystallized grapefruit peel contained similar amounts of FCs to 100% grapefruit juice, but FCs were not detected in pomelo (buntan) marmalade or crystallized iyokan peel. Good correlation (r=0.78) was observed between the FC contents of these peel products and those CYP3A inhibitory activities. Preparation of homemade grapefruit marmalade and crystallized peel revealed that considerably lower DHBG content in these products and lower CYP3A inhibitory activity than anticipated were attributable to outflow of DHBG to broth during boiling of the raw peel.

  12. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista de Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of a factorial design applied to five treatments (garlic, pepper, coriander, and neem and orange peel essential oils at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30%.They also evaluated the controls untreated and with fungicide (Thiram.The second experiment evaluated the effect of the treatment at30% concentration on the germination and emergence of seedlings assessed on trays, and in the third experiment, the presence of A. alternata and A. dauci on the pericarp, endosperm and on the embryo. A. alternata showed higher incidence than A. dauci. The garlic extract and the orange essential oil showed the potential to control A. dauci and A. alternata, because their lower concentrations were able to sufficiently reduce the incidence of these fungi and because they do not affect carrot seeds germination and emergence. A. alternata conidia were found on the embryo (8%, pericarp (17% and endosperm (31%.

  13. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil.

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    Nicholas Boire

    Full Text Available The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C. Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%, had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s.

  14. Quality assessment of essential oils of Citrus Grandis peel obtained by different extraction methods%不同方法提取的柚皮精油质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊荣; 曾新安; 关昕

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil of Citrus Grandis peel was obtained by steam distillation,organic solvent extraction and supercritical(carbon dioxide)extraction methods,respectively.The physical and chemical properties as well as the major functional group were compared and identified.It could be concluded from the results that the quality of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation was better than that obtained by the other two extraction methods.%利用水热法、超临界萃取法、有机溶剂萃取三种不同的方法从沙田柚皮中提取柚皮精油,比较了提取出的三种精油的理化指标、香气特征,并且对精油的主要官能团进行了鉴定。通过对柚皮精油进行综合评价,得出最佳的提取方法。结果表明用水热法提取的精油香气比较纯正,精油含量较高,而且生产成本投资较少,综合评价值最高。

  15. Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification Process of Milled Orange Wastes

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    Daniel Velasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice production generates a very high quantity of residues (Orange Peel Waste or OPW-50–60% of total weight that can be used for cattle feed as well as feedstock for the extraction or production of essential oils, pectin and nutraceutics and several monosaccharides by saccharification, inversion and enzyme-aided extraction. As in all solid wastes, simple pretreatments can enhance these processes. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatments and knife milling have been analyzed with enzyme saccharification at different dry solid contents as the selection test: simple knife milling seemed more appropriate, as no added pretreatment resulted in better final glucose yields. A Taguchi optimization study on dry solid to liquid content and the composition of the enzymatic cocktail was undertaken. The amounts of enzymatic preparations were set to reduce their impact on the economy of the process; however, as expected, the highest amounts resulted in the best yields to glucose and other monomers. Interestingly, the highest content in solid to liquid (11.5% on dry basis rendered the best yields. Additionally, in search for process economy with high yields, operational conditions were set: medium amounts of hemicellulases, polygalacturonases and β-glucosidases. Finally, a fractal kinetic modelling of results for all products from the saccharification process indicated very high activities resulting in the liberation of glucose, fructose and xylose, and very low activities to arabinose and galactose. High activity on pectin was also observed, but, for all monomers liberated initially at a fast rate, high hindrances appeared during the saccharification process.

  16. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-02

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Levulinic acid from orange peel waste by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puccini, Monica; Licursi, Domenico; Stefanelli, Eleonora; Vitolo, Sandra; Galletti, Anna Maria Raspolli; Heeres, Hero Jan

    2016-01-01

    With the awareness of the need for optimal and sustainable use of natural resources, hydrothermal treatment of biomass and biomass waste for energy and resource recovery has received increasing attention. The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of a biomass is achieved using water as the reaction

  18. Huanglongbing modifies quality components and flavonoid content of 'Valencia' oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenti, Roberto; Lo Bianco, Riccardo; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei; Sims, Charles

    2016-01-15

    In order to evaluate the effect of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB), on quality components and flavonoid contents of 'Valencia' oranges, fruit from non-infected trees (control), from infected trees but symptom-less (asymptomatic) and from infected trees and showing clear HLB symptoms (symptomatic) were harvested in March and in May, 2013. Fruit peel, pulp and juice were separated, the main quality components were determined, and hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were quantified using liquid chromatography. Peel colour, total soluble solids and citric acid were similar in control and asymptomatic fruits. Symptomatic fruits were smaller, yielded less juice, had higher acidity and lower sugar and peel colour than control fruits. In the peel, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. Peel flavonoids decreased with fruit maturation. Also, in pulp and juice, flavonoid content was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. These results show that asymptomatic fruits are similar to control fruits more than to symptomatic fruits, suggesting that secondary metabolism and physical properties of fruits are only affected at a later and more advanced stage of HLB infection. Despite the significant loss of quality, fruit with clear HLB symptoms accumulate high quantities of flavonoids in peel and pulp. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Analysis of the Volatile Components in Peel Oil of Yuzu byGas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry%柚子果皮油挥发性成分的气相色谱-质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣华

    2001-01-01

    采用溶剂萃取法提取柚子果皮的精油,经气相色谱和质谱联机分析,同时依据各成分的保留指数,鉴定出71种挥发性物质,其中有21种碳氢化合物,50种含氧化合物。在碳氢化合物中以柠烯、γ-萜品烯为主要成分;而在含氧化合物中主要是沉香醇、α-萜品醇、百里酚以及一些脂肪族醛。%The essential oil of Yuzu was extracted from the peel by solvent extraction, and analyzed by combined capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and retention indices. Among 71 identified compounds, there were 21 hydrocarbons which were mainly limonene and γ-terpinene, and 50 oxygenated compounds in representative of linalool, α-terpineol, thymol and aliphatic aldehydes.

  20. Post harvest ripening of oil palm fruit is accelerated by application of exogenous ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Nualwijit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted with fresh fully mature fruit bunches of Tenera variety oil-palm. Palm fruit bunches were exposed to 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mlL-1 ethylene for 24 hours. Each fruit bunch was evaluated in three separate sections: the bottom, the middle, and the top. The exogenous ethylene treatments significantly hastened palm fruit ripening, quantified by an increase in the fruit peel coloring that turns from black to reddish orange. Ethylene treatments also significantly eased detaching the fruit, by reducing the tension force required. Total oil contents of fruit increased with 1000 mlL-1 ethylene treatment. Free fatty acids (FFA in untreated palm fruit, especially in the bottom section, were at their highest levels 2 days after harvest, and the FFA levels were lowered by ethylene treatments. In summary, exogenous ethylene fumigation accelerated the ripening of oil palm fruit, increased oil yield, and decreased the FFA levels.

  1. Inhibitory Action of Essential Oil Extracted from Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Peels on Penicillium digitatum%椪柑精油对指状青霉的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 陶能国; 王长锋

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取椪柑(Citrus reticulate Blanco)果皮精油,并用GC-MS对其成分进行分析,共鉴定出39种成分,主要包括柠檬烯(12.18%)、β-芳樟醇(10.88%)、γ-松油烯(9.37%)、5-亚乙基-1-甲基-环庚烯(9.37%)、β-月桂烯(9.36%)、β-蒎烯(8.12%)、2-蒈烯(7.8%)、α-蒎烯(6.74%)、辛醛(5.14%)、α-侧柏烯(3.99%)和β-水芹烯(3.31%)等。并测定不同体积分数椪柑精油对指状青霉孢子萌发和菌丝体生长的影响。结果表明:当体积分数不高于0.25%时,椪柑精油对孢子萌发和菌丝体生长均有促进作用;精油体积分数高于5%时,对孢子萌发和菌丝体生长表现出抑制作用。本实验表明椪柑精油对指状青霉生长具有明显抑制作用。%Essential oil was extracted from poknkan mandarin peels by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 39 compounds were identified. Among them, the predominant compounds were limonene (12.18%), followed by β-linalool (10.88%), γ-terpinene (9.37%), cycloheptene, 5-ethylidene-1-methy (9.37%), β-myrcene (9.36%), β -pinene (8.12%), 2-carene (7.8%), α -pinene (6.74%), octanal (5.14%), α -thujene (3.99%) and β -phellandrene (3.31%). Meanwhile, the effect of the essential oil on the spore germination and mycelium growth of Penicillium digitatum was measured. The results revealed that the spore germination and mycelium growth of Penicillium digitatum could be promoted by the essential oil could promote at a concentration not exceeding 0.25% but be inhibited at a concentration exceeding 0.5%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that essential oil from poknkan mandarin peels has a notable inhibitory effect on the growth of Penicillium digitatum.

  2. Prevention of complications in chemical peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is a simple, safe and cost-effective office procedure. Complications can be best avoided by proper patient selection, proper patient counseling, adequate priming and good intra-peel and post-peel care.

  3. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  4. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  5. Peel and leaf powders of three fruits and a vegetable as promising botanicals against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdulrasak K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the insecticidal activities of powders of bitter leaf, cashew leaf, orange peel and pawpaw leaf against Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. These were tested at 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% (w/w for their insecticidal activities against the insect. Results showed that the ovicidal and adulticidal activities of the plant powders depended on dosages and exposure time. Mortalities of 16.28% and 18.75% were observed in bitter leaf powder applied at 7.5% (w/w dosage within 24 and 48 hours post infestation (HPI, respectively. In grains treated with 7.5% orange peel powder, 12.50% and 16.28% mortalities were observed within 24 and 48 HPI, respectively. Each of bitter leaf and orange peel powders was significantly different (p orange peel > cashew leaf > pawpaw leaf. It is recommended that incorporating these plant parts in pest management of stored products will guarantee user safety, reduce environmental pollution and suppress insect infestation.

  6. Effect of addition of mosambi (Citrus limetta peel powder on textural and sensory properties of papaya jam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Younis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of addition of mosambi peel powder on jam prepared from papaya. Mosambi peel powder was first analyzed for its proximate composition and other properties. Mosambi peel had high amount of crude fiber (17.6%, besides water and oil-holding capacity (2.26 and 6.82 ml/g, respectively. Mosambi peel was treated with 5% of salt and/or sodium bicarbonate overnight to remove bitterness. Different levels of treated and untreated mosambi peel powder (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5% were added to papaya jam and were evaluated for texture and sensory properties. The firmness and chewiness values of the jam added with mosambi peel powder increased significantly as compared to control, whereas adhesiveness and cohesiveness values decreased with increasing levels of mosambi peel powder. Sensory evaluation showed that jam prepared by addition of peel powder was acceptable up to 5% level of incorporation. However, jam made by the addition of untreated peel powder was not acceptable due to bitterness resulted from mosambi peel powder.

  7. Effects of yam peel extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yen-Hung; Hsieh, You-Liang; Lee, Ya-Ting

    2013-07-31

    The phenolic acid and flavonoid profiles in yam peel extract were determined by HPLC. Quercetin, hesperidin, and apigenin were predominant components in yam peel extract. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with yam peel extract (100.02, 266.72, and 433.42 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) daily, with administration of CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) twice a week. Yam peel extract for 8 weeks significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the yam peel extract supplements as the plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were lowered, whereas the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) protein level were elevated. Yam peel extract decreased the level of nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in CCl4. These results point out that yam peel extract can inhibit lipid peroxidation, enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and decrease the TNF-α/NF-κB level, nitric oxide production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. Therefore, it was speculated that yam peel extract protects rats from liver damage through its anti-inflammation capacity.

  8. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  9. Study on Production of Soap by Waste Edible Oil and Orange Peel%餐饮废油和柑橘皮制肥皂的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏正妍; 尚雪岭

    2010-01-01

    通过原料预处理(餐饮废油的过滤、脱水、除味、脱色和柑橘皮的浸泡)、皂化、盐析、水洗、干燥定型等工序,利用餐饮废油和柑橘皮制肥皂.其特点是成本低、操作简便、无污染.

  10. 气相色谱-质谱与嗅觉测量法联用分析橙油中致香物质%Identification of the Aroma Compounds in Orange Oil by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽君; 高建宏; 王申; 谢雯燕; 张士成; 刘百战

    2012-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱与嗅觉测量法(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry,GC-MS/O)联用的分析方法,对橙油的致香物质进行了分析与鉴别.GC-MS检测到35种挥发性物质,其中相对质量分数较高的化合物为柠檬烯(80.79%)、芳樟醇(3.85%)、癸醛(2.90%)、β-月桂烯(1.94%)、α-蒎烯(0.82%)、辛醛(0.71%)等.而GC-O分析到的具有香气的化合物为α-蒎烯、辛醛、柠檬烯、芳樟醇、α-松油醇、癸醛、肉豆蔻醛、(E,E)-2,4-癸二烯醛及一种具有花香、甜橘香的未知物质.采用强度法与稀释法相结合鉴别了橙油中的关键致香物质,结果表明,α-松油醇和未知物质具有最大的香气强度和稀释因子(FD因子),即二者对橙油整体香气贡献最大.采用GC-MS/O联用技术可以有效筛选出精油中的香味活性物质,而强度法与稀释法结合又可快速、准确、全面地分析样品中关键致香物质.%Gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry ( GC - MS/O) was used to determine the aroma compounds in orange oil. Totally 35 volatile compounds were detected by GC - MS, mainly including limonene ( 80. 79% ) , linalool (3. 85% ) , decanal ( 2. 90% ) ,£-myrcene ( 1. 94% ) , a-pinene (0. 82% ) , octanal (0. 71 % ). A total of 8 aroma-active compounds have been perceived,which were a-pinene,octanal,limonene,linalool,a-terpineol,decanal,tetradecanal,{E,E) 2,4-decadienal and one unknown compound. A combined method of direct intensity and aroma extract dilution analysis(AEDA) was employed to further detect and identify the aroma compounds in orange oil,which demonstrated that both a-terpineol and the unknown compound had the biggest FD factor and maximum aroma intensity and contributed most to the aroma of orange oil. It's proved that GC - MS/O can filter out aroma compounds effectively, and the combination of direct intensity and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) can help to distinguish

  11. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  12. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-04-30

    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2014-12-15

    This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products.

  14. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry.

  15. Avaliação da silagem de bagaço de laranja com diferentes aditivos por intermédio dos parâmetros de fermentação ruminal de ovinos e contribuição energética dos ácidos graxos voláteis Evaluation of orange peel silage with different additives by rumen fermentation parameters and energy contribution from volatile fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O bagaço de laranja, com aditivo enzimático microbiano, ácidos fórmico e acético, ensilado por 70 dias, em tubos de concreto com capacidade de 700 kg, foi avaliado por intermédio dos parâmetros de fermentação ruminal, em ensaio experimental realizado com ovinos, machos, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas. O alimento fornecido foi feno de aveia (70% e silagem de bagaço de laranja (30%, com base na MS. O fluido ruminal foi coletado por sonda esofagiana nos tempos 2, 5 e 8 horas após o fornecimento do alimento e antes da alimentação, tomado como tempo zero (0. Foram avaliados pH, N amoniacal, ácidos graxos voláteis (acético, propiônico e butírico e contribuição energética desses ácidos em kcal. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para os parâmetros avaliados. As equações de regressão apresentaram comportamento quadrático para todas as características estudadas e as médias dos parâmetros foram: pH, 6,97; N amoniacal, 6,78 mg/100 mL de fluido ruminal e dos AGV; e acético, propiônico e butírico, 45,99; 11,16; e 5,50 mM/mL de fluido ruminal, respectivamente. Os aditivos não alteraram o valor nutricional do alimento, quando avaliados os parâmetros de fermentação ruminais. Entretanto, para a produção de AGV, houve melhor eficiência de transformação (kcal de AGV/kcal de glicose, 72,92% para o tratamento sem aditivo (controle.The orange peel with enzymatic microbial additive, formic or acetic acids was ensiled for 70 days, in concrete tubes with 700 kg of volume capacity, was evaluated by rumen fermentation parameters in a experimental trial using males sheep, housed in metabolic cages. The used diet was oat hay (70% and orange silage (30% on DM base. The ruminal fluid was collected with esophageal tube at 2, 5 and 8 hours after, and before feeding that was taken as zero time (0. The pH, N ammonia, volatile fatty acids (acetic, propionic and butyric and the energy contribution of these acid in kcal were

  16. Effect of iodized oil supplementation on thyroid hormone levels and mental performance among Orang Asli schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in an endemic goitre area in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Z M; Alias, I Z; Kadir, K A; Ali, O

    2000-12-01

    Although endemic goitre is no longer a major public health problem in Malaysia, iodine deficiency still remains a significant problem in a few remote settlements. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of iodized oil intervention in the prevention of endemic goitre among the indigenous people in Malaysia. A pretest and post-test controlled trial was conducted among primary schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in Lasah, Sungai Siput and Perak. Legap Post and Yum Post were selected as the intervention areas, while Perwor Post and Poi Post were taken as controls. The variables studied included thyroid hormone concentrations, thyroid volume, urinary iodine excretions and mental performance. A baseline and two follow-up visits were conducted in both intervention and control areas. Intervention subjects were given iodized oil in the form of capsules which were taken orally (Laboratoire Guerbet, Paris, France). There was a significant increase in serum thyroxine hormone (T4) concentrations (pmental performance in schoolchildren was not affected. In conclusion, iodized oil (oral) is effective in reducing thyroid size, as well as improving the supply of iodine among schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in endemic goitre areas; however, its long-term effects need to be monitored closely. This method can be considered as an alternative while awaiting national coverage for the salt iodization program.

  17. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (PDemodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo.

  18. Bleb Nucleation through Membrane Peeling

    CERN Document Server

    Alert, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    We study the nucleation of blebs, i.e., protrusions arising from a local detachment of the membrane from the cortex of a cell. Based on a simple model of elastic linkers with force-dependent kinetics, we show that bleb nucleation is governed by membrane peeling. By this mechanism, the growth or shrinkage of a detached membrane patch is completely determined by the linker kinetics, regardless of the energetic cost of the detachment. We predict the critical nucleation radius for membrane peeling and the corresponding effective energy barrier. These may be typically smaller than those predicted by classical nucleation theory, implying a much faster nucleation. We also perform simulations of a continuum stochastic model of membrane-cortex adhesion to obtain the statistics of bleb nucleation times as a function of the stress on the membrane. The determinant role of membrane peeling changes our understanding of bleb nucleation and opens new directions in the study of blebs.

  19. Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

    2014-11-15

    The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit.

  20. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  1. Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer; Nanoemulsoes oleo de laranja/agua preparadas em homogeneizador de alta pressao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourniatis, Loretta R.; Spinelli, Luciana S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Gonzalez, Gaspar [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH). The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability. (author)

  2. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  3. Microbial degradation and utilization of cassava peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuya, C O; Nwajiuba, C J

    1990-06-01

    Cassava peel was readily degraded and utilized by a strain ofRhizopus growing in a solid-state fermentation. Growth was maximal at 45°C and was proportional to the degree of hydrolysis of the peel. The yield of biomass, as weight of dry mycellum from the reducing sugars of the peel, was 51%. After 72 h fermentation, the peel contained 76% moisture, 6% cellulose, 7% hemicellulose and 0.4% ash and the protein content had increased from 5.6% to 16%. These results suggest a possible economic value of cassava peel in the production of fungal biomass and feedstock.

  4. The use of modified phenol for chemical face peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, P A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the results of 59 consecutive, modified phenol facial peels on 627 anatomic areas for the purpose of reducing fine to coarse rhytides, hyperpigmentation, and actinic keratoses. This work discusses the Venner-Kellson concentrated Lysol saponated formula containing 62.5% phenol; the Maschek-Truppman 53% phenol, nonsaponated glycerin formula; and the previously unpublished Gradé formulae I, II, and III with 49.5%, 60%, and 70% phenol, respectively. The new Stone formulae I, II, and III are introduced here. These new formulae are mixed from available reagents, thus obviating the need to melt potentially toxic phenol crystals, and are designed to achieve a range of clinical peel results on a wide variety of skin types. The ingredients, methods of preparation and application, as well as three postpeel occlusion techniques are presented. Clinical data including pH measurements, croton oil ratios, phenol concentrations, and preliminary biopsy data also are presented.

  5. Operation Orange Street Resurfacing 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — Track Operation Orange Cone projects for 2016. “Operation Orange Cone” is an initiative launched in 2015 as part of the Yarber Administration’s push to address the...

  6. Design and experiment on dual rollers peeling machine for satsuma mandarin%宽皮柑橘对辊式剥皮机的设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海兵; 王振亚; 陈红; 刘静; 童宇; 施晓春

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is widely planted in China, which can be used to produce a diverse range of products such as orange petal can, orange juice, fruit vinegar and citrus wine. Satsuma mandarin is the main material for most orange products. Currently, peeling the citrus fruit is mainly accomplished by the manual labor, which is definitely labor-intensive and inefficient and results in the high risks of reducing the hygiene and quality of the citrus products. With the increase of labor cost and high requirement of food hygiene, it is necessary for the citrus processing industry to develop an automatic machine to replace the conventional manual peeling method to peel the citrus. In the present study, a dual-roller citrus peeling machine has been designed to quickly peel the Satsuma mandarin. The prototype of the dual-roller citrus peeling machine consists of the frame, the transmission device, the peeling rollers, the scraper, the unloading device and other components. Before being introduced into the machine, the citrus fruits are firstly blanched by the hot steam, ring-cutting and then turned up. Then, the citrus fruits begin to turn over and move forward driven by scraper. In the movement process, the turned up peels of the citrus fruits are gripped by the dual rollers rotating in the opposite directions, and then tore off from the citrus fruits. Three kinds of peeling rollers are designed in this machine, including gear tooth peeling rollers, arc gear tooth peeling rollers and smooth peeling rollers. So the citrus fruits have to go through 3 kinds of processes before leaving the machine. Firstly, the citrus fruits move into the area of the gear tooth peeling rollers. Because of the large gripping force of gear tooth peeling rollers, most of the citrus peels are clipped and stripped. Then the citrus fruits move into the area of the arc gear tooth peeling rollers, and these rollers can provide an appropriate gripping force to continue the peeling of the citrus fruits. It should

  7. Microencapsulação de óleo essencial de laranja: seleção de material de parede Microencapsulation of orange essential oil: wall material selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. R. Ascheri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho se procedeu à comparação de agentes microencapsulantes, material de parede (mp, na microencapsulação de óleo essencial de laranja (material ativo através da secagem por atomização. Foram preparadas três amostras de emulsões pela adição de óleo essencial de laranja a uma solução aquosa do mp composta de capsul (5,0, 0,0 e 10,0%, goma arábica (5,0, 10,0 e 0,0% sendo constante para as três amostras maltodextrina (36,0%, água (44,0% e óleo essencial (10,0%. Foram avaliadas as curvas de secagem das emulsões frente à retenção do óleo essencial de laranja e a tendência de formação de dobras superficiais das partículas e verificou-se a hipótese "menor a tendência de formação de dobras na superfície das microcápsulas maior a retenção de material ativo". A microencapsulação foi obtida pela secagem por atomização, com temperaturas de 220ºC e 110ºC do ar de entrada e de saída da câmara de secagem, respectivamente, e com atomizador rotativo (20.000rpm. A comparação das microcápsulas obtidas a partir das três amostras de emulsões mostrou que aquela preparada com 10,0% de capsul e 0,0% de goma arábica apresentou o maior resultado. O período de taxa constante de secagem desta mistura é curto e com maior retenção de umidade após a secagem. As microcápsulas obtidas apresentaram maior retenção de óleo essencial e dobras superficiais menos pronunciadas decorrentes do menor entumescimento das gotículas durante a secagem.The present work is an experimental development to study the performance of the encapsulation agents for orange essential oil in a spray drying process. The emulsion to be dried was prepared by adding the oil to an aqueous solution of the wall material. Three different cases were studied having respectively capsul (5.0%, 0.0% and 10.0% and arabic gum (5.0%, 10.0% and 0.0% with 36.0% maltodextrin, 44.0% water and 10.0% essential oil. Retention of active material

  8. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  9. Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-12-28

    The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape.

  10. Release of sweet orange oil microcapsules prepared by complex coacervation at different pH in hot water%不同pH复合凝聚甜橙油微胶囊在热水中的释放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新羽; 高珊珊; 孙丽平; 董志俭; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    Spherical multinuclear microcapsules encapsulating sweet orange oil were prepared by complex coacervation using gelatin and gum Arabic as wall material.Effect of pH on the morphology,particle size,productivity,loading and release of coacervate microcapsules was investigated.The results showed that:with the decrease of pH from 4.3 to 3.7,coacervate microcapsules possessed spherical multinucleate structure,particle size of microcapsules gradually increased but yield and loading changed very little;coacervate microcapsules gradually swelled in 80℃ hot water,particle size of microcapsules increased and core material was slowly released by diffusion;when pH was 4.3,the release rate of microcapsules was the slowest in hot water and the release rate was only 6.0% at 60min.%以明胶和阿拉伯胶为壁材,甜橙油为芯材,采用复合凝聚法制备球状多核微胶囊。研究了pH对复合凝聚微胶囊的形态、粒径、产率、载量及释放率的影响。结果表明:当pH由4.3降到3.7时,复合凝聚微胶囊具有球状多核的结构,粒径逐渐增加,但产率、载量变化不明显;在80℃热水中复合凝聚微胶囊逐渐溶胀,粒径变大,芯材通过扩散的方式缓慢地释放;pH4.3时,微胶囊在热水中的释放最为缓慢,60min仅释放6.0%。

  11. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  12. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  13. Line Creep in Paper Peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosti J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling configuration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent finding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  15. Biohydrogen production from rotten orange with immobilized mixed culture: Effect of immobilization media for various composition of substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damayanti, Astrilia, E-mail: liasholehasd@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Semarang State University, E1 Building, 2nd floor, Kampus Sekaran, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Sarto,; Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Enriched–immobilized mixed culture was utilized to produce biohydrogen in mesophilic condition under anaerobic condition using rotten orange as substrate. The process was conducted in batch reactors for 100 hours. Microbial cultures from three different sources were subject to a series of enrichment and immobilized in two different types of media, i.e. calcium alginate (CA, 2%) and mixture of alginate and activated carbon (CAC, 1:1). The performance of immobilized culture in each media was tested for biohydrogen production using four different substrate compositions, namely orange meat (OM), orange meat added with peel (OMP), orange meat added with limonene (OML), and mixture of orange meat and peel added with limonene (OMPL). The results show that, with immobilized culture in CA, the variation of substrate composition gave significant effect on the production of biohydrogen. The highest production of biohydrogen was detected for substrate containing only orange meet, i.e. 2.5%, which was about 3-5 times higher than biohydrogen production from other compositions of substrate. The use of immobilized culture in CAC in general has increased the hydrogen production by 2-7 times depending on the composition of substrate, i.e. 5.4%, 4.8%, 5.1%, and 4.4% for OM, OMP, OML, and OMPL, respectively. The addition of activated carbon has eliminated the effect of inhibitory compounds in the substrate. The major soluble metabolites were acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid.

  16. Biohydrogen production from rotten orange with immobilized mixed culture: Effect of immobilization media for various composition of substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2015-12-01

    Enriched-immobilized mixed culture was utilized to produce biohydrogen in mesophilic condition under anaerobic condition using rotten orange as substrate. The process was conducted in batch reactors for 100 hours. Microbial cultures from three different sources were subject to a series of enrichment and immobilized in two different types of media, i.e. calcium alginate (CA, 2%) and mixture of alginate and activated carbon (CAC, 1:1). The performance of immobilized culture in each media was tested for biohydrogen production using four different substrate compositions, namely orange meat (OM), orange meat added with peel (OMP), orange meat added with limonene (OML), and mixture of orange meat and peel added with limonene (OMPL). The results show that, with immobilized culture in CA, the variation of substrate composition gave significant effect on the production of biohydrogen. The highest production of biohydrogen was detected for substrate containing only orange meet, i.e. 2.5%, which was about 3-5 times higher than biohydrogen production from other compositions of substrate. The use of immobilized culture in CAC in general has increased the hydrogen production by 2-7 times depending on the composition of substrate, i.e. 5.4%, 4.8%, 5.1%, and 4.4% for OM, OMP, OML, and OMPL, respectively. The addition of activated carbon has eliminated the effect of inhibitory compounds in the substrate. The major soluble metabolites were acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid.

  17. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Hydroxamates from Citrus Unshiu Peels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Bae

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectin was extracted from unshiu orange (Citrus unshiu peels and was subjected to chemical modification using hydroxamic acid. The structural and physical properties of the resulting derivatives were investigated as a function of hydroxamic acid content (4.68-9.58%. The extracted unshiu orange pectin showed 66.8% degree of esterification, 787.5 mg/g galacturonic acid, and 92 mg/g neutral sugars, which were composed of arabinose (53%, galactose (35%, glucose (5%, rhamnose (5%, and fructose (2%. Compared to the nativepectin, the FT-IR spectra of the hydroxamic acid derivatives showed two new absorption bands at 1,646 cm-1 (C=O and 1,568 cm-1 (N-H. Specifically, the pectin derivatives with more hydroxamic acids were shown to have enhanced water solubility, upto two-fold higher than that of the native pectin. Thus, the introduction of hydroxamic acid into the pectin structure appears to be a useful tool for improving the solubility of pectin.

  19. 超临界CO_2萃取与水蒸汽减压蒸馏萃取柑桔皮精油比较%Comparison Study on Extraction of Essential Oil from Peel of Citrus by Supercritical CO_2 and Vacuum Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 黄萧逸

    2012-01-01

    使用超临界CO2萃取法和水蒸汽减压蒸馏萃取柑桔皮精油,两种方法精油收率相当,最高收率均为1.2%。但水蒸汽减压蒸馏法提取的精油质量好,为浅黄色流动性液体,气味具有新鲜柑桔皮的清香,流程简单,超临界CO2萃取所得产品质量差,流动性差,为深黄色半流动性液体,杂质较多。%Essential oil was extracted from peel of citrus by the methods of supercritical CO2 extraction and steam distillation extraction.The extraction yield of two methods was equal,the highest yield was 1.2%.The quality of the volatile oil extracted by steam distillation extraction was better than those extracted by supercritical CO2,and was light yellow fluidity liquid and smell fresh citrus scent.Technological process of steam distillation extraction was simple than that of supercritical CO2 extraction.The essential oi extracted by supercritical CO2 was dark yellow semi-liquid liquid impurities.

  20. Process parameter optimization of dual-roller peeling device for satsuma mandarin peeling machine%宽皮柑橘剥皮机对辊式剥皮装置工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 余豹; 王振亚; 潘海兵; 左婷; 董武林

    2015-01-01

    Orange petal can is the traditional citrus processing product in China, and is also the most competitive product from China on the citrus processing product market in the international. The annual output of orange petal can in China is more than 0.6 million tons, accounting for more than 75% of the world canned orange production, and the annual export volume reaches 0.3 million tons, accounting for more than 70% of the world canned orange trade volume. China has replaced Japan and Spain and become the world center of the canned orange product; and Satsuma Mandarin is the main material of orange petal can. Currently, the peeling of citrus fruit mainly relies on the manpower, which not only has inefficient production, high labor intensity, but also is not conducive to product safety and healthy. With the rising of labor cost and the more and more strict hygiene requirement of the food market, replacing the manual operation mode and realizing the automatic peeling of citrus is the key problem to be solved for citrus processing industry. Huazhong Agricultural University has designed a kind of citrus stripping unit which includes ring cutting, pericarp opening, peeling and other processes, and the peeling process is realized by roller peeling device. In order to improve the peeling rate of citrus and decrease the damage rate of sarcocarp in the mechanical peeling process, this paper takes Satsuma Mandarin which is the main raw material of orange petal can as the test object, takes peeling rate, damage ratio and the sensory evaluation of citrus flavor as the main indexes, and conducts an experimental investigation of the process parameters and the effect of citrus peeling, so as to provide the basis for the design of Satsuma Mandarin peeling equipment. In the experiment, pretreatment method, roll rotation rate and plate translational speed are the main influence factors. And on the basis of the single factor test of the main affecting factors, an orthogonal test is

  1. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  2. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  3. Comparative study of adsorption of Pb(II) on native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Tao, Yaqi; Yu, Youjie; Jiang, Hongmei; Lian, Hongzhen

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study using native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(2+) has been proposed. Under the optimized pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage, the adsorption capacity of garlic peel after mercerization was increased 2.1 times and up to 109.05 mg g(-1). The equilibrium sorption data for both garlic peels fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the adsorbent-adsorbate kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. These both garlic peels were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy, and the results indicated that mercerized garlic peel offers more little pores acted as adsorption sites than native garlic peel and has lower polymerization and crystalline and more accessible functional hydroxyl groups, which resulted in higher adsorption capacity than native garlic peel. The FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of both garlic peels before and after loaded with Pb(2+) further illustrated that lead was adsorbed on the through chelation between Pb(2+) and O atom existed on the surface of garlic peels. These results described above showed that garlic peel after mercerization can be a more attractive adsorbent due to its faster sorption uptake and higher capacity.

  4. CMC/阿拉伯胶/明胶复合凝聚橘油微胶囊的制备方法%Preparation of CMC/Gum Arabic/Gelatin Microcapsules Encapsulating Orange Oil by Complex Coacervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志俭; 赵帅; 孙丽平; 励建荣

    2013-01-01

    The spherical multinuclear microcapsules containing orange oil were prepared by complex coacervation,using CMC,gum Arabic and gelatin as wall material.Effect of various processing parameters,including the CMC/gelatin/gum Arabic ratio,wall material concentration,core/wall ratio,pH and stirring speed on the morphology and particle size of coacervate microcapsules was investigated.Yield,loading and release rate of coacervate microcapsules prepared by CMC/gum Arabic/gelatin were also discussed.The results showed that the optimal conditions for preparing CMC/gum Arabic/gelatin spherical multinuclear microcapsules by complex coacervation were as follow:CMC/gum Arabic/gelatin of 1∶9∶20,wall material concentration of 1%,core/wall ratio of 1∶1,pH 4.27 and stirring speed of 300 r/min.CMC/gum Arabic/gelatin microcapsules by complex coacervation possessed high productivity and excellent slow-release characteristics.%以羧甲基纤维素(CMC)、阿拉伯胶和明胶为壁材,橘油为芯材,采用复合凝聚法制备球状多核橘油微胶囊.研究壁材比例、壁材浓度、芯壁比、pH值和搅拌速度对复合凝聚微胶囊形态和粒径的影响,并探讨CMC/阿拉伯胶/明胶复合凝聚橘油微胶囊的产率、载量和释放性质.结果表明,以CMC/阿拉伯胶/明胶为壁材,制备球状多核结构的复合凝聚橘油微胶囊的工艺条件是:mCMC阿拉伯胶/m明胶=1∶9∶20,壁材质量分数1%,芯壁比1∶1,pH4.27,搅拌速度300 r/min.CMC/阿拉伯胶/明胶复合凝聚橘油微胶囊具有较高的产率和优良的缓释特性.

  5. Preparation of Sweet Orange Oil Microcapsule by Soybean Protein Isolate-Gum Arabic Complex Coacervation and its Characterization%SPI-GA复凝聚法制备甜橙油微胶囊及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖军霞; 杨剑; 黄国清; 沈丽; 于海燕

    2012-01-01

    采用大豆分离蛋白(SPI)和阿拉伯胶(GA)为壁材,以甜橙油为模式芯材,通过复凝聚法结合真空冷冻干燥技术制备甜橙油微胶囊.考察了戊二醛和葡萄糖对甜橙油微胶囊包埋产率和包埋效率的影响.采用光学显微 镜和扫描电子显微镜对微胶囊粒径、微观结构进行表征.研究结果表明在固形物质量分数5%,芯材载量20%,SPI:GA=1时调节pH到4,室温下850 r/min搅拌30 min,加入1%的葡萄糖反应1h,真空冷冻干燥得到微胶囊.此时包埋产率和效率分别达到75.06%和93.5%.该方法制备的甜橙油微胶囊平均粒径是11.226 μm,胶囊表面光滑,颗粒均匀,色泽淡黄,香味愉悦.本研究结果说明SPI和GA具有良好的相容性,葡萄糖作为一种改良剂可显著改善微胶囊的性能.%The effect of glutaraldehyde and glucose on preparation of sweet orange oil microcapsule by the complex coacervation between soybean protein isolate (SPI) and gum Arabic (GA) was investigated and the microeapsules produced under optimized conditions were characterized by SEM in this paper. The results showed that the optimum glucose dosage and incubation time were 1% and 1 h respectively under the total solid concentration 5%, core load 20%, SPI/GA ratio 1:1, pH4.0, and stirring at 850 r/min for 30 min. Under these conditions, the microencapsulation yield and microencap-sulation efficiency reached 75.06% and 93.5% respectively. The microeapsules have a smooth outer surface and uniform size distribution of 11.226 μm in diameter. It is indicated that SPI is quite compatible with GA for flavor microencapsulation and glucose as a modifier can significantly improve the microencapsulation performance of the GA/SPI system.

  6. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  7. Development of a kolanut peeling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

    2014-10-01

    A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4 % w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p peeling efficiency of the machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3 % at a moisture content of 61.4 % w.b. and speed of 40 rpm.

  8. Food peeling: conventional and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling is an important unit operation in food processing that prepares fruits and vegetables for subsequent processes through removal of inedible or undesirable rind or skin. This chapter covers an exhaustive discussion on advancement in peeling technologies of fruits and vegetables from different ...

  9. Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

    2015-05-01

    The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements.

  10. Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and functional properties of 'Tommy Atkins' mango peel and kernel as affected by drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Siddiq, Muhammad; Greiby, Ibrahim; Dolan, Kirk D

    2013-12-01

    Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 μmol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties.

  11. Butterfly Effect: Peeling Bipartite Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sariyuce, A Erdem

    2016-01-01

    Affiliation, or two-mode, networks, such as actor-movie, document-keyword, or user-product are prevalent in a lot of applications. The networks can be most naturally modeled as bipartite graphs, but most graph mining algorithms and implementations are designed to work on the classic, unipartite graphs. Subsequently, studies on affiliation networks are conducted on the co-occurrence graphs (e.g., co-authors and co-purchase networks), which projects the bipartite structure to a unipartite structure by connecting two entities if they share an affiliation. Despite their convenience, co-occurrence networks come at a cost of loss of information and an explosion in graph sizes. In this paper, we study the dense subgraph discovery problem on bipartite graphs. We propose peeling algorithms to find many dense substructures and a hierarchy among them. Our peeling algorithms are based on the butterfly subgraphs (2,2-bicliques). Experiments show that we can identify much denser structures compared to the state-of-the-art ...

  12. Characterization, phenolic compounds and functional properties of Cucumis melo L. peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallek-Ayadi, Sana; Bahloul, Neila; Kechaou, Nabil

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the phytochemical composition and functional properties of the melon peels, considered as a by-product. Melon peels (maazoun cultivar) are rich in nutritional ingredients such as carbohydrates (69.77%) and ash (3.67%). They contain significant amounts of total dietary fibers (41.69%) and antioxidants as polyphenols and flavonoids (332mg/100g extract and 95.46mg/100g extract, respectively). The identification and the quantification of the phenolic compounds of melon peels were performed by high performance liquid chromatography apparatus. The obtained results indicate that hydroxybenzoic acids and flavones constitute their main phenolic classes. 3-Hydroxybenzoic acid is the major phenolic compound in the melon peels by 33.45mg/100g, followed by apigenin-7-glycoside (29.34mg/100g). Determination of the functional properties (water and oil retention capacities) and color shows that melon peels have properties that may be useful in industrial applications.

  13. Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

  14. Standard guidelines of care for chemical peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khunger Niti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. Indications for chemical peeling include pigmentary disorders, superficial acne scars, ageing skin changes, and benign epidermal growths. Contraindications include patients with active bacterial, viral or fungal infection, tendency to keloid formation, facial dermatitis, taking photosensitizing medications and unrealistic expectations. Physicians′ qualifications : The physician performing chemical peeling should have completed postgraduate training in dermatology. The training for chemical peeling may be acquired during post graduation or later at a center that provides education and training in cutaneous surgery or in focused workshops providing such training. The physician should have adequate knowledge of the different peeling agents used, the process of wound healing, the technique as well as the identification and management of complications. Facility : Chemical peeling can be performed safely in any clinic/outpatient day care dermatosurgical facility. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent : A detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and should clearly mention if more procedures are needed for proper results. The patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, presentations, and personal discussions. The need for postoperative medical therapy should be emphasized. Superficial peels are considered safe in Indian patients. Medium depth peels should be performed with great caution, especially in dark skinned patients. Deep peels are not recommended for

  15. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml).

  16. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermen...

  17. Peel test of spinnable carbon nanotube webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandoker, Noman; Hawkins, Stephen C.; Ibrahim, Raafat; Huynh, Chi P.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents results of peel tests with spinnable carbon nanotube webs. Peel tests were performed to study the effect of orientation angles on interface energies between nanotubes. In absence of any binding agent the interface energy represents the Van Der Waals energies between the interacting nanotubes. Therefore, the effect of the orientations on Van Der Waals energies between carbon nanotubes is obtained through the peel test. It is shown that the energy for crossed nanotubes at 90° angle is lower than the energy for parallel nanotubes at 0° angle. This experimental observation was validated by hypothetical theoretical calculations.

  18. Evaluation of nutritional value and antioxidant activity of tomato peel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Elbadrawy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the nutritional composition and the antioxidant activity of some tomato peel extracts. Preliminary chemical composition, minerals content, amino acids, fatty acids and phenolic compounds of the peels were determined. The extracts which had been obtained by using different solvents; petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were assayed for their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by the determination of peroxide, malondialdehyde (MDA, P-anisidine and total carbonyl values during four weeks storage of cottonseed oil at 60 °C. Also, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH radical scavenging was carried out. The results revealed that most of the extracts showed significant increases in DPPH scavenging activity as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT, an artificial antioxidant. On the other hand, significant decreases in peroxide, P-anisidine, malondialdehyde and carbonyl values were observed in the oil samples treated with the extracts in comparing with the untreated sample (control. Due to tomato peel content of many nutrients and its antioxidant activities, tomato peel or its extracts can be used as a food supplement.

  19. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  20. Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.

  1. Quality of 'Delta Valencia' orange grown in semiarid climate and stored under refrigeration after coating with wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlândia da Silva Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carnauba-based wax on the quality of 'Delta Valencia' orange produced in Ceará state, Brazil, were studied. The fruits were coated with carnauba-based wax and refrigerated (7 ± 2 ºC and 85 ± 2% R.H. for 28 days. The quality attribute parameters assessed were weight loss, peel color (brightness, hue angle, and chromaticity, peel moisture, pH, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, yellow flavonoids, and polyphenols. The results showed that 'Delta Valencia' oranges grown in the dry climate of Ceará state has excellent quality. The coated fruits lost mass at a lower rate than the the control fruits. No significant loss of soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and SS/TA ratio was observed, while ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, reducing sugars, yellow flavonoids, and polyphenols increased during storage in both the coated and control fruits. Carnauba-based wax coated fruits showed no signal of dehydration keeping their shiny green peel up to the end of the storage. The use of coating was crucial for the maintenance of visual quality by reducing mass loss, as well as keeping peel moisture.

  2. 潮州柑果皮挥发油的组分分析及其抑菌性和抗氧化性的研究%Study on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Ability of Essential Oil from Chaozhou Citrus Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王忠合; 刘谋泉; 陈雪纯; 黄帆帆; 李桂丽; 吴悦婷

    2014-01-01

    利用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取潮州柑(Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Jiao gan’)果皮中的挥发油,并用气相色谱-质谱联用法对其化学成分进行分析和鉴定,并利用比重瓶法等测定挥发油的相对密度等理化性质;以金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌等为受试菌株,观察潮州柑果皮挥发油对各菌的体外抑制作用;以清除DPPH自由基的能力考察挥发油的抗氧化性.结果表明,潮州柑果皮精油共鉴定出66种化学成分,其含量占挥发油总量的98.89%,主要为:D-柠檬烯(93.75%)、β-月桂烯(2.46%)、β-芳樟醇(1.55%)、α-蒎烯(0.57%)、乙酸乙酯(0.34%)、3-蒈烯(0.14%),α-水芹烯(0.05%),4,5-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯(0.03%).理化性质结果表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油的相对密度为0.83,折光率为1.47,酸价为7.29,过氧化值为8.33 meq/kg,含皂量0.07%.抑菌试验结果表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油可抑制金黄色葡萄球菌、藤黄微球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌等细菌的生长.抗氧化性分析表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油可有效清除DPPH自由基,其IC50值为50.16μg/mL.上述实验结果表明,潮州柑果皮精油可作为一种食品防腐剂或抗氧化剂应用.%The essential oil was extracted from Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Jiao gan’ peel by steam distil-lation, and the constituents were separated and identified by capillary GC-MS method, and the relative density was determined by pycnometer method. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against a panel of 4 bacteria and 2 fungal strains using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods, and the antioxidant ability was also studied based on DPPH-scavenging model. Results showed that 66 different com-ponents were identified in the essential oil. Among them, the major components detected were: D-limonene (93.75%), beta-myrcene (2.46%), beta.-Linalool (1

  3. Instant controlled pressure drop technology and ultrasound assisted extraction for sequential extraction of essential oil and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaf, Tamara; Tomao, Valérie; Ruiz, Karine; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) technology enabled both the extraction of essential oil and the expansion of the matrix itself which improved solvent extraction. The sequential use of DIC and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) triggered complementary actions materialized by supplementary effects. We visualized these combination impacts by comparing them to standard techniques: Hydrodistillation (HD) and Solvent Extraction (SE). First, the extraction of orange peel Essential Oils (EO) was achieved by HD during 4h and DIC process (after optimization) during 2 min; EO yields was 1.97 mg/g dry material (dm) with HD compared to 16.57 mg/g d m with DIC. Second, the solid residue was recovered to extract antioxidant compounds (naringin and hesperidin) by SE and UAE. Scanning electron microscope showed that after HD the recovered solid shriveled as opposite to DIC treatment which expanded the product structure. HPLC analyses showed that the best kinetics and yields of naringin and hesperidin extraction was when DIC and UAE are combined. Indeed, after 1h of extraction, DIC treated orange peels with UAE were 0.825 ± 1.6 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) for hesperidin and 6.45 × 10(-2) ± 2.3 × 10(-4)g/g d m for naringin compared to 0.64 ± 2.7 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) and 5.7 × 10(-2) ± 1.6 × 10(-3)g/g d m, respectively with SE. By combining DIC to UAE, it was possible to enhance kinetics and yields of antioxidant extraction.

  4. Fungal enrichment of cassava peels proteins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... 1Department of Food Biotechnology, University of Technology, ... About 60% of the cassava produced all over the world is used for human consumption. ... utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava peels waste.

  5. Bioprocessing of citrus waste peel for induced pectinase production by Aspergillus niger; its purification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishtiaq Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes. Pectinases are one of the most widely disseminated enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. Czapeck media supplemented with orange waste peel as carbon source under submerged fermentation process Aspergillus niger presenting the preeminent enzymatic production. On partial optimization culture showed the maximum enzyme yield (117.1 ± 3.4 μM/mL/min at 30 °C in an orange waste peel medium having pH 5.5 and substrate concentration (4% after 5th day of fermentation. The produced enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. A purification fold of 5.59 with specific activity and % recovery of 97.2 U/mg and 12.96% was achieved respectively after gel filtration chromatographic technique. The molecular weight of purified pectinase from A. niger was 30 kDa evidenced by SDS-PAGE. Pectinase activity profile showed purified enzyme was optimally active at pH = 7 and 55 °C. The maximum production of pectinase in the presence of cheaper substrate at low concentration makes the enzyme useful in industrial sectors especially for textile and juice industry.

  6. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  7. VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 % constituting l-limonene (92.4 %, -terpene (2.6 % and -phellandrene (1.8 %. The volatile oil after heating at 110C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. -Pinene, -phellandrene, l-limonene, - terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. -Thujene and trans--caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis--farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.

  8. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling.

  9. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  10. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils and crude extracts from tropical Citrus spp. against food-related microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere; Suphitchaya Chanthachum; Sumonrat Chanthaphon

    2008-01-01

    Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated-essential oils from peels of Citrus spp. were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against food related microorganisms by broth microdilution assay. Overall, ethyl acetate extracts from all citrus peels showed stronger antimicrobial activities than their essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation. The ethyl acetate extract of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) peel showed broad spectrum of inhibition against all Gram-positive bacteria, ...

  11. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Bergamot orange in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karaca, Mehmet; İLHAN, Fatma; Altan, Hasan; Him, Aydın; TÜTÜNCÜ, Mehmet; Özbek, Hanefi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Essential oil extract of Bergamot orange (BO) was investigated for its hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Six different groups were established. Silibinin was used as the reference agent. BO significantly reduced the serum ALT level when compared to CCl4 group while it did not affect the serum AST level. The histopathological findings did not show any significant difference between the BO and CCl4 groups. The results suggest that BO has a...

  12. Investigation of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity, β-carotene, Total Phenol and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruit Peel of Five Citrus Cultivars under Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Golein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the sensitivity of citrus fruit to low temperatures and the conjunction of the fruit harvest season with cold days of the year necessisates more research on physiological effects of cold-stress damages. In this study, five citrus cultivars including Sanguinelli blood orange, Local lemon, Valencia orange, Unshiu mandarin and Local orange were stored under various cold treatments (3, 0, -3 and -6 °C at two stages of before fruit ripening and ripening. Control treatment had temperature of 15 °C. Variations of activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, β-carotene and total phenol of fruit peel at two stages of before fruit ripening and ripening, as well as antioxidant capacity at ripening stage were examined. Results showed that under low temperature and control treatment, the SOD acivity, β–carotene and total phenol in fruit peel of the studied cultivars at ripening stage are higher than before ripening stage. In all the cultivars, except Local lemon, there was an increasing trend in the antioxidant capacity until 0 °C treatment and then became stable. The increasing trend of enzymetic and non-enzymetic antioxidants in fruit peel at ripening stage as compared with before ripening stage, was probably due to cold tolerance of fruits at this stage.

  13. Effect of chemical peeling on photocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

    2010-10-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photo-aged skin. We assessed the photo-chemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, and 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid in distilled water at the right back of ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks for glycolic acid, salicylic acid and 10% trichloroacetic acid, and every 4 weeks for 35% trichloroacetic acid for a total of 18 weeks after the establishment of photo-aged mice by irradiation with ultraviolet B range light three times a week for 14 weeks at a total dose of 6.66 J/cm(2) . Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of p53 expression and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also in the non-treated area. Peeling suppressed retention of p53-positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid and trichloroacetic acid could serve tumor prevention by removing photo-damaged cells.

  14. VEGETABLE PEELS: A PROMISING FEED RESOURCE FOR LIVESTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable peels available in Rangunia, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Total 10 different vegetable peels i.e., Banana blossom (Musa sapientum, Bottle gourd peel (Lagenaria siceraria, Brinjal peel (Solanum melongena, Gram husk (Cicer arietinum, Green banana peel (Musa sapieutum, Green coconut peel (Cocos nucifera, Pea husk (Pisum sativum, Potato peel (Solanum tuberosum, Pumpkin peel (Cucurbita maxima, Ripe banana peel (Musa sapientum were collected from the study areas. Samples were collected, chopped and tested immediately for moisture content and remaining samples were sun-dried and processed using standard procedure. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extracts (NFE, Ether extracts (EE and Ash. Results indicated that, crude protein content in Banana blossom was 13.8 g/100g, Bottle gourd peel 7.0 g/100g, Brinjal peel 12.3 g/100g, Gram husk 4.5 g/100g, Green banana peel 7.0 g/100g, green coconut peel 4.9 g/100g, pea husk 6.2 g/100g, Potato peel 13 g/100g, Pumpkin peel 16.5 g/100g and Ripe banana peel 6.8g/100g. In addition to crude protein, all samples contained substantial amount of crude fiber, nitrogen free extracts, ether extracts and ash. It could therefore be inferred that, the vegetable peels might be an alternative to conventional feeds for livestock of the developing countries.

  15. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Jaishree

    2013-01-01

    Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

  16. Effect of prestorage curing on storage life, internal and external qualities of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Aborisade,Abiola Titilola; Ajibade,Ayodeji Adeyeye

    2010-01-01

    Orange fruits from two seasons, in April and August 2006 representing late 2005 and early 2006 harvests respectively were cured in hot air at 36-37(0)C to 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% weight loss before storage at 28(0)C and 86% relative humidity (RH). The fruits were observed for incidence of decay, further weight loss, juice content, firmness or softening of the peel, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity, and colour during storage. Curing reduced the incidence of decay. All control fruit...

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Kirby, Andrew R; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith W; Faulds, Craig B

    2006-10-18

    Pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzymes (Pectinase 62L, Pectinase 690L, and Cellulase CO13P) were used to evaluate the solubilization of carbohydrates and low molecular weight flavonoids from bergamot peel, a major byproduct of the essential oil industry. The enzymes were characterized for main-chain and side-chain polysaccharide hydrolyzing activities and also against pure samples of various flavonoids previously identified in bergamot peel to determine various glycosidase activities. The addition of Pectinase 62L or 690L alone, or the combination of Pectinase 62L and Cellulase CO13P, was capable of solubilizing between 70 and 80% of the bergamot peel, and up to 90% of the flavonoid glycosides present were cleaved to their aglycones. Cellulase CO13P alone solubilized 62% of the peel but had no deglycosylating effect on the flavonoid glycosides. Over a 24-h time course, a rapid release of cell wall carbohydrates was observed after treatment with Pectinase 62L, with a concurrent gradual hydrolysis of the flavonoid glycosides. Size-exclusion chromatography of the solubilized extract showed that after 24-h incubation, the majority of the solubilized carbohydrates were present as monosaccharides with a smaller proportion of oligosaccharides.

  18. Extraction, Characterization and Application of Natural Dyes from the Fresh Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Kusumawati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to explore and utilize fresh mangosteen peel as an upcoming raw material for the production of natural dyes. The extract of fresh mangosteen peel is tested on cotton fabric by using alum as mordanting agent which processed by pre mordant dyeing procedure and fixation using 3 (three different types of fixer. To obtain optimum interaction of fabric, mordant, dye and fixer, washing procedure has been performed using Turkish Red Oil (TRO before mordanting stage with varying washing time and repeated dyeing procedure with varying frequency of dyeing. As a result, the application of pre mordanting dyeing method and fixation using iron (II sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O, alum (KAI (SO42.12H2O and lime (CaO, produced very good color from  mangosteen peel dyes extract. Cotton fabric that has been through the pre-mordanting dyeing procedure using dyes extract of mangosteen peel consecutively bring green, light brown, and dark brown color each on the fixation result using iron (II sulfate, alum, and lime. Preliminary evaluation and instrumentation allows us to determine whether the application of washing time varies, the repeated frequency of immersion, and the use of different fixer compound using dyes extract with similar concentration and dyeing procedure affect the color intensity of the fabric sample.

  19. AND Citrus senensis PEEL EXTRACTS ON Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    intestinal worms; and as a drastic treatment for ... fractures and the rind decoction with rosemary is ... treat colic, and in India, Citrus senensis peel is used to .... Table 1: Physical characteristics of the peel extract of Annona comosus and C.

  20. How I treat. . . evanescent youth. Dating back using chemical peels.

    OpenAIRE

    Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle; Marcq, V.; Pierard, Claudine; Pierard, Gérald

    2005-01-01

    Chemical peels induce the destruction and exfoliation of the epidermis using selected caustic substances. The specific properties of these agents result in a limited and controlled destruction of epidermal layers and of the superficial dermis. The choice of the appropriate method, the preparatory phase and the post-peeling care are very important to reach optimal results. Some types of peeling are routinely used. We briefly report those designed for the superficial and medium depth peelings. ...

  1. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  2. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  3. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  4. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  5. Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling versus No Peeling for Idiopathic Full-Thickness Macular Hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil W

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. DESIGN: Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken...... under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. INTERVENTION: Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas...

  6. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed.

  7. Analysis of peeling decoder for MET ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The peeling decoder introduced by Luby, et al. allows analysis of LDPC decoding for the binary erasure channel (BEC). For irregular ensembles, they analyze the decoder state as a Markov process and present a solution to the differential equations describing the process mean. Multi-edge type (MET) ensembles allow greater precision through specifying graph connectivity. We generalize the the peeling decoder for MET ensembles and derive analogous differential equations. We offer a new change of variables and solution to the node fraction evolutions in the general (MET) case. This result is preparatory to investigating finite-length ensemble behavior.

  8. Evaluation of Orange Peel Citrus Sinensis (L) as a Source of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity potential of different extracts of C. sinensis was tested against Z. .... introduction to avoid overlapping of generation. Damage assessment ... taken from treated and untreated grains and the number of damaged (grains with characteristic.

  9. The interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by orange trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, J E; Adriano, D C; Ciravolo, T G; Doswell, A C; Yehling, D M

    1987-06-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) transform the heat produced during the alpha decay of 238Pu into electrical energy for use by deep-space probes, such as the Voyager spacecraft, which have returned images and other data from Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Future missions involving RTGs may be launched aboard the space shuttle, and there is a remote possibility that an explosion of liquid-hydrogen and liquid-oxygen fuel could rupture the RTGs and disperse 238Pu into the atmosphere over central Florida. Research was performed to determine the potential transport to man of atmospherically dispersed Pu via contaminated orange fruits. The results indicate that the major contamination of oranges would result from the interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by fruits. The resulting surface contamination could enter human food chains through transfer to internal tissues during peeling or in the reconstituted juices and flavorings made from orange skins. The interception of 238Pu deposition by fruits is especially important because the results indicate no measurable loss of Pu from fruit surfaces through time or with washing. Approximately 1% of the 238Pu deposited onto an orange grove would be harvested in the year following deposition.

  10. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality.

  11. ORANGE BAGASSE AS SUBSTRATE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE AND LACCASE BY BOTRYOSPHAERIA RHODINA MAMB-05 IN SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen C. Giese

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Orange bagasse comprising pulp tissues, rind, and seeds, constitutes a major industrial food waste arising from processing oranges for juice, and represents a fermentation feedstock for the production of enzymes. Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on essential oils-extracted orange bagasse in submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentation (SSF with and without added nutrients produced pectinase and laccase. Highest enzyme titres (pectinase, 32 U ml-1; laccase, 46 U ml-1 occurred in SSF without added nutrients, indicating nutrient sufficiency of orange bagasse at a solids concentration of 16 % (w v-1 to sustain growth and high enzyme titres. Orange essential oil extract added to nutrient medium containing 1 % glucose in SmF strongly inhibited fungal growth with consequent lower laccase and pectinase activities. The results demonstrate the need to remove the essential oils fraction before citrus waste can be successfully used as a fermentation substrate for enzyme production.

  12. Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-01-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results. PMID:23378706

  13. Chemical peels for melasma in dark-skinned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH. The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results.

  14. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001 higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05 and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47 than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79. FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  15. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  17. Palmoplantar peeling secondary to sirolimus therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L S; McNiff, J M; Colegio, O R

    2014-01-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks.

  18. Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

    2014-10-15

    The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus.

  19. Evaluación del proceso integral para la obtención de aceite esencial y pectina a partir de la cáscara de naranja Integral evaluation process for obtaining pectin and essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Cerón-Salazar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentó la extraccion de aceite esencial y pectina a partir dela cascara de naranja (Citrus sinensis como un proceso integral. Se realizó elproceso de extracción utilizando un simulador comercial adaptandose al procesoreal. Se realizaron pruebas experimentales con un kilogramo de cáscara de naranja procesado a las mismas condiciones de la simulacion con el fin de comparar los rendimientos obtenidos, logrando una concordancia aceptable. Posteriormente se escaló el proceso a una tonelada. Como resultado no solo se demuestran las ventajas del proceso integral, sino tambien la posibilidadde su implementacion a nivel industrial. Se concluye ademas que las tecnicas de simulacion son una herramienta poderosa que permite minimizar tiempo,costos y experimentacion en el diseñode procesos como los de extraccion de aceite esencial y pectina.In this paper, an alternative for essential oil and pectin extraction from orange peel (Citrus sinensis as an integral process was presented. The extraction units were simulated using commercial simulator software for real process conditions. Experimental tests were carried out with a kilogram of orange peel with the same conditions used in of the simulation with the aim of comparing the experimental and calculated yields. Subsequently, the process was scaled to 1000 kg. Advantages of the integrated process and its possibilities of implementation at industrial level were showed. Moreover, it was concluded that simulation techniques are powerful tools that allows minimizing time, costs and experimentation in the design of processes such as essential oil extraction and pectin extraction.

  20. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  1. 利用乳酸菌发酵生产脐橙果酱的工艺研究%Preparation of Navel Orange Jam by Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫娜; 徐曼

    2012-01-01

    The process conditions of a navel orange jam were investigated in this paper, in which navel orange and its peels were used as raw material and fermented by lactic acid bacteria. The influence on the quality of navel orange jam was investigated and the optimum conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiments as following: fermentation time 24 h, navel orange peel-orange ratio 1:4 and custer sugar dosage 40%. The navel orange jam was prepared with golden yellow color, good flowing property and a moderately sweet and acid flavor.%以脐橙果肉和脐橙皮为原料,利用乳酸菌发酵来研制脐橙果酱的制作工艺.通过单因素试验研究各因素对脐橙果酱品质的影响,正交优化确定了脐橙果酱的最佳工艺务件:发酵时间24h,脐橙皮和果肉的添加比例为1∶4,白砂糖的添加量为40%.制得的脐橙果酱颜色金黄,流散性好,酸甜可口,均匀细腻.

  2. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  3. [How I treat. . . evanescent youth. Dating back using chemical peels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Marcq, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2005-10-01

    Chemical peels induce the destruction and exfoliation of the epidermis using selected caustic substances. The specific properties of these agents result in a limited and controlled destruction of epidermal layers and of the superficial dermis. The choice of the appropriate method, the preparatory phase and the post-peeling care are very important to reach optimal results. Some types of peeling are routinely used. We briefly report those designed for the superficial and medium depth peelings. The topical application of glycolic acid at high concentration induces a superficial peel resulting in shading of small wrinkles. Trichloracetic acid used at an appropriate concentration acts more deeply and thus represents a good indication for more severe signs of ageing. These peels have been used for decades by dermatologists to improve the visible signs of skin ageing and to treat some alterations of the cutaneous relief.

  4. Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowicki, G.T.; Sitaraman, S.K., E-mail: suresh.sitaraman@me.gatech.edu

    2012-03-30

    Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2} for 1.5-1.7 {mu}m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2}.

  5. Analysis of cuticular wax constituents and genes that contribute to the formation of 'glossy Newhall', a spontaneous bud mutant from the wild-type 'Newhall' navel orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dechun; Yang, Li; Zheng, Qiong; Wang, Yuechen; Wang, Minli; Zhuang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Liu, Chuanfu; Liu, Shanbei; Liu, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) fruit surfaces contain substantial quantities of cuticular waxes, which have important eco-physiological roles, such as water retention and pathogen defense. The wax constituents of ripe navel orange have been studied in various reports, while the wax changes occurring during fruit development and the molecular mechanism underlying their biosynthesis/export have not been investigated. Recently, we reported a spontaneous bud mutant from the wild-type (WT) 'Newhall' Navel orange. This mutant displayed unusual glossy fruit peels and was named 'glossy Newhall' (MT). In this study, we compared the developmental profiles of the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes on the WT and MT fruit surfaces. The formation of epicuticular wax crystals on the navel orange surface was shown to be dependent on the accumulation of high amounts of aliphatic wax components with trace amounts of terpenoids. In sharp contrast, the underlying intracuticular wax layers have relatively low concentrations of aliphatic wax components but high concentrations of cyclic wax compounds, especially terpenoids at the late fruit developmental stages. Our work also showed that many genes that are involved in wax biosynthesis and export pathways were down-regulated in MT fruit peels, leading to a decrease in aliphatic wax component amounts and the loss of epicuticular wax crystals, ultimately causing the glossy phenotype of MT fruits.

  6. Isolation and Characterisation of Flavonoids From Citrus Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Makovšek, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Citrus flavonoids are very interesting for food and pharmaceutical industry since they possess many antioxidant properties and biological activities. Mandarin peels represent an important source of hesperidin and polymethoxy flavones nobiletin and tangeretin. Pommelo peels represent an important source of naringin that can be used as precursor for naringin dihdydro-2,3-chalcone artificial sweetener. Since pommelo peels possess good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, their extracts are ...

  7. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

  8. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner′s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  9. Fruit characterization of high oil content avocado varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-López Vicente Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To expand the data bank on avocado (Persea americana Mill. varieties all over the world, and to select good varieties for commercial or improving purposes, a partial fruit characterization of 13 high oil content (11.23-18.80% was performed. The chosen varieties are growing in a Venezuelan germplasm bank: Fuerte, Peruano, Lula, Ortega, Red Collinson, Alcemio, Araira 1, Pope, Ettinger, Gripiña 5, Barker, Duke, and Ryan. They were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp and peel; length, width and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color and hand peeling; and ripeness time. The variety Ryan showed the highest oil content (18.80% and calorific value (191 Kcal/100 g wet flesh. Avocado varieties grown in Venezuela have generally less oil content and are generally lighter than those from other countries. Most of the varieties had low pulp proportion, and were pyriform, with rough green peel and difficult to hand peel. Red Collinson had an uncommon reddish peel. The ripening time was between 4 and 10 days after harvest.

  10. Antioxidative properties of defatted dabai pulp and peel prepared by solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah

    2012-08-14

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C₁₈ cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants.

  11. Effect of extraction condition on properties of pectin from banana peels and its function as fat replacer in salad cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneerat, Nitjaree; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Nitithamyong, Anadi

    2017-02-01

    Banana peels are wasted from banana processing industry. Pectin is a soluble dietary fibre usually prepared from fruit and vegetable processing wastes. Pectin extraction from banana peels thus should be an effective way of waste utilization. This study aimed to determine the effect of extraction condition on the properties of pectin from peels of Nam Wa banana (Musa (ABB group) 'Kluai Nam Wa') and its role as fat replacer in salad cream. Banana peel pectin (BPP) was extracted with HCl (pH 1.5) and water (pH 6.0) for 30-120 min at 90 ± 5 °C. Acid extraction yielded 7-11% pectin on a dry basis with galacturonic acid content (GalA), degree of methylation (DM), and viscosity-average molecular weight (Mv) of 42-47, 57-61%, and 17-40 kDa, respectively; while water-extracted BPP contained lower DM but higher GalA and Mv. Prolonged extraction raised the pectin yield but lowered the Mv of BPP and the viscosity of their solutions. Incorporation of BPP obtained from 60 min acid- and water-extraction into salad cream at 30% oil substitution level resulted in the decreases in viscosity and lightness. All reduced-fat samples were stable to cream separation during 3-weeks storage although the formula containing water-extracted BPP had larger oil droplet size and greater extent of droplet flocculation. There was no difference in sensory scores rated by 50 panelists on thickness, smoothness, and overall acceptability of the full- and reduced-fat salad creams. Therefore, Nam Wa banana peels can be an alternative source of pectin with potential application as fat replacer in food products.

  12. Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, Emilia L; Carbone, Concetta; Di Gioia, Maria L; Leggio, Antonella; Liguori, Angelo; Perri, Francesca; Siciliano, Carlo; Viscomi, Maria C

    2007-09-19

    The vacuum distillation of bergamot peels furnishes a high-quality essential oil that is totally bergapten-free. This oil was compared with that produced by distillation of cold-pressed oils and those commercially available. The oil obtained by vacuum distillation of the bergamot vegetable matrix shows a composition quite similar to that of the cold-pressed oil. It also displays qualitative characteristics that are superior with respect to those normally observed for essential oils isolated by distillation of cold-pressed oils. Oils isolated by the method presented here can constitute ideal candidates in producing foods, for example, Earl Grey tea, and cosmetic preparations.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of peeling a DNA molecule on substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Shi; Yong Kong; Yapu Zhao; Huajian Gao

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study adhesion and peeling of a short fragment of single strand DNA (ssDNA) molecule from a graphite surface. The critical peel-off force is found to depend on both the peeling angle and the elasticity of ssDNA. For the short ssDNA strand under investigation, we show that the simulation results can be explained by a continuum model of an adhesive elastic band on substrate. The analysis suggests that it is often the peak value, rather than the mean value, of adhesion energy which determines the peeling of a nanoscale material.

  14. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Jérôme; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

  15. Comparison of the Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities by Infusions from Green Tea and Some Citrus Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle O. Ademosun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (Camellia sinensis and some citrus peels [shaddock (Citrus maxima, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi, and orange (Citrus sinensis] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (MAO and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE]. The total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and Fe2+ chelating abilities were also investigated. Green tea had the highest total phenol (43.3 mg/g and total flavonoid (16.4 mg/g contents, when compared to orange [total phenol (19.6 mg/g, total flavonoid (6.5 mg/g], shaddock [total phenol (16.3 mg/g, total flavonoid (5.2 mg/g], and grapefruit [total phenol (17.7 mg/g, total flavonoid (5.9 mg/g]. Orange (EC50 = 1.78 mg/mL had the highest MAO inhibitory ability, while green tea had the least MAO inhibitory ability (EC50 = 2.56 mg/mL. Similarly, green tea had the least BChE inhibitory ability (EC50 = 5.43 mg/mL when compared to the citrus peels’ infusions. However, green tea infusions had the strongest highest ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Fe2+ chelating ability. The inhibition of MAO and BChE activities by the green tea and citrus peels infusions could make them good dietary means for the prevention/management of neurodegenerative conditions.

  16. The quality comparison of Changye orange seed oil extracted by different methods%不同方法萃取长叶橙种子油品质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙谦; 胡中海; 孙志高; 盖智星; 黄巧娟; 郝静梅

    2015-01-01

    Citrus seeds contain 38.9% ~ 58.5% oil has great nutritional value and wide application potential after refining.This paper compared the qualities of extracted method of supercritical CO2 fluid,ultrasonic assisted solvent,cold-pressed and hot-pressed,respectively.Several properties were compared including the initial physical and chemical indicators,self-oxidative capacity,limonoids content and fatty acid composition.All oil extracts were satisfied hygiene standards of edible vegetable oils.Acid value by supercritical CO2 fluid was higher than others (P < 0.05).The limonoids content extracted by supercritical CO2 fluid was much higher than by other methods.The main components of fatty acids were palmitic acid,stearic acid,oleic acid,linoleic acid,etc.higher content of dohomo-γ-linolenic acid was found in oil extracted by supercritical CO2 fluid.Based on storage capacity test,we predicted that cold-pressed oil can be stored for 92.4 d and oil extracted with supercritical CO2 fluid can be stored for 41.7 d under 20 ℃.According to our comprehensive analysis,supercritical CO2 fluid extraction is the best,but it needs deacidification to improve the storage capacity.%柑橘种子含油量为38.9% ~ 58.5%,经精炼后具有较高的营养价值和应用潜力.文中分析了超临界CO2流体萃取法、超声波辅助溶剂萃取法、榨油机冷榨和热榨所得长叶橙种子油脂的初始理化指标、自氧化能力、柠檬苦素类似物含量、脂肪酸组成等指标.4种方法所得油脂都符合食用植物油卫生标准,但超临界CO2流体萃取所得油脂酸价明显高于其他方法(P<0.05).超临界CO2流体萃取的种子油中柠檬苦素类似物含量最高(1.89 mg/g).采用的4种萃取方法所得油脂中其脂肪酸的主成分均为棕榈酸、硬脂酸、油酸和亚油酸,超临界CO2流体萃取的种子油中含有较高的二高-γ-亚麻酸.经贮藏能力测定,推算出冷榨油脂在20℃条件下可贮藏92

  17. Nanoemulsões óleo de laranja/água preparadas em homogeneizador de alta pressão Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta R. Kourniatis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH. The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability.

  18. Interactive Network Exploration with Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Štajdohar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis is one of the most widely used techniques in many areas of modern science. Most existing tools for that purpose are limited to drawing networks and computing their basic general characteristics. The user is not able to interactively and graphically manipulate the networks, select and explore subgraphs using other statistical and data mining techniques, add and plot various other data within the graph, and so on. In this paper we present a tool that addresses these challenges, an add-on for exploration of networks within the general component-based environment Orange.

  19. Kinetics study of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. by solvent-free microwave extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Heri Septya Kusuma; Prilia Dwi Amelia; Cininta Admiralia; Mahfud Mahfud

    2016-01-01

    Citrus and its oil are of high economic and medicinal value because of their multiple uses, such as in the food industry, cosmetics and folk medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of solvent-free microwave extraction for the extraction of essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. Specifically, this study verifies the kinetics based on second-order model and mechanism of solvent-free microwave extraction of Citrus auranticum L. peels. Solvent-free microwave extra...

  20. Estudo das características de adsorção de água e da estabilidade das microcápsulas de óleo essencial de laranja na seleção de material de parede Water adsorption characteristics and stability of orange essential oil microcapsules in the wall material selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. R. ASCHERI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no estudo e comparação das características de adsorção de água de três amostras de microcápsulas de óleo essencial de laranja, obtidas pela secagem por atomização de três diferentes emulsões preparadas pela adição de óleo essencial de laranja (oel, a uma solução aquosa de material de parede (mp constituída de capsul (5,0, 0,0 e 10,0%, goma arábica (5,0, 10,0 e 0,0% sendo constante para as três emulsões a maltodextrina (36,0%, água (44,0% e óleo essencial (10,0%. A microencapsulação foi realizada a 220 e 110° C de ar de entrada e saída do secador usando um atomizador rotativo a 20.000rpm. Com base à determinação das isotermas de adsorção de água a 30, 40 e 50° C e usando o modelo de GAB para ajustar os pontos experimentais foram avaliadas as características das isotermas, a estabilidade e área superficial de adsorção de água das diferentes amostras de microcápsulas obtidas. Os resultados indicaram ser importante o estudo das características de adsorção de água para estimar a estabilidade das microcápsulas de oel e a comparação destas mostrou que as microcápsulas obtidas pela secagem por atomização da emulsão preparada com 5,0% de capsul e 5,0% de goma arábica apresentaram o melhor resultado.This work consisted of the study and comparison of the water adsorption characteristics of three samples orange essential oil microcapsules obtained by spray drying of three different emulsions prepared by the addition of orange essential oil (oel to an aqueous solution of wall material (mp constituted of capsul (5.0, 0.0 and 10.0%, arabic gum (5.0, 10.0 and 0.0% being constant for the three emulsions the maltodextrin (36.0%, water (44.0% and essential oil (10.0%. The microencapsulation was accomplished to 220 and 110°C of entrance air and exit of the dryer using a wheel atomizer to 20,000rpm. With base to the determination of the water adsorption isotherms to 30, 40 and 50°C and

  1. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and leading. Ukraine’s presidential elections of 2004 and the competition between Viktor Yushchenko and Victor Yanukovich and the presence of international observers in the process of elections and the controversy of electoral fraud and the West’s support of Yushchenko were all directed toward the formation of a color revolution in Ukraine. Poor economic conditions and official corruption, religious, linguistic, class and racial gaps in Ukraine led the way for foreigners to use them in creating electoral situations and prepare the fall of the government. The main purpose question in this article is the Orange Revolution and its causes.

  2. Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

  3. Guidelines for chemical peeling in Japan (3rd edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Chemical peeling may be defined as the therapies, procedures and techniques used for the treatment of certain cutaneous diseases or conditions, and for aesthetic improvement. The procedures include the application of one or more chemical agents to the skin. Chemical peeling has been very popular in both medical and aesthetic fields. Because neither its scientific background is well understood nor a systematic approach established, medical and social problems have taken place. This prompted us to establish and distribute a standard guideline of care for chemical peeling. Previous guidelines such as the 2001 and 2004 versions included minimum standards of care such as indications, chemicals, applications, and any associated precautions, including post-peeling care. The principles in this updated version of chemical peeling are as follows: (i) chemical peeling should be performed under the strict technical control and responsibility of a physician; (ii) the physician should have sufficient knowledge of the structure and physiology of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and understand the mechanisms of wound-healing induced by chemical peeling; (iii) the physician should be board-certified in an appropriate specialty such as dermatology; and (iv) the ultimate judgment regarding the appropriateness of any specific chemical peeling procedure must be made by the physician while considering all standard therapeutic protocols, which should be presented to each individual patient. Keeping these concepts in mind, this new version of the guidelines includes a more scientific and detailed approach from the viewpoint of evidence-based medicine.

  4. Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava Processors in Rural ... Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... sites in southwest, Nigeria thereby constituting a source of environmental pollution. ... to lack of awareness of cassava peel utilization technologies in the study areas.

  5. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced sp

  6. Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...

  7. Characterization of avocado (Persea americana mill.) varieties of low oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, V M

    1999-07-01

    Several avocado varieties of low oil content (6.73-8.07%) from Venezuela (Booth 1, Booth 7, Ceniap 2, Figueroa, Guacara Morado, Luiz de Queiroz, Princesa, Quebrada Seca, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Taylor, and Tonnage) were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp, and peel); length, width, and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color, and hand peeling); and ripeness time. Oil plus moisture percentages were between 87.62 and 93.71. Pulp percentage of Quebrada Seca was the lowest of the 49 varieties studied, and its seed percentage the highest. Princesa had the highest pulp percentage (76%). Seven varieties were pyriform and five ovate, seven had rough peel and five smooth peel, and four of them had purple peel and the others green. Five varieties were easy to hand peel. Peak ripening of some varieties was at 4-9 days. Princesa is the variety with the highest potential yield with 67944 kg of fruit/ha, 51675 kg of pulp/ha, 3679 kg of oil/ha, and 3016 kg of starch/ha.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

  9. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  10. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  11. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  12. Antidiarrheal activity of hexane extract of Citrus limon peel in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Olasupo Stephen; Omale, James; Omeje, Samuel Chukwuma; Edino, Victoria Ojimaojo

    2017-03-01

    Acute diarrhea is one of the major illnesses that cause death in children, despite clinical interventions and the use of oral rehydration therapy. Thus, there is need to discover other effective, affordable and accessible treatments for this disease. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of hexane extract of Citrus limon peel (HECLP) on castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. Diarrhea was induced in male albino Wistar rats weighing 100-150 g. The antidiarrheal activity of HECLP at different oral dosages (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) was investigated by counting the number of wet fecal pellets. Animals were further treated with propranolol, prazosin, nifedipine and atropine to assess the effects of receptor blockers on the activities of the extract. The effects of HECLP on castor oil-induced enteropooling and the intestinal transit time of activated charcoal were also evaluated. Each of the 3 doses of C. limon significantly reduced (P limon peel possesses antidiarrheal effects through antisecretory and antimotility mechanisms that act through the β adrenergic system.

  13. Utilization of banana peel as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooklin, Chanika Saenge; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated for biosurfactant production by using banana peel as a sole carbon source. From the 71 strains screened, Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65 produced the highest biosurfactant activity. The highest biosurfactant production (5.30 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 35 % (w/v) banana peel and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate at 30 °C and 200 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small critical micelle concentration value (10 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity, and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and had the ability to emulsify oil, enhance PAHs solubility, and oil bioremediation.

  14. Manufacturing of par-fried french-fries. Part 2: Modelling yield efficiency of peeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines the yield efficiency of steam peeling. It was proven that peeling potatoes manually with sandpaper results in the lowest possible peel losses. These losses were desired or wanted losses. However, in practice steam peeling results not only in wanted losses but also in substantial u

  15. Morphology Change of Coacervate Orange Oil Microcapsules with Different Concentration of the Wall Material%不同壁材浓度的复合凝聚橘油微胶囊制备过程中的形态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志俭; 杨兵; 马勇; 齐凤元; 宋立; 冯彦博

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同壁材浓度的复合凝聚橘油微胶囊在制备过程中的形态变化,并深入探讨了复合凝聚橘油微胶囊的形态、载量对微胶囊释放性质的影响.结果表明:当壁材浓度不超过1%时,复合凝聚桶油微胶囊在整个制备过程中保持球状、多核的结构,否则微胶囊在复合凝聚或凝胶化过程中会产生粘连,最终形态变得不规则;与载量相比,微胶囊的形态对于芯材桶油的释放具有更为显著的影响,制备具有优良控制释放性质的复合凝聚球状多核橘油微胶囊的适宜壁材浓度是1%.%The morphology changes during preparing process of coacervate microcapsules was mainly investigated in the paper. Furthermore, the effect of morphology and loading of microcapsules on the release was extensively discussed. The experimental results showed that when wall material concentration was not more than 1%, coacervate microcapsules remained spherical and multinuclear structure during the whole preparing process. However, the microcapsules accumulated during coacervation and gelation process made the morphology of microcapsules turn irregular. Compared with loading, the effect of morphology of microcapsules on orange oil release was more significant. Overall, with excellent controlled-release characteristics of the coacervate spherical multinuclear microcapsules, the optimum wall material concentration was 1%.

  16. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... and rosemary oils had very limited effects. Mustard and lemongrass were the most effective oils by the volatile method, and orange, sage and one rosemary showed some effects. Oil compositions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrography.Conclusions: Antifungal effects of the essential oils depended...

  17. STRATEGI COPING ORANG TUA MENGHADAPI ANAK AUTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sulistyo Wardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak penderita autis, bagaimana bentuk perilaku coping yang digunakan, dan apa dampak perilaku coping tersebut bagi orang tua. Subjek penelitian ini adalah orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis yang bersekolah di SD PLUS Harmony. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah interview, sedangkan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis induktif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa strategi coping pada orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis berorientasi pada penyelesaian masalah yang dihadapi (Problem Focused Coping, sedangkan bentuk perilaku coping yang muncul yaitu Instrumental Action yang termasuk dalam Problem Focused Coping dan Self-Controlling, Denial, dan Seeking Meaning yang termasuk dalam Emotion Focused Coping. Dampak positif dari perilaku coping yang dilakukan oleh orang tua yaitu Exercised Caution dan Seeking Meaning, sedangkan dampak negatif yang muncul diatasi orang tua dengan Intropersitive, Negotiation, dan Accepting Responbility.

  18. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  19. Volatile and Flavonoid Composition of the Peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican Fruit for Quality Assessment of Its Liqueur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Summary The volatile and flavonoid compositions of the peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican fruits cultivated in Corsica were studied according to the maturity of the citron fruits measured using growing degree-days. Quantitative variation with the stage of development of the fruit was observed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Thirty volatile compounds were identified in the peel essential oil. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major compounds. The volatile compositions of commercial citron liqueurs were also characterized by high amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons with the same two major components. The main flavonoid components of citron fruits and derived liqueurs were rutin and neohesperidin. This chemical characterization can be used for quality assessment of food products from C. medica var. Corsican. PMID:27904313

  20. Study of Number of Nitrogen Fertigations on Improvement of Quantity and Quality of Thomson Navel Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ebadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of various nitrogen (N fertigation frequencies on yield and fruit quality of Thomson navel orange, a field study was carried out in a randomized complete blocks design with five treatments and four replications during three years. Treatments included a subsoil N fertilizer placement (with drip irrigation and four N fertigation frequencies (2, 4, 6 and 8 applications per growing season. Results of soil and leaf analysis were used to determine the annul amount of applied fertilizers. In subsoil placement treatment, urea was applied two times (second half of March and second half of May and other fertilizers were applied only in March. In fertigation treatments, urea was applied by fertilizer tank in four frequencies, and other fertilizers were applied only in March. For all treatments, the amount and scheduling of irrigation was the same. The measured traits were total fruits weight (yield, single fruit weight, peel thickness, fruit diameter and length, acidity (TA and total soluble solids (TSS of the fruits. Analysis of the means showed that the yields of 6 and 8 fertigations were 5.6 to 32.1 percent more than the other treatments. But the yield of 8 applications per growing season differed significantly from 2 and 4 applications. Fruit weight and peel thickness of the treatments were not significantly different. Fruit diameter of 6-fertigation treatment was more than the other treatments, and had significant difference with 2-fertigation treatment. Significant difference between fruit juice quality of subsoil placement and fertigation treatments was not observed. But some differences were observed between fertigation treatments. In conclusion, for Thomson navel orange on the regions where similar to this research place, it can be suggested 6 applications of N fertigation.

  1. Mini-Orange Spectrometer at CIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yun; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-01-01

    A Mini-Orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, which consists of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO$_5$ permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principle and configuration of the Mini-Orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the Mini-Orange spectrometer.

  2. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  3. Bringing diagnostics to developing countries: an interview with Rosanna Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Professor Rosanna Peeling, PhD by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Professor Rosanna Peeling is Chair of Diagnostic Research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, UK) and founded the International Diagnostics Centre at the institution. Professor Peeling previously worked for the WHO in Geneva, Switzerland, and continues to work on innovations for molecular diagnostics for point-of-care use in developing countries, addressing challenges posed by lack of funding and resources, regulatory issues and under-developed healthcare systems in these locations. Here, she discusses her career, recent progress in the field and how connectivity will affect global healthcare.

  4. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Timothy George

    2016-01-01

    We start by studying a peeling process on finite random planar maps with faces of arbitrary degrees determined by a general weight sequence, which satisfies an admissibility criterion. The corresponding perimeter process is identified as a biased random walk, in terms of which the admissibility...... be obtained from the peeling process of finite random maps by conditioning the perimeter process to stay positive. The simplicity of the resulting description of the peeling process allows us to obtain the scaling limit of the associated perimeter and volume process for arbitrary regular critical weight...

  5. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L.) oils characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rodríguez; Grabiela Subúru; Marina Torres; Laura Olazabal; Alejandra Torre

    2011-01-01

    The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the cru...

  6. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  7. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  8. Peeling the onion: understanding others' lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Maureen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Society and some healthcare professionals often marginalise pregnant women who take illicit substances. Midwives who care for these women are often viewed as working on the edge of society. This research aimed to examine the lived experiences of midwives who care for pregnant women who take illicit drugs. A phenomenological study informed by Heidegger, Gadamer and Merleau-Ponty was chosen to frame these lived experiences. Using face-to-face interviews, data were collected from 12 midwives making a difference, establishing partnerships and letting go and refining practice. Lived experiences are unique and can be difficult, intangible and couched in metaphor and difficult to grasp. This paper aims to discuss lived experience and suggests that like an onion, several layers have to be peeled away before meaning can be exposed; each cover reveals another layer beneath that is different from before and different from the next. The study provides exemplars that explain lived experiences.

  9. Onion-peeling inversion of stellarator images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. C.; Diaz-Pacheco, R. R.; Kornbluth, Y.; Volpe, F. A.; Wei, Y.

    2016-11-01

    An onion-peeling technique is developed for inferring the emissivity profile of a stellarator plasma from a two-dimensional image acquired through a CCD or CMOS camera. Each pixel in the image is treated as an integral of emission along a particular line-of-sight. Additionally, the flux surfaces in the plasma are partitioned into discrete layers, each of which is assumed to have uniform emissivity. If the topology of the flux surfaces is known, this construction permits the development of a system of linear equations that can be solved for the emissivity of each layer. We present initial results of this method applied to wide-angle visible images of the Columbia Neutral Torus (CNT) stellarator plasma.

  10. Onion-peeling inversion of stellarator images

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, K C; Kornbluth, Y; Volpe, F A; Wei, Y

    2016-01-01

    An onion-peeling technique is developed for inferring the emissivity profile of a stellarator plasma from a two-dimensional image acquired through a CCD or CMOS camera. Each pixel in the image is treated as an integral of emission along a particular line-of-sight. Additionally, the flux surfaces in the plasma are partitioned into discrete layers, each of which is assumed to have uniform emissivity. If the topology of the flux surfaces is known, this construction permits the development of a system of linear equations that can be solved for the emissivity of each layer. We present initial results of this method applied to wide-angle visible images of the CNT stellarator plasma.

  11. Pomegranin, an antifungal peptide from pomegranate peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Wang, He Xiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2009-01-01

    A new antifungal peptide designated as pomegranin, with an N-terminal sequence resembling that of rice disease resistance NB-S-LRR-like protein, was isolated from fresh pomegranate peels by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. Pomegranin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. It exhibited a molecular mass of 11 kDa in both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum with an IC(50) of 2 microM and 6.1 microM, respectively. It was devoid of hemagglutinating, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease and protease inhibitory activities.

  12. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  13. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  14. Arundo Distribution - Orange Co. [ds348

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Arundo (Arundo donax) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and were funded by...

  15. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  16. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  17. Impact of essential oils on mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Grgić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 22 essential oils (anise, thyme, cumin, peppermint, lavender, sage, lemon balm, rosemary, myrtle, cinnamon leaf, basil, white pine, eucalyptus, cedar, bergamot, mandarin, cypress, patchouli, ginger, bitter orange, sandalwood, camphor on the growth of gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. The experiment was performed in vitro on PDA medium in 2 repetitions. Oils were applied in three amounts (3, 5 and 7 μl, and the mycelial growth was measured after three and nine days of incubation. All oils, except oils of bitter orange, sandalwood and camphor, have shown a certain antifungal activity. Compared to the water control, thyme and anise oil have shown the best antifungal activity, while for oils of bitter orange, sandalwood and camphor a stimulating effect on a growth of fungus B. cinerea was determined.

  18. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    SCFILE cue ESL-TR-86-22 HERBICIDE ORANGE SITE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY EGLIN AFB 10 A.B. CROCKETT, A. PROPP , T. KIMES EG&G IDAHO, INC O I P.O. BOX...Orange Site Characterization Study.4lin AFB 12- PERSONAL AIITHOS(S) Crockett, A.B. , Propp , A., Kinies T. / \\ 4 Final FROM APX 84/TO Sen 86 1 ... I

  19. Pengenalan Gangguan Depresif Pada Orang Usia Lanjut

    OpenAIRE

    Bongsoe, Syamsir

    2008-01-01

    Pada orang usia lanjut, gangguan depresif merupakan suasana alam perasaan yang utama bagi orang usia lanjut dengan penyakit fisik kronik dan kerusakan fungsi kognitif yang disebabkan oleh adanya penderitaan, disabilitas, perhatian keluarga yang kurang serta bertambah buruknya penyakit fisik yang banyak dialaminya. Selain itu proses-proses sehubungan dengan ketuaan dan penyakit fisik yang dialaminya akan mempengaruhi jalur frontostriatal, amygdala serta hypocampus, dan meningkatkan kerentanan ...

  20. 77 FR 46377 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, NY, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Takasago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ..., mixtures of odiferous substances and essential oils (duty rate ranges from duty free to 7%). Public comment... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, NY, Notification of Proposed Production... (Takasago) submitted a notification of proposed production activity for their facility located in...

  1. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    CERN Document Server

    Budd, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    We start by studying a peeling process on finite random planar maps with faces of arbitrary degrees determined by a general weight sequence, which satisfies an admissibility criterion. The corresponding perimeter process is identified as a biased random walk, in terms of which the admissibility criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can be obtained from the peeling process of finite random maps by conditioning the perimeter process to stay positive. The simplicity of the resulting description of the peeling process allows us to obtain the scaling limit of the associated perimeter and volume process for arbitrary regular critical weight sequences.

  2. What Did Peel County Do In the Great War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Desmond

    1987-01-01

    Describes the strengths and weaknesses of the Canadian War effort during World War I. Specifically focuses on Peel County, Ontario and the particular problems its inhabitants experienced during the war. (BSR)

  3. An Automated Cassava Peeling System for the Enhancement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Automated Cassava Peeling System for the Enhancement of Food Security in ... However, of all the unit operations involved in cassava processing, cassava ... machine was thus developed in the Department of Agricultural Engineering, ...

  4. Internal limiting membrane peeling in vitreo-retinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Ehab; Lois, Noemi

    2008-01-01

    Peeling the internal limiting membrane of the retina has become a very common procedure performed by vitreo-retinal surgeons. The combination of new microsurgical instrumentation with the availability of different dyes to stain this thin and transparent membrane has facilitated the performance of internal limiting membrane peeling, reducing the time and trauma associated with this maneuver. Internal limiting membrane peeling has been used to treat a variety of retinal pathologies, including full-thickness macular hole, epiretinal membrane, macular edema, vitreomacular traction syndrome, and Terson syndrome, among others. Although it appears that peeling the internal limiting membrane in these retinal conditions may be associated with better anatomical and visual outcomes following surgery, further evidence through randomized controlled clinical trials is still needed to guide the vitreo-retinal surgeon on the appropriate use of this surgical maneuver.

  5. Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, .... on the management of the cassava peels; ... likely to enhance their adoption of new .... determines the adoption of innovation and as.

  6. Biodigestion of cassava peels blended with pig dung for methane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKOROIGWE

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... biogas which could burn after 58 days of digestion. When ... and Ezekoye (2009) combined cassava peels with rice ..... during anaerobic co-digestion of dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw. Bioresour. Technol. 120:78-83.

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... peels and manure: A technological approach for biogas generation and bio-fertilizer production ... The modern global society faces great challenges in supply of energy and management of ...

  8. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-10-15

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  9. AND Citrus senensis PEEL EXTRACTS ON Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The ethanolic extract of leaves of A. comosus has antifilarial and ... until required for further analysis. Extraction Protocols. The fine powder of the peels (100g) was weighed and ..... pesticides using the brine shrimp lethality assay. International.

  10. Optimization and kinetic modeling of cadmium desorption from citrus peels: A process for biosorbent regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njikam, Eloh, E-mail: ennjikam@alaska.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Schiewer, Silke, E-mail: sschiewer@alaska.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Cadmium was completely and quickly desorbed from grapefruit peels using 0.01 M HNO{sub 3}. The kinetics followed a novel 1st or 2nd order kinetic model, related to the remaining metal bound as the rate-determining reactant concentration. For 0.001 M HNO{sub 3}, desorption was incomplete and the model fit less perfect. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal desorption was over 90% complete within 50 min for most desorbents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Models for biosorbent desorption kinetics were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desorption kinetics best fit a novel first-order model related to remaining metal bound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd uptake after desorption by HNO{sub 3} was similar to the original uptake. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimal desorbent was 0.1 or 0.01 M acid, being fast, efficient and cheap. - Abstract: Citrus peel biosorbents are efficient in removing heavy metals from wastewater. Heavy metal recovery and sorbent regeneration are important for the financial competitiveness of biosorption with other processes. The desorbing agents HNO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, EDTA, S, S-EDDS, and Na-Citrate were studied at different concentrations to optimize cadmium elution from orange or grapefruit peels. In most cases, desorption was fast, being over 90% complete within 50 min. However sodium nitrate and 0.001 M nitric acid were less efficient. Several new models for desorption kinetics were developed. While zero-, first- and second-order kinetics are commonly applied for modeling adsorption kinetics, the present study adapts these models to describe desorption kinetics. The proposed models relate to the number of metal-filled binding sites as the rate-determining reactant concentration. A model based on first order kinetics with respect to the remaining metal bound performed best. Cd bound in subsequent adsorption after desorption was similar to the original amount bound for desorption by

  11. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  12. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Orange Fruit Surfaces and in Juice Using Photocatalysis and High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sungyul; Ghafoor, Kashif; Kim, Jeong Un; Kim, Sanghun; Jung, Bora; Lee, Dong-Un; Park, Jiyong

    2015-06-01

    Nonpasteurized orange juice is manufactured by squeezing juice from fruit without peel removal. Fruit surfaces may carry pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate squeezed juice. Titanium dioxide-UVC photocatalysis (TUVP), a nonthermal technique capable of microbial inactivation via generation of hydroxyl radicals, was used to decontaminate orange surfaces. Levels of spot-inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 (initial level of 7.0 log CFU/cm(2)) on oranges (12 cm(2)) were reduced by 4.3 log CFU/ml when treated with TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2)). Reductions of 1.5, 3.9, and 3.6 log CFU/ml were achieved using tap water, chlorine (200 ppm), and UVC alone (23.7 mW/cm(2)), respectively. E. coli O157:H7 in juice from TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2))-treated oranges was reduced by 1.7 log CFU/ml. After orange juice was treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400 MPa for 1 min without any prior fruit surface disinfection, the level of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.4 log CFU/ml. However, the E. coli O157:H7 level in juice was reduced by 4.7 log CFU/ml (to lower than the detection limit) when TUVP treatment of oranges was followed by HHP treatment of juice, indicating a synergistic inactivation effect. The inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 on orange surfaces followed a biphasic model. HHP treatment did not affect the pH, °Brix, or color of juice. However, the ascorbic acid concentration and pectinmethylesterase activity were reduced by 35.1 and 34.7%, respectively.

  14. Effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Gazea, Florea; Cicciarello, Giuseppe; Cotroneo, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the composition of bergamot oils obtained from plants grafted on the following rootstocks: sour orange, Carrizo citrange, trifoliate orange, Alemow, Volkamerian lemon, and Troyer citrange. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using rootstocks other than sour orange, checking their effect on the composition of the essential oil. Results are reported for analysis of 203 bergamot oils during the years 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000. The oils were analyzed by HRGC and HRGC/MS; 78 components were identified, and the results were in agreement with those reported in the literature for the Calabrian bergamot oils obtained from industry. Because of the quality of their essential oils, Alemow and Volkamerian lemon can be considered as substitutes for sour orange rootstocks.

  15. Development of an Electrically Operated Cassava Peeling and Slicing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Aji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and construction of an electrically operated cassava peeling and slicing machine was described in this paper. The objective was to design, construct and test an electrically operated machine that will peel and slice cassava root into chips, to aid the processes of drying, pelletizing and storage. The methodology adopted includes; design, construction, calculation, specification, assembly of component parts and performance test. The machine was able to Peel and slice cassava to fairly similar sizes. Performance test reveals that 7 kg of cassava tuber was peeled and chipped in one minute, which shows that, the machine developed can significantly reduce the cost of labour and time wastage associated with traditional processing of cassava tubers into dried cassava pellets, and finished products, such as; garri, and cassava flour. The machine has a capacity of 6.72 kg/min, with peeling and chipping efficiency of 66.2% and 84.0% respectively. The flesh loss of the peeled tuber was 8.52%, while overall machine efficiency obtained as 82.4%. The machine is recommended for use by small scale industries and by cassava farmers in the rural areas. It has an overall cost of N46100 ($150. The machine can easily be operated by an individual and maintained, by using warm water to wash the component parts, and sharpening of the chipping disc when required.

  16. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included.

  17. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    El Zawane Kamarudin; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Zuvairea Nazren Mohd Sirajudin; Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (tropical pumpkin) (C. moschata) against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods:In the present study, dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MEOH) and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus (21 mm) whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (8 mm). MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa (19 mm). Broth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6.25 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. The minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3.12 mg/mL to 100.00 mg/mL. The screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: Peel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  18. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tasleem Arif Postgraduate Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. Keywords: acne vulgaris, desmolytic agent, melasma, photodamage, salicylic acid 

  19. Effects of peeling methods on the quality of cubiu fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luty Gomez Caceres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is an Amazonian Basin native fruit. Its importance comes from its high contents of pectin. Currently, processing technologies are necessary for the substitution of the traditional system (small crops and small-scale processing for a larger scale system and thus increase the use of biodiversity and promote the implementation of Local Productive Arrangements of agribusiness in the Amazon. This research aims to evaluate the methods of peeling cubiu. Ripe fruits were divided into lots (150 each and subjected to the following treatments: immersion in 2.5% NaOH boiling solution for 5 minutes, exposure to water vapor, and immersion in water at 96 ºC for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The peel released during heat treatment and immediately removed under running tap water. In the control treatment, the fruits were manually peeled (unheated with a stainless steel knife. The treatments were evaluated for completeness and ease of peeling, tissue integrity, texture, and peroxidase activity. The immersion in 2.5% NaOH boiling solution (5 minutes stood out as the best treatment since it inhibited the enzymatic browning and intensified the natural yellow color of the cubiu fruit and easily and fully peeled the whole fruit more rapidly without damaging its tissues. This treatment was chosen as the most advantageous because it can promote simultaneous peeling and bleaching. Therefore, it is recommended for cubiu industrial processing.

  20. Environ: E00039 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00039 Orange oil (JP16/NF) Crude drug; Essential oil Limonene [CPD:C06078], Myrcen...ential oils [BR:br08321] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00039 Orange oil CAS: 8008-57-9 ... ...eae (citrus family) Citrus sinensis peel Obtained by expression Major component: Limonene [CPD:C06078] Ess

  1. Deformation of nanotubes in peeling contact with flat substrate: An in situ electron microscopy nanomechanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zheng, Meng; Wei, Qing; Signetti, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola M.; Ke, Changhong

    2016-04-01

    Peeling of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from flat substrates is an essential technique in studying their adhesion properties. The mechanical deformation of the nanostructure in the peeling experiment is critical to the understanding of the peeling process and the interpretation of the peeling measurements, but it is challenging to measure directly and quantitatively at the nanoscale. Here, we investigate the peeling deformation of a bundled carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber by using an in situ scanning electron microscopy nanomechanical peeling technique. A pre-calibrated atomic force microscopy cantilever is utilized as the peeling force sensor, and its back surface acts as the peeling contact substrate. The nanomechanical peeling scheme enables a quantitative characterization of the deformational behaviors of the CNT fiber in both positive and negative peeling configurations with sub-10 nm spatial and sub-nN force resolutions. Nonlinear continuum mechanics models and finite element simulations are employed to interpret the peeling measurements. The measurements and analysis reveal that the structural imperfections in the CNT fiber may have a substantial influence on its peeling deformations and the corresponding peeling forces. The research findings reported in this work are useful to the study of mechanical and adhesion properties of 1D nanostructures by using nanomechanical peeling techniques.

  2. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil;

    2013-01-01

    Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among...... vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes. ...

  3. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole in high myopia eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the clinical effects between pars plana vitrectomy(PPVand PPV with internal limiting membrane peeling(ILMPfor macular hole in high myopia eyes. METHODS:The clinical data of 33 high myopia with macular hole patients(36 eyeswith or without retinal detachment caused by macular hole were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to different operation methods: 15 eyes in groupⅠhad undergone PPV; 21 eyes in groupⅡhad undergone PPV with ILMPP peeling. According to different conditions of patients,different auxiliary methods were accepted, such as silicone oil tamponade, C3F8 tamponade, photocoagulation, condensation, etc. The follow-up period was 3~12mo. Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, macular hole closure rate and retinal reattachment rate were continuous checked after operation. Then we evaluated the outcome in the two groups by statistical analysis.RESULTS: The postoperative mean BCVA increased by 0.167 in group Ⅰand 0.456 in group Ⅱ than preoperative, the difference was significant(t=2.46,6.753; P=0.027,0.000. And the difference of BCVA improvement was significant between those two groups(t=-2.943, P=0.006. The macular hole closed in 7 eyes(46.67%in group Ⅰ,and 18 eyes(85.71%in group Ⅱ; The difference was significant between those two groups(χ2=6.287,P=0.025.Retinal reattachment was found in 11 eyes(91.67%in group Ⅰ and 19 eyes(94.73%in group Ⅱ. The difference was not significant between the two groups(χ2=0.856, P=0.418. CONCLUSION: PPV with ILMPP peeling for macular hole in high myopia eyes can obviously improve closure of macular hole and postoperative visual acuity. But the difference of retinal reattachment rate was not significant between peeling and unpeeling of ILMP.

  4. Valorization of potato peel: a biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pranav D; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Puranik, Nikhil Manoj; Jambhulkar, Swapnil Jaygopal; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2017-06-14

    Potato is the fourth main crop consumed worldwide and is an important constituent in the human diet. Consequently, potato is widely used in food-processing industries. However, these industries generate massive amounts of potato peel (PP) as a by-product, which is usually considered a waste, and is discarded. Interestingly, recent research suggests that PP is a valuable source of bioactive compounds, which can be converted into value-added products. In this study, we review the physicochemical composition and valorization of PP. In addition to being used as a dietary fiber or medicine, the value-added products obtained by the fermentation of PP have multiple uses, including their use as adsorbents, biocomposites and packaging materials. These products can also be used in energy production, biopolymer film development, corrosion inhibition and the synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals. The biorefinery approach for PP will increase the value of this waste by producing an array of value-added products and reducing extensive waste generation.

  5. Pick-up, impact, and peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmeet; Hanna, James

    We consider a class of problems involving a one-dimensional, inextensible body with a propagating discontinuity (shock) associated with partial contact with a rigid obstacle providing steric, frictional, or adhesive forces. This class includes the pick-up and impact of an axially flowing string or cable, and the peeling of an adhesive tape. The dynamics are derived by applying an action principle to a non-material volume. The resulting boundary conditions provide momentum and energy jump conditions at the shock. These are combined with kinematic conditions on velocities and accelerations to obtain families of steady-state solutions parameterized by the shock velocity and momentum and energy sources. We find relationships between the jump in stress, injection of momentum, and dissipation of energy, which we apply to specific cases, and compare with other results in the literature on chain fountains, falling folded chains, and impulsively loaded cables. Time permitting, we will briefly discuss the possibility of using kinematic conditions and information about accelerating or otherwise unsteady forms of the adjoining bulk solutions to construct an equation of motion of the shock.

  6. Analysis of the Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil from Anli Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Guang; LIU Chang-jiang; HOU Dong-yan; XU Lin

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of the whole fruit and the peel of Anli pear (Pyrus Ussriensis Maxim.)grown in the western region of Liaoning Province was extracted through the hydrodistillationmethod, and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique.The yields of the essential oils of Anli pear whole fruit and the peel were 0.073 and0.36%, respectively. The identification of the volatile compounds was conducted throughthe commercial National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Wiley massspectral search program, confirmed by comparing the retention indices with standardvalues of authentic samples. A total of 7 and 16 components were identified from theessential oils of the peel and the whole fruit, respectively. The predominant constituentof the two kinds of essential oils was butylated hydroxytoluene, which is a typicalantioxidant.

  7. Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of balady flat bread supplemented with banana peels as a natural source of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareman S. Eshak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different concentrations of banana peels BP (5% and 10% as a partial replacement for wheat flour on physicochemical and sensory properties of Egyptian balady flat bread. The peel powder (0.50 mm size from banana was prepared from their dried peel. The bread was prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of wheat flour with a banana peel. The bread prepared was designated as B1 and B2 respectively. They were tested for moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber as per the standard methods. The physicochemical and sensory parameters of these two test bread were compared with a control bread 100% wheat flour designated as B0. Results showed that BP flour was owing 11.20% crude fiber which is higher than the wheat flour 1.21%. Also, BP flour has high potassium, calcium, sodium, iron and manganese compared with wheat flour. The protein and fiber content of B2 and B1 bread were higher (12.52% and 11.79% protein and 2.18% and 1.97% fiber as compared to the control bread (10.79 protein and 1.42% fiber. B1 and B2 had the highest K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn content compared with control bread. The water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity (OHC of bread with BP flour were higher as compared to the bread control. The bread prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of BP (B2 is found to be sensorially acceptable. Our results showed that the nutritionally and sensory accepted bread can be prepared by replacing at most 10% of flour.

  8. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Malaysian Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, E; Prathap, K

    1976-05-01

    Necropsies were performed on 285 consecutively unclaimed Orang Asli bodies from Gombak Orang Asli Hospital during an eight-year period from May 1967 to April 1975. Of the 25 malignant neoplasms, hepatocellular carcinoma was by far the commonest (36%). The nine patients with this neoplasm had coexistant macronodular cirrhosis. There were 20 cases of cirrhosis; 45% of these had coexistant hepatocellular carcinoma. The 53,000 Orang Aslis living in West Malaysia comprise three tribes, the Negrito, Senoi, and Melayu Asli (Proto Malays). The Sinoi appear to have a high predilection for liver cancer, all our nine cases occurring in this group. These aboriginal people live in the jungles where they practice shifting cultivation and maintain their own dietary and social customs. Detailed studies of their dietary habits may provide a clue to the etiology of liver cancer in these people.

  10. Modification of potato peel waste with base hydrolysis and subsequent cationization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Katja; Kärkkäinen, Johanna; Joensuu, Päivi; Lajunen, Marja

    2015-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PW) is a starch containing biomaterial produced in large amounts by food processing industry. In this work, the treatment of PW by alkaline hydrolysis and cationization in the water phase is reported. In order to improve the cationization of starch, PW was hydrolyzed by heating with alkaline (NaOH) ethanol solution (80%) in a water bath. The impact of variable molar ratios of anhydroglucose unit (AGU):NaOH, heating temperatures and times was studied on the degradation of starch and the molecular size distribution of the product. The hydrolyzed PW was cationized subsequently in water by using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and catalyzed by NaOH under microwave irradiation or in an oil bath. The impact of the various reaction conditions on the cationization and degree of substitution of starch was studied. The degree of substitution of the cationized starch varied in the range of 0-0.35.

  11. Loop Peeling Based on Quasi-Invariance/Induction Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Loop optimization plays an important role in compileroptimization and program t ransformation. Many sophisticated techniques such as loop-invariance code motio n have been developed. Loop peeling is a technique to assist parallelization of l oops by unfolding loops a few times. This paper introduces a novel technique cal led loop peeling based on quasi-invariance/induction variables. It aims at find i ng a general and automatic method to derive how many times a given loop should b e peeled. Our technique allows for a number of iterations before some variables assigned inside a given loop become invariance or induction variables. In this p aper we define the notion of quasi-invariance/induction variables, present an a l gorithm for statically computing the optimal peeling length of a given loop. Our technique can increase the accuracy of program analyses, improve the effectiven ess of loop peeling and is well-suited as supporting other optimization techniq ues in the context of supercomputers.

  12. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  13. The ultratough peeling of elastic tapes from viscoelastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afferrante, L.; Carbone, G.

    2016-11-01

    The peeling of an elastic thin tape from a flat smooth viscoelastic substrate is investigated. Based on a Green function approach and on the translational invariance, a closed form analytical solution is proposed, which takes into account the viscoelastic dissipation in the substrate material. We find that peeling is prevented from taking place, only when the external force is smaller than the one predicted by Kendall's formula for elastic tapes on rigid substrates. However, we also find that, regardless of the value of the applied force, steady state detachment may occur when the elastic tape is sufficiently stiff. In this case, the constant peeling velocity can be modulated by properly defining the geometrical parameters and the material properties of tape and viscoelastic foundation. On the other hand, for relatively high peeling angles or compliant tapes a threshold value of the peeling force is found, above which the steady-state equilibrium is no longer possible and unstable detachment occurs. The present study contributes to shed light on the behavior of pressure sensitive adhesives in contact with viscoelastic substrates like the human skin. At the same time, it can be considered a first step towards a better understanding of the effect of viscoelastic dissipation on the fracture behavior of solids.

  14. Double peeling during vitrectomy for macular pucker: the Charles L. Schepens Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stanley; Gregory-Roberts, Emily M; Park, Sungpyo; Laud, Ketan; Smith, Scott D; Hoang, Quan V

    2013-04-01

    Epiretinal membranes are commonly encountered in retinal practice, and they result in decreased vision. The present work addresses whether peeling of the internal limiting membrane is necessary during vitrectomy for macular pucker. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate the effects of "single peeling," in which only the epiretinal membrane was peeled, and "double peeling," in which the internal limiting membrane was also stained and peeled. Although significantly more patients in the single-peeling group had an epiretinal membrane remaining in the central fovea postoperatively, visual acuity was not found to differ between the 2 groups in the short term. Patients who had an epiretinal membrane for more than 18 months had significantly worse visual acuity outcomes. Unexpectedly, there was a greater proportional decrease in central macular thickness in the single-peeling group than in the double peeling group, a finding that deserves further study.

  15. Theoretical modeling of the heat treatment process vegetables during their peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Терешкін, Олег Георгійович; Горєлков, Дмитро Вікторович; Дмитревський, Дмитро В’ячеслаовович

    2016-01-01

    The process of peeling onion and the corresponding equipment for this process are analyzed. It is established that a considerable part of the product is lost when the existing equipment is used. The method of peeling onion from its husk including thermal preprocessing of the onion by steam and the process of mechanical final treatment is proposed. The influence of the parameters of peeling on the percentage of raw material losses and quality of a product peeling is experimentally studied. The...

  16. Observations of peeling of a polyisobutynele-based pressure-sensitive adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren. F.; Everland, Hanne.; Hassager, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) was prepared by mixing low- and high-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes(PIB). Peeling of the adhesive from polycarbonate was observed from the side and from below at three different peel rates.......A pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) was prepared by mixing low- and high-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes(PIB). Peeling of the adhesive from polycarbonate was observed from the side and from below at three different peel rates....

  17. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° Brix concentrate in 1-gallon cans may be named on the label “canned concentrated orange juice, 62° Brix”. If the food does not...

  18. Encapsulation of Polymethoxyflavones in Citrus Oil Emulsion-Based Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Chen, Jingjing; Tian, Guifang; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to elucidate the effects of citrus oil type on polymethoxyflavone (PMF) solubility and on the physicochemical properties of PMF-loaded emulsion-based delivery systems. Citrus oils were extracted from mandarin, orange, sweet orange, and bergamot. The major constituents were determined by GC/MS: sweet orange oil (97.4% d-limonene); mandarin oil (72.4% d-limonene); orange oil (67.2% d-limonene); and bergamot oil (34.6% linalyl acetate and 25.3% d-limonene). PMF-loaded emulsions were fabricated using 10% oil phase (containing 0.1% w/v nobiletin or tangeretin) and 90% aqueous phase (containing 1% w/v Tween 80) using high-pressure homogenization. Delivery systems prepared using mandarin oil had the largest mean droplet diameters (386 or 400 nm), followed by orange oil (338 or 390 nm), bergamot oil (129 or 133 nm), and sweet orange oil (122 or 126 nm) for nobiletin- or tangeretin-loaded emulsions, respectively. The optical clarity of the emulsions increased with decreasing droplet size due to reduced light scattering. The viscosities of the emulsions (with or without PMFs) were similar (1.3 to 1.4 mPa·s), despite appreciable differences in oil phase viscosity. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of the emulsions depended on carrier oil type, with bergamot oil giving the highest loading capacity. In summary, differences in the composition and physical characteristics of citrus oils led to PMF-loaded emulsions with different encapsulation and physicochemical characteristics. These results will facilitate the rational design of emulsion-based delivery systems for encapsulation of PMFs and other nutraceuticals in functional foods and beverages.

  19. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.

    2014-03-21

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

  20. One-step management of apple-peel atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, L; Michel, J-L; de Napoli-Cocci, S; Aulagne, M-B; Maurel, A; Mazouzi, S; Ramful, D

    2009-01-01

    Apple-peel atresia is a rare form of bowel atresia associating proximal jejunal atresia with a typical coil-shaped distal small bowel. Many of the children suffering from this condition are still managed with initial enterostomy followed by delayed anastomosis. Between 2000 and 2007, we managed four patients with apple-peel atresia. Three by primary anastomosis and one by initial enterostomy with delayed anastomosis. Total duration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was an average 109 days. Survival rate was 100% with an average follow-up of 4.3 years. Nowadays, the prognosis of apple-peel atresia depends mainly on prolonged TPN-related morbidity rather than immediate postoperative complications. We therefore recommend that those infants affected be managed by primary anastomosis in order to reduce the duration of parenteral nutrition, followed by careful nutrition by teams experienced in neonatal TPN and short bowel syndrome.

  1. QUALITY EVALUATION OF BISCUIT INCORPORATED WITH MANDARIN PEEL POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANITA THAPA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research is aimed to utilize mandarin peel in biscuits baking. Chemical composition showed that peel had high contents of ash, crude fiber; whereas low protein and carbohydrate content compared to wheat flour. Mandarin peel powder (MPP was used in production of semi-sweet hard dough biscuits by replacing wheat flour by 3, 6 and 9 % to ensure the quality and acceptability of the biscuit. Baking increased the thickness of biscuit, whereas width and spread ratio of biscuits decreased with increasing levels of MPP. Biscuits were subjected for sensory evaluation. Biscuits formulated with 6 % MPP were comparable to control biscuits. The content of fiber, ash, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenol and antioxidant activity was found to be 0.85 %, 1.32 %, 1.5 mg / 100 g, 69 µg∙g-1, 2150 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE / g and 24.5 % respectively which were significantly higher than that of control biscuit.

  2. The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2).

  3. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part I. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling has emerged as an effective non-chemical alternative to conventional lye and steam methods of peeling tomatoes. Successful peel separation induced by IR radiation requires the delivery of a sufficient amount of thermal energy onto tomato surface in a very short duration. Th...

  4. Effect of chemical peeling on the skin in relation to UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Yoko; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Kawana, Seiji; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-07-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. However, it needs to be clarified whether the repetitive procedure of chemical peeling on photodamaged skin is safe and whether the different chemicals used for peeling results in similar outcomes or not. In this article, we reviewed the effect of peeling or peeling agents on the skin in relation to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The pretreatment of peeling agents usually enhance UV sensitivity by inducing increased sunburn cell formation, lowering minimum erythematous dose and increasing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. However, this sensitivity is reversible and recovers to normal after 1-week discontinuation. Using animals, the chronic effect of peeling and peeling agents was shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis. There is also an in vitro study using culture cells to know the detailed mechanisms of peeling agents, especially on cell proliferation and apoptotic changes via activating signalling cascades and oxidative stress. It is important to understand the effect of peeling agents on photoaged skin and to know how to deal with UV irradiation during the application of peeling agents and treatment of chemical peeling in daily life.

  5. Demonstration tests of infrared peeling system with electrical emitters for tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling is an emerging technology that could avoid the drawbacks of steam and lye peeling of tomatoes. The objectives of this research was to evaluate the performance of an IR peeling system at two tomato processing plants located in California and to compare product quality, peela...

  6. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  7. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  8. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  9. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  10. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  11. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  12. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by

  13. The antioxidant activitives of mango peel among different cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ge; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Fei-Yue; Fu, Qiong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the contents of total phenol and total flavonoid of 8 mango cultivars were determined. Their antioxidant abilities were also evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP as well as TEAC were also analyzed. Results showed that mango peels were rich in natural antioxidant compounds the antioxidant abilities were different among different cultivars. The correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP indicated phenolics represent a major part of antioxidant capacity in mango peels. This was also useful in the utilization of mango processing waste.

  14. Non-convex onion peeling using a shape hull algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Fadili, Jalal M.; Melkemi, Mahmoud; Elmoataz, Abderrahim

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The convex onion-peeling of a set of points is the organization of these points into a sequence of interpolating convex polygons. This method is adequate to detect the shape of the “center” of a set of points when this shape is convex. However it reveals inadequate to detect non-convex shapes. Alternatively, we propose an extension of the convex onion-peeling method. It consists in representing a set of points with a sequence of non-convex polylines which are computed ...

  15. Improved layer peeling algorithm for strongly reflecting fiber gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqun Huang; Weiping Huang; Jinkuan Wang; Guang Yang

    2006-01-01

    @@ An improved algorithm based on the layer peeling (LP) method is proposed and demonstrated.The new method is shown to be effective for mitigating the impact of numerical errors on reconstruction of coupling function for strongly reflecting Bragg gratings.As examples,a flat-top dispersion-free fiber grating and a fiber-grating dispersion compensator are designed by the improved LP method.For a chirp grating,more accurate results are demonstrated in comparison with those obtained by the integral layer peeling (ILP) method.

  16. Nutritional Potential of Citrus Sinensis and Vitis Vinifera Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Uraku, A. J

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional potential of the peels of Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera was assessed by determining proximate and mineral composition. Results indicate carbohydeate content of the peels of Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera as 61.07% and 71.77% respectively. Other findings are crude fibre, 13.51% and 4.96%, proten, 3.73% and 11.35%, fats, 10.34% and 1.16%, moisture, 9.78% and 6.52% and ash 1.57% and 4.24%, for the Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera respectively. Mineral analysis revealed...

  17. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

  18. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers.

  19. Effects of processing techniques on propargite residues in orange juice and its by-products%橙汁加工过程对农药炔螨特残留的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云成; 张耀海; 陈卫军; 赵其阳; 单炜力; 刘光学; 王成秋; 焦必宁

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of commercial processing techniques on propargite residues in orange juice and its by-products. In order to assess the persistence during juice processing, the field trials were carried out by spraying with the solution of 5-fold the concentration of the maximum recommended dosages. Propargite residues were determined by Gas Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry based on QuEChERS extraction. The results indicated that the propargite was mainly distributed in orange peels, and the residual level in orange pulps was less than 5% compared to the raw materials. Propargite residues could be partially removed by washing, and the reduction was 32.5%. The residual levels in squeezed juice, filtrated juice, NFC juice and concentrated juice were 1.98%, 1.95%, 1.73%, and 1.37% of the raw material, respectively, and the processing factors of NFC juice and concentrated juice were 0.0173 and 0.0137, respectively. But the residues were enriched in pomace and orange essential oil, and the concentrated factors were 1.2822 and 18.4947, respectively. The research can provide a basis for optimization of processing technology as well as the dietary exposure assessment of propargite residues.%为弄清橙汁加工过程中农药炔螨特残留的动态,通过田间喷施浓度为5倍于最高推荐剂量的农药溶液以强化炔螨特在甜橙上的残留,然后按照橙汁商业化加工过程进行加工,采用QuEChERS前处理技术结合气相色谱-串联质谱法检测炔螨特的含量,来考察橙汁商业化加工过程对炔螨特残留的影响.结果表明:炔螨特残留主要分布于甜橙果皮中,果肉中炔螨特的残留量不足全果的5%.清洗能除去全果中32.5%的炔螨特残留.初榨果汁、精滤果汁、非浓缩橙汁(NFC橙汁)和浓缩橙汁中的残留量分别为原料果的1.98%、1.95%、1.73%、1.37%,其中NFC橙汁和浓缩橙汁的加工因子分别为0.0173和0.0137,

  20. Photostability of natural orange-red and yellow fungal pigments in liquid food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Meyer, Anne S; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-07-22

    The variation in the photostability among the currently authorized natural pigments limits their application span to a certain type of food system, and more robust alternatives are being sought after to overcome this problem. In the present study, the photostability of an orange-red and a yellow fungal pigment extract produced by ascomycetous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium and Epicoccum , respectively, were studied in a soft drink model medium and in citrate buffer at low and neutral pH. The quantitative and qualitative color change pattern of the fungal pigment extracts indicated an enhanced photostability of fungal pigment extracts compared to the commercially available natural colorants Monascus Red and turmeric used as controls. Yellow components of the orange-red fungal pigment extract were more photostable than the red components. Chemistry of the photodegradation of the orange-red pigment extract was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), and a light-induced formation of a structural analogue of sequoiamonascin C, a Monascus -like polyketide pigment discovered in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263 on yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium, was confirmed in the soft drink medium at pH 7.

  1. Response of `Nagpur' mandarin, `Mosambi' sweet orange and `Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladaniya, M. S.; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A. K.

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin ( Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7°C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1°C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference was

  2. Peeling process of thin-film solar cells using graphene layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryousuke; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Konagai, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    A novel peeling process for thin-film solar cells using graphene layers was demonstrated. We fabricated amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells as substitutes for the undeveloped nanostructured silicon solar cells on graphene layers in order to investigate the solar cell performance after peeling for the first time. The graphene layers functioned as transparent electrodes after the peeling process, even though the series resistance increased after the peeling. Next, we fabricated a silicon nanowire (SiNW) array on graphene layers by a combination of chemical etching and thermal crystallization. Finally, we successfully peeled a SiNW array using graphene layers.

  3. Application of Acid Whey in Orange Drink Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jaworska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare qualitative changes in orange and orange beverages containing whey during 12 months of storage. The beverages contained 12 % extract, half of which was orange concentrate, the rest was sugar or sugar and whey extract. Acid whey was used in the production of beverages, added at a rate of 50 % of the used water. Orange beverages with whey contained more protein, ash, glucose, lactose and vitamin B2 than the orange beverages, but less sucrose, fructose and vitamin C, and also showed lower antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. No significant differences between the two types of beverages were found in the polyphenolic content or activity against the ABTS cation radical. The type of beverage had a significant effect on the colour parameter values under the CIELAB system, although no significant differences were found between the beverages in the sensory evaluation of colour desirability. The overall sensory evaluation of orange beverages with whey was 2–10 % lower than of other orange beverages. The intensity of orange, sweet and refreshing taste was greater in orange beverages, while that of sour and whey taste was greater in orange beverages containing whey. There were significant decreases in sucrose, lactose, all indicators of antioxidant activity and sensory quality during storage. Levels of glucose and fructose rose with the storage period, while the intensity of sour, orange and refreshing taste decreased.

  4. Efficacy of modified Jessner′s peel and 20% TCA versus 20% TCA peel alone for the treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of studies on the use of chemical peels for acne scars among the Asian population. A trichloroacetic acid (TCA and Jessner′s combination chemical peel, originally described by Monheit, is said to be better than a TCA peel alone. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 20% TCA and Jessner′s solution versus 20% TCA alone for the treatment of acne scars. Materials and Methods : The patients were divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Chemical peeling was done in both the groups. In Group I, chemical peeling with Jessner′s peel followed by 20% TCA was done and in Group II patients chemical peeling with 20% TCA peel alone was done. Results: In Group I (Jessner′s peel and 20% TCA, mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 8% cases, moderate improvement in 32% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 60% patients. In Group II (20% TCA, mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 32% cases, moderate improvement in 40% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 28% patients. But, the difference in improvement of acne scars was not statistically significant in both the groups (P value > 0.05.

  5. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Timothy George

    2016-01-01

    criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can...

  6. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  7. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Jaap J. A. J.; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; McGrath, John A.; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A. M.; McLean, W. H. Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused b

  8. Shelf life and microbial profile of peeled onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased usage of peeled onions over the past ten years by food service operations and fast-food restaurants has been plagued by black mold decay during cold-chain storage. This study examined the epiphytic microbiological distribution on onions and what effects various processing steps have on...

  9. Extraction kinetics and properties of proanthocyanidins from pomegranate peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an objective of developing a safe and efficient method to extract proanthocyanidins products from pomegranate peel for use in nutraceuticals or as food additives, the effects of extraction parameters on the production efficiency, product properties, and extraction kinetics were systematically s...

  10. Orange County Photovoltaic Project & Educational COmponent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Government, FL (United States)

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the projects implemented, utilizing Department of Energy grant funds, to support the use and understanding of renewable energy in Orange County, Florida and the Greater Orlando Area. Orange County is located in the State of Florida and is most popularly referred to as Orlando. The greater Orlando area’s current population is 1,225,267 and in 2015 was the first destination to surpass 60 million visitors. Orange County utilized grant funds to add to the growing demand for access to charging stations by installing one level 2 dual NovaCharge CT4021 electric vehicle charging station at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. The charging station is considered a “smart” charger connected to a central network operated by a third party. Data collected includes the number of charging sessions, session start and end times, the electricity usage, greenhouse gases saved and other pertinent data used for reporting purposes. Orange County continues to support the use of electric vehicles in Metro Orlando and this project continues to bring awareness to our public regarding using alternative vehicles. Additionally, we offer all visitors to the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center free charges for their electric vehicles 24 hours a day. Since the operation of the charging station there have been 52 unique driver users, a total of 532.2258 kg of greenhouse gas savings and 159.03 gallons of gasoline savings. The installation of the additional electric vehicle charging station is part of a county-wide goal of promoting implementation of renewable energy technologies as well as supporting the use of electric vehicles including the Drive Electric Orlando & Florida programs. http://driveelectricorlando.com/ & ; http://www.driveelectricflorida.org/ . Grant funds were also used for Outreach and Educational efforts. Educational efforts about renewable energy were accomplished through

  11. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  12. Surgical outcomes after epiretinal membrane peeling combined with cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Marra, Kyle V; Wagley, Sushant; Krishnan, Sheela; Sandhu, Harpal; Kovacs, Kyle; Kuperwaser, Mark; Arroyo, Jorge G

    2013-09-01

    To compare functional and anatomical outcomes after idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation versus ERM peeling alone. A retrospective, non-randomised comparative case series study was conducted of 81 eyes from 79 patients who underwent ERM peeling at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2001 and 2010. Eyes that underwent combined surgery for ERM and cataracts (group 1) were compared with those that had ERM peeling alone (group 2) with respect to best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months and 1 year after surgery, postoperative central macular thickness (CMT) as measured on optical coherence tomography, and rates of complications, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), ERM recurrence and need for reoperation. Mean logMAR visual acuity improved significantly in both groups at 6 months (p<0.001) and 1 year (p<0.001) after surgery. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in visual acuity improvement at 6 months (p=0.108) or 1 year (p=0.094). Mean CMT of both groups also significantly decreased after surgery (p=0.002), with no statistical difference in CMT reduction between the two groups, but a trend toward less CMT reduction in group 1 (p=0.061). The rates of complications, including IOP elevation, ERM recurrence and frequency of reoperation, were similar in the two groups, with non-statistical trends toward greater ERM recurrence (p=0.084) and need for reoperation (p=0.096) in those that had combined surgery. Combined surgery for ERMs and cataracts may potentially be as effective as membrane peeling alone with respect to visual and anatomical outcomes. Further studies are necessary to determine if there may be greater ERM recurrence or need for reoperation after combined surgery.

  13. Determination of Hesperidin Contents in Four Kinds of Peels%四种果皮中橙皮苷含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹峰

    2016-01-01

    为建立一种测定橙皮、橘皮、柚皮及柠檬皮中橙皮苷含量的高效液相色谱法。以Symmertry Shield RP18柱为分离柱,甲醇–2.5%乙酸溶液(40:60 V:V)为流动相,柱温30℃,紫外检测器在波长283 nm条件下检测,一次进样7 min内完成分析过程。橙皮苷在2.0~100.0 mg/L范围内有良好的线性关系(R=0.9999);平均加标回收率为98.9%,检出限为2.0×10–3 g/kg;精密度实验(n=6)表明,橙皮苷峰面积的相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.05%。该方法简便快捷,可准确测定四种果皮中橙皮苷的含量。%In order to develop a method for determination of hesperidin contents in orange peel, citrus peel, pomelo peel and lemon peel by HPLC. Hesperidin was qualitatively analyzed through a Symmertry Shield RP18 column. The mobile phase was methanol–2.5%acetic acid (40:60 V:V ) and the column temperature was 30℃. A UV detector detected at 283 nm and the separation was achieved within 7 min. The standard working curve of hesperidin had a good liner relation in the concentration ranging from 2.0 to 100.0 mg/L(R=0.9999). The average recovery was 98.9%and detection limit was 2.0×10–3 g/kg. The precision test (n=6) showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the peak areas was 0.05%. This method was simple and rapid and could determine the content of hesperidin in four kinds of peels.

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  15. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  16. Study on Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effect of Pomegranate Peel on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Habibipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Microorganisms form biomass as biofilm in response to many factors, in order to adapt to hostile extracellular environments and biocides. Using different herbal compounds are of those strategies to deal with biofilm. It has been proved that plants extracts such as pomegranate, raspberry and chamomile essential oils have anti-biofilm effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of black peel pomegranate ex-tract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. Materials & Methods: In this experimental research the anti-biofilm effect, reducing the amount of biofilm formation and growth kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different treatments was measured by microtiter and plate colorimetric crystal violet method. Biofilm formation was also examined using a microscope. Statistical analysis of data obtained from the reading of the ELISA was performed using SPSS software, P value 0.05. Results: Findings of this study showed that bacteria cannot form any biofilm in first 6 hours of incubation, in all treatments. The amount of biofilm formation after 12 hours in 0.01 and 0.05 g/ mL treatments were medium. Among treatments, after 18 and 24 hours of incubation 0.001 g/ mL concentration of pomegranate peel extract had medium and strong inhibitory effect on biofilm formation, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that biofilm formation and biofilm reduction percent-age is directly related to the duration of exposure of bacteria that could be due to the different phases of growth. Growth kinetics study also revealed that in the majority of treatments the growth was incremental up to about 15 hours and decrement afterwards due to the effective-ness of different treatments. After 18 hours, treatments have greatest influence on biofilm formation. The foregoing has been fully confirmed by the results of microscopic slides. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (3: 195-202

  17. Postharvest response of oranges of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharoni, Y.; Lattar, F.S.; Monselise, S.P.

    1969-01-01

    Since the effect of ethylene on the respiration rate of young unripe oranges has not yet been described, experiments were carried out to study the respiratory response of such fruits to ethylene. Oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) of the Washington navel, Shamouti and Valencia varieties, growing on a sandy loam near Rehovot, Israel, were picked in June, July, September, December and January. Immediately after picking, they were weighed, placed in glass jars, and stored at 20/sup 0/. Each experiment comprised 12 jars, 4 for each variety. A constant stream (200 ml/min) of air containing 20 ppm of ethylene was run through the jars. The respiration rate was measured by the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved by the fruits, and based on a fresh weight unit. The results show that in all 3 varieties, ethylene caused an immediate rise in respiration rate, at all stages of development tested, regardless of whether it was applied from the beginning of the test or after a certain period of storage in air. The pattern of response to ethylene of young unripe oranges (picked in June, July, and September) was therefore similar to that of ripe ones (picked in December and January).

  18. Unusual Orange-Colored Choroidal Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Krema

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical and paraclinical features of two patients with orangecolored choroidal metastases in whom the primary cancers have not previously been associated with such lesions. Case Report: Orange-colored choroidal lesions were detected on the fundus examination of one patient with metastatic small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the larynx and oropharynx, and in another subject with metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma of the leg. Although ultrasonographic characteristics of the choroidal masses were comparable to those of choroidal hemangiomas, fluorescein angiography revealed delayed initial fluorescence along with minimal fluorescence in subsequent phases of the angiogram which were in clear distinction from the earlier appearing and progressively intense fluorescence observed with circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. Conclusion: Small cell neuroendocrine tumors and alveolar soft part sarcomas should be considered among the differential diagnoses for orange-colored choroidal metastases. Identifying these choroidal lesions could facilitate localizing the occult primary tumor. Fluorescein angiography may differentiate a unifocal orange choroidal metastasis from a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION FROM CITRUS MICROCARPA (HASSK. BUNGE BY CENTRAL COMPOSITE FACE CENTERED (CCF MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Pham Tan Quoc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation on main factors (the grind time, ratio of water/peel and distillation time affecting the amount of essential oil after distilling. Researching and optimizing the factors for essential oil production by laboratory – scale distillation and the yield was evaluated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM with Central Composite Face Centered (CCF model. There is the interaction between ratio of water/peel, distillation time and grind time with volume of essential oil extracted. Optimal result which is essential oil was 1.83 ml (y with quantity of kumquat peel/batch of 50 g, grind time (x1 in 118 seconds, ratio of water/peel (x2 was 6/1, distillation time (x3 during 32 minutes at 100 oC. The essential oil from the peel of C.microcarpa (Hassk. Bunge was analysed by GC-MS method. In which, there are a lot of compounds were useful, it can use widely in the food processing and the cosmetics industry, for instance limonene, α-Pinene, β-Pinene, β-Myrcene, Sabinen.

  20. Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc

    2013-02-01

    We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives.

  1. Efficacy of combination of glycolic acid peeling with topical regimen in treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Savita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2013-10-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for management of melasma, ranging from topical and oral to chemical peeling, but none is promising alone. Very few studies are available regarding efficacy of combination of topical treatment with chemical peeling. Combination of chemical peeling and topical regimen can be a good treatment modality in the management of this recalcitrant disorder. To assess the efficacy of combination of topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of melasma in Indian patients. Forty Indian patients of moderate to severe epidermal variety melasma were divided into two groups of 20 each. One Group i.e. peel group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling and other group i.e. control group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone, 0.05% tretinoin). There was an overall decrease in MASI from baseline in 24 weeks of therapy in both the groups (P value glycolic acid peel with topical regimen showed early and greater improvement than the group which was receiving topical regimen only. This study concluded that combining topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of glycolic acid peeling. The combination of glycolic acid peeling with the topical regimen is a highly effective, safe and promising therapeutic option in treatment of melasma.

  2. A comparison of dynamic mechanical properties of processing-tomato peel as affected by hot lye and infrared radiation heating for peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the viscoelastic characteristics of tomato skins subjected to conventional hot lye peeling and emerging infrared-dry peeling by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Three DMA testing modes, including temperature ramp, frequency sweep, and creep behavior test, were conduct...

  3. Inhibitory effect of a formulated extract from multiple citrus peels on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 246.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Etoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Formulated Citrus Peel Extract (GL made from the peels of six citrus fruits available in Japan, namely navel oranges, citrus hassaku, citrus limon, citrus natsudaidai, citrus miyauchi and satsuma, was initially developed as a cosmetic product to protect skin from UV irradiation. Anecdotal evidences of anti-cancer property of GL have been reported by consumers based on the cases such as topical application for melanoma, and oral ingestion for prostate, lung and liver cancers.Those anecdotal reports stimulated us to investigate anti-tumorigenesis activity of GL. In the previous study, we reported that the topical application of GL inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation by decreasing inflammatory gene parameters.Objective: In this study, we mainly investigated the effect of GL on translocation of NF-kB together with production of nitric-oxide and TNF-α induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells.Results: This investigation showed that GL decreased the release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from macrophage RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL suppressed the expression of iNOS and nuclear translocation of NF-kB in RAW264.7 cells, inhibited the degradation of IκB-α, and scavenged hydroxyl radicals (DMPO/OH adduct in vitro.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GL suppresses the inflammation in vitro, and exerts chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of production of TNF-α and iNOS proteins due to the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB and oxidative stress. GL appears to be a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.Keywords: GL, Citrus peel extract, anti-inflammation, Nitric oxide, iNOS, NF-kB, TNF-α

  4. Polygalacturonase production by AR2 pectinolytic bacteria through submerged fermentation of raja nangka banana peel (Musa paradisiaca var. formatypica) with variation of carbon source and pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, R.; Widowati, E.; Ivenaria, A.; Mahajoeno, E.

    2017-04-01

    Polygalacturonase (EC 3.1.2.15) catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4-glycosidic bonds on galacturonic acid. Polygalacturonase can be produced from AR2 pectinolytic bacteria isolated from orange peel and vegetable waste. Commonly cost production of enzymes were high. However, with the advancement of technology, enzymes can now be manufactured at a low cost. Production of enzymes in low cost media with agro-industrial waste is interesting. Raja nangka banana peel is agro-industrial waste that is uneconomic. Therefore, this material can be used as a pectin source in polygalacturonase production. Polygalacturonase was produced by AR2 pectinolytic bacteria with the addition of various carbon sources (1% glucose, 1% galactose, 1% lactose) and variation of pectin concentrations (5%; 7.5%; 10%). This study used submerged fermentation with a cultivation temperature of 55°C and an agitation speed of 144 rpm for a 48-h incubation time. The results showed that variation of carbon sources and pectin concentrations affected the production of polygalacturonase. After 48 h fermentation, the results showed that the number of cells of samples ranged from 8.3 to 9.445 log cells/mL; the used pectin of samples ranged from 87.170-93.745%; and the polygalacturonase activity of samples ranged from 0.030 to 0.151 U/mL. The highest polygalacturonase activity was obtained by production of polygalacturonase on 1% glucose and 10% pectin medium.

  5. Green way genesis of silver nanoparticles using multiple fruit peels waste and its antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor cell line studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Kiruthika; Thirunavukkarasu, Somanathan

    2017-04-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNP) opens a new path to kill and prevent various infectious diseases and also tumor. In this study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles using multiple fruit peel waste (pomegranate, orange, banana and apple (POBA)). The primarily nanoparticles formation has been confirmed by the color change. The synthesized SNP were analyzed by various physicochemical techniques such as UV- Visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The formation of SNP was confirmed by its absorbance peak observed at 430 nm in UV-Visible spectrum. Further, the obtained SNP were identified by XRD and TEM, respectively to know the crystalline nature and size and shape of the particles. The activities of SNP were checked with human pathogens (Salmonella, E.coli and Pseudomonas), plant pathogen (Fusarium) and marine pathogen (Aeromonas hydrophila) and also studied the scavenging effect and anticancer properties against MCF-7 cell lines. This studies proves that the SNP prepared from fruit waste peel extract approach appears extremely fast, cost efficient, eco-friendly and alternative for conventional methods of SNP synthesis to promote the usage of these nanoparticles in medicinal application.

  6. Effect of prestorage curing on storage life, internal and external qualities of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) Efeito da cura antes do armazenameto no prazo de conservação, qualidades internas e externas da laranja doce (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Abiola Titilola Aborisade; Ayodeji Adeyeye Ajibade

    2010-01-01

    Orange fruits from two seasons, in April and August 2006 representing late 2005 and early 2006 harvests respectively were cured in hot air at 36-37(0)C to 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% weight loss before storage at 28(0)C and 86% relative humidity (RH). The fruits were observed for incidence of decay, further weight loss, juice content, firmness or softening of the peel, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity, and colour during storage. Curing reduced the incidence of decay. All control fruit...

  7. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  8. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Othman, Siti Nur Atiqah; Hassan, Muhammad Aizam; Nahar, Lutfun; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-06-03

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%-96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%-48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%-72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  9. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  10. Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Lawton, D; Thompson, M R; Liu, Q

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste as a reinforcement and vapor barrier additive. The nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel by alkali treatment and subsequently acid hydrolysis. TEM images revealed the average fiber length of the nanocrystals was 410 nm with an aspect ratio of 41; its aspect ratio being considerably larger than cotton-derived nanocrystals prepared using similar reaction conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared by solution casting method to maintain uniform dispersion of the 1-2% (w/w) filler content. An increase of 19% and 33% (starch composite) and 38% and 49% (PVA composite) in tensile modulus was observed for the 1% and 2% CNC-reinforced composites, respectively. Water vapor transmission measurements showed a marginal reduction of water permeability for the PVA composite, whereas no effect was observed for the thermoplastic starch composite.

  11. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by Litchi chinensis Sonn Peel

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    Ismael Acosta-Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We studied the Chromium (VI removal capacity in aqueous solution by the litchi peel. Approach: We use the diphenylcarbazide method to evaluate the metal concentration. Results: The highest biosorption of the metal (50 mg L-1 occurs within 6 min, at pH of 1 and 28°C. According to temperature, the highest removal was observed at 40 and 50°C, in 45 min, when the metal (1 g L-1 was completely adsorbed. At the analyzed concentrations of Cr (VI, litchi peel, showed excellent removal capacity, besides it removes efficiently the metal in situ (100% removal, 5 days of incubation, 5 and 10 g of biomass. After 1 h of incubation the studied biomass reduces 1.0 g of Cr (VI with the simultaneous production of Cr (III. Conclusion: The shell can be used to eliminate it from industrial wastewater."

  12. Analysis of the Specificity of Rootstock and Scion Combinations of ‘Hamlin' Sweet Orange Related to Fruit Oleocellosis by FTIR%柑橘果实油斑病砧穗特异性的FTIR研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永强; 刘艳梅; 何绍兰; 易时来; 邓烈; 周志钦; 简水仙; 李松伟

    2012-01-01

    resolution, was used to investigate the molecular physiological mechanisms of the specificity of rootstock and scion combinations of 'Hamlin' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Hamlin] related to on-tree oleocellosis. [Method) The influence of 'Hamlm sweet orange on Goutouchen sour orange [C. aurantium (L.). GT], Rich trifoliate 16-6 [P. trifoliate (L.). LC] and Cleopatra mandarin [C. reticulate (L.). 10] on rates of oleocellosis (RO) and degree of oleocellosis (DO) were measured at harvest stage. And the leaf and fruit peel FTIR spectroscopy of 'Hamlin' sweet orange on GT, LC and 10 were also determined at the sensitive period of on-tree oleocellosis. iResult] The results showed that rootstocks had a significant influence on RO and DO of 'Hamlin' sweet orange fruits, and the fruits of 'Hamlin' sweet orange on GT and LC had the highest DO and RO, respectively. In contrast, the fruits of 'Hamlin' sweet orange on IO had the lowest DO and second higher RO. And the leaf absorption peak intensity (API) at 3420, 2927, 1625 and 1069 cm-1 of 'Hamlin' sweet orange on GT, IO and LC decreased in order. The above results showed that the influence of high temperature on leaf carbohydrate synthesis and transport, cell walls composition, protein stability and leaf membrane lipid peroxidation balance of 'Hamlin' sweet orange on GT were minimal, next was Hamlin sweet orange on IO, and 'Hamlin' sweet orange on LC were maximum. However, the API of peel FTIR of 'Hamlin' sweet orange on IO and GT was significantly lower than that of 'Hamlin' sweet orange on LC. Whilst, the changes of RO and DO were consistent with leaf FTIR and fruit peel FTIR, respectively. [Conclusion] RO may be related to the response of citrus leaves to high temperature stress, in contrast, DO is directly related to fruit peel metabolism. And it is feasible to predict RO and DO by leaves and peels FTIR analysis, respectively. At the same time, leaf and peel FTIR analysis is helpful to reveal the stock

  13. Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada

    2010-12-01

    Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. β-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications.

  14. Principal component analysis (PCA of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S, down-regulated (AS or non-altered (EV; control (“Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception”(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016 [1]. Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC–MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  15. Cupuacu peel utilization for energy production; Aproveitamento da casca do cupuacuzeiro para producao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Seye, Omar; Lau, Jim; Freitas, Katriana Tavares de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico (CDEAM)], e-mail: cdeam_ufam@yahoo.com.br

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, are presented preliminaries results of the project 'Use of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro for generation of energy.' The elementary and thermal analyses are carried out for the cupuacu peel and for the coal obtained starting from the carbonization of that peel. The initial results come quite favorable for the use of the peel and of the coal as energy input in thermo conversion process where the generation of electric energy is sought. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ashok Kumar; Narayani, M.; A. Subanthini; Jayakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

  17. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2 (21% of Borneo's landmass and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic

  18. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Gaveau, David; Abram, Nicola; Ancrenaz, Marc; Baccini, Alessandro; Brend, Stephen; Curran, Lisa; Delgado, Roberto A; Erman, Andi; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Goossens, Benoit; Husson, Simon J; Lackman, Isabelle; Marshall, Andrew J; Naomi, Anita; Molidena, Elis; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisar; Panda, Adventus; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Ratnasari, Dessy; Santana, Adi H; Sapari, Imam; van Schaik, Carel P; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Santoso, Eddy; Suyoko, Amat; Tiju, Albertus; Usher, Graham; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Willems, Erik P; Meijaard, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions) is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2) (21% of Borneo's landmass) and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic gains, rather than

  19. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, Djamel

    2015-06-05

    Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs): orange (Citrussinensis L.), lemon (Citruslimonum L.) and bergamot (Citrusaurantium L.) from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37%) for orange essential oil (EO); linalyl acetate (37.28%), linalool (23.36%), for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%), β-pinene (17.04%) and γ-terpinene (13.46%) for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) showed a range of 0.25-0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus) experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  20. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs: orange (Citrus sinensis L., lemon (Citrus limonum L. and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37% for orange essential oil (EO; linalyl acetate (37.28%, linalool (23.36%, for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%, β-pinene (17.04% and γ-terpinene (13.46% for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs